Author Topic: Dr. Chaim Weizmann - Prez World Zionist Organization - Israel gets the bomb  (Read 8048 times)

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Offline TahoeBlue

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If you search on Weizmann, you get alot of interesting history...

Months after Israel was formed, Rothschild was involved with Chaim Weizmann in setting up a special nuclear physics department in a scientific institute in Rehovoth. The establishment was named after Weizmann, the nation's first president and himself a distinguished biochemist.

The Weizmann Institute - Its aim even in those heady days of 1948 was to build nuclear weapons for Israel.
1874 - 1952
Chaim Weizmann was born in 1874 to a traditional Jewish family in the small town of Motol in White Russia (Belarus). After graduating with honors from the Real-Gymnasium in Pinsk, he decided to establish himself professionally in order to be able to contribute to the development of science in the Land of Israel. He chose to study chemistry in Germany and Switzerland, where he would meet his future wife, Vera, who would become his partner in Zionist activity. In 1899 he was awarded a doctoral degree in organic chemistry by the University of Fribourg in Switzerland.
Deeply influenced by the views of Ahad Ha’am and Herzl, Weizmann became involved in Zionist activity, alongside Leo Motzkin, Nahman Syrkin, and Shmaryahu Levin. He felt that Judaism implied not merely religion but peoplehood. Possessing their own language, culture, and common historical memory, the Jewish people were entitled to return to their historical land and live there in safety.
Weizmann therefore rejected the idea that Uganda could replace the Land of Israel as a homeland for the Jews. At the same time, he began working as a scientist at the University of Manchester in England, a nation which he viewed as one of legal freedoms, moderation, and political realism.

A skilled negotiator, Weizmann secured for himself the status of representative of a government in exile. That was how he obtained, with arduous effort, the coveted Balfour Declaration on November 2, 1917. In it, the British government recognized the right of the Jewish people to establish a national home in the Land of Israel. Weizmann: “We begin a new chapter. From now on, we – the Jews – will determine how the Declaration is to be translated into reality.”

As befits a scientist, Weizmann pursued his goals systematically, step by step. Once the declared right to the territory was obtained, he worked to strengthen and anchor it in reality.
He departed for the Land of Israel at the head of a delegation under British government auspices, and found the Jewish settlers engaged in the dynamic process of building and aliyah. Tel Aviv, the first Hebrew city, arose from the sands.
Understanding that Jews and Arabs would have to live together in the Land of Israel, Weizmann strove to create peaceful coexistence between the two peoples. Thus he met in Aqaba with Emir Faisal, leader of the Arab national movement. Faisal expressed sympathy for the Zionist cause, which he felt was similar to the Arabs’ national aspirations. [ Laurence of Arabia ]
In 1919, Weizmann and Faisal signed an agreement of cooperation between the two national movements, Jewish and Arab, for the development of the Land of Israel.

1918. Emir Faisal I and Chaim Weizmann (left, also wearing Arab outfit as a sign of friendship) Weizmann first met Feisal in June 1918, during the British advance from the South against the Ottoman Empire in World War I. -
 Faisal–Weizmann Agreement

Louis Brandeis in Palestine (center, in pith helmet)  with Chaim Weizmann and British soldiers, 1919
At a crucial moment in the deliberations of the British government regarding the Balfour Declaration, American support was needed.

Brandeis apparently got President Wilson to reverse his policy of non-intervention, favored by his adviser Colonel House, and to provide the necessary support, still insisting that it must not be made public.  

Brandeis helped to organize the 1918 Pittsburgh conference of the Zionist Organization of America, which evolved from the American Zionist Federation and which, at that time, was truly representative of American Jewry. T

The platform was remarkable for its synthesis of Zionist and progressive ideals, and many of its ideas seemed to coincide with those of the Zionist leadership in Palestine. The platform called for "political and civil equality" regardless of "race, sex or faith," public ownership of land, natural resources and public utilities, the application of the "cooperative principle," and free public instruction in Hebrew for all grades and subjects, Brandeis headed the committee that organized the American Jewish Congress, which adopted a Zionist platform and helped to bring about support of the Balfour Declaration and the Jewish national home in Palestine by the American Jewish Committee, heretofore a bastion of anti-Zionist sentiment.

In 1919 Brandeis toured Palestine with Chaim Weizmann for the first and only time, and in 1920 he travelled to the Zionist convention on London. 
In 1921, Weizmann was elected President of the World Zionist Organization.

He visited the United States and, together with Albert Einstein, undertook a fundraising campaign to advance the Zionist cause.

Albert Einstein and his wife Elsa pose with Chaim Weizmann, Chaim's wife Dr. Vera Weizmann, and other notable Zionist leaders in this 1921 photograph. Einstein was himself a believer in Zionism and did what he could to help the cause.

In 1925, together with Lord Balfour, Weizmann inaugurated the Hebrew University of Jerusalem on Mount Scopus in Jerusalem. He said: “We must create a high culture, based on Jewish morality, and make it a center of human culture.”

