Author Topic: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S  (Read 29444 times)

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Offline SuzakaDusk

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RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« on: April 06, 2008, 01:31:50 pm »
Yesterday, I found out something. I am not good at explaining things but here is my attempt.

My Hubby was talking to his Cousin about alot of things and his Cousin brought up something interesting, his step son is NOW in IRAQ ( OMG :() and told his Mum upon enlisting in the US Marines  that when they receive the vaccinations ect they are also CHIPPED, I presume RFID. He said that it was to track them to aviod going AWOL and any MIA incidents. I have also found out my Hubbys Cousin's Son has had this done too.

I thought I would share this as his step son said "no one is supposed to know about these chips in the Marines on the outside".He also said "f**k the NWO" something to that effect.


Needless to say this has me disturbed. And also that a family member of mine is NOW in Iraq..
Words can not describe how I feel, I am exiled in the UK away from my husband and babies and I so much love and miss them, I am heartbroken about my ordeal. I am so upset and overwhelmed by it all. I am not taking anything for my depression. I'm trying to hang in there, but it is hard.

Offline White Rose Sophie

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #1 on: April 06, 2008, 02:53:24 pm »
Yesterday, I found out something. I am not good at explaining things but here is my attempt.

My Hubby was talking to his Cousin about alot of things and his Cousin brought up something interesting, his step son is NOW in IRAQ ( OMG :() and told his Mum upon enlisting in the US Marines  that when they receive the vaccinations ect they are also CHIPPED, I presume RFID. He said that it was to track them to aviod going AWOL and any MIA incidents. I have also found out my Hubbys Cousin's Son has had this done too.

I thought I would share this as his step son said "no one is supposed to know about these chips in the Marines on the outside".He also said "f**k the NWO" something to that effect.


Needless to say this has me disturbed. And also that a family member of mine is NOW in Iraq..


Could he have refused it?

Offline freedomrik

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #2 on: April 06, 2008, 03:16:23 pm »
I had read something about this recently. It was saying that spec ops had to get them. I will try to find it again.
"Believe nothing you are told"

Offline dogmadestroyer

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #3 on: April 06, 2008, 03:23:52 pm »
I had read something about this recently. It was saying that spec ops had to get them. I will try to find it again.

Ahhhh! I know exactly what you're talking about but it escapes me where I read it too.
“The Bible tells us to be like God, and then on page after page it describes God as a mass murderer. This may be the single most important key to the political behavior of Western Civilization.”

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Offline Dig

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #4 on: April 06, 2008, 03:26:05 pm »
RFID Aided Marines in Iraq - RFID Journal... frequency identification technology was the U.S. Marines Corps' secret weapon during the ... U.S. Marine Corps shipping containers with active RFID tags ...
www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/1414/1/1/ - 51k - Cached - Similar pages

[PPT] Brief TitleFile Format: Microsoft Powerpoint - View as HTML
Marine Corps Fixed Interrogator Nodes. Green = 100% survey/installation of Active RFID Interrogators. Yellow = Survey complete and awaiting completion of ...
http://hqinet001.hqmc.usmc.mil/i&L/v2/L/Left/Conferences/2005/LPC/SDDC%20Conference%20tack%20on/2005-04-25%20-%201020-1130B%20-%20RFID-AIT%20and%20ITV.ppt - Similar pages

[PDF] United States Marine CorpsFile Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
The Marine Corps RFID Implementation Plan was originally dated 10 November ...... the regional ITV servers, including the ITV server on the Secret Internet ...
www.marcorsyscom.usmc.mil/sites/ait/documents/27_Jul_06_Rev-1_RFID_Implementation_Plan.pdf - Similar pages

[PDF] In my capacity as the Defense Logistics Executive (DLE), this ...File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
PLAN FOR PASSIVE RFID. When these commodities are shipped to the above locations in addition to the following:. USMC. Marine Corps Maintenance Depot, ...
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RFID Journal LIVE! 2006 — Defense/Aerospace TrackU.S. Marine Corps Systems Command Spacer U.S. Naval Supply Systems Command Spacer ... DoD Combat Feeding Directorate Spacer U.S. Secret Service Spacer ...
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Defense/Aerospace - Military RFID, DOD, ArmyU.S. Marine Corps Systems Command U.S. Naval Supply Systems Command U.S. Pine Bluff Arsenal DoD Combat Feeding Directorate U.S. Secret Service ...
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Smart Trash Cans -- RFID-Based Recycling Technology Makes ...Oct 16, 2007 ... Its secret? A chip embedded in the plastic. ... RFID tags are passive and only transmit data if prompted by a reader. ...
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Senate BILL NUMBER: SB 768Consumers Aware of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification Tags) Climbs to 40% ... SB 768, as amended, Simitian Marine finfish aquaculture. ...
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RFID Knowledgebase from IDTechEx - ApplicationSuppliers are few in number. Many projects are secret. ... US Department of Defense (DoD); US Marine Corps; US Military; US Military Oklahoma City Air ...
www.rfid.idtechex.com/knowledgebase/en/sectionintro.asp?sectionid=121 - Similar pages
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #5 on: April 06, 2008, 03:27:28 pm »
RFID Technology Research Project, page 1An article on satellite tagging marine life and the importance of the program. ...... The Above Top Secret Conspiracy Community Web site is a wholly owned ...
www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread161205/pg1 - 140k - Cached - Similar pages

12:25:43 PM AIRS DETAILED INSPECTION CHECKLIST 6/15/2007 FA SC ...Reference RFID POLICY DTD 30 JUL 2004 AND USMC RFID IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE DTD 27 JUL 06 800 03 037 Are Marines being trained on properly establishing ...
www.hqinet001.hqmc.usmc.mil/ig/Div_Inspections/AIRS%20CHECKLIST/AIRS%20MONTHLY%20UPDATE/Checklist800.txt - 22k - Cached - Similar pages

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Oct 17, 2006 ... embedded RFID chip; dedicated lanes, marine program for ... Secret key management (symmetric) requires distribution, storage etc. ...
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card has embedded RFID chip; dedicated lanes, marine. program for boaters in development .... Response encrypted with 40 bit secret key, truncated to 24 ...
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LibraryLaw Blog: Breaking News - California RFID bill born againAccording to Paul Nicholas Boylan, Senator Simitian has moved to "give new life to SB 682," the RFID bill. Boyan reports that the SB 768, a "Marine finfish ...
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Amtrak Rail and RFID: the common link : RFID NewsAug 31, 2006 ... News and information on RFID technology. ... The Marine, Industrial, and Security Technology Sector, which will have the lead on this ...
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Over 60 years ago, the British used RFID to identify incoming planes during .... MEMBER OF THE MARINE TROOPS INCLUDING ME WERE LUCKILY GAINED ASSESS TO THE ...
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BizTimes Daily for Friday, December 16, 2005 - Small Business TimesB.E.P. Marine, based in Auckland, New Zealand, generated approximately $10 ... must be just around the corner, because the Secret Santa has struck again. ...
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[PDF] United States Marine CorpsFile Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
When The Marine Corps RFID Implementation Plan of 10 November 2005 was ...... the regional ITV servers, including the ITV server on the Secret Internet ...
www.marcorsyscom.usmc.mil/sites/ait/IPT%20Info/USMC%20RFID%20Implementation%20Plan%20-%2013%20Feb%2006.pdf - Similar pages

[PDF] LogMod Ledger January 2007 DraftFile Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
Its flexibility enables the users to easily take a secret/classified .... US Marine Corps to fill gaps in the current fixed RFID infrastructure as part of ...
https://logmod.hqmc.usmc.mil/library/commtools/LogModLedger_Jan2007.pdf - Similar pages
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #6 on: April 06, 2008, 03:31:56 pm »


Pentagon Studies Human Microchip Implants
http://blog.wired.com/defense/2007/08/washington-a-ne.html
By Sharon Weinberger August 01, 2007 | 1:15:16 PM


The Defense Department's plans to study implanting microchips in soldiers is already sparking concerns about privacy issues (and is likely to send the stock price of tinfoil to new highs).

"People are going to say, 'What about my personal rights?' ... Even though you shelve some of your rights as a citizen (in the military), you don't shelve them all," said Joe Davis, spokesman for the Veterans of Foreign Wars.

The chip would relay vital statistics about the patient such as lactate, glucose and oxygen levels in the blood. Researchers believe the technology would also be useful in other government programs such as measuring astronaut data, as well as civilian first-responder uses, according to a news release from Clemson University.

Clemson researchers believe the program is five years away from human testing. The program will include testing on a new gel developed by Clemson scientists that aids in preventing the chip from being rejected by the human body.

It's only a $1.6 million study, but there's something about human RFID implants that tends -- quite understandably -- to make people's skin crawl.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

orangeblue

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #7 on: April 06, 2008, 03:42:58 pm »
"People are going to say, 'What about my personal rights?' ... Even though you shelve some of your rights as a citizen (in the military), you don't shelve them all," said Joe Davis, spokesman for the Veterans of Foreign Wars.

Remember slave citizen, if you resist taking your chip…you’re with Al Qaeda!!!

Offline Dig

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #8 on: April 06, 2008, 03:53:38 pm »
Insurer Running VeriChip Trial
http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/2496/1/1/
Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Jersey is inviting chronically ill policyholders...
to participate in a two-year trial to test implanted RFID tags.

By Mary Catherine O'Connor

=

July 17, 2006—Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Jersey, an independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association, is initiating a two-year clinical trial to test the use of an implantable RFID tag, the VeriChip, to access the medical records of chronically ill patients. If a patient participating in the trial is admitted to the emergency room at New Jersey's Hackensack Medical Center, staff there will use a handheld reader (interrogator [WTF, a perfect name]) to read the tag's 16-digit ID and call up the patient's medical files in a database.

The tags, readers and database comprise the VeriMed system marketed by VeriChip Corp., based in Delray Beach, Fla. The system is designed to ensure that health-care workers access important health records, such as preexisting conditions or drug allergies, even if the patient cannot communicate his or her name or other important details. The insurance company is holding the trial to see if VeriMed works—and if it can reduce costs associated with misdiagnoses, drug reactions and duplicated or unnecessary medical tests.

Horizon is inviting 600 of its chronically ill policyholders to participate in the trial, and hopes 280 will actually enroll. Horizon will cover the $200 fee that individuals must pay to have the tag implanted, as well as the $80 monthly subscription. Typically, the service changes $20 per month for patients to record just their name, family and physician contact info, and a list of allergies and directives regarding organ donations and resuscitation. The monthly cost is $80 per month for those who record preexisting medical conditions, information about prior surgeries and pharmaceutical information.

If the trial proves successful in reducing costs and improving the medical care patients receive at Hackensack, Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Jersey might offer coverage of the implant and VeriMed service for its chronically ill policyholders on a permanent basis, says Tom Rubino, Horizon's director of public affairs. The firm insures patients at almost every hospital in New Jersey, he explains. At present, seven New Jersey hospitals—Beth Israel, Clara Maass, Columbus, Hackensack, Kimball, Newark, Ocean and PBI Regional—are all equipped to read the tags and access the VeriMed database.

"The way we see it," Rubino says, "[VeriMed] might save Horizon costs because it could help doctors avoid drug interactions or wrong diagnoses that lead to longer hospital stays. People who have chronic diseases might not be able to communicate their medical history [while being admitted]."

The policyholders Horizon is asking to participate in the trial suffer from such diseases as diabetes, epilepsy and heart disease. Those who wish to have the VeriChip removed once the trial is complete will be able to do so. Participants will also be allowed to review and approve medical data associated with their VeriChip ID in the VeriMed database, which will include information about their medical condition and history, as well as lab test data and pharmaceutical information maintained by Horizon. While communication between the VeriChip and interrogator is not protected by data encryption, a password or other security methods, users do need a password, unique for each tag ID, to access the VeriMed database via the Internet and retrieve patient information.

VeriChip Corp.'s implantable tag is roughly the size of a grain of rice. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the tag for human use in 2004. The passive transponders transmit their IDs by means of a 134 kHz signal, and can be read up to 6 inches from a patient's upper arm, where the tag is inserted.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline lilywhite

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #9 on: April 06, 2008, 04:01:20 pm »
Yes, the military really couldn't refuse them once the sign on the dotted line, I'd imagine. Those things scae the heck out of me. It makes perfect sense that they would start with the military and then move on to civilians. They get those young kids enlisted and they won't know about any of this stuff they'll be getting into. Of course, if McCain gets in, he'll just start drafting. Heck, Bush might start it.

Offline smokecheck

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Offline IridiumKEPfactor

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #11 on: April 10, 2008, 08:45:09 pm »
Chip gives cancer--

http://www.antichips.com/press-releases/microchip-imlants-tumors.html

That sounds a little familar.

revelations 16:2
And the first went, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and there fell a noisome and grievous sore upon the men which had the mark of the beast, and upon them which worshipped his image.

JMHO.

Offline Infowarrior

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #12 on: April 10, 2008, 08:46:28 pm »
They'll put a chip in my body when I'm cold and dead!

Offline White Rose Sophie

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #13 on: April 11, 2008, 11:02:46 pm »


It's only a $1.6 million study, but there's something about human RFID implants that tends -- quite understandably -- to make people's skin crawl.
You have no idea how grateful I am for this stuff.  A dear friend was over tonight and she and her husband are trying to get her son in the Air Force.  A long time ago I gave her a copy of "Beyond Treason" (about DU) to try and dissuade her. They never watched it. Then tried waking them up but they don't want to know right now......he's in the medical field and is TOTALLY programmed by Neo-Con talk radio.  However, when I mentioned something about new recruits being 'chipped'.........she suddenly became interested.

Thanks, Sanester for all your raving and ranting!  It has borne fruit once again! ;D ;D ;D

Offline matrixcutter

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #14 on: April 13, 2008, 12:06:20 pm »
Super-soldiers may get brain-chip
October 24, 2005 12:00am

US military experts are attempting to create an army of super-human soldiers who will be more intelligent and deadly thanks to a microchip implanted in their brains.

Scientists believe the implant will vastly improve the memory of troops so that they can recall every detail of their training and become more effective fighters.

Researchers at the University of Southern California's bio-engineering department have created the chip, which acts in exactly the same way as the hippocampus - the part of the brain that deals with memory.

In experiments, the team removed that section of the brain of dead rats and inserted the chip in its place. The implant sent exactly the same electronic signals as the real thing.

The next stage of the project is to test the implant on live animals. If this work proves to be as successful, experiments could one day be carried out on soldiers.

Offline otero1

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #15 on: April 13, 2008, 12:44:26 pm »
Could he have refused it?
I don't think they can refuse any vaccines. I'm not sure though..

Offline cloudsifter

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #16 on: April 13, 2008, 01:07:00 pm »
I was never given any option to refuse any. And when a date was set that you had to go to the hospital to get it, and you didn't get it by that date... your commander got an email from the hospital of the people in his squadron who didn't get it.  Then you were DIRECTED to go get it.  Also, Commander's OPR's or Officer Performance Reports take into consideration all kinds of things...whether directly or indirectly.  If a Commander's people are doing better or worse than another squadron Commander's people on any given stat whether if be fitness program, training, or whatever, it can reflect on his performance report, depending on how much of a discrepancy exists.

Offline bringthegiantdown

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #17 on: July 06, 2008, 09:53:54 am »
I will DIE rather than allow a chip to violate my body. They are going to have to kill me because microchiping me just isnt gonna happen. If they kidnap me, drug me & do it - I'll cut it out as soon as I can, If theres nothing availible to cut it out - I'll use my nails.

"As a nation, we began by declaring that "all men are created equal." We now practically read it, "All men are created equal, except Negroes." When the Know-Nothings get control, it will read, "All men are created equal except Negroes, and foreigners, and Catholics." When it comes to this I should prefer emigrating to some other country where they make no pretense of loving liberty - to Russia, for instance, where despotism can be taken pure, without the base alloy of hypocrisy." -Abraham Lincoln

Offline TruthHunter

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #18 on: July 09, 2008, 05:23:53 pm »
What I want to know is if they plan to remove the chips when these guys finally come home and leave the service.

Offline White Rose Sophie

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #19 on: July 12, 2008, 09:10:07 am »
What I want to know is if they plan to remove the chips when these guys finally come home and leave the service.

I doubt it, because Rockefeller himself said the goal was a 'microchipped' population.  And it's always easier to start with those who are unable to resist, ie, the elderly, the handicapped, the military, etc.

Offline BlackEagle

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #20 on: July 27, 2008, 03:24:15 pm »
does anyone know how to block the signal? cloakingh it is of interest to me.

Offline sickofitall

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #21 on: July 27, 2008, 03:39:18 pm »
I read something somewhere that once you get the chip there wasn't a way to remove it.

Offline BlackEagle

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #22 on: July 27, 2008, 03:55:49 pm »
Mine was placed into my IV settup. Thus I believe it was put into an artery, and causes blockage of the heart and swelling. The end product of people with illegal chips(or un accepted), is death. I am pissed about that 1.

Offline STEVEX

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #23 on: July 31, 2008, 10:27:30 am »
This RFID proven technology that has been around since about the 1940’s, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has the potential to dramatically improve various industrial and service applications through automatic detection, unique identification, and control.  RFID is expected to provide immense supply chain efficiencies, reduced labor costs, and accurate real-time resource information.

WHAT IS RFID SIGNAL:
RFID uses wireless technology operating with the 50 kHz to 2.5Ghz frequency range.  A RFID system consists of a RFID tag or transponder that contains data about the tagged item/object, and antenna, a RF transceiver to generate RF signals, and a RFID reader used for collecting RFID data, which it passes to a host system for processing.

RFID does not require line-of-sight to operate for communications between a tagged object (which could be almost anything including a car, merchandise, package, etc.) and a reader (an electronic device used to capture the RFID signal).

Data encoded on the RFID tag can contain a variety of information about the object including item description through the use of an electronic product code (EPC).  The EPC is an electronic representation of a product, which can include information about the product, manufacturer, and uniquely identify the product.

HOW DOES THE RFID WORKS:
A RFID tag consists of a microchip and a coiled antenna.

RFID tags may be either active or passive.  Active tags tend to be larger and more expensive than passive tags as they contain more electronics due to the fact that they actively transmit data to a reader. 

In comparison, passive tags draw power from the magnetic field generated between itself and a reader to power its microchip’s circuits, allowing it to reflect the RF signal transmitted to them from a reader, adding information by modulating the reflected signal. 

Tags can also be either read-only, volatile read/write, or write one/read many.

In order for communication to occur between a tag and a reader, they must be tuned to the same frequency.  RFID systems can be configured to operate in a variety of frequencies from low to ultra-high frequency (UHF) or even microwave.  Being that RF propagation is different at different frequencies due to power and wave form properties, RFID system configuration must be considered in accordance with the applications that the system is designed to support.  For example, low frequency tags are a good choice for applications in which the distance between tag and reader is small (typically less than a foot) as apposed to UHF, which supports applications at greater distances (up to about 20 feet).

Data gathered for purposes of processing information for and about the tagged RFID item/object may include:


Description (EPC)
Time
Location
Physical parameters (temperature, pressure, humidity, etc.)



Tag options include the following:


Passive or active
Read-only, Read-write, or write once
Short range or long range
Each option has certain advantages and disadvantages.  For example, active tags cost more and are larger, but are a better choice for use with high value goods and/or those that require continuous identification and location.  Read-write tags, while expensive compared to read-only, are a good choice for monitoring for security, quality assurance, and/or theft deterrence.

Active tags may either provide active presence or active location information.  This means that they can either provide general information about the presence of an object/item or more precise location information.  Active location RFID systems support a higher effective read range with greater resolution capabilities, allowing for more precise tag location determination.  Read-write tags have reduced range due to the increased signal overhead of the full duplex communications, causing these systems to not perform location determination as well as read-only systems.


RFID and BARCODE (another techniques):

While Universal Product Codes (UPC) used with bar coding systems have provided many benefits, EPC’s used with RFID systems are poised to provide increased efficiency and productivity by way of automatic identification and tracking.

Unlike bar code systems, which use a reader and code labels that are attached to the object, RFID uses an electronic tag on the reader to acquire a RF signal at a RFID reader.  Information in transferred via optical signal with bar codes as apposed to RF signals with RFID.

Bar codes and RFID tend to be used for different applications.  The fact that RFID does not depend on line-of-sight, makes it particularly useful for applications, such as package management, in which the item must be handled many times.  Being that standard bar codes typically only contain information about the manufacturer or originator of an item and basic information about the object itself, RFID is particularly useful for applications in which the item must be identified uniquely.

Being that it uses radio waves rather than optical, RFID can penetrate non-metallic materials, allowing the RFID tag to be embedded or encased within an item or object.  In contrast, the bar code must be physically exposed to the surface of the object, and in the case of bar code labels, can fall off the object.

Generally speaking, RFID is a better choice for situations in which there is a need for a lot of handling, such as in a manufacturing and/or moving inventory situations.


RFID APPLICATION:
Applications enabled be RFID systems are limited only by the imagination, but generally fall into the following categories:


Metering applications such as electronic toll collection
Telemetry, telematics, and sensor applications
Inventory control and tracking such as merchandise control
Asset tracking and recovery such as computing equipment monitoring
Tracking parts moving through a manufacturing process
Tracking goods in a supply chain
Payment systems
RFID systems can improve CRM systems through inventory control.  For example, a customer service person can immediately and authoritatively tell a customer whether a particular merchandise item is in the store and exactly where it is within the store.  In addition to the CRM benefit, this can provide a huge benefit in productivity, virtually eliminating the time and expense of employees locating merchandise.

Combining RFID systems with sensor applications enables solutions such as detecting when a uniquely identified object has come into contact with an environment that it should not, such as an area that is too hot, too dusty, to humid, etc.  Sensor systems can also provide valuable CRM data via RFID communication such as detecting that car engine needs maintenance when a consumer brings a car in for an oil change.

RFID can be invaluable for applications in which uniquely identifying the item/object is critical due to concern over safety or quality assurance such as management of hazardous materials or manufacturing situations in which quality control depends on precise parts control.

As RFID evolves to allow for standardization and personal RFID readers, various presence-based wireless marketing features will be enabled such as the ability to automatically inform a consumer when they are within the vicinity of a product type that they desire.


RFID and DATABASE:
VeriSign (a paypal company under the EBAY coperation) was selected to operate an EPC network on behalf of EPCglobal, a non-profit organization that is a joint venture between EAN International and the Uniform Code Council.  The EPC network consists of an EPC Information Service (EPC IS), EPC discovery service and an Object Name Service (ONS).  The three databases communicate with one another in a hierchial fashion as a means of sharing information.  A query regarding an EPC will initially go to the root level ONS, which determines the manufacturer’s ONS, which in turn determines the location of the EPC IS by way of the EPC discovery service.

The ONS will run on the same infrastructure as the Internet’s Domain Name System (DNS). The ONS will thus look up the EPC information in the same manner in which DNS looks up a web page address.

RFID and INTELLIGENT agents:

Being that RFID enables autonomous communication, they are a perfect complement to intelligent agent data acquisition.  RFID systems provide information to intelligent agent-based post processing systems to ad value to both real-time applications as well as asynchronous applications.  For example, information provided by RFID systems can be used for real-time information and decision systems through an alert/decision loop as well as automate decision- making processes such as inventory replenishment.
 
RFID and BUSINESS processes:
RFID is expected to dramatically improve many different business processes including Supply Chain Management (SCM), Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP), and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP).

The benefits to SCM are expected to be enormous.  By way of example, a study conducted at the University of Florida in 2001 found that $5.8 billion (US) was worth of inventory was lost due to administration errors.  The use of RFID for tracking the movements of inventory can easily save hundreds of millions or even billions of dollars.

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A study conducted at the University of Florida in 2001 found that $5.8 billion (US) was worth of inventory was lost due to administration errors.
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In general, RFID can be used to improve supply chain integrity, reduce labor costs, provide greater inventory/merchandise visibility, reduce material/product loss, promote vendor-managed inventory control, virtually eliminate the need for physical inventory management, and ensure product authenticity.

In a manufacturing environment, RFID can be used to improve:


Management of inventory and materials
Timing and control of critical resources
Improve Warehouse Management Systems (WMS)
Manufacturing and warehousing processes improved include shipping and receiving, put away processes, picking processes, zone tracking, yard management, and lot tracking.

In a retail environment, RFID can be used to improve:


Merchandise inventory and ordering processes
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
Merchandise tracking and fraud prevention
While people typically think of only the front-end portion of a RFID system such as tags and readers, the back-end processing systems are critical to fully realize the benefits of RFID.  Front-end RFID sub-systems can capture and report an enormous amount of data.  Back-end subsystems must process the data and manage it in a way that it becomes useful information.  Back-end RFID sub-systems must manage the interface to and communications with various consuming applications and processes such as inventory management and tracking, ordering, shipping and receiving.


RFID and PRIVACY:
Some consumer and privacy advocacy groups fear that RFID will take away personal privacy through exploiting the use of RFID to monitor peoples’ movements and behaviors without there knowledge or content, for example, by tracking them via RFID tag in their clothes.  While there may be some legitimate concern about RFID privacy, this type of issue is not well founded as it would require satellite-based tracking, which while possible, is not practical for commercial consumer operations such as consumer market research.


Implementation and Operational Issues:
Since radio waves bounce off metal and are obsorbed by water, RFID tags may not be embedded within metal objects or items with high water content.  This can be overcome by using lower frequency tags, which have better penetration capabilities.  However, low frequency tags also require a more clear signal path between the tag and the reader, but not as close as bar codes.

