Author Topic: Sephardic Jews Right of Return to Spain and Portugul - Conversos - Marranos  (Read 2391 times)

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Offline TahoeBlue

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Spain Tells the Sephardic Jews Expelled 500 Years Ago ‘Come Back!’
The Inquisition threatened them with gruesome deaths if they remained. Now Madrid is welcoming Jews back, not least, to help boost the flagging Spanish economy.

JERUSALEM — The Spanish parliament formally approved on Thursday a law aiming to correct a “tragic and historic” error by offering citizenship to Jews whose ancestors were expelled from the country in 1492. Yes, 523 years later, it seems, Madrid wants to do the right thing.

“This law says much about who we were in the past and who we are today and what we want to be in the future, an open, diverse and tolerant Spain,” Justice Minister Rafael Catalá told reporters outside the parliament building.

The legislation, which passed with a wide majority and with support from all the largest parties, is a rare gesture out of Europe, where anti-Semitism and other ethnic tensions have been on the rise in recent years. It was first proposed as the Sephardic Ancestry Bill in 2012, igniting self reflection and dragging up painful memories among the global community of Sephardic Jews.

Sephard is the name for Spain in Hebrew, and after the Jews were expelled from the Iberian Peninsula along with the former Muslim rulers there, they spread far and wide in North Africa, through the Ottoman Empire and beyond. Estimates of their numbers around the world number as high as 3.5 million. In Turkey, for generation after generation, they continued to speak Ladino, a variation of Spanish, and a few still do. But with the creation of Israel in 1948 and the Arab nationalist backlash in many countries where Sephardic Jews previously felt fairly secure, many moved to Israel, while others went to Europe and the Americas—and even back to Spain, where the Sephardic population is now estimated at 40,000.

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Portugal okays law of return for Sephardic Jews
Government in Lisbon approves changes to law on naturalizing descendants of Jews expelled five centuries ago.
January 29, 2015 18:28

The Portuguese government on Thursday approved modifications to a law that regulates nationality rights to the descendants of Sephardic Jews who were expelled from the Iberian nation five centuries ago, local media reported.

"I would not say that it is a historical reparation, because I believe that in this regard there is no possibility of repairing what has been done. I would say that it is the granting of a right," Portuguese RPT news quoted Justice Minister Paula Teixeira da Cruz as saying at the conclusion of a cabinet meeting.

Portugal’s law on naturalizing descendants of Sephardic Jews was passed by parliament in 2013.

“We expect the law to be effective by mid-February or the beginning of March 2015,” said the president of Lisbon’s Jewish community Oulman Carp.

According to the legislation, “the government will give nationality … to Sephardic Jews of Portuguese ancestry who belong to a tradition of a Portuguese-descended Sephardic community, based on objective prerequisites proving a connection to Portugal through names, language and ancestry.”

Oulman Carp said it also will apply to non-Jewish descendants of Sephardim, Oulman Carp said.

Existing legislation on the naturalization of Sephardim has not been applied because it still does not contain regulations for bureaucrats, which may be published along with the final letter of the law.

The authors described the legislation as an act of atonement for the expulsion of Portuguese Jewry in 1536 during the Portuguese Inquisition. Similar legislation is underway in Spain, where it awaits a final vote in Congress. Hundreds of thousands of Jews fled Iberia from 1492 on because of Church-led persecution.

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If Spain welcomes back its Jews, will its Muslims be next?
A proposed law will fast-track naturalisation of Jews whose ancestors were expelled 500 years ago. Now the descendants of Muslims who were ousted are also seeking the right to return

Perched dramatically on a rocky mountain, the small city of Toledo overlooks a bend in the Tagus river. Within its maze of cobblestone streets are buildings that once housed mosques, churches and synagogues, hinting at the varied cultures that once called this medieval city home.

Earlier this month, about 50 miles away from Toledo, the Spanish government sought to strengthen its ties with one of these cultures, announcing plans to fast-track the naturalisation of Sephardic Jews, whose ancestors were expelled five centuries ago from Spain.

The bill, said the Spanish government, would "correct a historical wrong". The legislation has yet to be approved by parliament, but already consulates in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem said they have been flooded with requests for information. Up to 3.5 million people around the world are thought to have Sephardic – Hebrew for "Spanish" – Jewish ancestry.

Now the descendants of another group who figured prominently in Spain's colourful past – before also being expelled – say it's only fair that the same right of return be extended to them.