Opening Hebrew University - Weizmann, Balfour, British High Commissioner Samuels
The First Board of Governors of the University, chaired by Dr. Weizmann includes Sigmund Freud, Martin Buber, Harry Sacher and Felix M. Warburg

Chaim Weizmann, the leader of the World Zionist Organization, and Lord Arthur James Balfour, British Foreign Secretary
Placing great emphasis on integrating science and industry, Weizmann promoted the establishment of advanced enterprises such as the phosphates plant at the Dead Sea and the hydroelectric power plant at Naharayim. However, despite renewed growth, the Jewish settlement was afflicted by an economic crisis. To overcome this crisis Weizmann established the Jewish Agency in 1929.
As a result of the bloody events of 1929, Lord Passfield, British Colonial Secretary at that time, who viewed the Arab riots as a natural defense against Jewish aliyah to the Land of Israel, published the White Paper in the name of the British government. England reneged on the promises made in the Balfour Declaration, and the Zionist endeavor fell upon trying times.
Annual Report 2009 » Honorary Fellows of the Weizmann Institute of Science

1969 - Walworth Barbour - [ Bilderberger - U.S. Amb. to Israel  from 1961 to 1973 - helped in the Dimona Nuclear Project ]

see: Bilderberger's in the Kennedy Administration 

1963 - John F. Kennedy (Assassinated that year - was this an celebration award?)

1962 - Lord (Victor) Rothschild [ Spy ]
Lord Victor Rothschild's involvement with the Peace Movement and Israel's Nuclear Bomb

Roland Perry, The Fifth Man (Pan Books, London, 1994):

{p. xxi} The Fifth Man was Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild (1910 to 1990), better known as the third Lord Rothschild. He was the British head of the famous banking dynasty ...

{p. 221} Months after Israel was formed, Rothschild was involved with Chaim Weizmann in setting up a special nuclear physics department

{p. 222} in a scientific institute in Rehovoth. The establishment was named after Weizmann, the nation's first president and himself a distinguished biochemist.

Its aim even in those heady days of 1948 was to build nuclear weapons for Israel. It became the nation's best kept secret and the most fervent desire of the new nation's founders. They never wanted their race to be threatened with another Holocaust. Atomic weapons would be the ultimate deterrent to future Hitlers

Yet when the idea for an Israeli bomb was first conceived, the Soviet Union was still a year away from its own first trial blast. The Russians were expecting to detonate, literally after seven years hard labour, when it should have taken perhaps a century of normal research. They had thrown enormous resources, thousands of scientists and strong spy networks at the problem. Israel would have to copy that approach from a standing start. It had limited resources and a trickle of Jewish technicians. But it did have espionage networks.

The dream of an Israeli bomb was ambitious indeed, but it spurred Rothschild to keep abreast of all things nuclear so he could pass on data to the Weizmann Institute, which was planning a nuclear reactor at Dimona in the Negev Desert.

Under a modified guise of concern about the spread and dangers of nuclear weapons, he was able to keep contact with appropriate scientists around the world. He began this official and legitimate process at the end of the Second World War by becoming an expert on fallout, which allowed him to monitor the Manhattan project. He continued in the 1950s, even on occasions attending informal conferences on controlling nuclear weapons held by leading British atomic scientists, who were beginning to comprehend and assess their creation.

The Dane, Niels Bohr, had stimulated consciences post-war by arguing that nuclear matters belonged to an 'open world', with which the Russians - desperate to build a nuclear arsenal - agreed wholeheartedly. He had plenty of support from the scientific community in the US too, but Washington was never going to support 'the free interchange of ideas' with those dangerous Russians, even if it had nothing to do with detail about bomb technology.

Bohr's idea was taken up by mathematician and philosopher, Bertrand Russell, Albert Einstein and the British Atomic Scientists

{p. 223} Association, many of whose members Rothschild knew well. They set up their first conference at Pugwash, Nova Scotia, in 1955.

Rothschild assiduously kept contact with the key organizers so that his involvement always seemed natural.

Correspondence with Russell in early 1955 was typical:

Dear Russell, I would like to present the manuscript of your recent broadcast dealing with the Hydrogen Bomb to Trinity. Can you suggest any way in which I might acquire it? Yours Sincerely, Rothschild

The so-called Pugwash Conferences emerged as the scientists' response to the arms race between the US, USSR, China, Britain and France, and the dangers of fallout.

Scientists from twenty-two nations turned up and problems concerned with peace and the impact of atomic weapons on humankind were discussed. Rothschild later floated ideas about how to harness the nuclear genie for 'peaceful purposes' and not war. He urged the idea of breeder reactors for energy, of which he was a long-term supporter. What he avoided mentioning was the ease with which breeder reactors could be adapted to extract weapons-grade nudear fuel.

Everything he learnt ended up at the Weizmann Institute, which was in part his creation. (His secret support of it with information and finance was rewarded publicly in 1962 when he was made an Honorary Fellow of the Institute.)

Rothschild was not a technician like Klaus Fuchs. He could not create the weaponry for Israel. But he could inform its Intelligence leaders (with whom he was very dose as an important, secret member of Mossad) which scientists might be helpful, where the available technology might be and how it might be obtained and funded.

The Israelis sounded out several possibilities. In 1956, Shimon Peres, then director of the Defence Ministry under Moshe Dayan, had many meetings with ministers in Guy Mollet's French socialist government as they prepared for the Suez Canal operation. The French, British and Israelis planned to wrest back the Canal from President Nasser of Egypt, who had nationalized it.

{p. 224} Peres first gained the trust of the French, then he struck a deal with Defence Minister, Bourges Maunoury. In return for Israel's help over the Suez Canal, in which it would make the initial attack on Egyptian defences, the French promised to consider supplying nuclear plants at Dimona. Israel carried out its part at Suez, and fortuitously Maunoury replaced Mollet as prime minister. Maunoury and his foreign minister signed a top-secret agreement with Peres and Asher Ben-Natan, a Mossad agent at Israel's Defence Ministry.