Readers are often designed to support time division multiplexing to prevent the signal from one reader interfering with the signal from another reader known as tag collision. Designing RFID systems to capture signals from individual tags in a serial fashion prevents reader collision.

Being that active tags are larger and more costly, economics dictate that they be a good choice for applications such as tracking high-value goods and related services.  On the other hand, passive tags are cheap and small in comparison, allowing them to be placed on virtually any item or object.

Until RFID tags become much cheaper, it will be impractical to identify millions of items.

RFID Standardization:
Whereas closed loop systems, such as military or toll reading systems do not necessarily require standards-based approaches, most commercial open loop systems will benefit from standards-based implementation.

RFID standards affect the format and content of tag codes, protocols and frequencies for tags and readers, security procedures and applications.

As a means of promoting widespread adoption, the basic structure of the Electronic Product Code (EPC) is patterned after the Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) scheme.  The EPC standard framework consists of 96 bits of information with a unique naming scheme.  The Header, containing 8 bits, defines the number, type and length of all subsequent data.  The EPC Manager, consists of 28 bits, which identifies the originating entity (manufacturer) of the object/item.  The Object Class, containing 24 bits, acts as the tracking mechanism for specific groups such as lot number.  The final frame, the Object Identification Number, consists of 36 bits that uniquely identify the object/item.

The Physical Markup Language (PML), based on XML, is used in the RFID database registration and lookup process represents a new standard language for describing physical objects.

Standards organizations for bar codes have historically been the EAN (http://www.ean-int.org/) and the UCC (http://www.uc-council.org).  Going forward, EPCglobal (http://www.epcglobalinc.org/) will be leading the charge for RFID standardization.

Currently, Walmart is promoting RFID suppliers based on the EPCglobal standards whereas the US Department of Defense (DoD) is supporting efforts based on an alternative ISO specification.  Being that the DoD and Walmart are huge trading partners with a variety of suppliers, it is critical to the long-term success of RFID that they push for standardization.
 

 


H.E.L.P. = How. Every. Loser. Prospect.   (Goverment)         
 
J.O.B. = Jorney. Of the. Broke (We the People)
 
illegal business control america. The people have NO RIGHTS, only the right to DEATH.

Offline Pheonix Renewed

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #24 on: July 31, 2008, 10:43:11 am »
I'm sorry, I know you are all going to think I'm insane, but I am almost certain that LEAD is the way to block it. This is why lead paint was removed even while they continue to poison us with everything else. if lead didn't have some BENEFIT to us, they'd be feeding THAT to us, too!
Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he could only do a little.

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Offline STEVEX

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #25 on: July 31, 2008, 10:49:27 am »
THIS IS HOW YOU BLOCK RFID SIGNAL:

http://www.idstronghold.com/index.php . It work 100% at blocking 100% RFID signal.


It has come to my attention that th EU  is placing RFID chip in new and renew passports

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1CmLsWav6-8

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BZ6KnlW5M7s


PLease remember technology is created my ANY human. so it is fair to say we can play the same mine game with the government.

Just wrap the RFID chip in ALUMINUM FOIL paper.... ;D. or place the body in a blanket of aluminum fold... ;D. they will never find you.. ;D
H.E.L.P. = How. Every. Loser. Prospect.   (Goverment)         
 
J.O.B. = Jorney. Of the. Broke (We the People)
 
illegal business control america. The people have NO RIGHTS, only the right to DEATH.

Offline STEVEX

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #26 on: July 31, 2008, 11:05:39 am »
here is more help, for our EU citizen.

http://www.smartcardfocus.com/shop/ilp/se~59/p/

also remember if you automobile has XM radio, ON-star, Sires, you are still under the RFID signal.

why do you think the law enforcement never recover stolen automobile with RFID signal?.

This is anothe way for the government to fatten its pocket and richen the coperate beast.

H.E.L.P. = How. Every. Loser. Prospect.   (Goverment)         
 
J.O.B. = Jorney. Of the. Broke (We the People)
 
illegal business control america. The people have NO RIGHTS, only the right to DEATH.

Offline Cywar

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #27 on: July 31, 2008, 11:16:41 am »
I'm sorry, I know you are all going to think I'm insane, but I am almost certain that LEAD is the way to block it. This is why lead paint was removed even while they continue to poison us with everything else. if lead didn't have some BENEFIT to us, they'd be feeding THAT to us, too!

You have a point there - hummmmm
"Condemnation without investigation is the height of ignorance."

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Offline STEVEX

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #28 on: July 31, 2008, 12:20:19 pm »
If you read the post above, about RFID. You will notice they mension only Wal-mart use the the RFID chip in products placement. ??? NOT TRUE.
The RFID chip is what help law enforcement to fine the criminal and the product/RFID. By tracking the RFID inside the products will lead to the LOCATION. :o. BUSTED.

CRIME DOES NOT PAY, AND THE SAME GOES FOR MY JOB. :(

H.E.L.P. = How. Every. Loser. Prospect.   (Goverment)         
 
J.O.B. = Jorney. Of the. Broke (We the People)
 
illegal business control america. The people have NO RIGHTS, only the right to DEATH.

Offline Geolibertarian

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #29 on: July 31, 2008, 12:44:06 pm »
Yes, the military really couldn't refuse them once the sign on the dotted line, I'd imagine.

You imagine correctly, and that's one of the primary reasons I declined to sign that dotted line again in '02, even though I was only four years shy of my 20 year retirement.

I saw the "writing on the wall," and didn't like what it said.

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Offline STEVEX

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #30 on: July 31, 2008, 12:58:20 pm »
Here is some U.S. patent info.

USPTO Application #: 20080001757

Title: System and method for measuring rfid signal strength within shielded locations

Abstract: An RFID Probe comprises a pole with a plurality of sensors that indicate RF signal strength attached at regular intervals and marked to indicate distance from an end of the pole. A user employs the RFID Probe by placing the probe between densely packed materials, such as cases on a pallet, and exposing the RFID Probe and packaging to a signal from a RIFD transceiver. After exposing the RFID Probe to the RFID transceiver signal, the user removes the RFID Probe from the packed materials and observes the sensors on the probe. By noting the location on the probe of the sensors indicating low or no RF signal, the user can identify locations where RF signal strength is insufficient to activate an RFID tag. (end of abstract)

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001]The invention relates generally to the field of electrical communications and specifically to querying an information containing device for an immediate reply.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002]Radio Frequency Identification ("RFID") technology comprises two elements: a transponder (hereafter "tag"), which is generally a small, paper thin computer chip with an antenna which stores data, and a transceiver which utilizes a radio signal in the approximate 800-930 Mhz UHF range to read the data from the tag. Active RFID tags contain a power source, such as a battery, and can actively transmit the tag's stored data. Passive RFID tags cannot transmit by themselves, and require a RFID transceiver to provide power via radio signals transmitted by the RFID transceiver. As passive RFID tags pass by a RFID transceiver, the transceiver powers the tag and reads the data stored on the tag.

[0003]Large retail companies such as WAL-MART.RTM. find passive RFID tags advantageous over optical barcodes for inventory tracking. RFID tags have two distinct advantages over traditional optical barcodes: RFID tags can store more information, and RFID tags do not require line-of-sight readings.

[0004]A problem in the implementation of passive RFID technology for inventory tracking arises from dead spots. Dead spots can be caused by dense packing of passive RFID tags where inventory materials shield the tags and interrupt signal transmission. For example, in a pallet containing sixty cases of canned goods, where each case has a passive RFID tag, the metal cans around the periphery of the pallet shield the RFID transceiver's signal. Even if the RFID transceiver successfully reads fifty of the sixty RFID tags located on the pallet, the RFID technology failed as a tracking and inventory method because the RFID technology gathered incomplete and inaccurate information.

[0005]Dead spots can be avoided by placing passive RFID tags to avoid shielding problems. In addition, RFID repeaters, placed within the packed pallet, can ensure that the RFID transceiver's signal reads all of the passive RFID tags on the pallet. But in order to be sure that all of the passive RFID tags on the pallet are read, the placement of the passive RFID tags and RFID repeaters, if any, must be tested.


[0006]One known method for testing the placement of RFID tags uses heat-sensitive liquid crystals ("LCDs") that change color when exposed to certain radio frequencies. LCDs that are sensitive to the RF frequency transmitted by an RFID transceiver can act as markers, showing where the reach of the RFID signal. Furthermore, light emitting diodes ("LEDs") affixed to products or product packaging may be coupled with a radio frequency receiver to verify the scanning of passive RFID tags. Using these known methods, RFID tag locations may be tested by trial and error.

[0007]A need exists for a more efficient (non-trial and error) method to determine placement of passive RFID tags or RFID repeaters in densely packed product and product packaging storage unit to ensure RIFD transceivers can read all the passive RFID tags in the storage unit.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0008]An "RFID Probe" comprises a pole with a plurality of sensors attached at regular intervals. The sensors may be RF sensitive LCDs or LEDs. The sensors change color when exposed to an RF signal with strength sufficient to activate a passive RFID tag. In addition to the sensors, RFID Probe markers may indicate height or depth. A user employs the RFID Probe by placing the probe between densely packed materials such as cases on a pallet, and exposing the RFID Probe and the packaging to a signal from a RIFD transceiver. After exposing the RFID Probe to the RFID transceiver signal, the user removes the RFID Probe from the packed materials and observes the sensors on the probe. By noting the location on the probe of the sensors with no color change, the user can identify locations where RFID tags should not be placed, or where RFID repeaters should be placed. After the user relocates RFID tags or places RFID repeaters, the RFID Probe may be reset and the process repeated to verify proper signal penetration.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

[0009]The novel features believed characteristic of the invention are set forth in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, as well as a preferred mode of use, further objectives and advantages thereof, will be understood best by reference to the following detailed description of an illustrative embodiment when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:

[0010]FIG. 1 is an exemplary pallet of goods with RFID tags and a RFID transceiver;

[0011]FIG. 2 is an embodiment of the RFID Probe;

[0012]FIG. 3 shows the RFID Probe measuring RF signal strength in a pallet of goods; and

[0013]FIG. 4 is a flowchart of a method for using the RFID Probe.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

[0014]FIG. 1 shows a densely packed pallet of goods with RFID tags. Product pallet 100 comprises pallet 110 and a plurality of packages 120. Plurality of packages 120 are shown stacked in first package column 122, second package column 124, and third package column 126. Each of packages 120 has an individual RFID tags labeled 131-139. RFID transceiver 150 locates at a position within transmission range of product pallet 100.

[0015]FIG. 2A shows RFID Probe 200 having a plurality of regularly spaced RF sensors 220 affixed to pole 210. As used herein, pole means any longitudinal member to which sensors can be affixed. Pole 210 may be made of any sufficiently rigid material to support RF sensors 220. Pole 210 is adapted to fit between packages 120, to extend from pallet 110 to a point above the highest package of packages 120, and to securely affix sensors 220 to pole 210. RFID Probe 200 may also have markings 216 to indicate distance along pole 210 between first end 212 and second end 214. Markings 216 allow a user to determine a location for physical placement of RFID tags or repeaters after testing RF signal penetration with RFID probe 200.

[0016]FIG. 2B shows multiple embodiments of Sensor 220. One embodiment of Sensor 220 may be electronic display 230 comprising an electronic RFID receiver 232 coupled with a LED 234. Other embodiments of Sensor 220 may include an RF sensitive LCD 240, or a carbon coated ABS ("Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene") plastic 250. Persons skilled in the art will be aware of additional embodiments of sensor 220, but each embodiment of sensor 220 will provide an indication of exposure to a specified level of RF signal strength. In addition to indicating exposure to a specified level of RF signal strength, sensor 220 may be adapted to provide a different indicator for different ranges of RF signal strength. For example, using a color coded cue, sensor 220 may be red if there is no signal present, yellow when encountering low signal strength, and green when encountering signal strength sufficient to activate a passive RFID tag.

[0017]FIG. 2C depicts alternate RFID probe 280 having multiple columns of RF sensors 220 affixed to pole 810. In this embodiment, RF sensors 220 are arranged in an array to measure RF signal strength in both a horizontal and vertical orientation simultaneously. RFID Probe 230 may also have markings 216 to indicate distance along pole 810 between first end 212 and second end 214 and markings 816 to indicate distance across pole 810 between first side 282 and second side 284.

[0018]FIG. 3 depicts tested pallet 300 having a first RFID Probe 310 inserted between first package column 122 and second package column 124, and second RFID Probe 320 inserted between second package column 124 and third package column 126. First RFID Probe 310 and second RFID probe extend from pallet 110 beyond a point above the top of first package column 122, second package column 124 and third package column 126. First probe 310 and second probe 320 show sensor readings from exposure to a RF signal from RFID transceiver 150. First exposed sensors 340 have recorded a sufficient intensity of RF signal to activate a passive RFID. Second exposed sensors 350 recorded an insufficient RF signal to activate a passive RFID, and third exposed sensors 360 did not record any RF signal exposure. Fewer sensors record a sufficient intensity of RF signal on first RFID Probe 310 than on second RFID probe 320 because first RFID probe 310 is located farther away from RFID transceiver 150 than second RIFD probe 320.

[0019]A method of using RFID Probe 200 is shown by FIG. 4. A user starts (410) the RF signal test by selecting an appropriately sized RFID probe to measure the full depth or height of a pallet of goods (412). The user inserts at least one probe 200 into the pallet of goods (414) and activates an RFID simulation using an RFID transceiver or other suitable device for simulating an RFID signal transmission (416). Although the RF penetration testing can be conducted at the regular frequency used by passive RFID tags 130, it is common practice to perform testing at nearby frequencies to avoid actually activating the tags. The simulation uses a nearby frequency in an active commercial environment to prevent duplicate readings of the same materials which could cause inaccurate inventory or tracking of the goods. After exposing the RFID probes to the RF transceiver signal, the user removes the RFID probes (418) and reads the sensors on each of the probes (420). If some of sensors 220 near RFID tags indicate dead zones with low or no RF signal (422), the user can re-position the passive RFID tags or add repeaters to amplify the RF signal in the dead zones (424). The user can reset the sensors on the RFID probes (426) and repeat steps 414-422 until all sensors near RFID tags indicate sufficient exposure (422) and the test stops (428).

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Patent Applications in related categories:

20080174436 - Light activated rfid tag - A radio frequency identification (RFID) device is arranged for use with a remote interrogator unit. The RFID device comprises an integrated circuit configured to send, in response to a signal received from the remote interrogator unit or automatically, a responsive signal which includes identification information. A communication antenna is electrically ...

USPTO Application #: 20080174436

Title: Light activated rfid tag

Abstract: A radio frequency identification (RFID) device is arranged for use with a remote interrogator unit. The RFID device comprises an integrated circuit configured to send, in response to a signal received from the remote interrogator unit or automatically, a responsive signal which includes identification information. A communication antenna is electrically coupled to the integrated circuit and is provided for wireless communication with the remote interrogator unit. At least one photovoltaic cell is provided for converting radiation into electrical energy and providing power to the integrated circuit. The photocell may be designed to form all or part of the RF antenna of the RFID device. (end of abstract)

This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/881,519 filed Jan. 22, 2007, titled “Light-Activated RFID Tag.”

FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, and more particularly, to an RFID tag wherein power is supplied by conversion of light radiation, e.g., natural or artificial, to direct current (DC) energy using photovoltaic cells, e.g., solar cells.

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION
RFID (radio frequency identification) is an automatic identification technology whereby digital data encoded in an RFID tag is captured by a reader using radio waves. RFID tags consist of an integrated circuit (IC) attached to an antenna, plus some protective packaging (like a plastic card) as determined by the application requirements. Tags also sometimes are called “transponders.” Data is stored in the integrated circuit and sent through the antenna to a reader. Prior art RFID tags are either “passive” (no battery), “semi-passive” or “active.”

Passive RFID tags rely entirely on the reader as their power source. In passive systems, the tag is composed of an antenna and a silicon chip that includes basic modulation circuitry and non-volatile memory. A known technique for communicating with RFID transponders is referred to as “backscatter modulation,” whereby the RFID tags send stored data by modulating the impedance attached to their antenna to reflect varying amounts of an electromagnetic field generated by the RFID reader. An advantage of this communication technique is that the RFID transponders or tags can operate automatically at the frequency of the energizing electromagnetic field, and as a result, the reader may operate at multiple frequencies so as to avoid radio frequency (RF) interference, such as using frequency hopping spread spectrum modulation techniques. The RFID tags may extract their power from the energizing electromagnetic field, thereby eliminating the need for a separate power source. This is also referred to as energy harvesting.

Typically, each RFID tag has an individual code containing information related to and identifying the object associated with the tag. In operation, the reader sends an RF signal to the remote transponder. An antenna at the transponder receives the signal from the reader, backscatter modulates the received signal with data temporarily or permanently stored in the transponder (such as data indicating the identity and contents of the object to which the transponder is attached), thereby producing a sequence of signals in accordance with the transponder's individual code, and reflects this modulated signal back to the reader in order to pass the information contained in the transponder memory to the reader. The reader decodes these signals to obtain the information from the transponder.

Active and semi-passive RFID tags use internal batteries to power their circuits. An active tag also uses its battery to broadcast radio waves to a reader, whereas a semi-passive tag relies on the reader to supply the radio signal for the tag to backscatter. The battery is used to boost the effective operating range of the tag and to support additional features over passive tags, such as operation with lower radio signal strengths and sensing operations that require continuous power. Data collected from tags is then passed through communication interfaces (cable or wireless) to host computer systems and passed to computer systems for interpretation, storage, and action. Alternatively, tag power may be supplied externally, e.g., by means of a car battery.

RFID tags can be read-only (stored data can be programmed and read but not changed remotely), read/write (stored data can be altered or rewritten at a distance), or a combination, in which some data is permanently stored while other memory is left accessible for modification or updating as desired.

RFID tags also include a clocking circuit to enable data to be read and sent to a modulation circuit also located on the tag. A data encoder, also located on the RFID tag retrieves data from the IC chip's data array or memory and sends it to a modulation circuit. Data encoding refers to the process of altering the data bit stream between the time it is retrieved from the RFID's memory and its transmission back to the reader. The various encoding algorithms include NRZ (Non-Return to Zero) Direct; FMO; frequency shift keying; Differential Biphase; Biphase L (Manchester), and others. For an RFID tag of the read/write variety, the tag circuitry includes a memory, a clock, a modulation detector, a data decoder, as well as a means for error detection and circuitry for control and for writing new data into the memory. The reader may also send commands to the tag so that the operations of the tag can be controlled. In addition to reading and writing, additional operations include communication with multiple tags in the field of the reader and selection of special ‘groups’ of tags. RFID tags, including passive tags, may also perform encryption operations to participate in mutual authentication processes as well as protection of data and prevention of unauthorized operations.

A reader (often referred to as an RFID interrogator) is basically a radio frequency (RF) transmitter and receiver, controlled by a microprocessor or digital signal processor. The reader, using an attached antenna, captures data from the RFID tag, then passes the data to a computer for processing. As with RFID tags, readers come in a wide range of sizes and offer different features. Readers can be affixed in a stationary position or can be portable, including hand-held.

The use of RFID has been widely accepted for tracking and managing movable equipment, vehicles, containers, items in the supply chain and other such applications. Specific examples of common applications are the use of RFID to manage railcar equipment, for electronic toll collection, vehicular access control, electronic vehicle registration, highway traffic monitoring and truck fleet management. These applications usually require an interrogation distance, or range, of tens of meters. For use of radio signals, this range translates into a requirement to use UHF or S-band microwave signals. Traditional RFID tags have been constructed from a handful of components. Operational power was achieved by an attached battery or by rectification of the interrogating RF signal. The battery-powered option permitted longer ranges at the expense of increased cost and a defined limited life. Tags without batteries are of lower cost, essentially unlimited life, but of shorter range.

Developments within the last several years have given rise to RFID tags using a single integrated circuit attached to an antenna and operating in the UHF or S-Bands (typically in the range of 400 MHz to 3 GHz). Without batteries, those newer tags could be made smaller, less expensive, yet high performance in terms of function and memory. Interrogation range is adequate in countries where radio regulations permit sufficient RF power transmission to power the tags. The primary drawbacks of this new generation of RFID tags is that some country's radio regulations do not permit sufficient range, and in countries where higher powers and increased ranges are allowed, the range was adequate but limiting.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is for a radio frequency identification (RFID) device wherein power is supplied by conversion of light radiation, e.g., natural or artificial, to direct current (DC) energy using photovoltaic cells, e.g., solar cells. The photovoltaic cell could be used in place of one or more batteries, or in place of RF energy harvesting (rectification of the RF signals sent by the reader), or in combination with either or both of these known sources of energy. The RFID device is arranged for use with a remote interrogator unit, and comprises a circuit (preferably an integrated circuit) configured to send, in response to a signal (either unmodulated or modulated) received from the remote interrogator unit, a responsive signal (containing information to be sent from the tag to the reader) which may include identification information. The tag can store information such as the type and condition of the equipment of interest, fuel levels, time of day, temperature, ownership of the cargo, a manifest, vehicular traveled route information, or any other information that is useful to the operation of the business. This information can be updated as conditions change and subsequent communication with the tags (say, as the rail car travels along a track) can keep human operators apprised of the condition of the cargo, the point of entry of a vehicle in a toll road, the actions intended for the vehicle or object, etc. A communication antenna is electrically coupled to the tag electronic circuit and is provided for wireless communication with the remote interrogator unit.

One or more photovoltaic cells are provided for converting light radiation into electrical energy and providing power to the tag electronic circuit. A tag constructed using a photocell for operational power can have all the attributes and advantages of a traditional passive tag (unlimited life, small size, low cost, etc.) with the increased range of a battery-powered tag, and may be used for high performance transportation applications in countries with severe restrictions on RF power allowed to be sent by the reader.

The preferred photovoltaic cell is constructed using processes involving the application of amorphous silicon to a flexible substrate. Suitable RFID tags for use in connection with the present invention may be provided in a “sticker” format. Such an RFID tag is about the size of a credit card, is thin and flexible, and may be arranged to be mounted on the windshield of a motor vehicle, such as by utilizing adhesives. Older technology solar cells using glass substrates are not attractive to use in conjunction with such “sticker” tags because of cost and an inability to flex without breaking. In accordance with the present invention, the photovoltaic cell may also be used to form all or part of the RF antenna of the tag.

In accordance with the present invention, utilization of the photovoltaic cell in combination with a passive RFID tag will increase the range at which such a tag can be read by the reader. Such utilization will also improve the sensitivity of the RFID tag by at least 20 dB (or better). This may enable the use of otherwise passive RFID tags in countries where limits are placed upon the use of RF power. Utilization of the photovoltaic cell in combination with a passive RFID tag will also increase the RF bandwidth of the broadcast of radio waves from the RFID tag in response to the reader. By utilizing sunlight or artificial light as a source of energy, the RFID tags of the present invention will have a longer life than RFID tags utilizing internal batteries for powering their circuits and/or supplying power for broadcasting.

The RFID tag of the present invention is suitable for handheld use and packaging may be provided for use of the inventive RFID tag in harsh environments, e.g., a hard case. The RFID tag of the present invention may be utilized while remaining compatible with the existing passive and battery-powered RFID systems, using the same CMOS chip for the tag, etc.

There are two classes of protocols for initiating communication between a reader and an RFID tag: “tag talks first (TTF)” and “reader talks first (RTF).” In the RTF system, the tag is dormant and enters a ‘ready’ or ‘standby’ state upon obtaining operational DC power (either from a battery or from RF energy harvesting). The reader sends out a query, either continually or triggered by a command from an external input, an automated controller or a sensor, that essentially asks “any RFID tags of my type out there?” Any compatible RFID tag in range is then activated by the reader and responds. A RTF tag may be passive, semi-passive or active. In TTF systems, upon obtaining DC operational power, the RFID tag automatically sends out its message saying, “I'm here; is anyone listening?” This message can be continuous or intermittent. A TTF tag may be passive, semi-passive or active. The message is a modulation of the impedance of the tag antenna for a backscatter tag, and is a transmitted signal for an active tag. When a tag and reader are in proximity, the reader may automatically receive the message from the tag without issuing a command. The RFID tag of the present invention is suitable for either class of protocol. The downlink from the interrogator to the tag commonly uses an amplitude modulated RF signal when sending data to the tag. When reading data from a tag, the interrogator is not sending radio signals if the tag has a transmitter, and is sending unmodulated signals if the tag uses modulated backscatter. It is also possible for a TTF tag to be sent commands to stop sending messages and accept data and further commands from the interrogator.



20080174435 - Rfid assembly - An RFID assembly comprises an RFID substrate having an antenna coil, a chip set, a first joint and a second joint; the antenna coil being installed to the RFID substrate; the chip set being electrically connected to the antenna coil; one end of the first joint being connected to the ...

USPTO Application #: 20080174435

Title: Rfid assembly

Abstract: An RFID assembly comprises an RFID substrate having an antenna coil, a chip set, a first joint and a second joint; the antenna coil being installed to the RFID substrate; the chip set being electrically connected to the antenna coil; one end of the first joint being connected to the second joint; and another end of the first joint being connected to another end of the second joint through a conductor material so as to form as an electric loop; when the RFID substrate moves into the detection range of a reader so as to actuate the chip set of the RFID substrate; meanwhile, the antenna coil of the RFID substrate will return a react signal to a receiving unit of the reader; a combining sheet being an adhesive film or an adhesive agent; the combining sheet being a single face or a double face gluing file. (end of abstract)

20080174437 - Universal tracking assembly - A universal tracking assembly that is capable of supporting more than one protocol used in electronic article surveillance (EAS) labels. The universal tracking assembly includes an acousto-magnetic (AM) EAS label with a Radio Frequency (RF) EAS label. The intrinsic characteristics and properties of the components of the individual labels are ...