Shortly after banishing the country's Jewish population, Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand turned their attention to Spain's Muslims, forcing them to covert to Christianity or face expulsion. The Muslims who converted, known as Moriscos, often did so in name only, holding on tightly to their customs and traditions.

In the early 1600s – nearly 120 years after Jews in Spain were told to leave – the Moriscos were also expelled. An estimated 275,000 people were forcibly resettled, the majority of them heading to Morocco, some to Algeria and Tunisia.

A group representing Moriscos in Morocco recently sent a letter to Spain's King Juan Carlos asking the country to make the same conciliatory gesture to the descendants of Muslims. Speaking from Rabat, the president of L'Association pour la Mémoire des Andalous strongly criticised Spain's double standard in offering to naturalise the descendants of Jews ousted from Spain but not Muslims. The Spanish government "should grant the same rights to all those who were expelled", Najib Loubaris told news agency EFE. "Otherwise the decision is selective, not to mention racist."

The Spanish government's offer to Sephardic Jews was "very positive", said Loubaris, in that it showed an acknowledgment of "guilt for the expulsion that the Spanish state committed against its own citizens".
Whether it is citizenship for Muslims or Jewish descendants, he said, "the cause and historical background is the same. And for this we want this same right to be extended. From a legal standpoint, it's only just."

His organisation has spent years lobbying the Spanish government to naturalise the descendants of Muslims.

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The Converso Comeback
Hispanic crypto-Jews use social media and DNA testing to reconnect with their heritage
By Suzanne Selengut

When retired civil servant Carl Montoya arrives for prayers at Mikveh Israel Synagogue in Philadelphia, he has a routine. He expertly wraps tefillin, dons his Sephardic prayer shawl, and greets his many friends in the pews. The Hebrew prayers can be tricky for him, but he is slowly mastering them all, together with the rest of Jewish ritual life. As a convert to Conservative Judaism and an active member of an Orthodox synagogue, Montoya has definitely broken from his past as a Catholic with deep roots in New Mexico’s historic Hispanic community. But what makes his story truly remarkable is not just that he is a Jew by choice, but that he is a Jew by birth.

Like many of the around 100 million other descendants of crypto-Jews of Spanish-Portuguese heritage globally, Montoya became curious about family lore. He learned his ancestors were Bnei Anusim—a Hebrew term for conversos, those forced to convert to Christianity during the Spanish Inquisition—who fled from the Iberian Peninsula to what is now New Mexico. Montoya shares his heritage with many others in the American Southwest, Central and South America, Spain, and Portugal. In Spain alone, one in 20 Iberian men have DNA markers identifying them as having a Jewish background, while some 15 percent of Hispanic men in the Southwest have those markers.

Almost 200 years after the last victim of the Inquisition was murdered in 1826, the true picture of what happened during that deadly period of Jewish history is only now emerging, thanks to the growing popularity of social media and online DNA testing services. Curious individuals can now pay a small fee to learn crucial genetic information, then head to Facebook forums such as Tracing the Tribe, where they can meet others searching for clues to the past.

Once they have determined their links to 15th-century Spanish Jewry, the next step is different for every individual. Some convert to one of the traditional branches of Judaism, while others identify as Jewish without feeling the need to be ratified by a rabbinic court. Still others remain members of another faith or no faith while finding new inspiration to study Judaism, or visit Israel.


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A return to Jewish roots for descendents of Hispanic Catholics
By Ana Veciana-Suarez
Updated January 11, 2015 01:30 PM

Growing up in Brazil, Jonatas Da Silva knew there was something different about his family. The women went to the river to cleanse after their periods, relatives were buried within a day and no one celebrated Christmas or ate pork. But it wasn’t until he was living in South Florida that the graduate student came to terms with a lost identity.

Like thousands in Latin America, which has long been predominantly Catholic, he and his family are descendants of Jews who either converted to Catholicism under the threat of the Inquisition or practiced their faith in secret while pretending to be good Christians.

After a series of encounters, Da Silva, now 33, eventually went on to search for his roots, taking Hebrew classes, submitting to a DNA test (he’s Sephardic), and visiting various synagogues, before settling into a Miami Chabad. “Slowly the whole family became more culturally Jewish,” he said. “It was an awakening.”