In it, the French promised to supply a powerful 24-megawatt reactor, the technical know-how to run it, and some uranium. The secret deal was only known to about a dozen individuals, induding Rothschild, and with good reason. The fine print of the document allowed for the inclusion of equipment whidh would permit the Israelis to produce weapons-grade nuclear fuel.

In 1957, French engineers began building the two-storey reactor facility at Dimona on the edge of the Negev Desert, which secretly went down six levels below ground. The subterranean construction would be the place where nuclear weapons would be built. With several Mossad officers in attendance, the engineers also dug an 80-foot deep crater in the sand. In it they buried Machon 2 - a unit whidh would allow the Israelis to extract weapons grade plutonium, the fuel for the bomb

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Israel Technologies Transfers

In the weird reality of the Middle East, things seldom are what they look. Time and again I have read about Israel’s scientific capabilities in articles plagued with large amounts of irrelevant statistics. In the past, while making academic research on topics defined as pure science, I found myself taking a close look at a very impure transfer of Soviet military technology from a laboratory in Kazakhstan to Israel and discovered an overlooked aspect of Israel’s scientific apparatus.

Overlooked, but strategic in its importance, Israel technologies transfers’ policy is intrinsically related to the story of the state and to at least two well known institutions: the Weizmann Institute and the Negev Nuclear Research Center (e.g. Dimona) .

The Weizmann Institute of Science

Having graduated from the Weizmann Institute of Science and thus knowing it well, I find time and again misleading information regarding its installations.

The institute was conceived by Dr. Chaim Weizmann, who would later become the first President of the State of Israel, in 1933.

One year later in 1934, the Daniel Sieff Research Institute was established, and Dr. Weizmann got a lab, alongside ten other full-time researchers in organic chemistry and biochemistry;

even in those early days the research performed there was defined as multidisciplinary. The institute is located on Rehovot’s western entry, southeast of Tel Aviv. It is probably one of the greenest spots in the country, though this purity doesn’t extend to its activities.

Throughout WWII and the 1948 War, the institute scientists were deeply involved in the war efforts, under Dr. Weizmann’s direction.

By the time it was dedicated in 1949, the Weizmann Institute (which includes the Daniel Sieff Research Institute) had sixty labs in nine fields of research, including organic, inorganic and bio-chemistry, optics and electronics, bacteriology and biophysics, polymer and isotope research, and applied mathematics. Later, the Feinberg Graduate School was established in 1958, and its first PhD was conferred in 1964.

Secret Protocol

Meanwhile, the State of Israel was created, and in October 1956 signed the secret Protocol of Sèvres between the governments of Israel, France and the UK. The protocol was a plot to topple Egyptian President Gamal Abdul Nasser, by invading and occupying parts of Egypt in response to Nasser's nationalization of the Suez Canal on July 26 of that year. The planning for and the agreements contained in the protocol began the Suez War on October 29, 1956.

On October 22, Prime Minister of Israel David Ben-Gurion, Director General of the Ministry of Defense Shimon Peres and Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces Moshe Dayan secretly travelled from Israel to Sèvres to meet the French Minister of Defence Maurice Bourgès-Maunoury, Minister of Foreign Affairs Christian Pineau and Chief of Staff of the French Armed Forces General Maurice Challe, and British Foreign Secretary Selwyn Lloyd and his assistant Sir Patrick Dean.

After two days of negotiations a seven point’s agreement was signed by Ben-Gurion, Pineau and Dean.

The protocol directly led to the Suez War, which is of no interest to this article, but also to a close cooperation between the French and Israeli administrations.

Negev Nuclear Research Center

About thirteen kilometers to the south-east of the city of Dimona is the Negev Nuclear Research Center, Israel’s largest nuclear facility. Its construction began in 1958, with French assistance according to the abovementioned Protocol of Sèvres.

The contents of the facility are far less interesting than the political results of the secret protocol and how it had shaped Israeli research capabilities and policies. Let’s skip the nukes and take a close look at the serious stuff.

Rehovot versus Dimona

The isotope research unit of the Weizmann Institute is where the first efforts of Israel to develop nuclear technologies took place, disguised as pure science research.

Then the Negev Nuclear Research Center was created and with it a conflict: How should the research be performed? Where: Rehovot or Dimona? Who would get the prestige, resources and salaries? The solution of the problem was unexpected.

Back then, the Director General of the Ministry of Defense, Shimon Peres, took a decision that shaped the course of the country’s scientific efforts until now. Instead of developing the technologies from zero – as the Weizmann Institute proposed - he decided to appropriate as much as possible from other sources, letting the scientists just adapt the technologies to the specific needs defined by the Israeli Administration. He claimed the state was too small and poor to develop the whole range of technologies needed.

Both, Rehovot and Dimona were relegated to a lesser and much more sinister status. Scientific spooks.

Since then, the Mossad and Israeli industries are occupied day and night in getting technologies from abroad, while the scientists in Dimona and Rehovot are busy adapting them. Of course, there is also some pure research performed in both, that’s how the basic training for the more important tasks is achieved.

On Three Techniques

I opened this article mentioning a technology brought from Kazakhstan in the nineties. Buying technologies is always possible, especially in the open market created by the collapse of the Soviet Union.

In this case the Israel’s Ministry of Defense funneled funds through an institute lab. Having been a research student at that lab, I looked fascinated at the process and then left the institute as fast as possible. That wasn’t my idea of pure scientific research.