USPTO Application #: 20080174437

Title: Universal tracking assembly

Abstract: A universal tracking assembly that is capable of supporting more than one protocol used in electronic article surveillance (EAS) labels. The universal tracking assembly includes an acousto-magnetic (AM) EAS label with a Radio Frequency (RF) EAS label. The intrinsic characteristics and properties of the components of the individual labels are utilized to enhance the overall performance and utility of the combined EAS universal tracking assembly. (end of abstract)

This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/871,185, filed Jan. 24, 2007, entitled “UNIVERSAL TRACKING SYSTEM” hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

FIELD OF INVENTION
The present invention relates, in general, to a universal tracking assembly, and deals more particularly with a universal tracking assembly that is capable of supporting more than one protocol used in electronic article surveillance labels.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Bar codes are commonly utilized throughout the commercial and retail worlds in order to accurately determine the nature, cost and other vital data of an individual item. Bar codes, however, are purely passive constructs, and therefore cannot offer or transmit information themselves, instead relying upon known bar code readers to scan and interpret the information stored in the bar code itself. Moreover, the information content of bar codes is static, and cannot be changed or supplemented at will once the bar code is fabricated.

In recent years, differing electronic article surveillance (EAS) platforms/tags have been developed to address the shortcomings of known bar code systems. One such type of EAS is radio frequency identification (RFID) platforms/tags. RFIDs are small (typically) battery-less microchips that can be attached to consumer goods, cattle, vehicles and other objects to track their movement. RFID tags are normally passive, but are capable of transmitting data if prompted by a reader. The reader transmits electromagnetic waves that activate the RFID tag. The tag then transmits information via a predetermined radio frequency, or the like. This information is then captured and transmitted to a central database for suitable processing.

An RFID system typically is made up of a transponder, or tag, which is an integrated circuit (IC) connected to an antenna, which is then generally embedded into labels, a reader which emits an electromagnetic field from a connected antenna, and an enterprise system. The tag draws power from the reader's electromagnetic field to power the IC, and broadcasts a modulated signal which the reader picks up (via the antenna), decodes, and converts into digital information that the enterprise system uses.

There are two main types of RFID devices, including an inductively coupled RFID tags (otherwise known as high frequency (HF) tags). Typically, there are three main parts to an inductively coupled RFID tag: Silicon microprocessor—These chips vary in size depending on their purpose; Metal coil—Made of copper or aluminum wire that is wound into a circular pattern on the transponder, this coil acts as the tag's antenna. The tag transmits signals to the reader, with read distance determined by the size of the coil antenna. These coil antennas can operate at 13.56 MHz; and Encapsulating material—glass or polymer material that wraps around the chip and coil.

Inductive RFID tags are powered by the magnetic field generated by the reader. The tag's antenna picks up the magnetic energy, and the tag communicates with the reader. The tag then modulates the magnetic field in order to retrieve and transmit data back to the reader. Data is transmitted back to the reader, which directs it to the host computer and/or system.

Inductive RFID tags are very expensive on a per-unit basis, costing anywhere from $1 for passive button tags to $200 for battery-powered, read-write tags. The high cost for these tags is due to the silicon, the coil antenna and the process that is needed to wind the coil around the surface of the tag.







THIS IS JUST ABOUT EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT RFID TECHNOLOGY. this is the foundation of the technology. use you noodles (brain).
H.E.L.P. = How. Every. Loser. Prospect.   (Goverment)         
 
J.O.B. = Jorney. Of the. Broke (We the People)
 
illegal business control america. The people have NO RIGHTS, only the right to DEATH.

Offline Cywar

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #31 on: July 31, 2008, 01:07:23 pm »
I talked to a young man early this year who had enlisted in the Marines and was heading to boot camp soon after graduation.  I asked him if he had heard of the chip thing in the troops.  He had not, but said that if they told him to he would because he had taken an oath to serve.

I just saw him again yesterday, finished with boot camp he is home for a visit.  I don't feel comfortable asking him about chips but maybe I will before he goes back.

He seemed different, wary and tense and his smile not as quick.  He is the nicest kind of kid you can imagine, typical small town country boy, active FFA and all the rest.

He is getting into the intelligence field and said something about a team that requires jumping out of helicopters.  I asked him if everything was going as he expected and turning out alright,  he said yes it was  but that he hated the unit he is with and was going to try to get into a different one.  I hope he makes it through in one piece, I fear its the good kids like this that don't.  
"Condemnation without investigation is the height of ignorance."

—Albert Einstein

Offline STEVEX

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #32 on: July 31, 2008, 02:45:29 pm »
Here is the information on the RFID READER (eye, big-brother) technology.

USPTO Application #: 20080061937
Title: Rfid reader and range indicating method for the rfid reader
Abstract: An RFID reader and range indicating method for the RFID reader is provided. The RFID reader includes an RF antenna for communicating with one or more than one tag using RF signals, a module for operating on the tag, a module for analyzing a range of the RFID reader; and a module for indicating, based on the analysis, a potential area where the RFID reader is capable of implementing the operation on the tag. (end of abstract)

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001]Not Applicable

STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT


[0002]Not Applicable

REFERENCE TO A SEQUENCE LISTING

[0003]Not Applicable

FIELD OF INVENTION

[0004]The present invention relates to Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and more specifically to the range of an RFID reader.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0005]An RFID reader can read RFID tags that are within a particular range of the RFID reader. This range is generally a function of the RFID reader and more particularly a function of the capabilities of the reader's antenna. Further there may be occasions where the read range changes during operation of the reader for reasons that may include the provision of reduced power to the antenna due to the power remaining in the reader's battery. The read range of an RFID reader is also influenced by the "field of view" of the reader.

[0006]In current systems a user of an RFID reader must have historical knowledge of the reader's capability in order to guesstimate whether a particular tag, which may be present in a container, can be read. This process is inherently unpredictable as the user estimates the location of the tag and compares this to the knowledge of the reader's range. This unpredictability may lead to false negatives in the reading process where tags that are in fact present yet out of range of the reader are falsely determined as not being present. Further, any change in the range of the reader during operation will add to the unpredictability of the above process.

[0007]The operation of a typical RFID system is schematically illustrated in FIG. 1. An RFID reader 102 has an internal antenna (not shown) that allows the RFID reader 102 to provide an envelope 106 of RFID coverage associated with an antenna of the RFID reader 102. The envelope 106 represents the boundary of the RFID coverage. The shape of the envelope 106 is representational only and does not necessarily reflect the actual shape of the RFID coverage of the RFID reader 102. A first group of RFID tags 108 is present within the envelope 106, and will therefore be read by the RFID reader 102. Groups of tags 110 and 112 may possibly physically be located quite close to the group 108. However, if the groups 110 and 112 are located outside the envelope 106, they will not be read by the RFID reader 102. Thus without knowledge of the coverage of the RFID reader 102, the user may falsely determine that the tags 110 and 112 are not present.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0008]It is an object of the invention to provide a method and system that obviates or mitigates at least one of the disadvantages of existing systems.

[0009]In accordance with an aspect of the present invention, there is provided an RFID reader, which includes an RF antenna for communicating with one or more than one tag using RF signals, a module for operating on the tag, a module for analyzing a range of the RFID reader, and a module for indicating based on the analysis a potential area where the RFID reader is capable of implementing the operation on the tag.

[0010]In accordance with a further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method for an RFID reader. The RFID reader includes an RF antenna for communicating with one or more than one tag using RF signals and a module for operating on the tag. The method includes the steps of analyzing a range of the RFID reader, and indicating based on the analysis a potential area where the RFID reader is capable of implementing the operation on the tag.

[0011]This summary of the invention does not necessarily describe all features of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS

[0012]These and other features of the invention will become more apparent from the following description in which reference is made to the appended drawings wherein:

[0013]FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating the operation of a typical RFID reader;

[0014]FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example of an RFID reader in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

[0015]FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example of a visual indicator provided by the RFID reader;

[0016]FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating another example of the visual indicator provided by the RFID reader; and

[0017]FIG. 5 is a flowchart illustrating the method of operating the RFID reader in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0018]FIG. 2 illustrates an example of an RFID reader in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. The RFID reader 120 of FIG. 2 includes an RFID tag antenna system 122 ("Antenna" in FIG. 2) and transceiver 124 for communicating with tags 140. The RFID reader 120 may be a portal reader or a handheld reader unit. The RFID reader 120 may have functionality of writing information on the tags 140. The tags 140 may be read-only tags or read-write tags. The RFID tag antenna system 122 may include a directional antenna, an array antenna or an omni-directional antenna for RF signals. In the description, "RFID tag antenna system" and "antenna" may be used interchangeably.

[0019]The RFID reader 120 includes a controller 126 for operating the RFID reader 120 and a memory 128 coupled to the controller 126. The RFID reader 120 further includes a distance meter 130 and a range indicator 132. The distance meter 130 and the range indicator 132 with the controller 126 provide to a user a visual indicator for indicating a potential area where the RFID reader 120 is capable of implementing proper operation (e.g., interrogation, read, write) on tags. The distance meter 130 and the range indicator 132 communicate with the controller 126. However, the distance meter 130 and the range indicator 132 may communicate with each other directly.

[0020]The controller 126 is coupled to the transceiver 124 and the memory 128. The controller 126 includes one or more than one logic processing unit, which may include, but not limited to, one or more central processing units (CPUs), digital signal processors (DSPs), application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC), or combinations thereof.

[0021]The memory 128 includes a random access memory (RAM) and a read-only memory (ROM). The memory 128 includes instructions and data for initializing and operating the RFID reader 120, such as, communication with the tags 140, reading data from the tags 140, writing data on the tags 140, communication with an external device 142, and the operation of the distance meter 130 and the range indicator 132. The memory 128 may include flash memory, erasable programmable read-only memory (EROPM), electronically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), or combinations thereof.

[0022]The RFID reader 120 may include an interface 136 for communicating with the external device 142 other than tags, such as a computer system, in a wireless or wired network. The external device 142 may include, for example, a display for displaying visual information on a screen.

[0023]In FIG. 2, all elements in the RFID reader 120 are illustrated separately. However, some or all of these blocks can be monolithically integrated onto a single chip.

[0024]The visual indicator is described in detail. The visual indicator provides to the user an indication that a candidate object(s) is partially or entirely within the coverage area of the antenna 122. Based on the visual indicator, the user can determine that the RFID reader 102 is appropriately positioned to operate on possible tags in the candidate object. The candidate object may be a container or a box and possibly contain tags. In the description, the terms "candidate object" and "target object" are used interchangeably.

[0025]The visual indicator is a multi-dimensional illumination. The multi-dimensional illumination may have, but not limited to, a rectangular shape pattern, a circular shape pattern, or an oval shape pattern. The dimension of the visual indicator at a distance from the RFID reader 120 is associated with the coverage area of the antenna 122 at that distance.

[0026]The distance meter 130 measures a distance between the RFID reader 120 and the candidate object. The distance meter 130 may measure a straight-line distance between the RFID reader 120 and the candidate object. The distance meter 130 may be an electronic distance meter, an electromagnetic distance meter, an optical distance meter or a laser distance meter. The distance meter 130 may repeatedly measure the distance between the RFID reader 120 and the candidate object and calculate the most possible distance.

[0027]The result of the distance measurement is provided to the controller 126. The controller 126 includes an analyzer 134 for analyzing the measured distance and the range of the RFID reader 120. The analyzer 134 may analyze the range of the RFID reader 120 in parallel to the distance measurement or separately from the distance measurement.

[0028]The analyzer 134 determines whether the candidate object is within the range of the RFID reader 120. The analyzer 134 determines one or more than one dimension of the visual indicator on the candidate object (i.e., the dimensions of an illuminated area on the candidate object). The dimensions of the visual indicator are associated with the dimensions of the potential area on the candidate object.

[0029]For example, when the RFID reader 120 uses a rectangular shaped visual indicator pattern, the analyzer 134 determines the width and height of that rectangle. Similarly, when the RFID reader 120 uses a circular shaped visual indicator pattern, the analyzer 134 determines the radius of that circle.

[0030]The dimension of the visual indicator at the position of the candidate object is determined by some function of the distance to the candidate object and the RFID reader's capabilities, such as, but not limited to, configured power output, possibly some environmental conditions, or a combination thereof. The environmental conditions may include, but not limited to, temperature and humidity etc. The controller 126 calibrates the range indicator 132 based on the result of the analysis. The range indicator 132 may directly communicate with the distance meter 130 for this operation.

[0031]The range indicator 132 is calibrated based on the measured distance and the current range of the RFID reader 120. For example, depending on the distance, the candidate object may be completely illuminated or not be illuminated. The dimension of the visual indicator may be changed due to the read range changes during operation of the RFID reader 120.

[0032]The range indicator 132 includes a multi-dimension projector for projecting the multi-dimensional illumination. The multi-dimension projector may be, but not limited to, an IR emitter, a laser light emitter, an array of LEDs etc. The range indicator 132 may include, for example, a 2-dimensinoal projector for providing a 2-dimensional visual image (e.g., rectangular image). The range indicator 132 may utilize a multi-dimensional barcode scanner technique to project a multi-dimensional illumination pattern (i.e., visual indicator) on the candidate object. The 2-dimensional projector may include a projecting module of a 2-dimensional barcode scanner, which quickly provides a laser both vertically and horizontally to display the illumination pattern. The range indicator 132 may include a source for the visual indicators, which may, but not limited to, a laser, halogen, LED. The range indicator 132 may be a multicolor projector that changes color based on the analysis.

[0033]The range indicator 132 may further include a feedback device for providing feedback to user, other than visual indicators. The feedback device may include, but not limited to, a device for generating audible signals (e.g., beep), a device for generating readable message on a display (e.g., 152 of FIG. 3), and a device for generating vibrations. The sound device may include, but not limited to, a buzzer, speaker or other simple audible output device. The feedback device operates when the candidate object is outside the range of the RFID reader 120. However, the feedback device may provide the indicator when the candidate object is within the range of the RFID reader 120. The feedback device may be included in any elements of the RFID reader 120 other than the range indicator 132. The external device 142 may include the feedback device.

[0034]FIG. 3 illustrates an example of a visual indicator provided by the RFID reader. The RFID reader 120A of FIG. 3 is same or similar to the RFID reader 120 of FIG. 2, and includes the distance meter 130 and the range indicator 132 of FIG. 2. The RFID reader 120A includes a display 152 for displaying visual information on a screen, a plurality of keypads 154 for inputting information into the RFID reader 120A, and a projector device 156. The projector device 156 is an element of the range indicator 132. In FIG. 3, "158" represents an envelope of the RFID coverage. The shape of the envelope 158 is representational only and is not limited to that shown in FIG. 3. In FIG. 3, "170" represents a visual indicator at the position of a candidate object 160, and is associated with the envelope 158 of the RFID coverage. In FIG. 3, "172" represents an illumination for the visual indicator 170, and is projected from the RFID reader 120A. The illumination 172 may be visible and may be a visual indicator.

[0035]In this example, the RFID reader 120A determines that the candidate container 160 is within the range of the RFID reader 120A, and illuminates a 2-dimensional area on the surface of the candidate container 160 by the visual indicator 170.

[0036]For example, as shown in FIG. 3, if the candidate container 160 is completely illuminated, the user of the RFID reader 120A can determine that most or all tags contained within the container 160 will be read. Further, the visual indicator 170 or the illumination 172 provides an indication on whether any possible tags within the area between the RFID reader 120A and the candidate object 160 will be properly readable. The user may determine that any tags within the distance to the candidate object 160 are not positioned for proper operation of the RFID reader 120A by reviewing the visual indicator 170 or illumination 172.

[0037]FIG. 4 illustrates another example of the visual indicator on the candidate object provided by the RFID reader 120A. In FIG. 4, "180" represents an illuminated area on the candidate object 160 and also represents the visual indicator on the candidate object 160, both of which are associated with the envelope (not shown) of the RFID coverage. In FIG. 4, "182" represents an illumination for the visual indicator 180, and is projected from the RFID reader 120A. The illumination 182 may be visible and may be a visual indicator.

[0038]In this example, an upper area in one surface of the candidate container 160 is illuminated. Thus, the upper area of the candidate container 160 is in the range of the RFID reader 120A, and the lower area of the candidate container 160 is not in the range of the RFID reader 120A. Any tags in the lower area of the candidate container 160 will not be readable.

[0039]Further, the visual indicator 180 or the illumination 182 provides an indication on whether any possible tags within the area between the RFID reader 120A and the candidate object 160 will be properly readable. The user may determine that any tags within the distance to the candidate object 160 are not positioned for proper operation of the RFID reader 120A by reviewing the visual indicator 180 or the illumination 182.

[0040]In FIGS. 3-4, one surface of the candidate container 160 is partially or entirely illuminated. However, if the candidate container 160 is not illuminated, the user of the RFID reader 120A can determine that the container 160, the RFID reader 120A, possible tags within the container 160 are not positioned for proper interrogation, read, or write operation of the RFID reader 120A.

[0041]FIG. 5 illustrates an example of the method of operating the RFID reader in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. At step 200, the read range R of the RFID reader (e.g., 120 of FIG. 2, 120A of FIGS. 3-4) is determined. At step 202, a distance between the RFID reader and a candidate object (e.g., container, box) is determined (130 of FIG. 2). At step 204, it is determined whether the candidate object is within the read range R of the RFID reader. At step 204, the dimension of an illuminated area is also determined. If the candidate object is within the read range R of the RFID reader, the range indicator (132 of FIG. 2) is calibrated, and projects the illuminated area at step 206. If the candidate object is not within the read range R of the RFID reader, a user receives a feedback, such as beep, readable message, or indicator led.

[0042]In FIG. 5, the step of determining the read range R of the RFID reader (step 202) is implemented after the step of determining the distance to the candidate object (step 202). However, the step 202 may is implemented prior to step 200. As described above, the range R of the RFID reader may be determined in parallel to the distance measurement or separately from the distance measurement.

[0043]According to the above embodiments, the user of the RFID reader can determine that a candidate object which may have tags are located within the range of the RFID reader for proper interrogation, read or write operation. In dependence upon the visual indicator, the user can relocate the RFID reader or objects that may contain tags.

[0044]The above embodiments are described using the candidate object containing possible tags. However, in a further embodiment, tags may be attached to the surface of the candidate object.

[0045]In a further embodiment, the candidate object is a tag itself or a group of tags. In this embodiment, the visual indicator provides to a user an indication that the tag or the group of tags are within the range of the RFID reader and are properly read by the RFID reader.

[0046]The above embodiments of the invention may be implemented in one or any combination of hardware, firmware, and software. The invention may also be implemented as instructions contained in or on a machine-readable medium, which may be read and executed by one or more processors to perform the operations described herein. A machine-readable medium may include any mechanism for storing, transmitting, and/or receiving information in a form readable by a machine (e.g., a computer). For example, a machine-readable medium may include a storage medium, such as but not limited to read only memory (ROM); random access memory (RAM); magnetic disk storage media; optical storage media; a flash memory device, etc. A machine-readable medium may also include a propagated signal which has been modulated to encode the instructions, such as but not limited to electromagnetic, optical, or acoustical carrier wave signals.

[0047]The present invention has been described with regard to one or more embodiments. However, it will be apparent to persons skilled in the art that a number of variations and modifications can be made without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the claims.

Patent Applications in related categories:

20080174404 - Dynamic updates in rfid manager - The claimed subject matter provides a system and/or a method that facilitates managing and/or monitoring data within a radio frequency identification (RFID) network. The RFID network can include at least one device that receives data from a tag, wherein the RFID network can employ an RFID process that can utilize ...

20080174407 - Method and apparatus for inspecting radio frequency identification tags - A method and an apparatus for inspecting radio frequency identification (RFID) tags which utilize a way of shielding for inspecting whether RFID tags function properly or not. The method of the present invention comprises steps of: reading a plurality of RFID tags in a readable zone; and determining whether there ...

20080174405 - System, device and method for controlling a mobile device - The present invention relates to the field of mobile communications, and in particular to a system for wireless data communication for steering/controlling the functionality of a mobile device comprising a radio communication device and a method for achieving this. ...

20080174406 - Transponder systems - A transponder system that includes at least one transponder apparatus that does not have an antenna and a reader device having a touch probe having one or more probe contacts for enabling the reader device to communicate with the transponder apparatus through a temporary physical interface. Also, a method of ...


CONT
H.E.L.P. = How. Every. Loser. Prospect.   (Goverment)         
 
J.O.B. = Jorney. Of the. Broke (We the People)
 
illegal business control america. The people have NO RIGHTS, only the right to DEATH.

Offline STEVEX

  • Member
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  • Posts: 43
Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #33 on: July 31, 2008, 03:23:01 pm »
Patent Applications in related categories:

20080174404 - Dynamic updates in rfid manager - The claimed subject matter provides a system and/or a method that facilitates managing and/or monitoring data within a radio frequency identification (RFID) network. The RFID network can include at least one device that receives data from a tag, wherein the RFID network can employ an RFID process that can utilize ...

USPTO Application #: 20080174404

Title: Dynamic updates in rfid manager

Abstract: The claimed subject matter provides a system and/or a method that facilitates managing and/or monitoring data within a radio frequency identification (RFID) network. The RFID network can include at least one device that receives data from a tag, wherein the RFID network can employ an RFID process that can utilize at least a portion of the data received from the tag. An update component can dynamically collect a status related to a portion of at least one of the device, the tag, the RFID process, a component, and/or the RFID network to enable real-time and continuous monitoring thereof. (end of abstract)

Many retail, manufacture, and distribution establishments are applying different and innovative operating methods to increase efficiency. These establishments can monitor store inventory to facilitate optimizing supply and demand relating to consumers. One aspect of maximizing profit hinges on properly stocking inventory such that replenishment occurs in conjunction with exhaustion of goods and/or products. For example, a retailer selling a computer and/or a VCR, must stock the computer in relation to its consumer sales, and the VCR in relation to its consumer sales. Thus, if the computer is in higher demand (e.g. more units sold) than the VCR, the retailer can stock the computer more frequently in order to optimize supply and demand, and in turn, profit. Monitoring inventory and associated sales can be a complex task, wherein product activity is comparable to a black box since inner workings are unknown; yet monitoring products is a crucial element in inventory/product efficiency.

Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) technology, and specifically, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been developed based at least upon the need to cure deficiencies of typical monitoring systems and/or methodologies (e.g., barcode readers, barcodes, and/or UPCs). RFID is a technique of remotely storing and retrieving data utilizing RFID tags. Since RFID systems are based upon radio frequency and associated signals, numerous benefits and/or advantages precede traditional techniques in monitoring products. RFID technology does not require a line of sight in order to monitor products and/or receive signals from RFID tags. Thus, no manual scan is necessary wherein the scanner is required to be in close proximity of the target (e.g., product). Yet, range is limited in RFID based upon radio frequency, RFID tag size, and associated power source. Additionally, RFID systems allow multiple reads within seconds providing quick scans and identification. In other words, an RFID system allows a plurality of tags to be read and/or identified when the tags are within a range of an RFID reader. The capability of multiple reads in an RFID system is complimented with the ability of providing informational tags that contain a unique identification code to each individual product.

Moreover, RFID systems and/or methodologies provide real-time data associated to a tagged item. Real-time data streams allow a retailer, distributor, and/or manufacturer the ability to monitor inventory and/or products with precision. Utilizing RFID can further facilitate supplying products on a front-end distribution (e.g., retailer to consumer) and a back-end distribution (e.g. distributor/manufacturer to retailer). Distributors and/or manufacturers can monitor shipments of goods, quality, amount, shipping time, etc. In addition, retailers can track the amount of inventory received, location of such inventory, quality, shelf life, etc. The described benefits demonstrate the flexibility of RFID technology to function across multiple domains such as, front-end supply, back-end supply, distribution chains, manufacturing, retail, automation, etc.

An RFID system consists of at least an RFID tag and an RFID transceiver. The RFID tag can contain an antenna that provides reception and/or transmission to radio frequency queries from the RFID transceiver. The RFID tag can be a small object, such as, for example, an adhesive sticker, a flexible label and integrated chip, etc. There are typically four different frequencies the RFID tags utilize: low frequency tags (between about 125 to 134 kilohertz), high frequency tags (about 13.56 megahertz), UHF tags (about 868 to 956 megahertz) and Microwave tags (about 2.45 gigahertz).

In general, an RFID system can include multiple components: tags, tag readers (e.g. tag transceivers), tag writers, tag-programming stations, circulation readers, sorting equipment, tag inventory wands, etc. Such RFID systems can collect and/or accumulate an immense amount of data, wherein utilizing such massive amounts of data need to be accurately observed and/or implemented. In particular, most administrative consoles require manual refreshing in relation to devices, components, etc. such that manual refreshment can misrepresent data within RFID systems. In light of the multiple components associated with an RFID system, manual refreshing respective to each component can be time-consuming, inefficient, redundant, and/or costly.