Lavender will be speaking about this phenomenon Monday at the Jewish Museum of Florida-FIU. Lavender, a sociologist, is editor-in-chief of the Journal of Spanish, Portuguese and Italian Crypto Jews. He has written dozens of books and academic articles, mostly about ethnicity and Sephardic Jews.

The slow but steady return to Judaism is a result of factors dating back more than four decades, Lavender said. The publication of Alex Haley’s Roots sparked the initial interest in genealogy among the public in general. In addition, migration into cities from small towns and villages, where the Catholic Church and the opinion of neighbors held considerable sway, freed inquisitive people to seek explanations about unusual family tradition. Finally, the advent of the Internet and DNA testing made the search for historical and ethnic identity easier.

“The 1970s were a turning point,” Lavender added. “It wasn’t like a switch going on suddenly but something that built up more gradually.”
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Sephardic Jews Right of Return to Spain and Portugul - Conversos
« Reply #1 on: March 21, 2018, 11:31:17 am »
Slavery had mostly died out in western Europe about the year 1000, replaced by serfdom. It lingered longer in England and in peripheral areas linked to the Muslim world, where slavery continued to flourish. Church rules suppressed slavery of Christians.

Jewish merchants

Records of long-distance Jewish slave merchants date at least as far back as 492, when Pope Gelasius permitted Jews to import non-Christian slaves into Italy, at the request of a Jewish friend from Telesina.[25][26][27] By the turn of the 6th to the 7th century, Jews had become the chief slave traders in Italy, and were active in Gaelic territories. Pope Gregory the Great issued a ban on Jews possessing Christian slaves, lest the slaves convert to Judaism.[27][28]

By the 9th and 10th centuries, Jewish merchants, sometimes called Radhanites, were a major force in the slave trade continent-wide.[9][29][30]

Jews were one of the few groups who could move and trade between the Christian and Islamic worlds.[30] Ibn Khordadbeh observed and recorded routes of Jewish merchants in his Book of Roads and Kingdoms from the South of France to Spain, carrying (amongst other things) female slaves, eunuch slaves, and young slave boys. He also notes Jews purchasing Slavic slaves in Prague.[9][27][31] Letters of Agobard, archbishop of Lyons (816–840),[32][33][34][35] acts of the emperor Louis the Pious,[36][37] and the seventy-fifth canon of the Council of Meaux of 845 confirms the existence of a route used by Jewish traders with Slavic slaves through the Alps to Lyon, to Southern France, to Spain.[9] Toll records from Walenstadt in 842–843 indicate another trade route, through Switzerland, the Septimer and Splügen passes, to Venice, and from there to North Africa.[9]

As German rulers of Saxon dynasties took over the enslavement (and slave trade) of Slavs in the 10th century, Jewish merchants bought slaves at the Elbe, sending caravans into the valley of the Rhine. Many of these slaves were taken to Verdun, which had close trade relations with Spain. Many would be castrated and sold as eunuchs as well.[9][21]

Jews would later become highly influential in the European slave trade, reaching their apex from the 16th to 19th centuries.[9]
Slavery in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia
William D. Phillips, Jr.

"The Iberian peninsula played a pivotal role in ushering in new systems of slavery in the late Middle Ages and early modern period. Engaging and clear, this book is the first comprehensive treatment of the topic and provides an entry into what it must have been like to be a slave in medieval Iberia."—Teofilo Ruiz, University of California, Los Angeles

The enslaved population of medieval Iberia composed only a small percentage of the general populace at any given point, and slave labor was not essential to the regional economy during the period. Yet slaves were present in Iberia from the beginning of recorded history until the early modern era, and the regulations and norms for slavery and servitude shifted as time passed and kingdoms rose and fell. The Romans brought their imperially sanctioned forms of slavery to the Iberian peninsula, and these were adapted by successive Christian kingdoms during the Middle Ages. The Muslim conquest of Iberia introduced new ideas about slavery and effected an increase in slave trade. During the later Middle Ages and the early modern period, slave owners in Christian Spain and Portugal maintained slaves at home, frequently captives taken in wars and sea raids, and exported their slave systems to colonies across the Atlantic.

Slavery in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia provides a magisterial survey of the many forms of bound labor in Iberia from ancient times to the decline of slavery in the eighteenth century. William D. Phillips, Jr., examines the pecuniary and legal terms of slavery from purchase to manumission. He pays particular attention to the conditions of life for the enslaved, which, in a religiously diverse society, differed greatly for Muslims and Christians as well as for men and women. This sweeping narrative will become the definitive account of slavery in a place and period that deeply influenced the forms of forced servitude that shaped the New World.

