Author Topic: Verona Papers - HUAC - Eugene McCarthy  (Read 1976 times)

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Verona Papers - HUAC - Eugene McCarthy
« on: September 13, 2016, 12:53:38 pm »
wow - topic didn't exist ... or was it deleted?

to start off ...

Marine Captain Joseph R. McCarthy, later a Wisconsin senator, posing as a tail gunner during World War II in Douglas SBD Bomber. McCarthy was an intelligence officer and he flew along as an observer on several bombing missions. McCarthy spent 16 months in the Solomon Islands, serving two tours from September 1943 to March 1944. He returned to the United States in July 1944, assigned to various California military bases. McCarthy resigned from the Marines on December 11, 1944.

The Venona project (1943–80) was a counter-intelligence program initiated by the U.S. Army’s Signal Intelligence Service (later the National Security Agency).[1] The purpose of the Venona project was the decryption of messages transmitted by the intelligence agencies of the Soviet Union, e.g. the NKVD, the KGB (foreign intelligence) and the GRU (military intelligence).[2] During the 37-year duration of the Venona project, the Signal Intelligence Service decrypted and translated approximately 3,000 messages from Russian to English;[3] among the signals-intelligence yielded was discovery of the Cambridge Five espionage ring in Britain[4] and Soviet espionage of the Manhattan Project in the U.S.[5] The Venona project remained secret for more than fifteen years after it concluded, and some of the decoded Soviet messages were not declassified and published until 1995.

Bearing of Venona on particular cases[edit]

Venona has added information—some unequivocal, some ambiguous—to several espionage cases. Some known spies, including Theodore Hall, were neither prosecuted nor publicly implicated, because the Venona evidence against them was withheld.

The identity of Soviet source cryptonymed '19' remains unclear. According to British writer Nigel West, '19' was president of Czechoslovak government-in-exile Edvard Beneš.[30] Military historian Eduard Mark[31] and American authors Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel concluded it was Roosevelt's aide Harry Hopkins.[32] According to American authors John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, source code-named '19' could be someone from the British delegation to the Washington Conference in May 1943.[33] Moreover, they argue no evidence of Hopkins as an agent has been found in other archives, and the partial message relating to "19" does not indicate if this source was a spy.[34]

However, Vasily Mitrokhin was a KGB archivist who defected from the Soviet Union with copies of KGB files. He claimed Harry Hopkins was a secret Russian agent.[35] Moreover, Oleg Gordievsky, a high-level KGB officer who also defected from the Soviet Union, reported that Iskhak Akhmerov, the KGB officer who controlled the clandestine Soviet agents in the U.S. during the war, had said Hopkins was "the most important of all Soviet wartime agents in the United States."[36]

Alexander Vassiliev's notes identified source code-named '19' as Laurence Duggan.[37]

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg[edit]

Main article: Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

Venona has added significant information to the case of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, making it clear Julius was guilty of espionage, and also showing that Ethel, while not acting as a principal, still acted as an accessory, had full knowledge of Julius's espionage activity and played the main role in the recruitment of her brother for atomic espionage.[38]

Venona and other recent information has shown, while the content of Julius' atomic espionage was not as vital as alleged at the time of his espionage activities, in other fields it was extensive. The information Rosenberg passed to the Soviets concerned the proximity fuze, design and production information on the Lockheed P-80 jet fighter, and thousands of classified reports from Emerson Radio.

The Venona evidence indicates unidentified sources code-named "Quantum" and "Pers" who facilitated transfer of nuclear weapons technology to the Soviet Union from positions within the Manhattan Project. According to Alexander Vassiliev's notes from KGB archive, "Quantum" was Boris Podolsky and "Pers" was Russell W. McNutt, an engineer from the uranium processing plant in Oak Ridge.[39][40]

Klaus Fuchs[edit]

Main article: Klaus Fuchs

The Venona decryptions were also important in the exposure of the atomic spy Klaus Fuchs. Some of the earliest messages decrypted concerned information from a scientist at the Manhattan Project, who was referred to by the code names of CHARLES and REST.[41] One such message from Moscow to New York, dated April 10, 1945, called information provided by CHARLES "of great value." Noting that the information included "data on the atomic mass of the nuclear explosive" and "details on the explosive method of actuating" the atomic bomb, the message requested further technical details from CHARLES. [42] Investigations based on the VENONA decryptions eventually identified CHARLES and REST as Fuchs in 1949.[43]