SUMMARY
The following presents a simplified summary of the innovation in order to provide a basic understanding of some aspects described herein. This summary is not an extensive overview of the claimed subject matter. It is intended to neither identify key or critical elements of the claimed subject matter nor delineate the scope of the subject innovation. Its sole purpose is to present some concepts of the claimed subject matter in a simplified form as a prelude to the more detailed description that is presented later.

The subject innovation relates to systems and/or methods that facilitate collecting data related to at least one of an RFID network and/or an RFID process to enable a real-time, dynamic update. An update component can collect and/or gather real-time data related to most any suitable entity and/or portion of an entity, wherein the entity can associate with at least one of an RFID server, the RFID network, and/or the RFID process. In particular, the dynamic and continuous updates can correspond to a device, a tag, a portion of code related to the RFID process, a portion of code, a component associated with the RFID process (e.g., an event handler, an aggregation, a transformation, a filter, a portion of managed code running in context of the RFID process, etc.), a machine related to the RFID process, a machine related to the RFID network, a machine related to the RFID server, a machine related to a host providing a portion of an RFID service, etc. Conventionally techniques provide updates by polling for data on a cycle and/or periodic manner such that gaps of time and respective information were not captured.

The update component can enable real-time data management associated with a device that can receive data from a tag within the RFID network. The device can be, but is not limited to being, an RFID reader, an RFID writer, an RFID printer, a printer, a reader, a writer, an RFID transmitter, an antenna, a sensor, a real-time device, an RFID receiver, a real-time sensor, a device extensible to a web service, and a real-time event generation system. Moreover, the update component can provide dynamic updates related to an RFID process. The RFID process can relate to a particular RFID sub-system (e.g. an RFID server, RFID network, etc.) that is an uber or high-level object that forms together various entities to create a meaningful unit of execution. In yet another aspect in accordance with the claimed subject matter, the update component can automatically and continuously provide real-time data associated with at least one of the RFID service, the RFID network, the RFID network, the RFID host, the RFID server, and/or most any combination thereof. In other aspects of the claimed subject matter, methods are provided that facilitate employing continuous and real-time updates associated with monitoring and/or managing at least one of an RFID network and/or an RFID process.

The following description and the annexed drawings set forth in detail certain illustrative aspects of the claimed subject matter. These aspects are indicative, however, of but a few of the various ways in which the principles of the innovation may be employed and the claimed subject matter is intended to include all such aspects and their equivalents. Other advantages and novel features of the claimed subject matter will become apparent from the following detailed description of the innovation when considered in conjunction with the drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary system that facilitates collecting data related to at least one of an RFID network and/or an RFID process to enable a real-time, dynamic update.

FIG. 2 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary system that facilitates employing continuous and real-time updates associated with monitoring and/or managing at least one of an RFID network and/or an RFID process.

FIG. 3 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary system that facilitates gleaning real-time data from at least one of an RFID network and/or an RFID process to improve monitoring and/or management accuracy.

FIG. 4 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary system that facilitates utilizing real-time dynamically collected data corresponding to at least one of an RFID network and/or an RFID process.

FIG. 5 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary system that facilitates collecting data from an RFID device within an RFID network.

FIG. 6 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary system that facilitates dynamically providing real-time updates associated with an RFID server.

FIG. 7 illustrates a block diagram of exemplary systems that facilitate employing real-time data associated with an RFID server.

FIG. 8 illustrates an exemplary user interface for displaying dynamically collected real-time data associated with at least one of an RFID server and/or host.

FIG. 9 illustrates an exemplary methodology that facilitates collecting data related to at least one of an RFID network and/or an RFID process to enable a real-time, dynamic update.

FIG. 10 illustrates an exemplary methodology for employing continuous and real-time updates associated with monitoring and/or managing at least one of an RFID network and/or an RFID process.

FIG. 11 illustrates an exemplary networking environment, wherein the novel aspects of the claimed subject matter can be employed.

FIG. 12 illustrates an exemplary operating environment that can be employed in accordance with the claimed subject matter.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION
The claimed subject matter is described with reference to the drawings, wherein like reference numerals are used to refer to like elements throughout. In the following description, for purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the subject innovation. It may be evident, however, that the claimed subject matter may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known structures and devices are shown in block diagram form in order to facilitate describing the subject innovation.

As utilized herein, terms “component,” “system,” “interface,” “manager,” “device,” “tag,” “process,” and the like are intended to refer to a computer-related entity, either hardware, software (e.g. in execution), and/or firmware. For example, a component can be a process running on a processor, a processor, an object, an executable, a program, and/or a computer. By way of illustration, both an application running on a server and the server can be a component. One or more components can reside within a process and a component can be localized on one computer and/or distributed between two or more computers.

Furthermore, the claimed subject matter may be implemented as a method, apparatus, or article of manufacture using standard programming and/or engineering techniques to produce software, firmware, hardware, or any combination thereof to control a computer to implement the disclosed subject matter. The term “article of manufacture” as used herein is intended to encompass a computer program accessible from any computer-readable device, carrier, or media. For example, computer readable media can include but are not limited to magnetic storage devices (e.g., hard disk, floppy disk, magnetic strips . . . ), optical disks (e.g., compact disk (CD), digital versatile disk (DVD) . . . ), smart cards, and flash memory devices (e.g., card, stick, key drive . . . ). Additionally it should be appreciated that a carrier wave can be employed to carry computer-readable electronic data such as those used in transmitting and receiving electronic mail or in accessing a network such as the Internet or a local area network (LAN). Of course, those skilled in the art will recognize many modifications may be made to this configuration without departing from the scope or spirit of the claimed subject matter. Moreover, the word “exemplary” is used herein to mean serving as an example, instance, or illustration. Any aspect or design described herein as “exemplary” is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other aspects or designs.

Now turning to the figures, FIG. 1 illustrates a system 100 that facilitates collecting data related to at least one of a radio frequency identification (RFID) network and/or an RFID process to enable a real-time, dynamic update. The system 100 can include an update component 102 that provides real-time dynamic updates in relation to at least one of an RFID network 104 and/or an RFID process 112. The update component 102 can collect data associated with the RFID process 112 via an interface component 106 (discussed in more detail infra), wherein the update component 102 can continuously provide real-time data associated therewith. In general, the update component 102 can utilize the interface component 106 to gather most any suitable data related to at least one of the RFID process 112 and/or the RFID network 104. In other words, the update component 102 allows the dynamic collection of data associated with most any suitable entity corresponding to a host and/or an RFID server related to one or more of the RFID network 104 and the RFID process 112. It is to be appreciated that update component 102 can dynamically gather and/or display real-time data in connection with a process, an RFID process, and/or an RFID business process. For example, the state of a process, an RFID process, and/or RFID business process can be dynamically updated. Conventionally techniques provide updates by polling for data on a cycle and/or periodic manner such that gaps of time and respective information were not captured.

The update component 102 can gather real-time updates to enable dynamic monitoring and/or management of most any suitable entity related to an RFID server, the RFID network 104, and/or the RFID process 112. In particular, the dynamic and continuous updates can correspond to a device 108, a tag 110, a portion of code related to the RFID process 112, a portion of an RFID process, a portion of code, a component associated with the RFID process 112 (e.g., an event handler, an aggregation, a transformation, a filter, a portion of managed code running in context of the RFID process, etc.), a machine related to the RFID process 112, a machine related to the RFID network 104, a machine related to the RFID server, a machine related to a host providing a portion of an RFID service, etc. By employing real-time, continuous updates, the update component 102 can enable seamless data acquisition, wherein data is constantly up-to-date without any lag, gaps of data collection, and/or delay.

It is to be appreciated that the device 108 within the RFID network 104 can receive a signal from, for instance, at least one tag 110 and/or a plurality of tags. In one example, the tag 110 can contain an antenna that provides reception and/or transmission to radio frequency queries from the device 108. Furthermore, it is to be appreciated that the device 108 within the RFID network 104 can be, but is not limited to being, an RFID reader, an RFID writer, an RFID printer, a printer, a reader, a writer, an RFID transmitter, an antenna, a sensor, a real-time device, an RFID receiver, a real-time sensor, a device extensible to a web service, and a real-time event generation system. Additionally, although a single device 108 and tag 110 are depicted, it is to be appreciated that a plurality of devices 108 and tags 110 can be utilized with the system 100.

In one example, the RFID network 104 can include at least one device 108 that is associated with at least one RFID process 112. It is to be appreciated that the RFID process 112 can utilize any suitable number of devices 108 within the RFID network 104. The RFID process 112 can be related to a particular RFID sub-system (e.g., an RFID server, RFID network, etc.) that is an uber or high-level object that forms together various entities to create a meaningful unit of execution. The RFID process 112 can be and/or can include an outbound process (e.g., pick, pack, shipping scenario, etc.), a manufacturing process, a shipping process, a receiving process, tracking, data representation, data manipulation, data application, security, etc. For instance, the RFID process 112 can utilize the received tag data for processing within a pipeline allowing various components (e.g., event handlers, filters, transforms, aggregations, managed code running in the context of the RFID process 112, etc.) to implement such data as necessary. Additionally, the RFID process 112 can include and/or respond to a device service, a tag read, an event, a tag write, a device configuration, a geographic tracking, a number count, etc. It is to be appreciated that the process can have raw data collected via at least one device associated with the RFID network 104, wherein such raw data can be manipulated based at least in part upon a rule and/or a business rule engine (not shown).

Moreover, the system 100 can include any suitable and/or necessary interface component 106 (herein referred to as “interface 106”), which provides various adapters, connectors, channels, communication paths, etc. to integrate the update component 102 into virtually any operating and/or database system(s). In addition, the interface 106 can provide various adapters, connectors, channels, communication paths, etc., that provide for interaction with the update component 102, the RFID network 104, the RFID process 112 and any other device, entity, and/or component associated with the system 100.

FIG. 2 illustrates a system 200 that facilitates employing continuous and real-time updates associated with monitoring and/or managing at least one of an RFID network and/or an RFID process. The system 200 can include the update component 102 that can enable continuous and dynamic updates related to most any suitable entity related to at least one of the RFID network 104, an RFID server (not shown), a host, and/or the RFID process 112. The updates can be provided in real-time, wherein such updates collected and/or gathered by the update component 102 can relate to, for instance, entity status, entity connectivity, entity details, entity responsiveness, entity state, etc. In other words, the update component 102 can provide real-time data updates related to most any entity within at least one of the RFID network 104, the RFID server, the host, the RFID process 112, and/or most any suitable combination thereof. In one example, the update component 102 can gather and/or collect real-time updates associated to the system 200 in order for an RFID manager component 204 to employ. It is to be appreciated that the RFID manager component 204 can manage and/or monitor the system 200 (e.g., the RFID network 104, the RFID server, the host, the RFID process 112, and/or most any entity associated to the system 200). For instance, the RFID manager 204 can provide administrative capabilities to the system 200 utilizing a graphical user interface (GUI), a user interface, and the like (discussed in more detail infra) to display data in real-time.

For instance, the update component 102 can provide dynamic real-time updates related to a shipping RFID process, related RFID devices, and/or associated RFID tags. In particular, the update component 102 can gather real-time information to allow dynamic monitoring of a state (e.g. process state, network state, host state, runtime state, most any state related to an entity within an RFID server/host), a setting (e.g., network setting, host setting, device setting, process setting, tag setting, data collection setting, tag read event setting, etc.), details/characteristics (e.g., network details, host details, device configurations, process details, tag characteristics/details, and the like), a status (e.g., process status, device status, network status, host status, tag status, etc.), a connectivity (e.g., network connection details, device connectivity, process connectivity, tag responsiveness, server/host connection, etc.), and the like associated with the shipping RFID process, related RFID devices, and/or associated RFID tags. Moreover, the update component 102 can further provide real-time updates associated with most any component related to the shipping RFID process (e.g., event handler, filter, aggregation, transformation, etc.).

The RFID network 104 can be implemented by any enterprise, business, facility, and/or any suitable entity that can utilize RFID technology. For instance, the RFID network 104 can be deployed to include any number of devices and tags 202 such as device 1 to device N, where N is positive integer. Moreover, such devices can interact (e.g., wirelessly communicate) with any number of tags such as tag 1 to tag M, where M is a positive integer to provide an event, a tag read event, a tag read, etc. It is to be appreciated that the devices can be at least one of the following: an RFID reader, an RFID writer, an RFID printer, an RFID transmitter, a sensor, a real-time device, an RFID receiver, a real-time sensor, a device extensible to a web service, a real-time event generator, etc. In addition, the device can be associated with at least an antenna to communicate data. Furthermore, it is to be appreciated that the tags can be associated to any suitable object related to the enterprise, business, facility, and/or any suitable entity utilizing such RFID technology.

The devices and tags 202 can be associated with at least one RFID process 112. It is to be appreciated that the RFID process 112 can run in the same host as a server (not shown and also referred to as an RFID server), the update component 102, and/or any combination thereof. Although only a single RFID process 112 is depicted, it is to be appreciated that a plurality of RFID processes can be executed in conjunction with the RFID network 104. The RFID network 104 can include various sub-systems and/or groups based at least in part upon device location, device functionality, device security level, process device association, make and/or model of device, type of device, device frequency, etc. For example, an RFID network 104 can include two groups and/or collections of devices, one at a shipping door and another at a receiving door. Such RFID network 204 can further include a process associated with each groups and/or collection of devices. For instance, the process can be a shipping process that is related to the devices at the shipping door, wherein the devices can collect data at such location. Similarly, another process can be a receiving process that is related to the devices at the receiving door, wherein the devices can collect data at such location.

Furthermore, the RFID process 210 can be a business process, wherein the devices can be indirectly utilized in association with the business process (not shown). In an example, an RFID stack can bridge the gap between devices and business applications. The business process can be, for instance, a business application to achieve a critical business function. For instance, the business application can be a back end application, an existing business application, a line of business (LOB) application, an accounting application, a supply chain management application, a resource planning application, and/or a business monitoring (BAM) application. In addition, the critical business function can be, for example, a demand plan, a forecast, and/or an inventory control with the incorporation of RFID data in real-time.

In another example, an RFID host and/or server associated with the RFID network 104 can utilize a business rules engine (not shown), wherein such business rules engine can provide a rule-based system in association with any application related to the RFID network 104 such that a filter and/or alert can be utilized as a rule(s). The business rules engine can execute declarative filters and/or alerts as rules associated with an RFID network 104, wherein the rules can include a rule set adhered to an event, condition, and action format utilizing an extensible markup language (XML). The rule is at least one of the following: contained within a rule set that adheres to an event, a condition, an action; and/or represented utilizing an extensible markup language (XML). Moreover, the condition has at least one of a set of predicates and/or a logical connective to form a logical expression that evaluates to one of a true and a false.

The RFID process 210 (also referred to as the process 210) can be an uber and/or high-level object that can provide a meaningful unit of execution. For instance, the process can be a shipping process that represents multiple devices at various dock doors working together to perform tag reads, filtering, read enrichment, alert evaluation, and data storage in a sink for a host application to retrieve/process. In another example, the process 210 can execute a manufacturing process, wherein devices are configured to read as well as write dependent upon a location. Moreover, additional functions such as filtering, alerting, enriching, etc. can be implemented at the location. In yet another example, the process can write to a tag process, wherein a tag can be written in real-time based at least upon an input. The write process can also check if the write succeeded by reading and passing data back to the host.

FIG. 3 illustrates a system 300 that facilitates gleaning real-time data from at least one of an RFID network and/or an RFID process to improve monitoring and/or management accuracy. The system 300 can include the update component 102 that can provide real-time updates and/or information related to an entity (e.g., a component, a device, a tag, a portion of code, a portion of data, etc.) associated with at least one of the RFID network 104, an RFID server/host, at least one RFID process 302, and/or any suitable combination thereof. It is to be appreciated that the update component 102 can collect data related to any suitable number of RFID networks, devices, tags, RFID servers, RFID hosts, and/or RFID processes 302. In particular there can be most any suitable number of RFID processes 302, such as RFID process1 to RFID processN, where N is a positive integer.

The system 300 can include a data store 304 that can store various data related to the system 300. For instance, the data store 304 can include most any suitable real-time data collected, gathered, and/or provided from an entity associated with at least one of the RFID network 104, the RFID server/host, the RFID process 302, and/or any combination thereof. For example, the data store 304 can store real-time data such as, but not limited to, RFID network status, RFID network state, RFID network details/information, RFID network connectivity, RFID network setting, RFID server/host status, RFID server/host state, RFID server/host details/information, RFID server/host connectivity, RFID server/host setting, device status, device state, device details/information, device connectivity, device setting, tag status, tag state, tag details/information, tag connectivity, tag setting, RFID process status, RFID process state, RFID process details/information, RFID process connectivity, RFID process setting, etc.

The data store 304 can be, for example, either volatile memory or nonvolatile memory, or can include both volatile and nonvolatile memory. By way of illustration, and not limitation, nonvolatile memory can include read only memory (ROM), programmable ROM (PROM), electrically programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM), or flash memory. Volatile memory can include random access memory (RAM), which acts as external cache memory. By way of illustration and not limitation, RAM is available in many forms such as static RAM (SRAM), dynamic RAM (DRAM), synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), double data rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM), enhanced SDRAM (ESDRAM), Synchlink DRAM (SLDRAM), Rambus direct RAM (RDRAM), direct Rambus dynamic RAM (DRDRAM), and Rambus dynamic RAM (RDRAM). The data store 304 of the subject systems and methods is intended to comprise, without being limited to, these and any other suitable types of memory and/or storage. In addition, it is to be appreciated that the data store 304 can be a server, a database, a relational database, a hard drive, and the like.

The update component 102 can provide dynamic, real-time updates associated with the system 300. In particular, the update component 102 can provide real-time data to the RFID manager component 204 which can employ graphic user interface(s) for administering RFID services (e.g., RFID network, RFID process, devices, tags, etc.). The RFID manager component 204 can help monitor and/or manage RFID service(s) in real-time. For instance, the update component 102 can provide an exact state of a device (e.g., physical, simulated, virtual, etc.), RFID processes (e.g., shipping process, receiving process, business process, etc.), and/or most any other entities the administrator can diagnose to assist in resolving potential problems. In other words, the update component 102 can facilitate employing preventative maintenance for the RFID network based at least in part upon evaluating the real-time data collected associated therewith.

In one example, the update component 102 can provide the state of devices (e.g., RFID device, an RFID reader, an RFID writer, an RFID printer, a printer, a reader, a writer, an RFID transmitter, an antenna, a sensor, a real-time device, an RFID receiver, a real-time sensor, a device extensible to a web service, a real-time event generation system, etc.) and/or the state of RFID processes 302. For instance, the state of devices and RFID processes can change for a number of reasons. The state can change because of external factors (e.g. network connectivity, network down, user initiated actions, etc.) and/or internal factors. If the RFID device is “unreachable,” the device can go to a “failed” state. It is to be appreciated that the device state changed because of some internal and/or external factor. In another instance, the administrator can stop a started RFID process, which can take the process from a “Started” state to a “Stopped” state. It is to be appreciated that the RFID process state changed because of some user initiated action (e.g., stopping the process, etc.).

The update component 102 can provide dynamic, real-time updates that facilitate ascertaining the exact state of the RFID service at any point of time. By employing the update component 102, the following advantages can be provided: 1) the information displayed and/or provided can be ensured to be consistent with that in the RFID service and/or architecture; 2) the update component 102 can be utilized with the RFID manager 204 to eliminate conventional manual refreshing to ensure that the RFID system and/or service is working properly; and 3) the update component 102 can assist in resolving problems, errors, and/or other issues faster and more efficiently since the real-time state is displayed and/or known.

CONT
H.E.L.P. = How. Every. Loser. Prospect.   (Goverment)         
 
J.O.B. = Jorney. Of the. Broke (We the People)
 
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Offline STEVEX

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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #34 on: July 31, 2008, 03:27:45 pm »
FIG. 4 illustrates a system 400 that facilitates utilizing real-time dynamically collected data corresponding to at least one of an RFID network and/or an RFID process. The update component 102 can utilize a log component 402 that tracks collected real-time data associated with the system 400. It is to be appreciated that the log component 402 can be a stand-alone component, incorporated into the update component 102, incorporated into an RFID server/host, incorporated into the RFID network 104, and/or any combination thereof. The log component 402 can log various real-time information related to an entity (e.g., a component, a device, a tag, a portion of code, a portion of data, etc.) associated with at least one of an RFID server/host, the RFID network 104, the RFID process 112, and/or any combination thereof. Moreover, the log component 402 can store the logged entries in a data store (not shown and discussed supra).

The update component 102 can further utilize a search component 404 that facilitates querying any data associated with the system 400. The search component 404 allows a user and/or any component to query to system 400 in relation to gathered real-time data corresponding to the RFID network, RFID server/host, RFID process, an entity related to an RFID system, etc. For instance, a user can query the system 400 utilizing the search component 404 to find a portion of real-time data related to a particular device within a specific RFID network. It is to be appreciated that a plurality of searches and/or queries can be implemented by the search component 404 and the above example is not to be limiting on the claimed subject matter. Moreover, it is to be appreciated that the search component 404 is depicted as a stand-alone component, but the search component 404 can be incorporated into the update component 102, incorporated into the RFID network 104, incorporated into the RFID server/host, a stand-alone component, and/or any combination thereof.

The update component 102 can further employ a security component 406 that provides security to the system 400 to ensure data integrity and/or access. In particular, the security component 406 can define security, authorization, and/or privileges in accordance with at least one of a pre-defined hierarchy, security level, username, password, access rights, data importance (e.g., more important data correlates with high security clearance), etc. For instance, a particular portion of real-time data can be a first security level with distinct security authorizations and/or privileges, while a disparate portion of real-time data can have a second security level with disparate security authorizations and/or privileges. Thus, the security component 406 can provide granular security in relation to most any collected and/or gathered real-time data It is to be appreciated that there can be various levels of security with numerous characteristics associated with each level and that the subject innovation is not limited to the above example. Moreover, the security component 406 provides granular security and/or privileges to the system 400. It is to be appreciated that security component 406 can be a stand-alone component, incorporated into the update component 102, incorporated into the RFID network 104, incorporated into the RFID server/host, and/or any combination thereof.

FIG. 5 illustrates a system 500 that facilitates collecting data from an RFID device within an RFID network. The system 500 can include an update component 502 that can collect real-time data related to an RFID network 504 and/or an RFID process (not shown). The update component 502 can provide real-time data related to an entity associated with at least one of an RFID server (not shown), an RFID host (not shown), the RFID network 504, the RFID process, and/or any combination thereof. Moreover, the real-time data and/or updates can be, but are not limited to, a status, a state, details/information, connectivity, a setting, etc. Furthermore, it is to be appreciated that the update component 502 and the RFID network 504 can be substantially similar to previously described figures.

The RFID network 504 can include a plurality of universes (e.g., sub-systems, RFID networks), wherein a universe is a server of RFID entities. For simplicity, the RFID network 504 illustrates a single universe containing two collections of devices (e.g., device collections), where a first collection 506 is shown. It is to be appreciated that the device collections can correspond to device groups as utilized by the batcher component 502, wherein such collections and/or groups can be based on at least one of the following: device physical location, device functionality, device security level, process device association, make and/or model of device, type of device, device frequency, etc. For instance, an RFID sub-system can be a location wherein the entities involved are related to a substantially similar process. In one example, a sub-system can be a warehouse containing a plurality of receiving and/or shipping dock doors with associated devices. Thus, first collection 506 can be a collection of devices within the specified sub-system. It is to be appreciated a plurality of collection of devices can be implemented. Within a collection of devices, a device 508 can receive an RFID signal 514 from a pallet of goods 512 containing at least one RFID tag 510. It is to be appreciated the pallets and/or goods can be tagged based at least upon user specifications (e.g., single pallets tagged, individual goods tagged, pallets and goods tagged, etc.).

FIG. 6 illustrates a system 600 that employs intelligence to facilitate dynamically providing real-time updates associated with an RFID server. The system 600 can include the update component 102, the RFID network 104, the RFID process 112, and the interface 106 that can all be substantially similar to respective components, networks, processes, and interfaces described in previous figures. The system 600 further includes an intelligent component 602. The intelligent component 602 can be utilized by the update component 102 to facilitate continuously collecting real-time data. For example, the intelligent component 608 can infer state, status, connectivity, details/information, settings, reasons related to errors and/or issues, trouble-shooting, problem solving, entity data, RFID network data, RFID server data, RFID process data, device data, tag data, display settings, user profiles, graphic user interface (GUI) configurations, etc.

It is to be understood that the intelligent component 602 can provide for reasoning about or infer states of the system, environment, and/or user from a set of observations as captured via events and/or data. Inference can be employed to identify a specific context or action, or can generate a probability distribution over states, for example. The inference can be probabilistic—that is, the computation of a probability distribution over states of interest based on a consideration of data and events. Inference can also refer to techniques employed for composing higher-level events from a set of events and/or data. Such inference results in the construction of new events or actions from a set of observed events and/or stored event data, whether or not the events are correlated in close temporal proximity, and whether the events and data come from one or several event and data sources. Various classification (explicitly and/or implicitly trained) schemes and/or systems (e.g. support vector machines, neural networks, expert systems, Bayesian belief networks, fuzzy logic, data fusion engines . . . ) can be employed in connection with performing automatic and/or inferred action in connection with the claimed subject matter.