Many people around the world are aware of the State of Israel interests and tactics, and offer the technologies out of their own will. After I left the institute, I found myself being requested by Dow Chemical to transfer a classified military technology developed by them for the American Army to Israel. In the complex sequence of events that followed their approach, my Christianity was found out and put to test by the state. Soon afterwards, I found myself a refugee.

These two types of transfer are described in my book The Cross of Bethlehem. In the book there is also a close look at another side of this reality: the Shin-Beth places full-time informants in all academic institutions. Learning how to avoid them is part of the self-training of any scientist growing up there.

The Cross of Bethlehem: The Memoirs of a Refugee [Paperback]
Ro'i Tov (Author), Corinne Lynch (Editor)

Product Description
The Cross of Bethlehem is a memoir of a Christian Israeli military officer caught in the crosshairs between a country that demands total obedience, even if that means firing on rock-throwing women and children, and following his conscience.

In a story of faith and courage, tragedy and hope, the author, Ro’i Tov, shares the heartache of growing up an outsider in the tight-knit kibbutzim along the Jordan Valley. It is here that his sharp intelligence, instead of buying him the freedom he so desperately desires, traps him in a company without a moral compass and a military that challenges his spiritual and moral beliefs. When he leaves Israel and threatens to tell the world what he has witnessed, he finds himself on a high-stakes journey that takes him from Thailand to China, from the US to South America. Only time will tell if justice will prevail and faith will conquer fear so that God’s message of love and peace can be revealed.

This book was one that I also could not put down. It was difficult to obtain the book,.... Mr. Tov is quite an extraordinary man.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Back then, the Director General of the Ministry of Defense, Shimon Peres, took a decision that shaped the course of the country’s scientific efforts until now. Instead of developing the technologies from zero – as the Weizmann Institute proposed - he decided to appropriate as much as possible from other sources, letting the scientists just adapt the technologies to the specific needs defined by the Israeli Administration. He claimed the state was too small and poor to develop the whole range of technologies needed.

Israeli Nuclear Program Pioneered by Shimon Peres

The Risk Report
Volume 2 Number 4 (July-August 1996)

In December 1995, former Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres drew world headlines for his casual remark to a group of Israeli journalists in Tel Aviv: "Give me peace and we will give up the nuclear program--this is the whole story." Though the media heralded this announcement, it reflected nothing more than longstanding policy.

For years, Israel has said that it would negotiate the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East after the establishment of lasting peace. Shimon Peres has told Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak that Israel would be willing to negotiate the signing of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty within two years after the establishment of "regional peace."

But Peres has never said what such a peace would include. He has preferred ambiguity in this and much else in Israel's nuclear diplomacy. In fact, it was Peres who came up with Israel's most often repeated nuclear declaration.

At a April 1963 meeting in the White House, Peres responded to President John F. Kennedy's questions about Israel's nuclear program by saying: "Israel will not be the first to introduce nuclear weapons to the Middle East." Two years later, Prime Minister Levi Eshkol elevated Peres's words to Israel's official nuclear line.

In 1953, at age 30, Shimon Peres was appointed by Israel's first prime minister, David Ben Gurion, to become Director-General of the Ministry of Defense. Within three years, Peres had laid the foundation for Israel's nuclear weapon program.

He picked France as the major supplier, arranged the sale of a nuclear reactor, and spent the next decade overseeing the construction of the Dimona nuclear weapon production complex.

In his memoirs, "Battling for Peace," Peres describes his nuclear accomplishments leading up to the 1967 Arab-Israeli war: "My contribution during that dramatic period was something that I still cannot write about openly for reasons of state security. After Dayan was appointed defense minister I submitted to him a certain proposal which ... would have deterred the Arabs and prevented the war."

Peres now says that Israel has come a long way from a young country that needed Dimona to deter war to "a strong country on the brink of peace." He credits Israel's early investment in Dimona as responsible for the Arab world's later steps toward peace, including Egyptian President Anwar Sadat's decision to come to Jerusalem in 1977.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Secret Protocol

Meanwhile, the State of Israel was created, and in October 1956 signed the secret Protocol of Sèvres between the governments of Israel, France and the UK. The protocol was a plot to topple Egyptian President Gamal Abdul Nasser, by invading and occupying parts of Egypt in response to Nasser's nationalization of the Suez Canal on July 26 of that year. The planning for and the agreements contained in the protocol began the Suez War on October 29, 1956.

The Protocol of Sèvres,1956: Anatomy of a War Plot
Avi Shlaim

International Affairs, 73:3 (1997), 509-530.

Reprinted in David Tal, ed., The 1956 War: Collusion and Rivalry in the Middle East (London: Frank Cass, 2001), 119-43.
Secrecy and the sources on Sèvres

On 24 October 1956, in a private villa in Sèvres on the outskirts of Paris, representatives of the British, French, and Israeli governments, at the end of a three-day meeting which was concealed behind a thick veil of secrecy, signed a most curious document which later came to be known as the Protocol of Sèvres.  