Alger Hiss and Harry Dexter White[edit]

Main articles: Alger Hiss and Harry Dexter White

According to the Moynihan Commission on Government Secrecy, the complicity of both Alger Hiss and Harry Dexter White is conclusively proven by Venona,[44][45] stating "The complicity of Alger Hiss of the State Department seems settled. As does that of Harry Dexter White of the Treasury Department.".[46] In his 1998 book, Senator Moynihan expressed certainty about Hiss's identification by Venona as a Soviet spy, writing "Hiss was indeed a Soviet agent and appears to have been regarded by Moscow as its most important."[47]

Several current authors, researchers, and archivists consider the Venona evidence on Hiss to be inconclusive.[48]

Donald Maclean and Guy Burgess[edit]

Kim Philby had access to CIA and FBI files, and more damaging, access to Venona Project briefings. When Philby learned of Venona in 1949, he obtained advance warning that his fellow Soviet spy Donald Maclean was in danger of being exposed. The FBI told Philby about an agent cryptonymed 'Homer', whose 1945 message to Moscow had been decoded. As it had been sent from New York and had its origins in the British Embassy in Washington, Philby, who would not have known Maclean's cryptonym, deduced the sender's identity. By early 1951, Philby knew U.S. intelligence would soon also conclude Maclean was the sender, and advised Moscow to recall Maclean.[clarification needed] This led to Maclean and Guy Burgess' flight to Russia in May 1951.[49]

Soviet espionage in Australia[edit]

In addition to British and American operatives, Australians collected Venona intercepts at a remote base in the Outback.[citation needed] The Soviets remained unaware of this base as late as 1950.[50]

The founding of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation by Labor Prime Minister Ben Chifley in 1949 was considered highly controversial within Chifley's own party.[citation needed] Until then, the left-leaning Australian Labor Party had been hostile to domestic intelligence agencies on civil-liberties grounds and a Labor government founding one seemed a surprising about-face.[citation needed] But the presentation of Venona material to Chifley, revealing evidence of Soviet agents operating in Australia, brought this about. As well as Australian diplomat suspects abroad, Venona had revealed Walter Seddon Clayton (cryptonym 'KLOD'), a leading official within the Communist Party of Australia (CPA), as the chief organiser of Soviet intelligence gathering in Australia.[51] Investigation revealed that Clayton formed an underground network within the CPA so that the party could continue to operate if it were banned.[citation needed]


The following List of Americans in the Venona papers is a list of names deciphered from codenames contained in the Venona project, an American government effort from 1943-1980 to decrypt coded messages by intelligence forces of the Soviet Union. To what extent some of the individuals named in the Venona papers were actually involved with Soviet intelligence is a topic of dispute.

The following list of individuals is extracted in large part from the work of historians John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr and reflects their previous points of view.[1] However, Haynes' positions on the meaning and correct identification of names on the list continues to evolve


John Abt**[2]
Solomon Adler**[2]
Rudy Baker**[2][3]
Joel Barr[2]
Alice Barrows[2]
Theodore Bayer, President, Russky Golos Publishing[2]
Cedric Belfrage[2]
Elizabeth Bentley[2]
Joseph Milton Bernstein[2]
Earl Browder,[2] American communist and General Secretary of the Communist Party USA from 1934 to 1945.
Paul Burns**[2][4]
Sylvia Callen**[2]
Virginius Frank Coe[2]
Lona Cohen**[2]
Morris Cohen**,[2] Communist Party USA & Portland Spy Ring member who was courier for Manhattan Project physicist Theodore Hall.