A classifier is a function that maps an input attribute vector, x=(x1, x2, x3, x4, xn), to a confidence that the input belongs to a class, that is, f(x)=confidence(class). Such classification can employ a probabilistic and/or statistical-based analysis (e.g., factoring into the analysis utilities and costs) to prognose or infer an action that a user desires to be automatically performed. A support vector machine (SVM) is an example of a classifier that can be employed. The SVM operates by finding a hypersurface in the space of possible inputs, which hypersurface attempts to split the triggering criteria from the non-triggering events. Intuitively, this makes the classification correct for testing data that is near, but not identical to training data. Other directed and undirected model classification approaches include, e.g., naïve Bayes, Bayesian networks, decision trees, neural networks, fuzzy logic models, and probabilistic classification models providing different patterns of independence can be employed. Classification as used herein also is inclusive of statistical regression that is utilized to develop models of priority.

The update component 102 can further utilize a presentation component 604 that provides various types of user interfaces to facilitate interaction between a user and any component coupled to the update component 102 and display of collected and/or gathered real-time data. As depicted, the presentation component 604 is a separate entity that can be utilized with the update component 102. However, it is to be appreciated that the presentation component 604 and/or similar view components can be incorporated into the update component 102 and/or a stand-alone unit. The presentation component 604 can provide one or more graphical user interfaces (GUIs), command line interfaces, and the like. For example, a GUI can be rendered that provides a user with a region or means to load, import, read, etc., data, and can include a region to present the results of such. These regions can comprise known text and/or graphic regions comprising dialogue boxes, static controls, drop-down-menus, list boxes, pop-up menus, as edit controls, combo boxes, radio buttons, check boxes, push buttons, and graphic boxes. In addition, utilities to facilitate the presentation such as vertical and/or horizontal scroll bars for navigation and toolbar buttons to determine whether a region will be viewable can be employed. For example, the user can interact with one or more of the components coupled and/or incorporated into the update component 102.

The user can also interact with the regions to select and provide information via various devices such as a mouse, a roller ball, a keypad, a keyboard, a pen and/or voice activation, for example. Typically, a mechanism such as a push button or the enter key on the keyboard can be employed subsequent entering the information in order to initiate the search. However, it is to be appreciated that the claimed subject matter is not so limited. For example, merely highlighting a check box can initiate information conveyance. In another example, a command line interface can be employed. For example, the command line interface can prompt (e.g., via a text message on a display and an audio tone) the user for information via providing a text message. The user can than provide suitable information, such as alpha-numeric input corresponding to an option provided in the interface prompt or an answer to a question posed in the prompt. It is to be appreciated that the command line interface can be employed in connection with a GUI and/or API. In addition, the command line interface can be employed in connection with hardware (e.g., video cards) and/or displays (e.g., black and white, and EGA) with limited graphic support, and/or low bandwidth communication channels.

FIG. 7 illustrates a system 700 that facilitates employing real-time data associated with an RFID server. The system 700 illustrates an RFID service deployment in which an RFID device “device 1” is sending tags to the RFID service running in “machine 1.” It is to be appreciated that most any suitable number of administrators (e.g. one from the manufacturing department, one from the shipping department, etc.) can monitor the service from “machine 1” and “machine 2” respectively. For instance, “device 1” can be switched-off and the RFID service can take the device to a “failed” state. Conventional systems and/or techniques utilize manual refreshes in order to collect and/or gather data as illustrated in system 702.

System 702 illustrates the state of the RFID service as “failed” but is not refreshed in real-time so as to not illustrate the RFID manager on “machine 2” and “machine 3” as “failed.” In other words, based on the “failed” state of the RFID service on “machine 1,” the state of the RFID manager should be displayed as “failed” but due to the lapse and manual refresh necessary with conventional techniques, the RFID manager is not updated accurately.

Turning to the system 704, an update component (discussed supra) can be employed to provide dynamic and real-time updates/data associated with an RFID service, RFID network, RFID server, RFID host, RFID process, etc. With dynamic updates, the system 704 illustrates the state of the RFID manager on “machine 2” and “machine 3” as failed based on the “failed” status of the RFID service on “machine 1.” Thus, the system 704 provide accurate and dependable data based at least in part upon real-time data collection that can be displayed rather than conventional polling and/or manual refreshing techniques. With real-time updates, the device state can change and/or be updated in the RFID service as soon as the state changes to enable the RFID manager to be updated.

In particular, the dynamic updates in RFID manager can be based on Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) events that are generated by the RFID service. The RFID manager can register to the RFID WMI namespace and receive the WMI events. Based on WMI events, the RFID manager automatically updates. In another example, the real-time updates can be provided by web based enterprise management (WBEM) which can send information about objects, computers, memory, entities, etc. to allow any platform software to describe its state. It is to be appreciated that any suitable operating system and/or platform management instrumentation software can be utilized. In particular, most any suitable technique that can dynamically provide real-time data can be employed with the subject innovation.

The following pseudo code can be employed in connection with providing dynamic, real-time updates. It is to be appreciated and understood that the following code is for exemplary purposes and not to be limiting on the claimed subject matter. In particular, the following code illustrates events in a WMIConsumer class which can act as a façade for the WMI events generated by RFID service:

internal class WMIConsumer  {    public delegate void    ProcessStateChangedEventHandler(WMIConsumer    consumer, ProcessStateChangedEventArgs e);   public event ProcessStateChangedEventHandler   ProcessStateChangedEvent;   public delegate void ProcessAddedEventHandler(WMIConsumer   consumer, ProcessAddedEventArgs e);   public event ProcessAddedEventHandler ProcessAddedEvent;   public delegate void ProcessDeletedEventHandler(WMIConsumer   consumer, ProcessDeletedEventArgs e);   public event ProcessDeletedEventHandler ProcessDeletedEvent;   public delegate void   DeviceStateChangedEventHandler(WMIConsumer consumer, DeviceStateChangedEventArgs e);   public event DeviceStateChangedEventHandler   DeviceStateChangedEvent;   public delegate void   DeviceAddedEventHandler(WMIConsumer consumer, DeviceRelatedEventArgs e);   public event DeviceAddedEventHandler DeviceAddedEvent;   public delegate void DeviceDeletedEventHandler(WMIConsumer   consumer, DeviceRelatedEventArgs e);   public event DeviceDeletedEventHandler DeviceDeletedEvent;   public delegate void DeviceRenamedEventHandler(WMIConsumer   consumer, DeviceRenamedEventArgs e);   public event DeviceRenamedEventHandler DeviceRenamedEvent;    }

FIG. 8 illustrates an exemplary user interface 800 for displaying dynamically collected real-time data associated with at least one of an RFID server and/or host. The user interface 800 can be employed to dynamically monitor and/or display real-time data collected and/or gathered. It is to be appreciated that the user interface 800 is solely for example and not to be limiting on the subject innovation. For instance, various nuances and/or subtleties can be implemented but are to be considered within the scope of the claimed subject matter. The user interface 800 can include an entity reference (e.g., “receiving_door1_device1,” “shipping dock1_device2,” etc.), a respective location (e.g., “door1,” “dock1,” etc.), a status (e.g., “open,” “failed,” etc.), other information (e.g. accessed by activating “details”), etc. Moreover, the user interface 800 can provide a search portion that allows real-time data to be queried. It is to be appreciated that the user interface 800 can dynamically gather and/or display real-time data in connection with a process, an RFID process, and/or an RFID business process. For example, the state of a process, an RFID process, and/or RFID business process can be dynamically updated in, for instance, an RFID manager utilizing a Window Management Instrumentation event. In one example, there can be an RFID manager on Machine1 and an RFID manager on Machine2. There can be a process named Process1 in the RFID service that is in a stopped state. There further can be an RFID service on Machine3, wherein the Process1 on Machine1 can be started. The Process1 status can be updated immediately on Machine1 and Machien2 to a started state.

FIGS. 9-10 illustrate methodologies in accordance with the claimed subject matter. For simplicity of explanation, the methodologies are depicted and described as a series of acts. It is to be understood and appreciated that the subject innovation is not limited by the acts illustrated and/or by the order of acts, for example acts can occur in various orders and/or concurrently, and with other acts not presented and described herein. Furthermore, not all illustrated acts may be required to implement the methodologies in accordance with the claimed subject matter. In addition, those skilled in the art will understand and appreciate that the methodologies could alternatively be represented as a series of interrelated states via a state diagram or events. Additionally, it should be further appreciated that the methodologies disclosed hereinafter and throughout this specification are capable of being stored on an article of manufacture to facilitate transporting and transferring such methodologies to computers. The term article of manufacture, as used herein, is intended to encompass a computer program accessible from any computer-readable device, carrier, or media.

FIG. 9 illustrates a methodology 900 that facilitates collecting data related to at least one of an RFID network and/or an RFID process to enable a real-time, dynamic update. At reference numeral 902, real-time data associated with an entity can be collected. The entity (e.g., a component, a device, a tag, a portion of code, a portion of data, a portion of an RFID process, etc.) can be associated with at least one of the RFID network, an RFID server/host, at least one RFID process, and/or any suitable combination thereof. At reference numeral 904, the real-time data can be displayed. The real-time data can be displayed utilizing, for instance, a graphical user interface (GUI), a user interface (UI), a presentation component (discussed supra), etc. It is to be appreciated that the displayed real-time data can be in connection with a process, an RFID process, and/or an RFID business process. For example, the state of a process, an RFID process, and/or RFID business process can be dynamically updated.

It is to be appreciated that the real-time data can correspond to most any suitable entity, wherein the entity can be a device, a tag, a portion of code, a component, an event handler, a filter, an aggregation, a transform, a portion of an RFID process, a portion of an RFID network, a portion of an RFID server/host, and the like. For example, the device within the RFID network can be, but is not limited to being, an RFID reader, an RFID writer, an RFID printer, a printer, a reader, a writer, an RFID transmitter, an antenna, a sensor, a real-time device, an RFID receiver, a real-time sensor, a device extensible to a web service, and a real-time event generation system. Moreover, the device can relate to an RFID network. The RFID network can include at least one device that is associated with at least one RFID process. It is to be appreciated that the RFID process can utilize any suitable number of devices within the RFID network. An RFID process can be related to a particular RFID sub-system (e.g., an RFID server, RFID network, etc.) that is an uber or high-level object that forms together various entities to create a meaningful unit of execution. The RFID process can be an outbound process (e.g., pick, pack, shipping scenario, etc.), a manufacturing process, a shipping process, a receiving process, tracking, data representation, data manipulation, data application, security, etc.

FIG. 10 illustrates a methodology that facilitates employing continuous and real-time updates associated with monitoring and/or managing at least one of an RFID network and/or an RFID process. At reference numeral 1002, information can be continuously gathered utilizing Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) to collect an event. The information can be collected in real-time, wherein the event can be generated and/or gathered by the RFID service. For instance, an RFID manager can listen and/or gather data from the RFID WMI namespace (discussed above) to receive at least one WMI event. Based at least in part upon such WMI events, dynamic updates can be provided and/or utilized.

At reference numeral 1004, a user interface (UI) can be employed to present the real-time data and/or information. For example, the UI can be utilized to display the gathered information to a user, a machine, an employee, an administrator, etc. At reference numeral 1006, at least one of a logging of real-time data and/or a querying of real-time data can be provided. In one instance, the gathered real-time data can be logged and/or tracked to enable such data to be queried. Thus, a search can be initiated to allow query results with current real-time data and/or historic real-time data. At reference numeral 1008, at least one of the following can be provided: real-time monitoring; real-time management; and/or real-time trouble-shooting.

The information and/or real-time data can relate to most any suitable entity such as a portion of code associated with an RFID process, a component, an event handler, a filter, an aggregation, a transform, a device within an RFID network, a portion of the RFID network, a portion of the RFID server, a portion of a host, a tag within an RFID network, and/or any suitable combination thereof. It is to be appreciated that the devices can be at least one of the following: an RFID reader, an RFID writer, an RFID printer, a printer, a reader, a writer, an RFID transmitter, an antenna, a sensor, a real-time device, an RFID receiver, a real-time sensor, a device extensible to a web service, a real-time event generation, etc. The RFID network can be implemented by any enterprise, business, facility, and/or any suitable entity that can utilize RFID technology. For instance, the RFID network can be deployed to include any number of devices such as device1 to deviceN, where N is positive integer. Moreover, such devices can interact (e.g., wirelessly communicate) with any number of tags such as tag1 to tagM, where M is a positive integer.

It is to be appreciated that the RFID process can utilize any suitable number of devices within an RFID network. The RFID process can be related to a particular RFID sub-system (e.g., an RFID server, RFID network, etc.) that is an uber or high-level object that forms together various entities to create a meaningful unit of execution. The RFID process can be and/or can include an outbound process (e.g. pick, pack, shipping scenario, etc.), a manufacturing process, a shipping process, a receiving process, tracking, data representation, data manipulation, data application, security, etc. Additionally, the RFID process can include and/or respond to a device service, a tag read, an event, a tag write, a device configuration, a geographic tracking, a number count, etc. It is to be appreciated that the process can have raw data collected via at least one device associated with the RFID network, wherein such raw data can be manipulated based at least in part upon a rule and/or a business rule engine (not shown).

In order to provide additional context for implementing various aspects of the claimed subject matter, FIGS. 11-12 and the following discussion is intended to provide a brief, general description of a suitable computing environment in which the various aspects of the subject innovation may be implemented. For example, an update component that provides dynamic updates and/or real-time data related to at least one of a device, a tag, a portion of code related to the RFID process, a portion of code, a component associated with the RFID process (e.g., an event handler, an aggregation, a transformation, a filter, a portion of managed code running in context of the RFID process, etc.), a machine related to the RFID process, a machine related to the RFID network, a machine related to the RFID server, a machine related to a host providing a portion of an RFID service, etc., as described in the previous figures, can be implemented in such suitable computing environment. While the claimed subject matter has been described above in the general context of computer-executable instructions of a computer program that runs on a local computer and/or remote computer, those skilled in the art will recognize that the subject innovation also may be implemented in combination with other program modules. Generally, program modules include routines, programs, components, data structures, etc., that perform particular tasks and/or implement particular abstract data types.

Moreover, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the inventive methods may be practiced with other computer system configurations, including single-processor or multi-processor computer systems, minicomputers, mainframe computers, as well as personal computers, hand-held computing devices, microprocessor-based and/or programmable consumer electronics, and the like, each of which may operatively communicate with one or more associated devices. The illustrated aspects of the claimed subject matter may also be practiced in distributed computing environments where certain tasks are performed by remote processing devices that are linked through a communications network. However, some, if not all, aspects of the subject innovation may be practiced on stand-alone computers. In a distributed computing environment, program modules may be located in local and/or remote memory storage devices.

FIG. 11 is a schematic block diagram of a sample-computing environment 1100 with which the claimed subject matter can interact. The system 1100 includes one or more client(s) 1110. The client(s) 1110 can be hardware and/or software (e.g., threads, processes, computing devices). The system 1100 also includes one or more server(s) 1120. The server(s) 1120 can be hardware and/or software (e.g., threads, processes, computing devices). The servers 1120 can house threads to perform transformations by employing the subject innovation, for example.

One possible communication between a client 1110 and a server 1120 can be in the form of a data packet adapted to be transmitted between two or more computer processes. The system 1100 includes a communication framework 1140 that can be employed to facilitate communications between the client(s) 1110 and the server(s) 1120. The client(s) 1110 are operably connected to one or more client data store(s) 1150 that can be employed to store information local to the client(s) 1110. Similarly, the server(s) 1120 are operably connected to one or more server data store(s) 1130 that can be employed to store information local to the servers 1120.

With reference to FIG. 12, an exemplary environment 1200 for implementing various aspects of the claimed subject matter includes a computer 1212. The computer 1212 includes a processing unit 1214, a system memory 1216, and a system bus 1218. The system bus 1218 couples system components including, but not limited to, the system memory 1216 to the processing unit 1214. The processing unit 1214 can be any of various available processors. Dual microprocessors and other multiprocessor architectures also can be employed as the processing unit 1214.

The system bus 1218 can be any of several types of bus structure(s) including the memory bus or memory controller, a peripheral bus or external bus, and/or a local bus using any variety of available bus architectures including, but not limited to, Industrial Standard Architecture (ISA), Micro-Channel Architecture (MSA), Extended ISA (EISA), Intelligent Drive Electronics (IDE), VESA Local Bus (VLB), Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI), Card Bus, Universal Serial Bus (USB), Advanced Graphics Port (AGP), Personal Computer Memory Card International Association bus (PCMCIA), Firewire (IEEE 1394), and Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI).

The system memory 1216 includes volatile memory 1220 and nonvolatile memory 1222. The basic input/output system (BIOS), containing the basic routines to transfer information between elements within the computer 1212, such as during start-up, is stored in nonvolatile memory 1222. By way of illustration, and not limitation, nonvolatile memory 1222 can include read only memory (ROM), programmable ROM (PROM), electrically programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM), or flash memory. Volatile memory 1220 includes random access memory (RAM), which acts as external cache memory. By way of illustration and not limitation, RAM is available in many forms such as static RAM (SRAM), dynamic RAM (DRAM), synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), double data rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM), enhanced SDRAM (ESDRAM), Synchlink DRAM (SLDRAM), Rambus direct RAM (RDRAM), direct Rambus dynamic RAM (DRDRAM), and Rambus dynamic RAM (RDRAM).

Computer 1212 also includes removable/non-removable, volatile/non-volatile computer storage media. FIG. 12 illustrates, for example a disk storage 1224. Disk storage 1224 includes, but is not limited to, devices like a magnetic disk drive, floppy disk drive, tape drive, Jaz drive, Zip drive, LS-100 drive, flash memory card, or memory stick. In addition, disk storage 1224 can include storage media separately or in combination with other storage media including, but not limited to, an optical disk drive such as a compact disk ROM device (CD-ROM), CD recordable drive (CD-R Drive), CD rewritable drive (CD-RW Drive) or a digital versatile disk ROM drive (DVD-ROM). To facilitate connection of the disk storage devices 1224 to the system bus 1218, a removable or non-removable interface is typically used such as interface 1226.

It is to be appreciated that FIG. 12 describes software that acts as an intermediary between users and the basic computer resources described in the suitable operating environment 1200. Such software includes an operating system 1228. Operating system 1228, which can be stored on disk storage 1224, acts to control and allocate resources of the computer system 1212. System applications 1230 take advantage of the management of resources by operating system 1228 through program modules 1232 and program data 1234 stored either in system memory 1216 or on disk storage 1224. It is to be appreciated that the claimed subject matter can be implemented with various operating systems or combinations of operating systems.

A user enters commands or information into the computer 1212 through input device(s) 1236. Input devices 1236 include, but are not limited to, a pointing device such as a mouse, trackball, stylus, touch pad, keyboard, microphone, joystick, game pad, satellite dish, scanner, TV tuner card, digital camera, digital video camera, web camera, and the like. These and other input devices connect to the processing unit 1214 through the system bus 1218 via interface port(s) 1238. Interface port(s) 1238 include, for example, a serial port, a parallel port, a game port, and a universal serial bus (USB). Output device(s) 1240 use some of the same type of ports as input device(s) 1236. Thus, for example, a USB port may be used to provide input to computer 1212, and to output information from computer 1212 to an output device 1240. Output adapter 1242 is provided to illustrate that there are some output devices 1240 like monitors, speakers, and printers, among other output devices 1240, which require special adapters. The output adapters 1242 include, by way of illustration and not limitation, video and sound cards that provide a means of connection between the output device 1240 and the system bus 1218. It should be noted that other devices and/or systems of devices provide both input and output capabilities such as remote computer(s) 1244.

Computer 1212 can operate in a networked environment using logical connections to one or more remote computers, such as remote computer(s) 1244. The remote computer(s) 1244 can be a personal computer, a server, a router, a network PC, a workstation, a microprocessor based appliance, a peer device or other common network node and the like, and typically includes many or all of the elements described relative to computer 1212. For purposes of brevity, only a memory storage device 1246 is illustrated with remote computer(s) 1244. Remote computer(s) 1244 is logically connected to computer 1212 through a network interface 1248 and then physically connected via communication connection 1250. Network interface 1248 encompasses wire and/or wireless communication networks such as local-area networks (LAN) and wide-area networks (WAN). LAN technologies include Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Copper Distributed Data Interface (CDDI), Ethernet, Token Ring and the like. WAN technologies include, but are not limited to, point-to-point links, circuit switching networks like Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN) and variations thereon, packet switching networks, and Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL).

Communication connection(s) 1250 refers to the hardware/software employed to connect the network interface 1248 to the bus 1218. While communication connection 1250 is shown for illustrative clarity inside computer 1212, it can also be external to computer 1212. The hardware/software necessary for connection to the network interface 1248 includes, for exemplary purposes only, internal and external technologies such as, modems including regular telephone grade modems, cable modems and DSL modems, ISDN adapters, and Ethernet cards.

What has been described above includes examples of the subject innovation. It is, of course, not possible to describe every conceivable combination of components or methodologies for purposes of describing the claimed subject matter, but one of ordinary skill in the art may recognize that many further combinations and permutations of the subject innovation are possible. Accordingly, the claimed subject matter is intended to embrace all such alterations, modifications, and variations that fall within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.

In particular and in regard to the various functions performed by the above described components, devices, circuits, systems and the like, the terms (including a reference to a “means”) used to describe such components are intended to correspond, unless otherwise indicated, to any component which performs the specified function of the described component (e.g., a functional equivalent), even though not structurally equivalent to the disclosed structure, which performs the function in the herein illustrated exemplary aspects of the claimed subject matter. In this regard, it will also be recognized that the innovation includes a system as well as a computer-readable medium having computer-executable instructions for performing the acts and/or events of the various methods of the claimed subject matter.

In addition, while a particular feature of the subject innovation may have been disclosed with respect to only one of several implementations, such feature may be combined with one or more other features of the other implementations as may be desired and advantageous for any given or particular application. Furthermore, to the extent that the terms “includes,” and “including” and variants thereof are used in either the detailed description or the claims, these terms are intended to be inclusive in a manner similar to the term “comprising.”

CONT
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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #35 on: July 31, 2008, 03:32:36 pm »
20080174407 - Method and apparatus for inspecting radio frequency identification tags - A method and an apparatus for inspecting radio frequency identification (RFID) tags which utilize a way of shielding for inspecting whether RFID tags function properly or not. The method of the present invention comprises steps of: reading a plurality of RFID tags in a readable zone; and determining whether there ...

USPTO Application #: 20080174407

Title: Method and apparatus for inspecting radio frequency identification tags

Abstract: A method and an apparatus for inspecting radio frequency identification (RFID) tags which utilize a way of shielding for inspecting whether RFID tags function properly or not. The method of the present invention comprises steps of: reading a plurality of RFID tags in a readable zone; and determining whether there is any malfunctional RFID tag in the plurality of RFID tags. If all the plurality of RFID tags function properly, the method will check a next plurality of RFID tags. If there is at least one unreadable RFID tag, the at least one malfunctional RFID tag will be found by shielding one or the plurality of RFID tags. By means of the disclosure in the present invention, the present method and apparatus are capable of improving the efficiency during inspection and simplifying the design of a readable zone. (end of abstract)

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention

The present invention generally relates to an inspecting method and apparatus and, more particularly, to a method and an apparatus for inspecting radio frequency identification (RFID) tags by determining whether there is any malfunctional RFID tag and then determining where the malfunctional RFID tag is located using a way of shielding.

2. Description of the Prior Art

Since 2004, the radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has become one of the top 10 breakthrough technologies of the century. The RFID technology has been widely used in, for example, logistics, inventory management, national securities, medical science and public health.

The RFID technology using a reader, RFID tags and middleware and system integration is characterized in that the reader issues radio waves at a specific frequency to the RFID tags to drive the circuitry in the RFID tags to transmit the data in the chip back to the reader.

An RFID tag comprises an RF integrated circuit (RFIC) and an antenna. An RFID tag is packaged using an an-isotropic conductive paste (ACP) to agglutinate the substrate of the antenna so that the conductive particles in the an-isotropic conductive paste complete the electric circuit. The packaging quality depends on the packaging temperature, the packaging pressure and the packaging time. Therefore, automatized detection after packaging is crucial in quality control and yield improvement when mass production is concerned.

Please refer to FIG. 1A and FIG. 1B, which are two examples of conventional apparatuses for inspecting RFID tags. In FIG. 1A, the apparatus 1a comprises a carriertape transportation device 10, a reading device 11 and a moving device 12. The carriertape transportation device 10 transports a carriertape 101 carrying a plurality of RFID tags 1011. The reading device 11 is disposed on one side of the carriertape 101. The reading device 11 comprises a reader 111 covered by a shelter 110 having an opening allowing the reader to read the data in a single RFID tag at a time. The moving device 12 is connected to the reading device 11 so as to drive the reading device 11 to move. In the apparatus 1a in FIG. 1A, the reading device 11 is moved so as to inspect an RFID tag at a time to determine whether there is any malfunctional RFID tag 1012. Even though the apparatus 1a is capable of inspecting every RFID tag, the reading device 11 has problems because of its large size, difficulty in carrying, difficulty in designing the readable zone and time-consuming inspection.

In FIG. 1B, the apparatus 1b also comprises a carriertape transportation device 10 and a reading device 13 that are similar to those of the apparatus 1a in FIG. 1A. However, reading device 13 of the apparatus 1b is not movable. Instead, the carriertape transportation device 10 sequentially moves so that the reading device 13 inspects an RFID tag at a time to determine whether there is any malfunctional RFID tag 1012, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,104,291. Even though the apparatus 1b is capable of inspecting every RFID tag, there are problems because it is difficult to design the readable zone and time-consuming in inspection.