The document set out in precise detail the plan of the three governments to attack Egypt.  The plan, in a nutshell, was that Israel would attack the Egyptian army near the Suez Canal, and that this attack would serve as the pretext for an Anglo-French military intervention.  Written in French and typed in three copies, this Protocole was signed by Patrick Dean, an Assistant Under-Secretary at the Foreign Office for Britain, by foreign minister Christian Pineau for France, and by prime minister David Ben-Gurion for Israel.  To the end of his days Sir Anthony Eden, the driving force on the British side on the road to war, denied that there had been any collusion with Israel or even foreknowledge that Israel would attack Egypt.  The Protocol of Sèvres tells a different story.  The British copy was in fact destroyed on Eden’s orders, the French copy was lost, and the Israeli copy was kept under lock and key in the Ben-Gurion Archives in Sede-Boker.  In 1996 permission was given to photocopy the protocol for a BBC documentary shown on the fortieth anniversary of the Suez War.[1]  

With the release of the protocol, the tripartite meeting at Sèvres became not only the most famous but also the best-documented war plot in modern history.
On 22 October, Prime Minister of Israel David Ben-Gurion, Director General of the Ministry of Defense Shimon Peres and Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces Moshe Dayan secretly travelled from Israel to an isolated house in Sèvres to meet the French Minister of Defence Maurice Bourgès-Maunoury, Minister of Foreign Affairs Christian Pineau and Chief of Staff of the French Armed Forces General Maurice Challe, and British Foreign Secretary Selwyn Lloyd and his assistant Sir Patrick Dean.[1]
Together, they and their aides secretly planned a two-step invasion of Egypt, including the cover story.

First Israel would attack Egypt in the Sinai, and then

Britain and France would invade on the pretext of "separating the combatants" and protecting the canal,[2] under the terms of the 1954 Anglo-Egyptian agreement to withdraw all British forces from Egypt.

One of the most painstaking aspects was formulating a plan both Britain and Israel could agree on. The Israelis distrusted the British but, as the French were not prepared to act without their British allies, they were forced to deal with them. The British maintained strong links with a number of Arab countries and did not want any involvement with Israel that might damage them.

After 48 hours of negotiations and compromise the seven points agreement was signed by Ben-Gurion, Pineau and Dean. At the insistence of the Israeli diplomats, wanting to prevent being abandoned in the middle of the invasion, each group left Sèvres with a signed copy, written in French.[3]

Although not part of the protocol, the occasion allowed Israel to secure French commitment to constructing the Negev Nuclear Research Center and the supply of natural uranium for it
Four days after the Sèvres meeting, Israeli forces invaded Egyptian territory. The British and French vetoed an American-sponsored resolution in the UN Security Council calling for an end to the Israeli invasion; they then issued their own call for both Israel and Egypt to withdraw from within 16 km of the Suez Canal. When Egypt refused, the British and French launched their own invasion to secure the Canal zone, under the guise of separating Egyptian and Israeli forces.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Walworth Barbour - [ Bilderberger - U.S. Amb. to Israel  from 1961 to 1973 - helped in the Dimona Nuclear Project ] -  Bilderberger's in the Kennedy Administration

Another and probably the primary reason for Kennedy's assassination is he fact that he made it quite clear to Israeli prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, that under no circumstances would he agree to Israel becoming a nuclear state.

The Israeli newspaper Ha'aretz states on February 5, 1999, in a Review of Avner Cohen's book "Israel and the Bomb" the following :

"The murder of American President John F. Kennedy brought to an abrupt end the massive pressure being applied by the U.S. Administration on the government of Israel to discontinue the nuclear program... The book implied that, had Kennedy remained alive, it is doubtful whether Israel would today have a nuclear option."

Bilderberger's in the Kennedy Administration  

Barbour, Walworth - Bilderberger

March 27th 1968 -  CIA Director Richard Helms and Amb. Walworth Barbour at meeting in the Cabinet Room
On this day in 1968, President Johnson held a National Security Council meeting regarding Vietnam. He also met with CIA directors Richard Helm and Ambassador Walworth Barbour.
Walworth Barbour - 1908-1982, who capped a lifetime Foreign Service career with nearly 12 years as the United States Ambassador to Israel from 1961 to 1973

Israel gets the Bomb with Bilderberger help

Although the United States government did not encourage or approve of the Israeli nuclear program, it also did nothing to stop it.

Walworth Barbour, US ambassador to Israel from 1961-73, the bomb program's crucial years, primarily saw his job as being to insulate the President from facts which might compel him to act on the nuclear issue, alledgedly saying at one point that "The President did not send me there to give him problems. He does not want to be told any bad news."

After the 1967 war, Barbour even put a stop to military attachés' intelligence collection efforts around Dimona. Even when

Barbour did authorize forwarding information, as he did in 1966 when embassy staff learned that Israel was beginning to put nuclear warheads in missiles, the message seemed to disappear into the bureaucracy and was never acted upon.

Dimona Nuke Facility

President Johnson's Closet Advisors - Benjamin Victor Cohen

Among Johnson's closest advisers during this period were several strong pro-Israel advocates, including Benjamin Cohen (who 30 years earlier was the liaison between Supreme Court justice Louis Brandeis and Chaim Weizmann)
and Abe Fortas, the legendary Washington "insider."

Benjamin V. Cohen (1894 – 1983), a member of the administrations of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman, had a public service career that spanned from the early New Deal through and beyond the Vietnam War era.

He served as counsel for the American Zionist Movement from 1919 - 1921. He acted as Zionist counsel to the 1919 Paris Peace Conference

Cohen's first appearance on the national scene was as a member of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Brain Trust.

In 1941, during the period leading up to the entry of the United States into World War II he helped write the Lend-Lease plan.

Cohen also assisted in the drafting of the 1944 Dumbarton Oaks agreements leading to the establishment of the United Nations.

In 1945 Cohen served as the United States' chief draftsman at the Potsdam Conference.

In 1948 Cohen advised both the United States and the new state of Israel with respect to the first official exchange between those two countries.

