Author Topic: Dr. Chaim Weizmann - Prez World Zionist Organization - Israel gets the bomb  (Read 8083 times)

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Offline TahoeBlue

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Bertrand Goldschmidt was a French chemist, born in Paris on 2 November 1912 and died 11 June 2002 also in Paris. He is considered one of the fathers of the French atomic bomb, which was tested for the first time in 1960 in the nuclear test Gerboise Bleue.

Bertrand Goldschmidt is one of the creators of the French Atomic Energy Commission in 1945 . In November 1949, he and his collaborators Pierre Regnault, Jean, and Andre Sauteron Chesne extracted the first few milligrams of plutonium from the spent fuel from the Zoe nuclear reactor at Bouchet plant in Ballancourt-sur-Essonne, an essential step for the production of the French atomic bomb. He would also play a critical role in the establishment of the Israeli nuclear program. Goldschmidt traveled to Israel in 1954 to meet with Ben Gurion about nuclear issues and would serve, between 1956 and 1957, as one of the CEA officials in the negotiations leading to the establishment of the Dimona nuclear facility.

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The site of Gerboise Bleue, the first French nuclear bomb test, on Feb. 20, 1960, a week after detonation.STF/AFP/Getty Images


Legacy of contamination

France tested its first nuclear bomb in the Tanezrouft area, a portion of the Sahara that straddles Algeria and Mali, some 30 miles south of Reggane, on Feb. 13, 1960. Named Gerboise Bleue (“blue jerboa”) after the left hue of the tricolor French flag and a small rodent living in the Sahara, it had a blast capacity of 70 kilotons — or more than four times the strength of Little Boy, the U.S. bomb dropped on Hiroshima at the end of World War II.

“From the abandoned nuclear testing bases, people have recovered plates, beams, electrical cables and equipment of all kinds, all of which is radioactive,” he continued. “They have incorporated them into the construction of their homes.”

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Recently discovered documents

In 1940, James Chadwick forwarded the work of two French scientists, Hans von Halban and Kowarski, who worked in Cambridge, to the Royal Society. He asked that the papers be held, as they were not appropriate for publication during the war. In 2007, the Society discovered the documents during an audit of their archives.[6] The documents describe how to control the chain reaction, describe the components of a nuclear reactor, and describe how to produce plutonium.
Lew Kowarski's Interview

Lew Kowarski was a Russian-born French physicist who worked as part of the team that discovered that neutrons were emitted in the fission of uranium-235 in the 1930s, setting the groundwork for the use of nuclear chain reactions in the design of the atomic bomb. After the Second World War, Kowarski went on to supervise the first French nuclear reactors and became a staff member of the European Organization for Nuclear Research, or CERN, in 1953. In this interview Kowarski discusses his upbringing in Russia, and the beginnings of his scientific career under Frédéric Joliot-Curie. He also outlines the process through which the splitting of uranium atoms was realized.

Groueff: Did you play a musical instrument?
Kowarski: Well, I was taught the piano, as everybody those days in Russia. It was in certain social surroundings, it was—
Groueff: It was part of their education.

Kowarski: Yes. But it was recognized that I would never do a pianist. On the other hand, I seemed to be inventive, so it was rather toward composition that I was directed. On the other hand, myself, I was getting more and more influenced by English writers and especially H. G. Wells, whom I started reading at the age of eight, in Russian, of course. My English came much later.

In fact, I have a very clear memory of having bought myself at a bookstore at a railroad station in Leningrad in May or June, 1917, a translation of Well’s book, The World Set Free, from which I learned for the first time about atomic bombs. This book, the role it played with some other people was made the subject of a communication by the well-known atomic physicist, Gale Young, of Oak Ridge, in a communication to American Nuclear Society in November 6, ’63.

Groueff: I’ll try to find this. It will be interesting.
Kowarski: There is a lot about this book, so obviously, I was not the only one.
Groueff: But you were clearly influenced by this book tremendously.