Judith Coplon[2]
Lauchlin Currie,[2] White House economic adviser to President Franklin Roosevelt and director of World Bank mission to Colombia.
Byron T. Darling**[2]
William Dawson,[2] United States Ambassador to Uruguay
Eugene Dennis[2]
Samuel Dickstein**[2]
Martha Dodd**,[2] daughter of William Dodd, who served as the United States ambassador to Germany between 1933 and 1937.
William E. Dodd, Jr.[2]
Laurence Duggan,[2] head of the South American desk at the United States Department of State during World War II.
Eufrosina Dvoichenko-Markov[2]
Nathan Einhorn[2]
Jack Bradley Fahy[2]
Linn Markley Farish, senior liaison officer with Josip Broz Tito's Yugoslav Partisan forces[2]
Edward J. Fitzgerald[2]
Charles Flato[2]
Isaac Folkoff[2]
Jane Foster[2]
Zalmond David Franklin[2]
Isabel Gallardo[2][5]
Boleslaw K. Gerbert[2][6]
Rebecca Getzoff[2]
Harold Glasser,[2] U.S. Treasury Dept. economist, United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) spokesman.
Bela Gold[2]
Harry Gold,[2] sentenced to 30 years for his role in the Rosenbergs' ring
Sonia Steinman Gold[2]
Jacob Golos,[2] "main pillar" of NKVD spy network, particularly the Sound/Myrna group, he died in the arms of Elizabeth Bentley
George Gorchoff[2]
Gerald Graze**[2][7]
David Greenglass,[2] machinist at Los Alamos sentenced to 15 years for his role in Rosenberg ring; he was the brother of executed Ethel Rosenberg
Ruth Greenglass[2]
Theodore Alvin Hall,[2] Manhattan Project physicist who gave plutonium purification secrets to Soviet intelligence.
Maurice Halperin,[2] American writer, professor, diplomat, and Soviet spy (NKVD code name "Hare").
Kitty Harris[2]
Clarence Hiskey**[2]
Alger Hiss,[2] Lawyer involved in the establishment of the United Nations, both as a U.S. State Department and UN official.
Donald Hiss**[2]
Harry Hopkins,[2] One of FDR's closest advisers & New Deal architect, esp. Works Progress Administration (WPA); as a diplomat in charge of relations between FDR and Stalin his name naturally appears on the list.
Louis Horwitz[2]
Bella Joseph**[2]
Emma Harriet Joseph[2]
Gertrude Kahn[2]
Joseph Katz[2]
Helen Grace Scott Keenan[2]
Mary Jane Keeney[2]
Philip Keeney[2]
Alexander Koral**[2]
Helen Koral[2]
Samuel Krafsur[2]
Charles Kramer[2]
Christina Krotkova[2]
Sergej Nikolaevich Kurnakov[2]
Fiorello La Guardia,[2] mayor of New York City
Stephen Laird[2]
Oscar Lange[2]
Richard Lauterbach, employee at Time magazine[2]
Duncan C. Lee[2]
Michael S. Leshing[2]
Helen Lowry[2]
William Mackey[2]
Harry Samuel Magdoff[2][8]
William Malisoff, owner and manager of United Laboratories[2]
Hede Massing**[2]
Robert Owen Menaker[2]
Floyd Cleveland Miller[2]
James Walter Miller[2]
Robert Miller**[2]
Robert G. Minor,[2] Office of Strategic Services, Belgrade
Leonard Emil Mins[2]
Nichola Napoli[2]
Franz Neumann**[2]
David K. Niles
Eugénie Olkhine[2][9]
Frank Oppenheimer**[2]
Julius Robert Oppenheimer,[2] Scientific director of the Manhattan Project and chief advisor to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.
Nicholas V. Orloff[2]
Edna Margaret Patterson[2]
William Perl[2]
Victor Perlo[2]
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Posner, United States War Department[2]
Lee Pressman[2]
Mary Wolfe Price[2]
Bernard Redmont**[2]
Peter Rhodes[2]
Stephan Sandi Rich[2]
Kenneth Richardson, World Wide Electronics[2]
Samuel Jacob Rodman, United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration[2]
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President of the United States, his name appears on the list under the code name "capitan". (Winston Churchill's codename was "boar."[2]
Allen Rosenberg[2]
Julius Rosenberg,[2] United States Army Signal Corps Laboratories, executed for role in the Rosenberg ring
Ethel Rosenberg
,[2] executed for role in Rosenberg ring based on testimony of her brother, David Greenglass
Amadeo Sabatini[2]
Alfred Epaminodas Sarant[2]
Marian Miloslavovich Schultz[2]
Milton Schwartz[2]
John Scott[2]
Ricardo Setaro[2][10]
Charles Bradford Sheppard, Hazeltine Electronics[2]
Abraham George Silverman[2]
Nathan Gregory Silvermaster,[2] U.S. War Production Board (WPB) economist and head of a major ring of spies in the U.S. government.
Cary Hiles[2]
Helen Silvermaster,[2] Leader of the American League for Peace & Democracy and the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties.
Morton Sobell[2][11]
Jack Soble[2]
Robert Soble[2]
Johannes Steele[2]
I. F. Stone,[2] Investigative journalist whose newsletter, I. F. Stone's Weekly, was ranked 16th out of 100 by his fellow journalists.
Augustina Stridsberg[2]
Anna Louise Strong[2]
Helen Tenney**[2]
Mikhail Tkach, editor of the Ukrainian Daily News[2]
William Ludwig Ullmann[2]
Irving Charles Velson[2]
Margietta Voge[2]
Henry A. Wallace
William Weisband**[2]
Donald Wheeler[2]
Maria Wicher[2]
Harry Dexter White,[2] Senior U.S. Treasury department official, primary designer of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
Ruth Beverly Wilson[2]
Ignacy Witczak**[2][12]
Ilya Elliott Wolston[2]
Flora Don Wovschin[2]
Jones Orin York[2]
Daniel Abraham Zaret, Spanish War veteran[2]
Mark Zborovski[2]
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Verona Papers
« Reply #1 on: September 13, 2016, 02:35:29 pm »
But McCarthy and Hoover were crazy.
The 'forgotten war' caused Americans to go temporarily nuts
27 July marks the 60th anniversary of the armistice that ended the Korean war. Today it's hard to imagine the hysteria