Cohen is also associead with Tom Corcoran


After Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated Herbert Hoover he asked Felix Frankfurter to assemble a legal team to review the nation's securities laws. Frankfurter selected Corcoran, Benjamin Cohen and James Landis for the task. Corcoran, a member of the Democratic Party, readily accepted the post. Together they drafted the legislation that created the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline chris jones

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 My older brother, a green beret told me Isreal had a stockpile of nukes. This was in 1955.
Was i lied too?

Offline TahoeBlue

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My older brother, a green beret told me Isreal had a stockpile of nukes. This was in 1955.
Was i lied too?

This has been one of my questions to myself as to when did the Israelis first have "a bomb".

In the 1950's they would have had to buy/steal/be given a nuke from the U.S., Britain, France or USSR , I can't believe they had a "stockpile" of nukes, unless the U.S. wanted to store them there.

No I wouldn't believe that, but in the 1960's that's a different story.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline chris jones

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This has been one of my questions to myself as to when did the Israelis first have "a bomb".

In the 1950's they would have had to buy/steal/be given a nuke from the U.S., Britain, France or USSR , I can't believe they had a "stockpile" of nukes, unless the U.S. wanted to store them there.

No I wouldn't believe that, but in the 1960's that's a different story.
   sorry, I didn't mean to say they had a nuclear arsenal (stockpile)in 1955. According my ol Bro They had  bombs a facility and were extending the tech. He did mention the exact location, but I can't bring it to memory.

Offline TahoeBlue

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Emma Lazarus: see: Emma Lazarus in Her World: Life and Letters  By Bette Roth Young

Of the millions of New York stories, poet Emma Lazarus' is one of the saddest, though it began happily enough. She was born in 1849, the daughter of a wealthy sugar manufacturer and a member of New York's German-speaking Jewish elite.

After 1880, New York was flooded with poor, Yiddish-speaking Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe. Many were fleeing pogroms, or government-led attacks on Jewish people, in Russia.

But despite their shared faith, New York's elite Jews turned up their noses at the newcomers. Emma was different. After reading an article that blamed the Jews for the pogroms, she wrote a strong reply. The Statue of Liberty committee read it and in 1883 hired her to write a poem to help raise funds to build the statue.

Now that that is not quite all :

Emma Lazarus was the fourth of seven children of Moshe Lazarus and Esther Nathan, Portuguese Sephardic Jews[4] whose families had been settled in New York since the colonial period

This links her family to the East Indies Sugar slave plantations!:

Anonymous said...
Why is Emma Lazarus so great? Read Emma Lazarus in her World. Her father owned slaves at an abusive plantation in Louisiana, then dumped all the problems on his partner (although they had a generational relationship, with the sons going into business also). The sugar cane plantation that fed Emma was visited by the Negro Bureau, for abuses, and worse, the cane was grown to feed the Lazarus booze business, and run off from the cows they bred in what is now Chelsea caused contamination in milk that killed tons of nyc kids. She was a hard-core zionist that believed in Israel as a homeland for only jews, but all europeans countries for "mixed" populations. Seriously, I wouldn't use her in an article---big time slaver. Read her poems someday, and learn the history of her slave-holding family, please.

Emma Lazarus Statue of Liberty Award 2009
Emma Lazarus Statue of Liberty Award 2009

"Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"

Emma Lazarus was the fourth of seven children of Moshe Lazarus and Esther Nathan, Portuguese Sephardic Jews[4] whose families had been settled in New York since the colonial period. ... She is known as an important forerunner of the Zionist movement. She argued for the creation of a Jewish homeland thirteen years before Herzl began to use the term Zionism.[5] Lazarus is buried in Beth-Olom Cemetery in Brooklyn.

"We must never forget those who went through those terrible trials and tribulations" said former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev at the glittering 2009 American Jewish Historical Society Emma Lazarus Statue of Liberty Award luncheon held on March 26th at New York’s Rainbow Room. "What is dangerous is forgetfulness." The luncheon, titled "Beyond the Pale," marked two decades since the fall of the Berlin Wall, the global realignment that followed.

Gorbachev, who was awarded AJHS' first Global Leadership Award, was joined at the event by former U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz {Bilderberg - SMOM} in conversation with PBS' Charlie Rose {Bilderberg} over their crucial roles in ending the Cold War and the emigration of some 1 million Soviet Jews. (The conversation will be broadcast on a forthcoming Charlie Rose show.)
The Gorbachev/Shultz/Rose conversation touched on Russo-American relations today, the future of nuclear arms proliferation and negotiations with Iran, optimism for the Obama and Medvedev administrations, and the role of Russian Jews in Israeli{/American} politics today.

Emma Lazarus Statue of Liberty Award 2009:

Israeli Consul General Asaf Shariv, Former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger {Bilderberg - SMOM}, Chariman Emeritus Kenneth J. Bialkin, former New York City Mayor Ed Koch and former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev.

| ---------

His [Gorbachev's] role with the UN has been promoting the new NWO "Green" religion favored by the UN for the masses.  Along with such characters as Maurice Strong{Bilderberg/Rockefeller Foundation} and Al Gore{Bilderberg}, Gorbachev drafted 'The Earth Charter" intended to replace the Ten Commandments.

Opportunities for women to obtain education narrowed at the close of the eighteenth century when the Jews started to abandon their plantations for economic reasons (Europe began to produce sugar from beets and no longer depended on the Caribbean sugar cane) as well as owing to the anti-Jewish legislation on the English islands of Jamaica, Barbados and Nevis, which forbade Jews to employ Christians, limiting them to only one or two house slaves. Jews started to send their sons to study in Amsterdam, Bordeaux or the United States. Daughters could neither travel alone nor stay abroad unaccompanied. Thus, only girls who joined their brothers outside the Caribbean could obtain an academic education.