William D. Phillips, Jr., is Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Minnesota and author of A Concise History of Spain.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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The Radhanite Merchants


One such group are the Radhaniya (Radania, Radhaniyya or Radanites in English) – a group of Jewish merchants that traversed the medieval world crossing boundaries between the Franks, Muslims, Byzantines, the Rus and the Slavs.  In fact, they were able to reach Mesopotamia, Arabia, Persia, Central Asia’s various –stans, India, perhaps Mongolia and even China.

As far as we can tell the Radhanites were principally traders carrying Western goods such as brocade, beaver pelts, marten, furs, swords but also (newly minted) eunuchs and, it appears, children – all to be sold into slavery. From the East they came back with musk, aloe wood, camphor, cinnamon, celadon, silk (this was before the Italians took over production) and other products of the Orient.  In a way they were a more modest precursor to the Hanseatic iteague, the British East India Company or today’s corporations – a trading guild (or perhaps just a loose network of trading associates) whose members likely served as both merchants, explorers and, likely, spies for the local potentates.  It is possible that Ibrahim Ibn Ya’qub was also a “member” of this group – we will likely never know for sure (the fact that, when visiting Germany, he was surprised to see some of the Eastern wares and coins in the local markets, e.g., in Mainz – suggests that perhaps he was more of a diplomat traveler than a trader himself).

As regards slaves, the Radhanites themselves being principally intermediaries dealing in all kinds of merchandise, were not the ones who would capture human cargo – rather for that they relied on wars, the various local monarchs and raiders.  We must remember that slavery never died out with the collapse of the Roman Empire and as the Franks and then the newly-added Saxons began to fight the Polabian Slavs, a surplus of prisoners of war would most profitably be disposed off by selling them into slavery.  In this fashion your enemies would never be heard from again and you would make a lot of money – a win win so to speak.

Ibn Khurradadhbih on the al-Radhaniya

“The routes of the Jewish merchants called al-Radhaniya; these merchants they speak Arabic, Persian, Greek, Latin, Frankish, Andalusian and Slavic.  They journey from west to east, from east to west, traveling by land and by sea.  From the west they export eunuchs [more on that later – these were largely Slavic captives brought to Al-Andalus], young girls and boys, brocade, beaver pelts, marten and other furs and also swords.”

“They set sail from Firanja [the land of the Franks?] on the Mediterranean coast and then head for Farama in Egypt [Tell el-Farama, on the Mediterranean Coast, in the delta north of Suez].  There they transfer their merchandise to the backs of camels and travel to Qulzum [former Clysma, at the southern end of the Suez Canal] on the Red Sea, a distance of 25 forsakes [parsecs?].  They sail [from Qulzum] down the  Red [Eastern] Sea to al-Jar, the port of Medina, and to Jiddah/Gudda [Jeddah], the port of Mecca.  Then they continue on to Sindh [in Pakistan], India and China.”

“They return from China with musk, alloe wood, camphor, cinnamon and other eastern products, docking again at Qulzum, then proceed to Farama, from where they again set sail on the Mediterranean [Western] Sea.”

Ibn Hawqal on the Trade in Eunuchs

A well-known export from al-Andalus is slaves, boys and girls captured in France and Galicia, as well as eunuchs from the Saqaliba.  All the Saqaliba eunuchs in the world come from al-Andalus.  They are castrated near this country.  The [cutting] operation is performed by Jewish merchants.  The Saqaliba are descended from Japheth.  Their country is vast and extend over a very great length.  Raiders from Khurasan [or Khorassan] reach them through the territory of the Bulghars.  They are led in captivity to that province., their manhood left intact, their bodies unmutilated.  The territories of the Saqaliba are immense.  The arm of the sea which extend from the Ocean into the lands of Gog and Magog crosses their territory all the way to a point west of Trebizond [Trabzon, east of Paphlagonia on the Black Sea in today’s Turkey] then to Constantinople, thus dividing it into two halves.  One of these, throughout all its length is raided by the warriors of Khurasan, who live on its borders, while the northern regions are invaded by raiders from al-Andalus via Galicia, France, Lombardy* and Calabria.”
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline Jackson Holly

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  • It's the TV, stupid!