Kowarski: Very definitely so. The whole of H. G. Wells, but this one, well it has more bearing to what happened since. I met H. G. Wells once in 1943 for a few seconds.

The World Set Free

by H.G. Wells
This chilling, futuristic novel, written in 1913 and first published the following year, was incredibly prophetic on a major scale. Wells was a genius and visionary, as demonstrated by many of his other works, but this book is clearly one of his best. He predicts nuclear warfare years before research began and describes the chain reactions involved and the resulting radiation. He describes a weapon of enormous destructive power, used from the air that would wipe out everything for miles, and actually used the term "atomic bombs." This book may have been at least part of the original inspiration for the development of atomic weapons, as well as presenting many other ideas that would ultimately come to pass. Some ideas may still be coming, including a one-world government referred to as The World Republic, that will attempt to end all wars.

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Lew Kowarski – Session I

That’s the chemical engineering prospectus right there.


Yes. Why chemistry? Well, the First World War was the chemist’s war. We have forgotten to what extent. The Second World War was, of course, the physicist’s war, but the First World War was the chemist’s war. Chaim Weizmann became the founder of the Jewish state because he found how to make cheaply acetone for explosives.

So chemistry had a certain glamour of something practical. Now, I was not particularly interested in practical things, but I knew at the time I was about to go to the university that it would be very hard going economically. I just could not consider having a studious life for so many years and then perhaps going for a doctorate and so on. Who would maintain me? I had to learn something practical. And in those days, especially, as having a degree in pure science was not considered as something practical. It was not much better than having a degree in pure poetry. So it had to be applied science, and that means engineering. And because chemistry had this glamour… I also found that chemistry somehow appealed to me more than, shall we say, electricity. For some reason I remained impervious to electricity for quite a long time. Already well into my graduate student years I still had to discover, practically for myself, how, for instance, in a circuit you have sometimes to put a resistor which can dissipate 100 watts and in another case 1/10 of a watt will be enough. I somehow never was able to find anything like that in books. It had to be done practically by trial and error. For chemistry there were nice books.

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Sixty years of CERN in the evolving international landscape
CERN: from war to make science together
•And the rest is history….but it was not so easy

9 December 1949
At the end of the Second World War, European science was no longer world-class. Following the example of international organizations, a handful of visionary scientists imagined creating a European atomic physics laboratory. Raoul Dautry, Pierre Auger and Lew Kowarski in France, Edoardo Amaldi in Italy and Niels Bohr in Denmark were among these pioneers. Such a laboratory would not only unite European scientists but also allow them to share the increasing costs of nuclear physics facilities.

French physicist Louis de Broglie put forward the first official proposal for the creation of a European laboratory at the European Cultural Conference, which opened in Lausanne on 9 December 1949. A further push came at the fifth UNESCO General Conference, held in Florence in June 1950, where American physicist and Nobel laureate Isidor Rabi tabled a resolution authorizing UNESCO to "assist and encourage the formation of regional research laboratories in order to increase international scientific collaboration…"

From the Holocaust to start working together for science
The 1952 Luxembourg Agreement on compensations was met with strong opposition in both Israeli and German parliaments:
In Israel it was called a “pact with the devil”=>no cultural relations was included as part of the legislation.

It happened in the CERN cafeteria
•First real discussion on how to do science together occurred at the CERN cafeteria in 1957:
–Prof. Gentner (CERN Research Director) & Prof. de Shalit (chair of the Physics Dept., Weizmann Institute) met to discuss possible collaborations between Israeli and German scientists.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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This was sort of expected - need to document the release (SOON into Israel ) of Pollard: Thx ObaMA!
Jonathan Pollard, American Who Spied for Israel, Released After 30 Years

Jonathan J. Pollard, a convicted spy who was freed after 30 years in prison, with his wife, Esther, in Manhattan on Friday. Credit Mike Segar/Reuters 

WASHINGTON — He was spirited out of a federal prison on Friday under cover of night, eluding witnesses in a cloak-and-dagger coda to a spy story that has strained relations between two allies for three decades.