With the abandonment of the plantations, Jews turned to international commerce, creating centers of marketing with the Spanish colonies, North America, Europe and beyond, even reaching North Africa, India and China.
The heart of this commerce was the Dutch island of St. Eustatius, where the Jews were the majority of the white population. After the English occupation of the island in 1781, the center passed to St. Thomas in the Danish Virgin Islands. Another focal point was the Dutch island of Curaçao, where again Jews were the majority of the white population. With the opening of the Panama Canal, at the beginning of the twentieth century, a commercial center formed in the city of Colon, which attracted Jews from the Caribbean.
Status of Women

The frequent contacts with the outer world brought winds of change to Jewish life. The Jewish Reform movements in Germany and the United States began to influence the Jewish way of life and clashed with the Orthodox Hakhamim (rabbis) of the Caribbean, most of whom had come from the Balkans. After intense quarrels on some of the islands, compromises were reached preventing the dismemberment of the congregations. Surinam remained Orthodox; Jamaica and the Virgin Islands kept some Orthodox Sephardi customs; Panama became completely Reform (the Portuguese community). These changes also brought about a change in the status of women.
In 1844 in the Virgin Islands, the Hakham Benjamin Cohen Carillon introduced the confirmation ceremony affirming one’s becoming a member of the synagogue, with men and women having equal standing. The text of the “Certificate of Confirmation” reads as follows:
I Benjamin Cohen Carillon Minister of the Israelitish Congregation in this island, certify that on the eighth Shabat 5604 corresponding with 13 April 1844 I confirmed Hanna de Sola duly accepted as a member of the synagogue and entitled to all the rights and benefits thereof.
An eye-witness to this ceremony, a Mrs. Lazarus, relates “how beautiful the girls looked in their long white veils similar to bridal [veils]. Here was the first class confirmed on the island, the year following a class of young married women was confirmed” (Philipson 915, 180–82).
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline chris jones

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 Hi T.
 Mayby a bit off topic, long ago I attended a bible study nights, a phase of my life when younger so to say.
The point,we (students)were told the throne of England, the original, wood carved baby is carved w/ hebrew writings. T or F.
 The proffesor ,also explained, valid or not I can't say. The fable of the lost tribe of Israel, the fishing village inhabitants that took of from Israel ended up in Ireland (freedom). I know, off subject, just thought I', toss it in there.
 As to the the year I mentioned Israel began their Nuke tech, its been bugging me most of the day. I was off base, I was a teenager when my brother told me this, it has to be late fiftys or very early 60's.
  I wonder at times how folks folks put up with an old fart like me.

Offline TahoeBlue

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I am hoping to show that the tech tranfer of the bomb to the U.S.S.R also went to Israel , or in other words , the U.S.S.R
(Stalin) getting the bomb was a cover for Israel getting the bomb thru Cambridge and Victor Rothschild....

I'll fill this in later , lets start with the  Vernona Soviet spies :
List of Americans in the Venona papers

Solomon Adler**[2]
Lona Cohen**[2]
Morris Cohen**[2], Communist Party USA & Portland Spy Ring member who was courier for Manhattan Project physicist Theodore Hall.

Harold Glasser,[2] U.S. Treasury Dept. economist, United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) spokesman.

Harry Gold,[2] sentenced to 30 years for his role in the Rosenbergs' ring

Theodore Alvin Hall,[2] Manhattan Project physicist who gave plutonium purification secrets to Soviet intelligence.

Alger Hiss,[2] Lawyer involved in the establishment of the United Nations, both as a U.S. State Department and UN official.

Donald Hiss**[2]

Frank Oppenheimer**[2]
Julius Robert Oppenheimer[2], Scientific director of the Manhattan Project and chief advisor to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

Robert Oppenheimer in front of the physics building at the Weizmann Institute

Great Atomic Scientists in Israel

“And now gentlemen, do the photographers a favor and try to look intelligent,” Professor Felix Bloch told his friends Chaim Pekeris, Niels Bohr, Robert Oppenheimer, Meyer Weisgal and Amos de-Shalit. …The travel to the celebrations in Rehovot was Oppenheimer’s first trip outside the US borders: he had been among the leading figures accused by McCarthy’s commission

Allan Rosenberg[2]
Julius Rosenberg,[2] United States Army Signal Corps Laboratories, executed for role in the Rosenberg ring
Ethel Rosenberg,[2] executed for role in Rosenberg ring based on testimony of her brother, David Greenglass
Soviet Agents in the United States
Rosenberg ring

Joel Barr, met Julius Rosenberg at City CoIIege of New York, then spied with him and Al Sarant at Army Signal Corps lab in New Jersey; escaped prosecution by fleeing to Soviet bloc in 1950. Died 2007.

Max Elitcher, longtime friend of Rosenberg and Sobell from their days at CCNY before testifying against them

Klaus Fuchs, physicist who supplied information about the British and American atomic bomb research to the Soviet Union; sentenced to 14 years in the UK.