... many Arab/Muslim areas continued to sell and hold slaves
openly through the turn-of-the-century (20th), up until
about 1920. In fact, as we know, they still do in areas of
'flare-up', their 'jihads'.
St. Augustine: -The truth is like a lion; you don't have to defend it.
Let it loose; it will defend itself.-

Offline TahoeBlue

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So where is my "right of return" to: ( as a Danish Norman Crusading Viking )

Normandy France

Geez ....
English crusaders settled in 12th century Spain, study finds

A recent article in the Journal of Medieval History has found records indicating that a group of crusaders from England and Wales took part in the siege and conquest of the Spanish city of Tortosa in 1148, and that some of them decided to stay and live in the area.

In his article "Angli cum multis aliis alienigenis: crusade settlers in Tortosa," Antoni Virgili on the University of Barcelona traces the records of about twenty individuals who lived in and around Tortosa during the second half of the twelfth century. He identifies these people as being from England and Wales, including some people who became wealthy and important members of the local oligarchy.

In the spring of 1147 Anglo-Norman and Flemish crusaders set out from Dartmouth in the direction of the Holy Land to take part in the Second Crusade
. On their way they participated in the siege of Lisbon (October 1147) and the campaign against Tortosa which finished with the surrender of the city on the last day of 1148.

After the city fell, Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, began encouraging people to settle in his newly-conquered territories, offering them free land. Along with Catalans and Aragonese, this offer attracted Italian, French and other European settlers.

On 19 May, 1147, a contingent of crusaders left from Dartmouth in England, consisting of crusaders from Flanders, Frisia, France, England, Scotland and some German polities[8][9][10][11][1] who collectively considered themselves "Franks".[12] No prince or king was in charge of the expedition, and its participants seem to have been largely made up of townsmen, who organised themselves using a sworn oath.[3] Leadership was provided by Hervey de Glanvill, Constable of Suffolk.[13][14] Other crusader captains included Arnout IV, Count of Aarschot leading the Rhinelanders, Christian of Gistel leading the Flemish and Boulogne forces, and the Anglo-Norman forces led by Simon of Dover, Andrew of London, and Saher of Archelle.[15] Important decisions were made collectively by the commanders.

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En-slavers of Christians were expelled from Spain and Portugal (my crusading ancestors from England helped remove them ! :
"Sephard is the name for Spain in Hebrew, and after the Jews were expelled from the Iberian Peninsula along with the former Muslim rulers "
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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'UK Jews seeking Portuguese citizenship surged 80-fold after Brexit'
In the two months following the June 23 vote, a Jewish community in Portugal reportedly received some 400 applications compared to just 5 prior to the UK's split from the EU.
January 2, 2017 1

Britain's decision to leave the European Union in the so-called "Brexit" vote in June spurred an 80-fold jump in the number of British Jews seeking Portuguese nationality under a law of return, according to a UK media report this weekend.

The Jewish Community of Porto in Portugal had allegedly received a mere five applications to certify the Sephardic ancestry, or Jewish roots originating from the Iberian Peninsula, of prospective Portuguese citizens before Brexit, according to the UK's Guardian.
Portugal’s tourism chief seeks to inspire more Jews to move to the country
Mendes Godinho met with Jewish communities across the US, highlighting Portugal's Jewish history.
By Tamara Zieve
February 20, 2018


In 2013, Portugal became the second country, after Israel, to pass a Law of Return for Jews and their descendants.

The law grants Portuguese citizenship to Sephardic Jews of Portuguese ancestry who belong to a tradition of a Portuguese-descended Sephardic community, which they must prove through documents which attest to their connection to the country.
According to officials, the legislation has boosted Jewish presence in cities such as Lisbon and Porto.

The legislation followed renovation of Portuguese Jewish neighborhoods and heritage sites. A new synagogue was established in 1996 in Belmonte for the longest standing Marrano community, and in 2008 a memorial was dedicated in Lisbon’s Rossio Square to commemorate the massacre of thousands of Jews there in 1506.

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New citizenship law has Jews flocking to tiny Portugal city
Three hundred applications have been approved, but with recent elections over, that figure is set to increase
By Cnaan Liphshiz   12 February 2016

Meanwhile, Porto is becoming a more attractive prospective home for Jews with European Union passports, who can move here without obtaining citizenship.