Therefore, there is need in providing a method and an apparatus for inspecting radio frequency identification (RFID) tags to overcome the afore-mentioned problems.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
It is one object of the present invention to provide a method for inspecting radio frequency identification (RFID) tags by determining whether there is any malfunctional RFID tag and then determining where the malfunctional RFID tag is located using a way of shielding.

It is another object of the present invention to provide an apparatus for inspecting radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, using a reading device to read data in a plurality of RFID tags in a readable zone and using a sheltering device to (progressively) shielding a next one and the previously shielded one(s) of the RFID tags so as to find any malfunctional RFID tag.

In order to achieve the foregoing objects, the present invention provides a method for inspecting radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, comprising steps of: (a) reading a plurality of RFID tags in a readable zone; and (b) determining whether there is any malfunctional RFID tag in the plurality of RFID tags, and determining where the malfunctional RFID tag is located using a way of shielding if there is any malfunctional RFID tag.

In order to achieve the foregoing objects, the present invention provides an apparatus for inspecting radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, comprising: a carriertape transportation device, capable of carrying a carriertape carrying a plurality of RFID tags; a reading device, disposed on one side of the carriertape and capable of reading data in the RFID tags on the carriertape in a readable zone; a shelter, capable of shielding to limit the number of the RFID tags to be read by the reading device; and a moving device, connected to the shelter and capable of moving the shelter.

In order to achieve the foregoing objects, the present invention provides an apparatus for inspecting radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, comprising: a carriertape transportation device, capable of carrying a carriertape carrying a plurality of RFID tags; a reading device, disposed on one side of the carriertape and capable of reading data in the RFID tags on the carriertape in a readable zone; and a sheltering device, capable of shielding to limit the number of the RFID tags to be read by the reading device and capable of varying a shielding area to determine the number of RFID tags.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The objects, spirits and advantages of the preferred embodiment of the present invention will be readily understood by the accompanying drawings and detailed descriptions, wherein:

FIG. 1A and FIG. 1B are two examples of conventional apparatuses for inspecting RFID tags;

FIG. 2 is a flow-chart showing the method for inspecting RFID tags according to one embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a flow-chart showing the step of determining whether there is any malfunctional RFID tag of the method for inspecting RFID tags according to a first embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 4A, FIG. 4B and FIG. 4C are schematic diagrams of an apparatus for inspecting RFID tags according to a first embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 5A, FIG. 5B and FIG. 5C are examples of an carriertape in an apparatus for inspecting RFID tags according to one embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 6A is an example of a moving device in an apparatus for inspecting RFID tags according to one embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 6B is an example of a moving device in an apparatus for inspecting RFID tags according to another embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 7 is a flow-chart showing the step of determining whether there is any malfunctional RFID tag of the method for inspecting RFID tags according to a second embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 8A and FIG. 8B are schematic diagrams of an apparatus for inspecting RFID tags according to a second embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 9A and FIG. 9B are examples of a sheltering device in an apparatus for inspecting RFID tags according to a second embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 10A and FIG. 10B are schematic diagrams of an apparatus for inspecting RFID tags according to a third embodiment of the present invention; and

FIG. 11A and FIG. 11B are schematic diagrams of an apparatus for inspecting RFID tags according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
The present invention providing a method and an apparatus for inspecting radio frequency identification (RFID) tags can be exemplified by the preferred embodiments as described hereinafter.

The method for inspecting radio frequency identification (RFID) tags according to the present invention comprises two steps. First, a plurality of RFID tags are read in a readable zone. Then, whether there is any malfunctional RFID tag in the plurality of RFID tags is determined. A way of shielding is used to determine where the malfunctional RFID tag is located if there is any malfunctional RFID tag.

Please refer to FIG. 2, which is a flow-chart showing the method for inspecting RFID tags according to one embodiment of the present invention. The method comprises steps described hereinafter.

First, in Step 20, the number of RFID tags to be read in a readable zone is set. Then in Step 21, a carriertape is moved so that RFID tags thereon to be inspected enter the readable zone. In Step 22, the RFID tags on the carriertape are read. In Step 23, whether the set number (from Step 20) is equal to the number of read RFID tags (from Step 22) is determined. If the set number (from Step 20) is equal to the number of read RFID tags (from Step 22), all the RFID tags in the readable zone are functional and the process goes to Step 25; otherwise, it is determined that there is a malfunctional RFID tag if the set number (from Step 20) is different from the number of read RFID tags (from Step 22) by at least two. Therefore, the process goes to Step 24 to determine where the malfunctional RFID tag is located. Then in Step 25, whether there is any un-inspected carriertape is determined. The process ends if there is no more un-inspected carriertape; otherwise, the process goes to Step 21 and repeats until all the RFID tags have been inspected.

Please refer to FIG. 3, which is a flow-chart showing the step of determining whether there is any malfunctional RFID tag of the method for inspecting RFID tags according to a first embodiment of the present invention. In the present embodiment, the RFID tags are shielded in a one-by-one manner to determine whether the RFID tags are functional or not. In Step 24, the process starts with Step 240a, in which one of the RFID tags in the readable zone is shielded. Then in Step 241a, the RFID tags in the readable zone are read. Afterwards, the Step 242a is performed to determine whether the number of readable RFID tags is reduced. The process goes to Step 243a if the number of readable RFID tags is not reduced. In Step 243a, it is determined and recorded that the shielded RFID tag is malfunctional. Otherwise, if the number of readable RFID tags is reduced, the process goes to Step 244a to determine that the shielded RFID tag is functional. Afterwards, in Step 245a, it is determined whether all the malfunctional RFID tags are found. The process goes to Step 25 if all the malfunctional RFID tags are found; otherwise, the process goes to Step 246a to shield a next one of the RFID tags in the readable zone. Then the process returns to Step 241a and repeats from Step 241a to 245a until all the malfunctional RFID tags are found.

Please refer to FIG. 4A to FIG. 4C, which are schematic diagrams of an apparatus for inspecting RFID tags according to a first embodiment of the present invention. The apparatus 3 comprises a carriertape transportation device 30, a reading device 32, a shelter 33 and a moving device 34. The carriertape transportation device 30 is capable of carrying a carriertape 31 carrying a plurality of RFID tags 311. The RFID tags 311 can be active smart tags or passive smart tags. The carriertape transportation device 30 can be a roller to transport a reel carriertape, as shown in FIG. 4A. Alternatively, the carriertape transportation device 30 can be a holder plate to transport a sheet carriertape.

The reading device 32 is disposed on one side of the carriertape 31 and is capable of reading data in the RFID tags 311 on the carriertape 31 in a readable zone R. The shelter 33 is capable of shielding to limit the number of the RFID tags to be read by the reading device 32. In the present embodiment, the shelter 33 is formed of a metal material, a wave-breaking material, a wave-absorbing material, a wave-reflecting material or a wave-blocking material and is not limited thereto. In the present embodiment, the shelter 33 comprises a container to fill in with water for wave absorbing. Alternatively, the wave-absorbing material is a composite material or a polymeric material. The moving device 34 is connected to the shelter 33 and is capable of moving the shelter 33. In one embodiment, a shielding plate 36 is disposed on each of two sides of the reading device 32 to limit the readable zone to avoid the reading device from reading the RFID tags outside the readable zone R.

In the present embodiment accompanied by FIG. 3 and FIG. 4A, there are two malfunctional RFID tags 312 out of 13 RFID tags 311. Therefore, in the beginning, the reading device reads 11 RFID tags. When Step 240a is performed, the moving device 34 moves the shelter 33 to a proper position (a) to shield a RFID tag 301 from communication with the reading device 32. When the reading device 32 issues a signal, the reading device 32 only reads 10 RFID tags because the RFID tag 301 is shielded by the shelter 33. In Step 242a, it is determined that the number of the 10 RFID tags is smaller than the 11 RFID tags by one. Therefore, it is determined that the RFID tag 311 at a position (a) is functional.

Afterwards, the moving device proceeds to a next position (b) and the steps in FIG. 3 are performed accompanied by FIG. 4B. In FIG. 4C, when the moving device 34 moves the shelter 33 to shield a RFID 312 at a position (c), the reading device 32 reads 11 RFID tags because the RFID 312 at the position (c) is malfunctional. Therefore, in Step 242a, it is determined that the RFID tag 312 at the position (c) is malfunctional. The steps are repeated until all the malfunctional RFID tags in the readable zone are found. In the present embodiment, another malfunctional RFID is located at a position (d). When the moving device 34 moves to the position (d), all the malfunctional RFID tags can be found. Therefore, even though the RFID tags at a position (e) and a position (f) are not inspected, the process can go to Step 26 for a next carriertape.

Please refer to FIGS. 5A, 5B and 5C, which are examples of a carriertape in an apparatus for inspecting RFID tags according to one embodiment of the present invention. In FIG. 5A and FIG. 5B, the carriertape 31 is a rectangular. The carriertape in FIG. 5A has a row of RFID tags 311, while the carriertape In FIG. 5B has a plurality of rows of RFID tags 311. In FIG. 5C, the carriertape is a disc carriertape and the RFID tags are arranged in at least one row on the disc carriertape. However, the present invention is not limited to the previous embodiments.

Please refer to FIG. 6A, which is an example of a moving device 34 in an apparatus for inspecting RFID tags according to one embodiment of the present invention. In the present embodiment, the moving device 34 comprises a guiding rail 340 and a carrier 341 installed on the guiding rail 340. The carrier 341 comprises a holder 342 disposed thereon to carry the shelter 33 disposed thereon. The guiding rail 340 drives the carrier 341 to control the shelter 33 to move to a specific position to shield the RFID tags from communication with the reading device. Alternatively, the moving device can be driven by a screw bolt. Referring to FIG. 6B, which is an example of a moving device in an apparatus for inspecting RFID tags according to another embodiment of the present invention, the moving device 34 comprises a screw bolt 345 coupled to a carrier 343. The carrier 343 comprises a holder 344 disposed thereon to carry the shelter 33 disposed thereon. The screw bolt 345 drives the carrier 343 to move using a driving device (not shown) such as a motor to control the sheltering device 33 to move to a specific position to shield the RFID tag from communication with the reading device. The moving device 34 can be implemented using previous embodiments accompanied by FIG. 6A and FIG. 6B but is not limited thereto.

Please refer to FIG. 7, which is a flow-chart showing the step of determining whether there is any malfunctional RFID tag of the method for inspecting RFID tags according to a second embodiment of the present invention. The present embodiment is different from the embodiment accompanied by FIG. 3 wherein the RFID tags are shielded in a one-by-one manner. In the present embodiment, the RFID tags are shielded progressively. First, in Step 240b, one of the RFID tags in the readable zone is shielded. Then in Step 241b, the RFID tags in the readable zone are read. Afterwards, the Step 242b is performed to determine whether the number of readable RFID tags is reduced. The process goes to Step 243b if the number of readable RFID tags is not reduced. In Step 243b, it is determined and recorded that the shielded RFID tag is malfunctional. Otherwise, if the number of readable RFID tags is reduced, the process goes to Step 244b to determine that the shielded RFID tag is functional. Afterwards, in Step 245b, it is determined whether all the malfunctional RFID tags are found. The process goes to Step 25 if all the malfunctional RFID tags are found; otherwise, the process goes to Step 246b to progressively shield a next one and the previously shielded one(s) of the RFID tags in the readable zone. Then the process returns to Step 241b and repeats from Step 241b to 245b until all the malfunctional RFID tags are found. It is noted that, unlike the first embodiment wherein only one RFID tag is shielded, in the present embodiment, all the previously shielded RFID tags are also shielded. Therefore, in Step 242b, whether the number of readable RFID tags is reduced is determined according to the number of read RFID tags after some RFID tags are progressively shielded, instead of the number of read RFID tags in Step 22 in FIG. 2.

Please refer to FIG. 8A and FIG. 8B for schematic diagrams of an apparatus for inspecting RFID tags according to a second embodiment of the present invention. The apparatus 3 can be used to implement the method accompanied by FIG. 7. The apparatus 3 comprises a carriertape transportation device 30, a reading device 32 and a sheltering device 35. The carriertape transportation device 30 is capable of carrying a carriertape 31. The carriertape 31 carries a plurality of RFID tags 311. The carriertape transportation device 30 and the carriertape 31 are similar to those as previously described, and thus, descriptions thereof are not repeated. The reading device 32 is disposed on one side of the carriertape 31 and is capable of reading data in the RFID tags 311 on the carriertape 31 in a readable zone R. In one embodiment, a shielding plate 36 is disposed on each of two sides of the reading device 32 to limit the readable zone to avoid the reading device from reading the RFID tags outside the readable zone R. The sheltering device 35 is capable of shielding to limit the number of the RFID tags to be read by the reading device 35 and the sheltering device 35 is capable of varying a shielding area to determine the number of RFID tags.

Hereinafter, the step of progressively shielding RFID tags in FIG. 7 is described accompanied by FIG. 8A. In the beginning, the sheltering device 35 shields a single RFID tag. Since there are still undetermined malfunctional RFID tags after Step 245b is performed, the process goes to Step 246b to progressively shield two RFID tags, as described in FIG. 8B. Then, the process goes back to Step 241b so that the reading device 32 reads the RFID tags in the readable zone R.

Then, it is determined whether the number of readable RFID tags is reduced compared to the number of the RFID tags when one RFID tag is shielded. If the number of readable RFID tags is reduced, it is determined that the newly shielded RFID tag is functional; otherwise, it is determined that the newly shielded RFID tag is malfunctional. Referring to FIG. 8A and FIG. 8B, for example in FIG. 8A, the number of read RFID tags is 10, which means that the RFID tag at the position (a) is functional. In FIG. 8B, the number of read RFID tags is 10, which means that the newly shielded RFID tag at the position (b) is malfunctional.

The sheltering device 35 capable of progressively shielding in FIG. 8A is implemented, as shown in FIG. 9A, to comprise a plurality of shelters 350 capable of stretching to enlarge the shielding area so that the sheltering device controls the number of stretched shelters. In addition to FIG. 9A, the sheltering device 35 can also be implemented, as shown in FIG. 9B, to comprise a driving device comprising a linear guiding rail 351 and a carrier 352 installed on the linear guiding rail 351. A large shelter 353 is disposed on the carrier 352 to be driven by the linear guiding rail 351 to move towards the readable zone R to progressively shield a next one and the previously shielded one(s) of the RFID tags by a linear movement.

Please refer to FIG. 10A and FIG. 10B, which are schematic diagrams of an apparatus for inspecting RFID tags according to a third embodiment of the present invention. In the present embodiment, the apparatus 4 comprises a carriertape transportation device 43, a reading device 41 and a sheltering device 42. The carriertape transportation device 43 is capable of performing a rotating movement 90 and carrying a disc carriertape 40 carrying a plurality of RFID tags 401.

The reading device 41 is disposed on one side of the disc carriertape 40. The sheltering device 42 comprises a shelter 420 and a driving device 421. The driving device 421 is capable of controlling the shelter 420 to move back and forth to shield the RFID tags 401 from communication with the reading device 41.

Basically, the operation of the apparatus 4 in the present embodiment is similar to that of the previously described two embodiments. In FIG. 10B, however, since the carriertape 40 is disc-shaped, it is required that the carriertape transportation device 43 performs a rotating movement 90 to move a next un-inspected region to a position corresponding to the sheltering device 42 for inspection until all the malfunctional RFID tags are found after the sheltering device 42 has shielded a batch of three RFID tags.

Please refer to FIG. 11A and FIG. 11B, which are schematic diagrams of an apparatus for inspecting RFID tags according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention. In FIG. 11A, a rectangular carriertape 44 is disposed on a carriertape transportation device 45. The rectangular carriertape 44 carries a plurality of RFID tags 441. The operation of the sheltering device 42 is similar to that of the previous embodiment in FIG. 10A. Since the carriertape 44 is rectangular-shaped, it is required that the carriertape transportation device 45 performs a linear movement 91 to move a next un-inspected region to a position corresponding to the sheltering device 42 (as shown in FIG. 1B) for inspection until all the malfunctional RFID tags are found after the sheltering device 42 has shielded five RFID tags in a first row.

According to the above discussion, it is apparent that the present invention discloses a method and an apparatus for inspecting radio frequency identification (RFID) tags by determining whether there is any malfunctional RFID tag and then determining where the malfunctional RFID tag is located using a way of shielding. Therefore, the present invention is novel, useful and non-obvious.

Although this invention has been disclosed and illustrated with reference to particular embodiments, the principles involved are susceptible for use in numerous other embodiments that will be apparent to persons skilled in the art. This invention is, therefore, to be limited only as indicated by the scope of the appended claims.



 CONT
H.E.L.P. = How. Every. Loser. Prospect.   (Goverment)         
 
J.O.B. = Jorney. Of the. Broke (We the People)
 
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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #36 on: July 31, 2008, 03:34:01 pm »
20080174405 - System, device and method for controlling a mobile device - The present invention relates to the field of mobile communications, and in particular to a system for wireless data communication for steering/controlling the functionality of a mobile device comprising a radio communication device and a method for achieving this. ...

USPTO Application #: 20080174405

Title: System, device and method for controlling a mobile device

Abstract: The present invention relates to the field of mobile communications, and in particular to a system for wireless data communication for steering/controlling the functionality of a mobile device comprising a radio communication device and a method for achieving this. (end of abstract)

TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to the field of mobile communications, and in particular to a system for wireless data communication for steering/controlling the functionality of a mobile device comprising a radio communication device and a method for achieving this.

DESCRIPTION OF RELATED ART
Today, the use of mobile devices, e.g. cellular/mobile phones, laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDA:s), that communicate wireless increases. This means that users bring the mobile devices with them wherever they go, e.g. to the office and back home, into their car, to meetings, and so on. This behaviour has given raise to problems of disturbing the surrounding, e.g. when users forget to switch their mobile device off or into silent mode when entering a meeting room or a cinema and disturbing calls or alarms occur, and/or forget to change the current mobile device setting/profile so that all calls are forwarded to their office phone when in the office, or to a voice mail if the user is busy in a meeting, or that the mobile device user forget to switch the device into a handsfree “car” mode when the user enter his/her car, the latter problem also reduces safety when driving.

There is also a need of receiving for example special offers from shops or restaurants when passing these establishments, and also to receive streamed data, e.g. movies of a football/soccer/hockey match when watching it live in an arena or to see the match from other angles or replays of goals. In the future, advertisements or traffic information may also be sent wirelessly locally to these mobile devices.

Prior art uses for example the GPS system for tracking mobile devices and depending on where they are sends information about nearby restaurants, shops, and events, but this technology is complicated. There are also Bluetooth devices available that can send the actual data to the mobile device when you get in range, but they are more complex and expensive. The drawback with both GPS and Bluetooth is also that they consume much power, i.e. a GPS in a phone consume much power and an external Bluetooth device needs power to work.

SUMMARY
The present invention relates to a system, a device and a method using RFID to wirelessly control/steer the functionality for a mobile device, both automatically and/or manually, i.e. by manual initiation from the user when prompted for this. This reduces the risk of forgetting to switch the mobile device into desired mode when necessary.

The invention uses a system for RFID data communication, comprising a mobile device with a control unit that is operatively connected to a RFID reader, a memory for storing a plurality of RFID tag data, and a GSM/UMTS radio; and at least one by the mobile device wirelessly connectable RFID tag, which control unit, depending on the RFID tag data, is adapted to change or maintain the functionality of the mobile device.

In one embodiment of the invention the control unit is configured to compare the received RFID tag data with RFID tag data stored in the memory, and to change or maintain the functionality of the mobile device in accordance with the received RFID tag data. In another embodiment of the invention, if the received RFID tag data is new when compared with the stored RFID tag data, the control unit is configured to register the received RFID tag data in the memory, and to associate the received RFID tag data with an activation application, which changes the current functionality of the mobile device, or a non-activation application, which maintains the current functionality of the mobile device, and to store the received RFID tag data with the associated application in the memory.

In yet another embodiment of the invention the control unit is configured to detect if the RFID tag is out of range, and to compare the data of the out of range RFID tag with the stored RFID tag data, and to perform an activity that changes or maintains the current functionality of the mobile device in accordance with the data of the out of range RFID tag.

In still another embodiment the control unit is configured to enable, disable or maintain a silent mode, a forwarding calls mode, an AGPS functionality mode or a data streaming mode for the mobile device in accordance with the associated RFID tag data. The forwarding calls mode in one embodiment is realized in that the control unit is configured to enable, disable or maintain a mobile device mode where all calls are forwarded to a voice mail or an office phone in accordance with the associated RFID tag data.

Moreover, the invention uses a mobile phone, comprising a control unit that is operatively connected to a RFID reader, a memory, a display, and a GSM/UMTS radio. Furthermore, the invention also uses a radio communication device for RFID data communication, comprising a RFID reader that is operatively connected to a mobile device.

The invention also uses a method for steering the functionality of a mobile device by using RFID data communication, comprising transmitting a radio signal to a RFID tag, receiving a response signal comprising RFID tag data from the RFID tag, and, depending on the RFID tag data, performing an activity that changes or maintains the functionality of the mobile device. This is done in one embodiment by comparing the received RFID tag data with the stored RFID tag data, and, performing an activity that changes or maintains the functionality of the mobile device in accordance with the received RFID tag data. If the received RFID tag data is new when compared with the stored RFID tag data, i.e. not matched, another embodiment comprises registering the received RFID tag data, associating the received RFID tag data with an activation application changing the current functionality of the mobile device or a non-activation application maintaining the current functionality of the mobile device, and storing the received RFID tag data with the associated application.

Another method according to the invention comprises detecting that the RFID tag is out of range, comparing the data of the out of range RFID tag with the stored RFID tag data, and performing an activity that changes or maintains the functionality of the mobile device in accordance therewith. In yet another embodiment the method comprises enabling, disabling or maintaining a silent mode, forwarding calls mode, an assisted GPS (AGPS) functionality mode or a data streaming mode for the mobile device in accordance with the associated RFID tag data. Another embodiment of the method comprises performing an activity by putting the mobile device into a mode where all calls are forwarded to a voice mail or an office phone, or vice versa in accordance with the associated RFID tag data. Moreover, in another embodiment, the method comprises performing an activity by putting the mobile device into a mode where the AGPS functionality is enabled or disabled in accordance with the associated RFID tag data. Furthermore, another embodiment uses a method comprises performing an activity by putting the mobile device into a mode where streaming is started from an address distributed by the associated RFID tag, or vice versa in accordance with the associated RFID tag data.

The invention simplifies the usage and handling of the mobile device by providing both automatic and manual operation of the device. Moreover, the invention requires less power when communicating with RFID tags compared to the use of GPS in the mobile device. Furthermore, the invention achieves these advantages in a cheaper and more cost-efficient way by using RFID data communication due to the fact that RFID tags are cheap and easy to place in suitable positions and locations. Furthermore, RFID tags require less power to work, especially passive RFID tags that only use power from the communicating device, in comparison to Bluetooth units. This invention also eliminates the need of separate RFID readers or PDA:s, e.g. in hospitals and for surveillance/guarding systems and services in which watchmen detect/register that they have been at the required locations, whereby for example their mobile phones are used for this instead.

The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of the invention. As used herein, the singular forms “a”, “an” and “the” are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. It should also be emphasised that the term “comprises/comprising” when used in this specification is taken to specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps or components but does not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, elements, integers, steps, components or groups thereof.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The features and advantages of the present invention will be more apparent from the following description of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:

FIG. 1 schematically illustrates an embodiment according to the present invention comprising a wireless communications system and a mobile device;

FIG. 2 schematically illustrates a method according to an embodiment of the invention in a block diagram; and

FIGS. 3 to 5 schematically illustrate methods according to different embodiments of the invention in block diagrams.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS
Radio Frequency Identification, or RFID, is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. There are several methods of identification, but the most common is to store a serial number that identifies a person or object, and/or other information, on a microchip that is attached to an antenna (the chip and the antenna together are called an RFID transponder or an RFID tag). The antenna enables the chip to transmit the identification information to a RFID reader. The reader converts the radio waves reflected/sent back from the RFID tag into digital information that can then be passed on to and for example used in computers. A typical RFID system consists of at least one RFID tag made up of a microchip with an antenna, and an RFID interrogator or reader with an antenna. The reader sends out electromagnetic waves and the tag antenna is tuned to receive these waves. The chip then modulates the waves that the tag sends back to the reader, which converts the new waves into digital data that are communicated to a control unit or processor for further processing or use.

RFID systems are for example used for tracking animals to triggering equipment down oil wells. The most common RFID applications are payment systems (toll and fare collection systems, for instance), access control and asset tracking. Increasingly, companies use RFID technology to track goods within their supply chain, to work in process and for other applications.

There are two types of RFID tags, active and passive. Active RFID tags have a transmitter and their own power source (typically a battery). The power source is used to run the microchip's circuitry and to send a signal to the RFID reader (similar to a cellular phone transmitting signals to a base station). Passive tags have no battery; instead, they draw power from the RFID reader, which sends out electromagnetic waves that induce a current in the RFID tag's antenna. Semi-passive tags use a battery to run the chip's circuitry, but communicate by drawing power from the reader. Active and semi-passive tags are useful for tracking high-value goods that need to be scanned over long ranges, such as railway cars on a track, but they cost more than passive tags, which means that they are not used on low-cost items.