But while Jonathan J. Pollard, one of the most notorious spies of the late Cold War, tried to stay out of sight after emerging from custody almost as if from a time machine, the United States and Israel hoped his release would finally heal a long-festering open wound in their partnership.

For 30 years, Mr. Pollard was at the center of a profound struggle between Washington and Jerusalem, one that shadowed American presidents and Israeli prime ministers since Ronald Reagan was in the White House. The Americans called him a traitor. The Israelis deemed him a soldier, to some a hero. At times, both made him a diplomatic bargaining chip.

The only American ever sentenced to life in prison for spying for an ally, Mr. Pollard was freed on parole to an uncertain future. After ducking cameras outside the prison in North Carolina, he was spotted hours later in New York, where his lawyers went to federal court to challenge the terms of his parole, including an ankle bracelet to monitor his movements.


There was no celebration by the American government. “This was one of the 10 most serious espionage cases in history,” said Joseph E. diGenova, the former United States attorney who prosecuted Mr. Pollard. “I’m delighted he served 30 years. I wish he would have served more.”


Mr. Pollard remained under parole conditions that he and his supporters consider to be onerous. Under federal rules, he cannot leave the country for at least five years without permission, and the White House repeated on Friday that it would not intervene to let him move to Israel, as he has requested.


As a student at Stanford University, it said, he fantasized about being a Mossad agent.

Rejected from a C.I.A. fellowship, he went to work for the Navy as a civilian intelligence analyst in 1979, earning a reputation as “a capable — if eccentric — scholar and intelligence analyst” with “significant emotional instability,” according to the damage report.

In June 1984, he began passing suitcases of classified documents to Israeli handlers, including information on Arab and Soviet weaponry as well as satellite photographs. A manual he gave handlers provided a guide to American signals intelligence, media reports said. He was paid tens of thousands of dollars and given jewels and foreign trips.
He and his first wife, Anne, were arrested in November 1985 after being turned away from the Israeli Embassy, where they had sought asylum. Mr. Pollard agreed to plead guilty to a single charge of conspiring to commit espionage, but he gave remorseless prison interviews that were deemed a violation of the plea agreement and a judge sentenced him to life in prison

In the end, Mr. Obama made no move to release Mr. Pollard early, but did not object when the United States Parole Commission decided to let him out after 30 years.

In Israel, Mr. Netanyahu sought to avoid celebrations that would provoke the Americans, but some could not resist. “A free man!” Ayelet Shaked, the hawkish justice minister, exulted on her Facebook page over Mr. Pollard’s photograph.

Nachman Shai, a lawmaker from the center-left Zionist Union who heads a Parliament caucus that pushed for Mr. Pollard’s release, vowed to keep pressing his case. “We will not rest,” he wrote in a letter to Mr. Pollard, “until you are free to depart the United States for any destination of your choosing, first and foremost Israel.”

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fyi nettiyahoo's nuke trigger spy ring:
Netanyahu Worked Inside Nuclear Smuggling Ring

Counterespionage debriefing reveals how Israel targeted U.S.
by Grant Smith, July 04, 2012

On June 27, 2012, the FBI partially declassified and released seven additional pages [.pdf] from a 1985–2002 investigation into how a network of front companies connected to the Israeli Ministry of Defense illegally smuggled nuclear triggers out of the U.S.* The newly released FBI files detail how Richard Kelly Smyth — who was convicted of running a U.S. front company met with Benjamin Netanyahu in Israel during the smuggling operation. At that time, Netanyahu worked at the Israeli node of the smuggling network, Heli Trading Company.

Netanyahu, who currently serves as Israel’s prime minister, recently issued a gag order that the smuggling network’s unindicted ringleader refrain from discussing “Project Pinto.”

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5