Yoel Zekri, a French Jewish student in his 20s who temporarily moved here last year from Marseille, where five Jews have been assaulted in three stabbing attacks since October, said he’s considering staying on after his studies “to help build the community.”

“I no longer feel comfortable in France,” Zekri said. “I would never wear a kippah on the street. Here people sometimes tell me they are happy to see the Jews return.”

Alexandre Sznajder, a Jewish businessman from Rio de Janeiro with a Polish passport who was in town for the kosher hotel and synagogue celebration, is thinking about moving to Porto with his wife and son.

“The economic situation in Brazil is deteriorating and personal security is terrible,” said Sznajder, an importer who said he was kidnapped for ransom two years ago. “If I can keep doing business from here, where it’s safe, Porto could be the place for us.”
Some applicants for Portuguese citizenship from non-EU countries want a Portuguese passport as an insurance policy, in the event things in their home countries go south. Hila Loya, a visitor from Cape Town, applied last year for that reason.

In South Africa, she said, “the anti-Israel, anti-Jewish atmosphere is worsening, and there’s a feeling things may turn for the worse in the near future.”
Turkish Chief Rabbi Ishak Haleva and 80 other Turkish Jews. Most of the applicants to Porto’s community so far have been Turkish Jews, including many of those who came for the weekend retreat.

Haleva, one of Sephardic Jewry’s most respected religious figures, said he came not to apply for citizenship – “I’m a Turkish Jew, period” – but to visit “this place where our roots are.” Many of Turkey’s Jews are descended from Sephardic Jews who fled northern Portugal after 1536, when Portugal joined Spain in applying the Inquisition’s expulsion orders against Jews, according to Haleva. And many of those who fled from Portugal to Turkey originally came from Spain, where the Inquisition began in 1492.

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fyi :

ANC - South Africa :

Cyril Ramaphosa
Nelson Mandela Was a Revolutionary—and These Jews Made Common Cause With Him
With a new biopic commemorating his long struggle against apartheid, remembering the children of European refugees who helped
By Richard Kreitner
November 26, 2013 •

In 1963, after South African police arrested six Jews and seven blacks in a raid on an African National Congress hideout in the Johannesburg suburb of Rivonia—a sweep that eventually landed Nelson Mandela in prison for more than 25 years—a white nationalist newspaper asked whether Jews were unhappy in South Africa. The community’s Board of Deputies responded unequivocally that the opposite was true, promising that South Africa’s Jews were loyal and patriotic. “No part of the community can or should be asked to accept responsibility” for the actions of a few, the board insisted in its official reply.

In time, of course, Mandela became a hero, and the actions of those few became a point of pride for South African Jews.
While most South Africa Jews took the silent, implicitly conservative position of the Board of Deputies, the great majority of white South Africans involved in “the struggle” were Jewish. Many were Communists. Most were lawyers. A few had money. But all faced what has been described as a “double marginality”: not fully accepted as white, while also alienated from an organized Jewish community beholden to the powers that be.
Jews played a crucial role in various stages of Mandela’s life, especially in his early decades. Indeed, the only white person he ever called “my boss” was Lazer Sidelsky, a Jewish lawyer from Johannesburg, who in the 1940s hired him as a legal clerk.

“It was a Jewish firm, and in my experience I have found Jews to be more broadminded than most whites on issues of race and politics, perhaps because they themselves have historically been victims of prejudice,” Mandela wrote in his 1994 autobiography, “Long Walk to Freedom.” “The fact that Lazer Sidelsky, one of the firm’s partners, would take on a young African as an articled clerk — something almost unheard-of in those days — was evidence of that liberalism.”
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5


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food for thought

In order to save Christianity from this danger, Holy Church
had to take refuge in the most extreme methods, whose
justification is already proven solely through the circumstance
that the misfortune, which now threatens mankind, was
delayed by several centuries. In their thousand-year long
struggle against the Church of Christ the Jews used, as their
principal weapon of battle, the “Fifth Column”, which arose as
thousands and thousands of Jews all over the world were
converted in a hypocritical manner to Christianity.
The already mentioned Jewish historian Cecil Roth
confirms in his previously quoted work “Storia del Popolo
Ebraico”, page 229, Milan 1962, that “... naturally the
conversions were for the most part a pretence...” They were
baptised and remained nevertheless just as much Jews in
secret as before, although they have given themselves Christian
names, went to Mass and frivolously received the sacraments.
They then used their new position as seeming Christians to set
up false teachings, which developed into underground
movements. This would have brought about the dissolution of
Christianity and secured the rule by Jewry over all peoples, as
will be elaborated on later with irrefutable proofs.