The distance from which a tag can be read is called its read range. Read range depends on a number of factors, including the frequency of the radio waves used for tag-reader communication, the size of the tag antenna, the power output of the reader, and whether the tags have a battery to broadcast a signal or gather energy from a reader and merely reflect a weak signal back to the reader. If the tags are attached to products with water or metal, the read range can be significantly less. If the size of the UHF antenna on UHF tags—the kind used on pallets and cases of goods in the supply chain—is reduced, that will also dramatically reduce the read range. Increasing the power output could increase the range, but most governments restrict the output of readers so that they don't interfere with other RF devices, such as cordless phones.

RFID systems use many different frequencies, but generally the most common are low-frequency (around 125 KHz), high-frequency (13.56 MHz) and ultra-high-frequency or UHF (860-960 MHz). Microwave (2.45 GHz), e.g. as in Bluetooth, may also be used in some applications. Radio waves behave differently at different frequencies, whereby a suitable frequency has to be chosen for the application.

There are companies developing technology that could make active tags far less expensive than they are today. End-users are focusing on passive UHF tags, which cost less than active ones. Their read range isn't as far as active tags but can be disposed of with the product packaging without any great economic loss. RFID tags are cheap to manufacture and are more useful for applications where the tag will be disposed of with the product packaging.

In the present invention, any suitable radio frequency may be used, i.e. from low-frequency to microwave-frequency, however, the frequencies used for Bluetooth or WLAN (2.4 GHz) are probably preferred for wireless communication between the mobile device 100 and at least one RFID tag 150 in the vicinity due to a possibility or reusing the antenna for Bluetooth, whereby different frequencies determine different distances between the mobile device and the RFID tag for when the tag gets into and out of read range for the mobile device.

The present invention is described below with reference to block diagrams and/or flowchart illustrations of methods, systems, and devices according to embodiments of the invention. It is understood that several blocks of the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustrations, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustrations, can be implemented by computer program instructions used in the system and/or device. Accordingly, the present invention may be embodied in present hardware and software (including firmware, resident software, micro-code, etc.) or may be placed in a separate module incorporated in a mobile device for use or as an external accessory communicating through USB or another available communication bus.

The present invention relates to a RFID data communications system and a portable device, i.e. a portable radio communications device, also denoted as a mobile device. In the context of the invention, the mobile device may be a mobile/cellular phone, a PDA or any other type of portable computer, such as a laptop computer.

 Referring to FIG. 1, a mobile device 100 is disclosed. The mobile device 100 comprises an antenna 110 which in one embodiment of the present invention is a combined GSM and RFID antenna or a UMTS and RFID antenna and in another embodiment the antenna is a separate RFID antenna 110. However, it should be understood that the mobile device 100 may be equipped with separated antennas such as a GPS antenna and a GSM antenna and a RFID antenna or just one type of combined antenna such as an UMTS, GSM, EDGE, GPRS, CSD, RFID antenna or the like. In any case, device 100 is configured, by means of antenna 110, to transmit wireless signals as in step 201 in FIG. 2 and receive wireless signals comprising data from any RFID tag 150 in the vicinity, as in step 202 of FIG. 2. The antenna 110 in the illustrated embodiment may be a solid external antenna but may as well be an extendable antenna or an internal antenna. Antenna 110 is connected to a control unit 120, which comprises a signal transceiver and also connected to a RFID reader, i.e. RFID radio unit 130, which is configured to receive wireless information including information/data from any nearby RFID tag within range, and a GSM/UMTS radio unit 140, which is configured to receive wireless information including information/data from a cellular network and/or a GPS system. The control unit 120 typically includes a central processing unit CPU with associated memory 160 and software, and is configured to control the processes carried out within the device 100. The signal transceiver is connected to control unit 120, inter alia for communication of data/information received by means of antenna 110. The information received in the device 100 is in the form of data which needs to be analyzed to determine if an activity is to be performed or not in response to the data received from the RFID tag 150 nearby, as will be explained. The control unit 120 is configured to perform measures to be taken for controlling, i.e. changing or maintaining the current functionality of the device 100 based on the information from the associated RFID tag 150 (see step 203 in FIG. 2). Alternatively, the information received from the RFID tag may be handled automatically without any interaction from the user of the mobile device 100, so that different functions/functionality in the mobile device is initiated fully automatic. The user may or may not choose manual initiation of a measure that either changes or maintains the current functionality of the device 100. In other embodiments of the invention, certain RFID tags/locations, e.g. hospitals and cinemas, would for example always change the current functionality of a mobile phone 100 by turning/setting it into silent mode or simply turn the phone off or perform other predefined scenarios or standardized functions.

The steering/control of the current functionality in the mobile device 100 is done by using short-range positioning beacons, i.e. RFID tags 150 getting into range of the RFID radio/reader 130 and communicating with the RFID reader (step 301 in FIG. 3). This method is applicable in relatively small areas, depending on the used radio frequency for communication, such as a single building, but also along frequently visited roads, wherein a local area network of RFID systems can provide locations along with other services. For really short range applications within buildings, appropriately equipped RFID systems can use Bluetooth for short-range positioning and/or any other function that requires more data to be transferred from the present location, i.e. within range of the current RFID tag 150, into the mobile device 100. The position data in such systems will be more accurate than in a cellular positioning system, due to the shorter communication range and better indoor coverage.

The position of the mobile device 100 determined by means of the received information from the RFID tag 150 relating to a current position, and the application to be launched or not, are used in combination by control unit 120 to select a profile which is position-dependent, either automatically or manually by the user, and to load and execute the selected application using parameters determined in the selected profile (steps 301-312 in FIG. 3). The profiles may be manually programmed in advance by means of a graphical user interface (GUI) of mobile device 100, typically a keypad and a display 170 with a menu system. As an alternative, profiles may be stored according to usage. In one embodiment, a profile may be stored when a certain application is launched in accordance with certain RFID tag data for the first time in a certain position, which may or may not have been previously visited by the mobile device 100. In the illustrated embodiment of FIG. 1 the profiles are stored in the memory 160 which may be a random access memory (RAM), a read-only memory (ROM) and an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM or Flash memory). Each profile is stored in memory 160 together with one or more related settings for different applications, for use by the mobile device 100, i.e. the control unit 120 in order to steer the functionality of the mobile phone by using received data from one or more RFID tags in the wireless network, such as a low-frequency RFID system, high-frequency RFID system and ultra-high-frequency or UHF RFID system. An IEEE 802.11 type WLAN, a WiMAX, a HiperLAN, a Bluetooth LAN, or a cellular mobile communications network such as a GPRS network, or a third generation WCDMA network can then be used for providing a communication channel where more information could be downloaded based on the initial data provided by the RFID tag 150. The mobile device 100 in FIG. 1 is able to connect to different wireless networks through wireless interface units as mentioned above, e.g. by putting the mobile device 100 into a mode where streaming is started from an address distributed by the associated RFID tag 150, or vice versa, i.e. ongoing streaming is interrupted in accordance with the received RFID tag data. This function is only required for communication of larger amounts of data, if only a new setting/functionality of the mobile device 100 is to be enabled this does not require a large amount of data.

The mobile device 100 is configured to automatically use the relevant settings for an application in a certain position or to give the user choices of settings that may be manually chosen by him to use the RFID tag data within range or not. This way drainage of a battery 180 of the mobile device is reduced, since RFID communication consumes less power than for example GSM communication. This means that even though the mobile device 100 need to continuously run a scanning process in order to search and identify any RFID tags 150 in nearby wireless networks the power required for this is less than the power required for GSM communication.

Referring now to FIGS. 2 to 5, the operation of a mobile device 100 in a system or network 300, 400, 500 is illustrated. A user of mobile device 100 enters a work place for the user, herein referred to as the office (see e.g. FIGS. 2 and 3. The office may be a building, a floor, a room or the like. The size may be related to the obtainable position accuracy, but even if there are different RFID tags 150 or base stations within the office they may collectively be defined in the profile as one position, i.e. the position of the office. After entering the office the user for example wants to forward all calls to the office phone or a voice mail or changing the current mode to silent mode for the mobile device, if in a meeting, manually or automatically, or any other desired or required phone mode.

The user initiates manually an application or an application launches automatically, as defined earlier by the user, which involves setting up of a connection to a RFID system, see FIGS. 2 to 5, when the mobile device 100 has received data from an adjacent RFID tag 150. The user may define application profiles associated with specific RFID tags and store them in the memory 160 for manual initiation or automatic launching in order to change or maintain the functionality of the mobile device when data from a nearby RFID tag is received. The initiation of the application preferably includes automatic launching of for example a silent mode or a forwarding call mode for the mobile device when entering a meeting room and connecting to a RFID meeting room tag, but may of course also include launching an application where a manual selection in a menu system or activation of an icon in a graphical user interface of mobile device 100 is done.

In FIG. 1 the mobile device 100 is illustrated as a mobile phone, which is the best mode known to date for implementation of the present invention. Although not outlined in detail, mobile device 100 may therefore include, in addition to the elements mentioned earlier, a touch-sensitive sheet provided on the display 160, a speaker and a microphone.

The position of the device 100 in relation to adjacent RFID tags 150 may be constantly checked and determined or determined following the selection of an application.

Each of the RFID tags 150 has an ID that may be associated with a desired function, event, measure etc by the user. RFID tags that have should have no active function, i.e. they are passive, must also be registered in the memory 160 so that no automatic function is initiated or that no question about a new manual tag registration is prompted for the user next time this tag gets in range of the mobile device 100.

The storing of specific RFID data associated with a certain RFID tag 150 may be done as parameters in a specified storage field, in a predefined type of file or in a small data base in the mobile device 100.

The position of the mobile device 100 is established by comparing the received data from the associated RFID tag 150 with the RFID tag data contained in memory 160 by means of the control unit 120 and the memory 160, a profile related to the stored RFID tag data containing settings for different application is automatically selected, if a match is found, or manually initiated by the user, if the new RFID tag data is unknown, i.e. not found in the stored data, as shown in FIGS. 3 to 5. In one embodiment, a user may initiate an application in an area related to a certain position, wherein the user needs to manually select an application client, or alternatively the application is initiated with a default setting automatically. The user may also be requested via the GUI (steps 304-310 in FIG. 3) to respond whether the settings for the application should be stored in a new profile related to the new position or the new RFID tag 150 in question, which is determined by means of received data. In one embodiment it should also be possible to override the automatic selection of settings and launching of application based on matching of received RFID tag data with stored RFID tag data. This may be obtained by displaying, upon selection of an application in the mobile device 100, a question to the user whether or not to use stored settings. Answer Yes launches the application client linked to the profile in question with the associated stored settings of the associated RFID tag 150 for control of the mobile device functionality (steps 305-312 in FIG. 3). Answer No opens a menu in which the different parameters for launching the application or not can be selected. Also after such a scenario, i.e. when manual setting is made in a position and for an application which are already linked to each other in an existing profile in memory 160, the existing profile may be amended. Each profile is preferably uniquely identified with the determined RFID tag, and in combination with a selected application the settings to be used for launching that application, either automatically or after a manual initiation, are prescribed in the profile. In case the user wants to store the settings of the application in a new profile, a text description of the profile may be inserted automatically or manually by the user via the GUI, as in FIG. 3. In another embodiment the application settings may be stored automatically when an application is used in a position never used before, i.e. when data from a new RFID tag is received and no match is found in the stored RFID tag data.

Settings used for a profile “Office” may for example be VoIP codecs for voice compression, hi and low fidelity settings, authentication procedures such as 802.1x, WPA, WEP, PSK, EAP or the like, voice mail, email clients and the like, e.g. by switching to a new SMTP to be able to send e-mails or similar functions or more complex functions.

An embodiment of how to control the functionality of the mobile device 100 is schematically illustrated in FIGS. 2 to 5. Here, each position is defined by the data from the RFID tag 150 located at that specific position. Each profile further relates to different settings for different applications, such as enabling, disabling or maintaining automatic streaming of data and/or set up of Internet communication by which for example special shop offers, restaurant menus, advertising, or even movies showing replays when watching sport in an arena or showing events from different angles in the arena, WLAN access, VoIP, Bluetooth communication and the like are enabled, disabled or maintained.

In a preferred embodiment, each combination of profile and application may also comprise information on prescribed client and security aspects, and these settings are preferably automatically configured by mobile device 100 based on the received data from the associated RFID tag 150, or chosen manually by the user. If the position of e.g. a phone 100 indicates that it is used at work, a VPN client may automatically try to access the WLAN network at the office and the call client dictated by the employer will automatically be launched when the user tries to make a call. However, if the associated RFID tag, i.e. the “Home” RFID tag, instead indicates that the mobile device 100 is at home, the Home profile will instead be employed. The Home profile may specify a standard profile by which the application for “ordinary” GSM calls is launched or if a WLAN network with Internet communication is present at home WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) may be used to access the Home WLAN access point, and a VoIP client may be specified to be launched when the user tries to make a call. The illustrated embodiments of FIGS. 2 to 5 may also use a profile called public or standard, which profile also may be defined as a default value. This profile is preferably used when an application is launched at a position corresponding to any RFID tag data not previously stored in the memory 160. When a user of mobile device 100 starts an application, e.g. a call, in the presence of a public hot spot, and where the RFID tag data received from the hot spot is not found in the memory, mobile device 100 will for example launch the GSM call client. It should be noted, though, that in order to set up a connection using a VoIP client a WLAN access procedure has to be performed first. For the illustrated embodiment, also the settings for the VPN client may be prescribed for the public profile. However, in another embodiment of the present invention, the setting up of a connection in a position not stored in memory 160 must be performed manually by the user (steps 306-310 in FIG. 3), and the automatic procedure is only performed for positions known in the memory.

FIG. 4 shows when a current RFID tag 150 gets out of range of the mobile device 100 (step 401). The identity of the “lost” RFID tag is sent to the control unit 120 (step 402), and the “lost” RFID tag ID is checked (compared with memory 160, step 403). Then, in step 404, it is checked whether an activity or no activity is associated with the “lost” RFID tag 150, and if there is an associated activity, a reversed activity is initiated and performed, either manually by the user or fully automatic, in step 405, whereby the mobile device 100 is set to a new mode, e.g. an idle mode as in step 406 or a silent mode etc. If no activity is associated with the “out of range” RFID tag, the mobile device maintains the current mode, e.g. an idle mode as in step 406, a forwarding call mode or a sound mode in contrast to silent mode.

In FIG. 5, a menu handling of the RFID tag 150 and its data is shown (step 501). Here, a menu is shown on the display 170 of the mobile device 100 with different RFID choices for the user to choose among in step 502, whereby chosen settings, connections etc may be performed in step 503. Then, the presence of any RFID tag in range and if the tag is affected by the chosen functionality are checked and if the answer is Yes, an activity or reversed activity is initiated and performed in the mobile device in step 505, while, if the answer is No, the mobile device maintains its current mode/functionality, e.g. an idle mode as in step 506 or any other chosen mobile device mode.



 CONT
H.E.L.P. = How. Every. Loser. Prospect.   (Goverment)         
 
J.O.B. = Jorney. Of the. Broke (We the People)
 
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Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #37 on: July 31, 2008, 03:34:19 pm »
20080174406 - Transponder systems - A transponder system that includes at least one transponder apparatus that does not have an antenna and a reader device having a touch probe having one or more probe contacts for enabling the reader device to communicate with the transponder apparatus through a temporary physical interface. Also, a method of ...


USPTO Application #: 20080174406

Title: Transponder systems

Abstract: A transponder system that includes at least one transponder apparatus that does not have an antenna and a reader device having a touch probe having one or more probe contacts for enabling the reader device to communicate with the transponder apparatus through a temporary physical interface. Also, a method of communicating with a printed circuit board or an item including a printed circuit board using a reader device wherein a transponder apparatus or a transponder chip is provided on the printed circuit board and wherein conductors from independent circuits of the printed circuit board are used to form an antenna for the transponder apparatus or transponder chip. (end of abstract)

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/863,183, entitled “Touch Probe Use of RFID Chips, Straps and Tags/Inherent Antennas for RFID on Printed Circuit Boards,” which was filed on Oct. 27, 2006, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

GOVERNMENT CONTRACT
This work was supported in part under NASA Grant Number NNK04OA29C. The United States government may have certain rights in the invention described herein.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The concepts disclosed herein relate to transponder systems, such as radio frequency identification (RFID systems). One embodiment relates to a system that enables information to be communicated from a reader device, such as an RFID interrogator, to a transponder device, such as an RFID tag, by way of a physical interface as opposed to through an air interface. Another embodiment relates to a system of tracking PCBs wherein the conductors of the PCB form an antenna for communicating with an RFID chip through an air interface.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
RFID devices typically contain an integrated circuit chip and an antenna that are connected together to form an electrical circuit that responds to certain transmitted radio frequency (RF) signals. The integrated circuit chip has very small attachment points, commonly referred to as pads, to which the antenna must be electrically connected. Such pads are typically squares surfaces with less than 100 μm per side. Antennas used in RFID applications typically have conductors that must be connected to the pads of the integrated circuit chip that have widths of much greater than 100 μm. This difference in relative size makes the manufacture of RFID devices difficult.

As a manufacturing aid, an intermediate fabrication step is frequently employed where an intermediate component is first formed by attaching the integrated circuit chip to relatively short interfacing conductors that have a first end that is much larger than 100 μm and a second end that is sized to accommodate the smaller pads of the integrated circuit chip. This intermediate component that includes the chip and the interfacing conductors is commonly referred to as a strap. Straps are commercially available form a number of sources and may be sold in large quantities to RFID device manufacturers. In the final manufacturing steps, the strap is attached to the antenna, and both are placed on some form of a substrate. The combination of a strap and an antenna on a substrate is referred to as an inlay. The inlay may later be attached to a label or the like to form an RFID tag that may be attached to a product or item in order to track and/or communicate with the product or item using RF signals.

In certain applications, an RFID tag, when attached to a product or item, occupies space that could otherwise be used for some other functional part of the product or item. In such applications, the size of the RFID tag becomes an issue as it consumes otherwise valuable space. Thus, such applications require physically small RFID tags. Current RFID technology, however, is completely focused on wireless communications between the interrogator and the tag using an air medium. This type of communication requires an antenna, which typically represents a large portion of the size of the RFID tag.

There is therefore room for improvement in the area of transponder systems. In particular, there is a need for methodologies that reduce the size of and therefore the area consumed by a transponder device.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In one embodiment, a transponder system is provided that includes at least one transponder apparatus that does not have an antenna and a reader device having a touch probe having one or more probe contacts. The at least one transponder apparatus includes a substrate, one or more leads provided on the substrate, and a chip having one or more contacts provided on the substrate. Each of the one or more leads is operatively coupled to a respective one of the one or more contacts. The reader device is structured to generate one or more RF signals that are provided to and received by the one or more probe contacts. One or more of the one or more probe contacts are structured to be temporarily mated with and brought into electrical contact with one or more of the one or more leads of the at least one transponder apparatus to allow at least one of the one or more RF signals to be communicated to the at least one transponder apparatus or to allow one or more transponder signals to be communicated from the transponder apparatus to the reader device.

In one particular embodiment, the reader device includes a control system and a radio module that is adapted to generate the one or more RF signals under the control of the control system. The one or more probe contacts are operatively coupled to the radio module for receiving the one or more RF signals. The reader device may further include an antenna structured to transmit the one or more RF signals to a transponder that has a receiving antenna, such as, for example and without limitation, a standard RFID tag or a PCB wherein the conductors of the PCB form the antenna for an RFID chip as described elsewhere herein.

The at least one transponder apparatus may be a strap, wherein the one or more leads provided on the substrate comprise a first strap lead and a second strap lead. The at least one transponder apparatus may also be an RFID tag and the reader device may be an RFID interrogator.

Another embodiment provides an RF reader device that includes a control system, a radio module adapted to generate one or more RF signals under the control of the control system, and a touch probe having one or more probe contacts operatively coupled to the radio module that are structured to receive the one or more RF signals. One or more of the probe contacts are adapted to be temporarily mated with and brought into electrical contact with one or more leads of a transponder apparatus to allow at least one of the one or more RF signals to be communicated to the transponder apparatus or to allow one or more transponder signals to be communicated from the transponder apparatus to the reader device. In this embodiment, the reader device may further include an antenna operatively coupled to the radio module for receiving the one or more RF signals and for transmitting the one or more RF signals to a transponder equipped with a receiving antenna, such as, for example and without limitation, a standard RFID tag or a PCB wherein the conductors of the PCB form the antenna for an RFID chip as described elsewhere herein.

In still another embodiment, a method of communicating information to a transponder apparatus is provided that includes providing a reader device having a touch probe having one or more probe contacts, generating one or more RF signals in the reader device and providing the one or more RF signals to the one or more probe contacts, and bringing one or more leads of the transponder apparatus into electrical contact with the one or more probe contacts to allow at least one of the one or more RF signals to be communicated to the transponder apparatus or to allow one or more transponder signals to be communicated from the transponder apparatus to the reader device.

In yet another embodiment, a method communicating with a printed circuit board a printed circuit board or an item that includes a printed circuit board during, for example, the process of manufacturing, making modifications to or repairing the printed circuit board or item is provided. The printed circuit board has a plurality of conductors provided on a substrate. The method includes providing a transponder apparatus on the printed circuit board, wherein the transponder apparatus includes a transponder substrate, a first lead and a second lead provided on the transponder substrate, and a chip having a plurality of contacts provided on the transponder substrate. The first lead is operatively coupled to a first one of the contacts and the second lead being operatively coupled to a second one of the contacts. The transponder apparatus not having an antenna as is the case with a traditional RFID tag or the like. The method further includes operatively coupling the first lead to a first one of the conductors and the second lead to a second one of the conductors, wherein the first one of the conductors and the second one of the conductors are from independent circuits provided on the printed circuit board. When this is done, the first one of the conductors and the second one of the conductors function as an antenna for the transponder apparatus. Finally, the method includes transmitting one or more first RF signals from a reader device to the transponder apparatus over an air interface through the first one of the conductors and the second one of the conductors functioning as an antenna, and transmitting one or more second RF signals from the transponder apparatus to the reader device over the air interface through the first one of the conductors and the second one of the conductors functioning as an antenna. The transponder apparatus may be a strap that is traditionally used to form an inlay.

The transponder apparatus may employ active or passive technology for power purposes. In one particular embodiment, the transponder apparatus is passive and includes energy harvesting circuitry, on-board electronic circuitry, and RF transmitter circuitry. In this embodiment, the method further comprises receiving at least a portion of the one or more first RF signals in the energy harvesting circuitry, wherein the energy harvesting circuitry converts the at least a portion of the one or more first RF signals into DC energy, and using the DC energy to provide power to the on-board electronic circuitry and the RF transmitter circuitry. Preferably, the energy harvesting circuitry includes a matching network having an impedance chosen in manner so as to maximize a voltage level of the DC energy.

In another embodiment, a method of communicating with a printed circuit board or an item including a printed circuit board is provided that includes providing a transponder chip on the printed circuit board, wherein the transponder chip has a plurality of contacts and wherein the transponder chip does not have an antenna, and operatively coupling at least a first one of the contacts to a first one of the conductors and at least a second one of the contacts to a second one of the conductors, wherein the first one of the conductors and the second one of the conductors are from independent circuits provided on the printed circuit board, and wherein the first one of the conductors and the second one of the conductors function as an antenna for the transponder chip. The method further includes transmitting one or more first RF signals from a reader device to the transponder chip over an air interface through the first one of the conductors and the second one of the conductors functioning as an antenna, and transmitting one or more second RF signals from the transponder chip to the reader device over the air interface through the first one of the conductors and the second one of the conductors functioning as an antenna.

An apparatus is also provided that includes a printed circuit board having a plurality of conductors provided on a printed circuit board substrate, and a transponder chip provided on the printed circuit board. The transponder chip has a plurality of contacts and does not having an antenna. At least a first one of the contacts is operatively coupled to a first one of the conductors and at least a second one of the contacts is operatively coupled to a second one of the conductors, wherein the first one of the conductors and the second one of the conductors are from independent circuits provided on the printed circuit board. The first one of the conductors and the second one of the conductors function as an antenna for the transponder chip. The chip may be part of a transponder apparatus, such as a strap, provided on the printed circuit board that includes a transponder substrate, and a first lead and a second lead provided on the transponder substrate, wherein the first lead operatively couples the first one of the contacts to the first one of the conductors and the second lead operatively couples the second one of the contacts to the second one of the conductors. In one embodiment, the chip includes energy harvesting circuitry, on-board electronic circuitry, and RF transmitter circuitry, wherein at least a portion of the one or more first RF signals is received in the energy harvesting circuitry, wherein the energy harvesting circuitry converts the at least a portion of the one or more first RF signals into DC energy, and wherein the DC energy provides power to the on-board electronic circuitry and the RF transmitter circuitry. Preferably, the energy harvesting circuitry includes a matching network having an impedance chosen in manner so as to maximize a voltage level of the DC energy.

Therefore, it should now be apparent that the invention substantially achieves all the above aspects and advantages. Additional aspects and advantages of the invention will be set forth in the description that follows, and in part will be obvious from the description, or may be learned by practice of the invention. Moreover, the aspects and advantages of the invention may be realized and obtained by means of the instrumentalities and combinations particularly pointed out in the appended claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The accompanying drawings illustrate presently preferred embodiments of the invention, and together with the general description given above and the detailed description given below, serve to explain the principles of the invention. As shown throughout the drawings, like reference numerals designate like or corresponding parts.

FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of a prior art strap that may be employed as a transponder device in the system described herein;

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a reader device 25 according to one embodiment;

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a printed circuit board according to another embodiment which may be used to, for example and without limitation, improve the monitoring of the chain of custody of the printed circuit board throughout the populating (stuffing) process and/or while subsequent modifications or repairs are made to the printed circuit board; and

FIG. 4 is a schematic representation of one particular embodiment of the printed circuit board shown in FIG. 3 wherein passive technology is employed to power the chip forming a part thereof.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
In one embodiment, the size of and therefore the area consumed by a transponder device is reduced by eliminating the need for an air medium interface. Because the reliance on an air medium is eliminated, the need for an antenna on the transponder device is also eliminated, thereby allowing the size of the transponder device to be greatly reduced. As described in detail below, rather than employing an air medium, a transponder system is provided that enables information to be communicated from a reader device, such as a properly equipped/modified RFID interrogator, to a transponder device by way of a physical interface.

FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of a prior art strap 5 that may be employed as a transponder device in the present invention. The strap 5 includes a chip 10 having chip contacts (not shown) that is mounted on and supported by a strap substrate 15. The strap substrate 15 may be made of any of a variety of suitable materials, such as, for example, suitable flexible polymeric materials like PET, polypropylene or other polyolefins, polycarbonate, or polysulfone. The chip 10 may be any of a variety of suitable electronic components for electrically coupling to and suitably interacting with a reader device as described herein, for example to receive and/or to send signals. The contacts of the chip 10 are electrically coupled to strap leads 20 that are provided on the strap substrate 15. The strap leads 20 may be made out of an electrically conducting material, such as, without limitation, a metal foil, a metal/conductive ink or a conductive polymer. In some embodiments, the strap leads 20 may include an electrically insulating material along selected portions of the conducting material. Alternatively, the strap leads 20 may include a dielectric material with conductive layers on one or both sides.

Normally, as described elsewhere herein, the strap leads 20 are operatively coupled, through a suitable electrically-conductive connection, to an antenna provided on a substrate to form an inlay and thus form an RFID transponder. However, according to one embodiment described herein, the strap 5 is used to form a transponder without operatively coupling the strap 5 to an antenna. Instead, as described elsewhere herein, a direct electrical connection is made between the strap 5, and in particular the strap leads 20, and a properly equipped reader device to enable signals to be communicated between the reader device and the strap 5 (and in particular the chip 10 provided therein). The strap 5 may either be powered from the modulated electromagnetic field provided by the reader device, or may contain its own internal power source, such as a battery.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of one embodiment of a reader device 25 that may be used in the system described herein. The reader device 25 includes a control system 30 and a radio module 45. In the preferred embodiment shown in FIG. 2, the control system 30 includes a processor 35, such as a microcontroller or microprocessor, and a digital signal processor (DSP) 40, although other configurations are possible. The processor 35 provides control over high level operation of the reader device 25 and may communicate with an external network and/or peripheral devices. The DSP 40 provides direct control over all operations of the radio module 45 in response to high level commands provided by the processor 35, and processes data signals received from transponder devices, such as the strap 5 as described herein. The radio module 45 is adapted to provide for communications to/from transponder devices, such as the strap 5 and/or tags provided with a suitable antenna, by generating and receiving RF signals in the manner described herein.

More particularly, the radio module 45 further comprises a transmitter portion 50, a receiver portion 55, and a hybrid 60. The hybrid 60 may further comprise a circulator. The transmitter portion 50 preferably includes a local oscillator that generates an RF carrier frequency. The transmitter portion 50 sends a transmission signal modulated by the RF carrier frequency to the hybrid 60, which in turn passes the signal to either or both of a touch probe 65 provided as part of the reader device 25 and an antenna 70 provided as part of the reader device 25. The hybrid 60 connects the transmitter 50 and receiver 55 portions to the touch probe 65 and antenna 70 while isolating them from each other. In particular, the hybrid 60 allows a relatively strong signal to be sent from the transmitter portion 50 while simultaneously receiving a weaker signal reflected from transponder device such as the strap 5 or a tag equipped with an antenna. The touch probe 65 includes one or more electrical contacts or leads that are adapted to be selectively and temporarily mated and brought into electrical contact with the strap leads 20 of the strap 5. As such, the signals generated by the reader device 25, that would in known RFID readers be sent over an air interface, may instead be directly transmitted to the strap 5, and thus the chip 10 provided therein. Similarly, the signals generated by the chip 10, that in the prior art would have been sent via antenna over an air interface to an RFID reader, may instead be directly transmitted to the reader device 25 through the touch probe 65. In one particular embodiment, the touch probe 65 is simply terminals provided on a coaxial cable with two conductors fixed with a center to center distance to accommodate the spacing of the strap leads 20 shown in FIG. 1. The antenna 70, on the other hand, enables communication with conventional RFID tags that are equipped with an antenna by broadcasting the RF signal(s) generated by the reader device 25 (which may be received by the conventional RFID tags) and capturing any signals radiated by the conventional RFID tags.

The tag signals, whether transmitted through the touch probe 65 or captured by the antenna 70, are passed back to the hybrid 60, which forwards the signals to the receiver portion 55. The receiver portion 55 mixes the captured signals with the RF carrier frequency generated by the local oscillator to directly downconvert the captured signals to a baseband information signal, which is provided to the DSP 40 for processing thereby.

In an alternative embodiment, the antenna 70 may be omitted from the reader device 25. As will be appreciated, in such a configuration, it will not be possible to communicate using an air interface with conventional RFID tags equipped with an antenna, but instead all communication will need to be performed through a direct connection to the touch probe 65.

One application for which the transponder system described above may be particularly suitable is in the manufacture, modification and/or repair of printed circuit boards (PCB). During such manufacturing, modification and/or repair, it is often desirable to monitor the chain of custody of the PCB and record and retrieve certain information about the PCB throughout the populating (stuffing) process and/or while subsequent modifications or repairs are made to the PCB. In the past, conventional RFID tags have been used for this purpose. Such tags, when used, are affixed to the PCB and therefore occupy valuable space on the PCB. By using the disclosed system, a transponder such as the strap 5, which occupies less space than a conventional RFID tag, may be affixed to each PCB and, when necessary, and may be read and/or have information written to them using a reader device such as reader device 25 (i.e., through the touch probe 65). As a result, valuable board space on each PCB will be freed. For example, when a modification, such as in the form of an engineering change, or a repair is made to such a PCB, information relating to that modification or repair (such as who made the modification or repair and the nature of the modification or repair) can be written to the transponder (and in particular the chip 10 thereof) using an RFID reader device (such as reader device 25) using the touch probe 65 when the modification or repair is made. Then, that information can subsequently be retrieved from the transponder (and in particular the chip 10 thereof) using an RFID reader device (such as reader device 25) using the touch probe 65 when necessary. In one particular embodiment, the transponder (and in particular the chip 10 thereof) will include an address of an Internet site that contains information about the PCB, such as schematics or other technical information. When the reader device obtains that address information, it is able to access the Internet site and download the information about the PCB contained therein for display on a display provided as part of the reader device.

Furthermore, because the reader device 25 may be formed by modifying an existing RFID reader, the system may take advantage of and use the numerous software and hardware options that are currently commercially available form a number of vendors.

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a printed circuit board 100 according to another embodiment which may be used to improve the monitoring of the chain of custody of the PCB and/or record and retrieve certain information about the PCB throughout the populating (stuffing) process and/or while subsequent modifications or repairs are made to the PCB. As described above, board space on a PCB is valuable. Conventional RFID tags employ a discrete antenna which occupies a good portion of this valuable board space. In the printed circuit board 100, as described below, certain portions of the printed circuit board 100 are used to create a dipole (asymmetrical) antenna used for communication by a chip 10 during the PCB populating (stuffing) process and/or while subsequent modifications or repairs are made to the PCB (or the process of manufacturing and/or modifying or repairing any item that includes a PCB as part thereof, such as the manufacture of an electronic component like a computer system that includes therein a PCB).

As seen in FIG. 3, the printed circuit board 100 includes a plurality of electronic components 105 (such as, without limitation, IC chips) mounted on a substrate 108 and electrically interconnected by a plurality of conductors 110 also provided on the substrate 108. In addition, a strap 5 as described elsewhere herein is also provided on the substrate 108. In particular, as seen in FIG. 3, the strap 5 is removeably affixed to the substrate 108, for example using a suitable adhesive material. Furthermore, a first one of the strap leads 20A is electrically connected to a first one of the conductors 110A by a trace of electrically conducting material 1I5A, and a second one of the strap leads 20B is electrically connected to a second one of the conductors 110B by a trace of electrically conducting material 115B, wherein the first conductor 110A and the second of the conductor 110B are from independent circuits provided on the printed circuit board 100 (meaning that those two circuits are not electrically connected to one another). The traces of electrically conducting material 115A, 115B may be any suitable material, such as, without limitation, a metal foil, a metal/conductive ink or a conductive polymer. In this manner, the first and second conductors 110A, 110B of the printed circuit board 100 form a dipole antenna for the strap 5 to enable the strap 5 (and in particular the chip 10 thereof) to receive RF signals from and transmit RF signals to an RFID reader device (such as reader device 25) over an air interface. As such, the printed circuit board 100 is able to be tracked and monitored by the RFID reader device during the populating (stuffing) process and/or while subsequent modifications or repairs are made to the printed circuit board 100. In addition, information can be written to and/or retrieved from the strap 5 (and in particular the chip 10 thereof during these processes. For example, when a modification, such as in the form of an engineering change, or a repair is made to the printed circuit board 100, information relating to that modification or repair (such as who made the modification or repair and the nature of the modification or repair) can be written to the strap 5 (and in particular the chip 10 thereof) using an RFID reader device (such as reader device 25) over an air interface when the modification or repair is made. Then, that information can subsequently be retrieved from the strap 5 (and in particular the chip 10 thereof) using an RFID reader device (such as reader device 25) over an air interface when necessary. As will be appreciated, during these processes, the printed circuit board 100 will not be powered, and thus the conductors 110 (including the first and second conductors 110A, 110B) will not be carrying any voltage or current from the components of the printed circuit board 100.

In an alternative embodiment, the chip 10 itself (without the other parts of the strap 5, i.e., the substrate 15 and the strap leads 20) may be affixed to the substrate 108 and an electrically conducting material, such as, without limitation, a metal foil, a metal/conductive ink or a conductive polymer, may be used to form the traces of electrically conducting material 115A, 115B to directly connect the desired contacts of the chip 10 to the first and second conductors 110A and 110B to allow the first and second conductors 110A and 110B of the printed circuit board 100 to act as an antenna for the chip 10.

As discussed elsewhere herein, the chip 10 (whether provided as part of a strap 5 or connected directly as just described) may either be powered using active technology or passive technology. In the case of active technology, RFID chips are provided with their own internal or external power supplies, e.g., a battery. In contrast, RFID chips employing passive technology do not have an internal power supply. Instead, the electrical current that is induced in an antenna operatively coupled to the RFID chip by the incoming RF signal from the RFID reader provides enough power for the chip to power up and transmit a response. One passive technology, known as backscatter technology, generates signals by backscattering the carrier signal sent from the RFID reader. In another technology, described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,289,237 and 6,615,074, RF energy from the RFID reader is converted to a DC voltage by a matching circuit/charge pump combination. The DC voltage is then used to power a processor/transmitter combination that transmits information to the RFID reader at, for example, a different frequency.

FIG. 4 is a schematic representation of one particular embodiment of the printed circuit board 100 wherein passive technology is employed to power the chip 10. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 4, the chip 10 is directly connected to the first and second conductors 110A and 110B as described elsewhere herein. Alternatively, the chip 10 may be provided as part of a strap 5 provided on the substrate 108 as discussed elsewhere herein.

As seen in FIG. 4, the chip 10 includes energy harvesting circuitry 120 that is operatively coupled to on-board electronic circuitry 125, which in turn is operatively coupled to transmitter circuitry 130. In operation, the energy harvesting circuitry 120 is structured to receive RF energy (e.g., from a reader device) and harvest energy therefrom by converting the received RF energy into DC energy, e.g., a DC voltage. The DC voltage is then used to power the on-board electronic circuitry 125 and the transmitter circuitry 130. The transmitter circuitry 130 is structured to transmit an RF information signal to a receiving device such as an RFID reader. The RF information signal may, for example, include data that identifies the PCB 100. The on-board electronic circuitry 125 may include, for example, a processing unit, such as, without limitation, a microprocessor, a microcontroller or a PIC processor, additional logic circuitry, memory for storing information written to the chip 10 as described herein, and/or a sensing circuit for sensing or measuring a particular parameter (such as temperature, in which case a thermistor may be included in the sensing circuit).

In the particular embodiment shown in FIG. 4, the energy harvesting circuitry 120 includes a matching network 135 electrically connected to the first and second conductors 110A and 110B (through the traces 115A, 115B), and therefore to the antenna formed thereby as described herein. The matching network 135 is also electrically connected to a voltage boosting and rectifying circuit preferably in the form of a one or more stage charge pump 140. Charge pumps are well known in the art. Basically, one stage of a charge pump essentially doubles the effective amplitude of an AC input voltage with the resulting increased DC voltage appearing on an output capacitor. The voltage could be stored using a rechargeable battery. Successive stages of a charge pump, if present, will essentially increase the voltage from the previous stage resulting in an increased output voltage. In operation, the antenna formed by the first and second conductors 110A and 110B receives RF energy that is transmitted in space by a far-field source, such as an RFID reader. The RF energy received by the antenna is provided, in the form of an AC signal, to the charge pump 140 through the matching network 135. The charge pump 140 rectifies the received AC signal to produce a DC signal that is amplified as compared to what it would have been had a simple rectifier been used.

In the preferred embodiment, the matching network 135 is chosen (i.e., its impedance is chosen) so as to maximize the voltage of the DC signal output by charge pump 140. In other words, the matching network 135 matches the impedance of the antenna formed by the first and second conductors 110A and 110B to the charge pump 140 solely on the basis of maximizing the DC output of the charge pump 140. In the preferred embodiment, the matching network 135 is an LC circuit of either an L topology (which includes one inductor and one capacitor) or a π topology (which includes one inductor and two capacitors) wherein the inductance of the LC circuit and the capacitance of the LC circuit are chosen so as to maximize the DC output of the charge pump 140. In one embodiment, the matching network 135 may actually be formed by designing/laying out the printed circuit board 100 (and in particular the first and second conductors 110A and 110B forming the dipole) in a manner that results in the desired matching relationship (although this represents an extra step for the printed circuit board 100, it may be desirable to do so if a large volume of them are to be produced so that they can be easily tracked through the populating process as described herein). Alternatively, a separate matching circuit may be provided. In either case, the particulars of the matching network (e.g., the particular LC parameters) may be chosen so as to maximize the output of the charge pump 140 using a trial and error (“annealing”) empirical approach in which various sets of inductor and capacitor values are used as matching elements in the matching network 135, and the resulting output of the charge pump 140 is measured for each combination, and the combination that produces the maximum output is chosen. In this process, the input impedance of the charge pump 140 with each matching network combination may be plotted as a point on a Smith chart with a color coding for the amount of energy harvested. After a number of tries, it will be easy to see a clustering of the color coded points to selectively choose other points in or around the cluster to achieve a near optimum value. This trial and error/annealing approach is also described in Minhong Mi, et al., “RF Energy Harvesting with Multiple Antennas in the Same Space,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 47, No. 5, October 2005, and Marlin Mickle et al., “Powering Autonomous Harvesting with Multiple Antennas in the Same Space,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 48, No. 1, February 2006, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference.

While preferred embodiments of the invention have been described and illustrated above, it should be understood that these are exemplary of the invention and are not to be considered as limiting. Additions, deletions, substitutions, and other modifications can be made without departing from the spirit or scope of the present invention. Accordingly, the invention is not to be considered as limited by the foregoing description but is only limited by the scope of the appended claims.

Here are a few company, who have impliment the RFID READER (EYE,BIG BROTHER)technology:

https://www.speedpass.com/forms/frmSpHome.aspx

http://www.cvo.com/

http://www.beitec.com/penguin.htm

http://www.biblio-tech.com/html/rfid.html

http://www.dexit.com/

https://www124.americanexpress.com/cards/loyalty.do?page=expresspay

http://www.paypass.com/

http://www.lojack.com/

http://www.mydealerlot.com/

http://www.racetimer.se/sv/home/about

http://www.mediacart.com/

http://www.canadianuniform.com/can_product_category_rental_objectname_can_sam.html

http://www.igps.net/

You should also look for these company on the new york stock exchange. It will help identify current and future contract in the working.

thank you
 
H.E.L.P. = How. Every. Loser. Prospect.   (Goverment)         
 
J.O.B. = Jorney. Of the. Broke (We the People)
 
illegal business control america. The people have NO RIGHTS, only the right to DEATH.

Offline STEVEX

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  • Posts: 43
Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #38 on: July 31, 2008, 08:31:07 pm »


RFID used in animal:
http://patni.com/downloads/RFID_Animal_Traceability.pdf


 
http://www.rfid-world.com/news/201805408?queryText=human+animal+rfid
Reports Link RFID Implants To Cancer, Critics Are Skeptical
By Thomas Claburn



Courtesy of InformationWeek
(09/10/2007 2:00 PM EDT)

    A report published on Saturday by the Associated Press links RFID implants to cancer in laboratory animals.

    But Kevin Warwick, professor of cybernetics at the University of Reading, England, and known for having RFID chips implanted in his body for short periods in 1998 and 2002, expressed skepticism about the studies cited in the AP report and questioned the ethics of Dow Chemical and its researchers for not publicizing their findings sooner.

    "From both technical and medical viewpoints I am very surprised by this information and I question the validity of it," Warwick said in an e-mail. "Most (if not all) RFID implants are silicon encased and hermetically sealed -- there can therefore be no question of a materials problem. As pointed out in the article, in practice many animals have had such implants in place for several years now (quite a few humans, too) and I have not heard of one single case of there being a problem."

    VeriChip, which makes RFID implants as medical devices to monitor human health, also took issue with the studies. "Over the last 15 years, millions of dogs and cats have safely received an implantable microchip with limited or no reports of adverse health reactions from this life-saving product, which was recently endorsed by the USDA," the company said in a statement posted on its Web site. "These chips are a well-accepted and well-respected means of global identification for pets in the veterinary community. Veterinarians would not continue to prescribe pet microchips if they believed they presented significant risk of malignant tumors in dogs and cats."

    VeriChip cited two studies that find no link between RFID implants and cancer in mice. "Since learning of the [AP] article, we have discovered two studies from our manufacturer -" Chronic Evaluation in Rodents to a Microchip Implant Used for Animal Identification [D.J. Ball, R.L. Robinson, R.E. Stoll and G.E. Visscher, Sandoz Research Institute, East Hanover, N.J.] and Tissue Reaction to an Implantable Identification Device in Mice [Ghanta N. Rao and Jennifer Edmondson] -- that examine microchip implants in laboratory mice and rats and conclude that microchip implants DO NOT cause malignant tumors."

    "We recognize we have a corporate responsibility to review these studies, to look at other studies, to do new studies if necessary, and do what it appropriate after reviewing all of the information in all regards, and we intend to do this," said Scott Silverman, chairman and CEO of VeriChip, during an ABC News interview broadcast on Good Morning America on Monday.

    The AP report says that studies in veterinary and toxicology journals published between 1996 and 2006 found that "chipped" laboratory mice and rats sometimes developed tumors under their skin, most of which encased the implants.

    The studies cited include: a 1998 study in Ridgefield, Conn., of 177 mice that found an incidence of cancer that surpassed 10%; a 2006 study in France of 1,260 "chipped" mice that found tumors in 4.1% of the mice; and a 1997 study in Germany that found cancer in 1% of 4,279 chipped mice.

    While the AP report cautions against using these results to predict the effect of implantation on human health and notes that none of the studies included a control group of mice without implanted chips, several cancer researchers interviewed for the story nonetheless said the findings brought to light by the AP were enough to make them wary of RFID implants.

    Warwick, however, remains unconvinced. "Ordinarily in life most people are affected by radio signals, of the type in question, every day -- yet there has not, to my knowledge, been any question that radio waves cause cancer," he said. "I can only conclude therefore that (a) these results are simply bogus, (b) possibly there is an attempt at industrial espionage, or (c) maybe there were some other factors in the study that we haven't been told about, e.g., the rats were also being fed a strange chemical at the same time."

    The fact that these reports have been available for so long without widespread scrutiny raises questions for Warwick. "One thing I am not clear about is how long these purported results have been known," he said. "The study mentions 1996 -- if the results have been known since that time, then Dow Chemical and the practitioners in the study are highly irresponsible individuals to have waited till now to say something."

    A spokesperson for The Dow Chemical Company wasn't immediately available.

    The AP report suggests that the Food & Drug Administration's approval of RFID implants may have been swayed by lobbying efforts rather than purely scientific considerations.

    "The FDA is overseen by the Department of Health and Human Services, which, at the time of VeriChip's approval, was headed by Tommy Thompson," the AP report states. "Two weeks after the device's approval took effect on Jan. 10, 2005, Thompson left his Cabinet post, and within five months was a board member of VeriChip Corp. and Applied Digital Solutions. He was compensated in cash and stock options."

    Thompson denied influencing the FDA's approval of VeriChip's technology. "I had nothing to do with it," he told the AP. "And if you look back at my record, you will find that there has never been any improprieties whatsoever."

    The FDA stands by its approval processes, according to the AP.

    Warwick said that he has no financial involvement with any RFID vendor. "I have no interest in or with any RFID company of any type -- my experience has always been purely investigative/scientific," he said. "The answer I have given is therefore purely scientific -- no industrial/company/financial interest has swayed me one way or another."


http://www.rfid-world.com/news/201806740?queryText=human+animal+rfid
FDA Sharpens Its RFID Initiative
By Elena Malykhina



Courtesy of InformationWeek
(11/15/2004 4:30 PM EST)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is shifting its radio-frequency identification efforts into high gear with a new Compliance Policy Guide for implementing radio-frequency identification and an internal working group to monitor the adoption of RFID in the pharmaceutical industry. The policy guide, published this week, will create more opportunities for pilot programs that involve RFID tagging of bottles and other packaging materials and drugs that are a high risk for counterfeiting, said Dr. Paul Rudolf, senior adviser for medical and health policy at the Food and Drug Administration during a press conference Monday. Companies that sponsor RFID programs won't have to come to the agency on a case-by-case basis for permission; instead they will be able to turn to the guide for compliance regulations.

    "The [guide] is the outgrowth of a series of questions that have been raised to the FDA about the use of RFID technology," Rudolf said. "For example, sponsors and participants of various RFID pilot studies have come to us asking whether we were concerned about the effects of electromagnetic energy on products, whether we considered RFID to be labeling, whether we believed that any good manufacturing practices were implicated by the use of RFID."

    The agency has limited its policy to pharmaceutical drugs and excludes biologics, which are chemically synthesized products that are derived from living sources such as humans, animals, and microorganisms, said Rudolf. The exposure of biologics to electromagnetic energy can be problematic; therefore, companies piloting RFID on biologics packages will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.

    To further accelerate RFID standard-setting activities such as tag numbering, optimal frequency use, and database management, the new workgroup will monitor RFID adoption, identify regulatory issues, and develop processes for handling those issues. "The point of this is to further any counterfeiting reports that the FDA issued last year or early this year in which we describe a need for a number of new procedures to protect the drug supply against counterfeit drugs, and one of those was to encourage the development of RFID technology as a track-and-trace protection for pharmaceuticals," said William K. Hubbard, associate commissioner for policy and planning at the Food and Drug Administration.

    Pharmaceutical companies are expecting RFID technology to become the standard for providing track-and-trace protection for drugs in the future, Hubbard said. Pfizer already announced its plans to put RFID tags on all bottles of Viagra intended for sale in the United States as early as 2005. Purdue Pharma also announced that it will be tagging bottles of OxyContin to make it easier to authenticate and track-and-trace pain medication.

    The new policy guide is still under consideration and the agency is accepting public comments regarding revisions. The guidelines will go into effect upon publication in the Federal Register, which Rudolf said will take place in December 2007.




http://www.rfidtribe.com/files/RFID-The_Right_Frequency_For_Government.pdf
the real deal.

"‘Critical People’ Tracking
RFID can also be used to track the most critical
possible thing—namely, people. In Mexico, Attorney
General Rafael Macedo de la Concha made headlines
last year when it was announced that he and
160 federal prosecutors and drug investigators were
implanted with subcutaneous RFID chips to provide
the most secure access possible to Mexico’s new
federal anti-crime information center. The number
of chipped officials in Mexico reportedly grew
to include key members of the Mexican military,
the federal police, and even staffers in the office
of Mexico’s president, Vicente Fox (Anonymous,
“Mexico Tagging Federal Crime Fighters with RFID
Chips,” 2004)."

http://www.rfidtribe.com/files/microsensorsystemsfordefense.pdf
H.E.L.P. = How. Every. Loser. Prospect.   (Goverment)         
 
J.O.B. = Jorney. Of the. Broke (We the People)
 
illegal business control america. The people have NO RIGHTS, only the right to DEATH.

Offline esquared

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  • Posts: 536
Re: RFID in our Troops upon Enlistment :S
« Reply #39 on: August 15, 2008, 03:08:47 pm »
I don't think they can refuse any vaccines. I'm not sure though..
About the best you could do is force them to discharge you and refuse it . That will be with you for the rest of your life but it is better than death .