Clancy Sigal, Friday 26 July 2013 11.15 EDT
The overall Pacific commander was the half-mad General Douglas MacArthur whose intelligence aide, General Charles Willoughby, had quite open Nazi sympathies. (MacArthur jovially called him "my pet fascist".) MacArthur and some of President Truman's generals urged that atomic bombs be used against the communists, especially when MacArthur's prediction that the Chinese would never enter the war proved fatally stupid. In fact, in "Operation Hudson Harbor", USAF B-29 bombers, using dummy nuclear or conventional bombs, seriously practiced raining nuclear death on North Korea before saner heads prevailed when Ike Eisenhower succeeded Truman.

Today it's hard to imagine the hysteria that infected the nation, especially after the North crossed the 38th parallel. Americans went temporarily nuts. Senator Joe McCarthy told us that gay traitors in the US state department had deliberately "lost" China to Mao's Reds [ oh - but it was true! ] . Ordinary dissent, like signing a petition or reading The Nation, was a KGB plot organized in the Kremlin. Liberals met behind drawn curtains, and friends stopped seeing friends. The mounting hysteria, interlaced with out-of-control homophobia and undercurrents of anti-Semitism, was a wet dream for the American right and a nightmare for the rest of us. Of course the "atomic spies" Julius and Ethel Rosenberg [ the Verona papers show they WERE SPIES! and WERE GUILTY!  ]   had to be executed comme un exemple pour les autres.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Verona Papers
« Reply #2 on: September 13, 2016, 02:49:14 pm »


The Moynihan Commissions of Government Secrecy wrote in its final report,
"The first fact is that a significant Communist conspiracy was in place in Washington, New York, and Hollywood" [14]

The Commission's final report also included, "the United States Government possessed information which the American public desperately needed to know: proof that there had been a serious attack on American security by the Soviet Union, with considerable assistance from what was, indeed, an “enemy within.” ... Only the American public was denied this information." [15]

During World War II, the Soviet Union ran espionage operations against the War Department and the State Department, the War Production Board, the Office of Economic Warfare, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS)—the forerunner of the CIA— and even the Office of the President of the United States.

The names included Harry Dexter White, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, cover name "Lawyer;" Larry Duggan, Chief of the Division of American Republics at the State Department, cover name "Prince;" Lauchlin Currie, Senior Administrative Assistant to President Roosevelt, cover name "Page." There was not a single agency of the American government that Soviet espionage had not infiltrated, and it stole the secrets of many other organizations concerned with national security. No modern government was more thoroughly penetrated.[16]

Between 1942 and 1945 thousands of encrypted cables were sent between KGB stations in the U.S. and Moscow. However, less than one percent of the total of the messages could be read, these being those which that reused sheets of the one-time pad. No messages sent after 1948 could be broken because the code breakers had been betrayed by Russian linguist William Weisband, who worked with American code breakers at Arlington Hall outside Washington, D.C.

Approximately 2,200 of the messages were decrypted and ultimately American counterintelligence found cover names for more than 300 Americans who spied for the Soviet KGB in World War Two, but only 100 were identified
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5