Offline TahoeBlue

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just as an aside the last time the Jews came to spain , it was as communists in the spanish civil war ...
The "republican" communists ,,, murdered priests and raped nuns ,,, burned churches .,..
these people ended up fleeing to France ...  Stalin in the thirties was in the process of de-Zion-izing the soviet system and history 

Also why Syria looks like the Spanish Civil war @!
The Jewish fighters of the Spanish Civil War
By Henry Srebrnik - July 25, 2016

The International Brigade during the Spanish Civil War WIKI COMMONS PHOTO

[ both sides were ANTI CHRIST > ]

Troops from Spanish Morocco, known as Moors, played a significant role in the war. About 136,000 fought for Franco’s Army of Africa, the feared vanguard of a force that Franco portrayed as a Christian crusade against “godless communists.” It is more than a little ironic that the side claiming to represent Roman Catholic Spain employed Muslim troops, the very descendants of the people expelled from the Iberian Peninsula during the lengthy Reconquista that regained the country from the sultans who had ruled Spain for almost 800 years.

The Moors were known to be especially formidable. Former Moorish soldiers recalled the terror they inflicted on Spanish villagers on behalf of Franco. “We spared nothing and no one,” one recounted. “We uprooted everything and killed everyone we encountered… Horrified Spaniards attempted to flee as soon as they heard the words of our prayer.”
During the course of the conflict, some 41,000 volunteers from 50 countries joined them in what has been described as ‘the first battle of the Second World War’. Between 6,000 to 8,000 of the recruits to the International Brigades are estimated to have been Jewish, including nearly half of the Poles who went to Spain, over one-third of the Americans, and around 20 per cent of the Britons.

Jews did not only constitute a disproportionate number of the foreign fighters in Spain. It is estimated that 70 per cent of the medical personnel who volunteered to tend the injured were Jewish, with Yiddish often used in operating theatres as a common language.

In some respects, their story is a forgotten one. As military historian Martin Sugarman has argued, ‘the marginalisation of the huge part played by the Jewish fighters in Spain is due to the tight grip held by old-fashioned Stalinists who have been “Keepers of the Memory” of the International Brigades’. In the wake of the 1967 war Poland’s communist government went so far as to destroy memorials to the Botwin Company, a Jewish unit formed in December 1937. Part of the Polish Dombrowski Brigade, it was named in honour of Naftali Botwin, an 18-year-old Polish Jewish communist executed for murdering a secret police informant. Thus the communists’ fierce anti-Zionism and anti-Semitism trumped the reputation for heroism, encapsulated by the nickname ‘the red devils’, earned by the Botwin men.
Even for those Jews who were committed communists, the brutality of Stalin’s henchmen in the Brigades was enough to shake the faith of many. Born William Horvitz, the novelist William Herrick was a self-declared ‘red-diaper baby’. His parents – who had fled Tsarist Russia – were members of the American Communist party who hung pictures of Lenin, Stalin and Trotsky in their home. Their son was active in the Young Pioneers and later risked his life trying to organise black sharecroppers in the Deep South. Unsurprisingly, Herrick was among the first 100 US recruits to heed the party’s call to fight in Spain
For others, reality dawned more slowly. Moishe Stern, a Ukranian Jew who was an operative in Soviet military intelligence, arrived in Spain in September 1936 using a forged Canadian passport, adopted the name Emilio Kléber and became second-in-command to the International Brigade’s communist commander André Marty. Initially feted in Soviet propaganda as the ‘Saviour of Madrid’ for his role in leading the XI International Brigade’s effort to save the Spanish capital from a Nationalist assault in November 1936,

Kléber later fell foul of the jealousies and paranoia which wracked the Brigades’ upper ranks. Stripped of his command following later military setbacks – in truth, argues Anthony Beevor, he never ‘exceeded the level of a tough First World War commander who was unsparing with the lives of his men’ – Kléber was sentenced to 15 years hard labour. His name removed from Soviet histories of the civil war, he died in a Soviet gulag a year after Stalin’s death.

Jewish volunteers in the Spanish Civil War refers to Jews who joined International Brigades and fought in the Spanish Civil War, which erupted on July 17, 1936 and ended on April 1, 1939.
The fighting was between the Republicans, who were loyal to the Spanish Republic, and the Nationalists, a rebel group led by General Francisco Franco.
... the Soviet Union and Mexico intervened in support of the Republican side
A minority of the Jewish population, particularly that of Europe, were active in socialist and Communist organisations in the period between the two World Wars.[1][page needed]

They made up a considerable portion of the socialist volunteers, with estimates putting the figure at over ten per cent.[2] Many of them joined the International Brigades and the Popular Front to fight in the Spanish Civil War on the side of the Republicans. The leadership of the International Brigades considered forming an entirely Jewish brigade,[3] but the high casualties made this impossible. However, a Jewish company, the Naftali Botwin Company, was formed within the Palafox Battalion.
—The fighting displaced millions of Spaniards. Some 500,000 refugees fled in 1939 to France, where many of them would be interned in camps. 15,000 Spanish Republicans ended up in Nazi concentration camps after 1940.

Outside Aid and Non-Intervention

Within days of the uprising, both the Republic and the Nationalists called for foreign military aid. Initially, France pledged to support the Spanish Republic, but soon reneged on its offer to pursue an official policy of non-intervention in the civil war. Great Britain immediately rejected the Republic's call for support.

Mass Violence

The Spanish Civil War engendered massive political violence, carried out by both sides on the battlefield and on city streets. The Nationalists included ultra-reactionary monarchists (Carlists), fascists (Falangists) as well as traditional conservatives, who viewed the Republic's supporters as “godless Bolsheviks” (Communists) who needed to be eradicated in order to create a new Spain. Franco's army also included Moorish troops from Morocco. The rebels portrayed the fighting as a “crusade,” a “holy war,” against a “Judeo-Masonic-Bolshevist” conspiracy. Antisemitic propaganda, including the notorious fictional work, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, circulated throughout the Nationalist-held territories. The Nationalists also tried to combat Basque and Catalan nationalism, which was perceived as a threat to national unity.

The Republican forces (Loyalists) too included a broad spectrum of political positions from moderate democrats, liberals, and socialists to more radical Leftists, such as Communists (both of the Stalinist and Trotskyist varieties) and Anarchists. On occasions, this coalition broke down into internecine violence.

The Spanish Civil War proved to be a breeding ground for mass atrocities, carried out by belligerents eager to eradicate their ideological opponents. About 500,000 people lost their lives in the conflict. Of these, about 200,000 died as the result of systematic killings, mob violence, torture, or other brutalities.
Anarchists and other radicals often took out their anger against the Catholic clergy, whom they saw as an obstacle to major reform. Almost 7,000 Catholic priests, monks, and nuns were killed, primarily in the first months of the revolt. By May 1937, most of the mass killings of priests by Leftist radicals subsided. Francoist forces too killed liberal-minded or Loyalist clergy.

The Nationalists waged a brutal war against the Republic's supporters. Republican women were raped or were publicly humiliated by having their heads shaved. By 1940, more than 500,000 individuals were rounded up and sent to about 60 concentration camps. Large numbers of prisoners were conscripted for forced labor or to fight in Franco's army or tried by military courts.

During the war itself, 100,000 persons were executed by the Nationalists; after the war ended in spring 1939, another 50,000 were put to death. Martial law remained in place in Franco's Spain until 1948, and former Republicans were subjected to various forms of discrimination and punishment.

Internal Displacement and Spanish Refugees

The fighting and persecution resulted in several million Spaniards being displaced. Many fled areas of violence for safe refuge elsewhere. Only a few countries, such as Mexico and the Dominican Republic, opened their doors to Spanish refugees. When the Civil War ended in 1939, with Franco's victory, some 500,000 Spanish Republicans escaped to France, where many were placed in internment camps in the south, such as Gurs, St. Cyprien, and Les Milles. Following the German defeat of France in spring 1940, Nazi authorities conscripted Spanish Republicans for forced labor and deported more than 30,000 to Germany, where about half of them ended up in concentration camps. Some 7,000 of these became prisoners in Mauthausen; more than half of them died in the camp.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline Jacob Law

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I would have to say this is pretty much how God would pit our enemies, them fighting against each other...... and as I see the prophetic books of the bible infer that in the end that's what they do.
What do you under-stand?