Vivian Glassman, fiancée of Joel Barr [4]
Harry Gold, courier sentenced to 30 years

David Greenglass, draftsman at Los Alamos in World War Two, gave atomic bomb drawings to his sister Ethel Rosenberg, and eventually the Soviets; sentenced to 15 years

Ruth Greenglass, escaped prosecution in exchange for her husband's testimony against his sister and brother-in-law, the Rosenbergs

Miriam Moskowitz, convicted of obstruction of justice for assisting Brothman. She was never convicted of being a spy for the Soviet Union.[6]
William Perl, active in Young Communist League at CCNY, then met Al Sarant at Columbia University; served 5 years for perjury
Morton Sobell, involved with Barr, Perl and Julius Rosenberg at CCNY; sentenced to 30 years at Alcatraz

Ethel Rosenberg, executed at Sing Sing prison near her native New York City for conspiracy to commit espionage
Julius Rosenberg, executed at Sing Sing prison near his native New York City for conspiracy to commit

Al Sarant, stole radar secrets at Army Signal Corps lab in New Jersey, then he and his mistress abandoned their families for the protection of his Soviet masters in 1950

Andrew Roth, Office of Naval Intelligence liaison officer with United States Department of State
Saville Sax college friend of Theodore Hall assisted with Hall's disclosure to the Soviets of Los Alamos research and development [5] [6]

The Cambridge Five was a ring of spies, recruited in part by Russian talent spotter Arnold Deutsch in the United Kingdom, who passed information to the Soviet Union during World War II and at least into the early 1950s. Four members of the ring have been identified: Kim Philby (cryptonym: Stanley), Donald Duart Maclean (cryptonym: Homer), Guy Burgess (cryptonym: Hicks) and Anthony Blunt (cryptonym: Johnson); jointly they are known as the Cambridge Four.

Several people have been suspected of being the "fifth man" of the group; John Cairncross (cryptonym: Liszt) was identified as such by Oleg Gordievsky, though many others have also been accused of membership in the Cambridge ring.
The term Cambridge Five refers to the conversion of Philby, Burgess, Blunt, and Maclean to communism during their education at Cambridge University in the 1930s. Debate surrounds the exact timing of their recruitment by Soviet intelligence; Anthony Blunt claimed that they were not recruited as agents until they had graduated. Blunt, a Fellow of Trinity College, was several years older than Burgess, Maclean, and Philby; he acted as a talent-spotter and recruiter.

Both Blunt and Burgess were members of the Apostles, an exclusive and prestigious society based at Trinity and King's Colleges. John Cairncross, long suspected of having been the 'Fifth Man', and formally identified as a Soviet agent in 1990, was also an Apostle.

Other Apostles accused of having spied for the Soviets include Michael Whitney Straight, Victor Rothschild, research fellow Lewis Daly and Guy Liddell.

In early summer 1951, Burgess and Maclean made international headlines by disappearing. Their whereabouts were unclear for some time. Strong suspicion that they had defected to the Soviet Union turned out to be correct, but was not made public until 1956, when the two appeared at a press conference in Moscow.
At the time of Golitsyn's defection, Philby had already been accused in the press and was living in a country with no extradition agreement with Britain. Select members of MI5 and MI6 already knew Philby to be a spy from VENONA decryptions. Golitsyn also provided other information that is widely regarded[by whom?] as highly improbable, such as the claim that Harold Wilson (then Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) was a KGB agent.

Theodore Alvin Holtzberg was born in Far Rockaway, New York City, but his family soon moved to Washington Heights in Upper Manhattan.

While his father struggled to find work during the Great Depression, he changed both his and Theodore's last name to Hall in an effort to avoid anti-Semitic hiring practices.

Hall attended Public School 173 in Washington Heights during the Depression and then Harvard University, from which he graduated at the age of 18. [ i.e. a genius ]

At the age of 19, Hall was recruited to the Manhattan Project, where he was the youngest scientist at Los Alamos
It is not unlikely that he was supplying the Soviets with information provided to him by someone else, someone much more knowledgeable and much higher up in the Manhattan Project organization.

While on a vacation in his hometown, New York, he entered the Soviet consulate and volunteered to pass information on the Manhattan Project to the Soviet government. (After his death, Hall's wife Joan said that he had begun to adopt strong feelings, current at the time, against the possibility of a militarized United States having a nuclear monopoly very early in his time working at Los Alamos.)

Unbeknownst to Hall, Klaus Fuchs, a Los Alamos colleague, and others still unidentified were also spying for the USSR; none seem to have known of the others
FBI investigation
Until the release of the Venona decrypts in 1980, nearly all of the espionage regarding the Los Alamos nuclear weapons program was attributed to Klaus Fuchs. Hall was questioned by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in March 1951 but, mysteriously, wasn't charged. Alan H. Belmont, the number-three man in the FBI, decided that the Venona project would be inadmissible as hearsay evidence and not worth compromising the program
Hall left Los Alamos for the University of Chicago, where he switched to biology. There he pioneered important techniques in X-ray microanalysis. He went to work at Cambridge University in England in 1962. Hall later became active in obtaining signatures for the Stockholm Peace Pledge.
In a written statement published in 1997, Hall came close to admitting that the accusations against him were true, although obliquely, saying that in the immediate postwar years, he felt strongly that "an American monopoly" on nuclear weapons "was dangerous and should be avoided":

To help prevent that monopoly I contemplated a brief encounter with a Soviet agent, just to inform them of the existence of the A-bomb project. I anticipated a very limited contact. With any luck, it might easily have turned out that way, but it was not to be.
He repeated this near-confession in an interview for a Cold War documentary on the Cable News Network in 1998, saying,

I decided to give atomic secrets to the Russians because it seemed to me that it was important that there should be no monopoly, which could turn one nation into a menace and turn it loose on the world as ... as Nazi Germany developed. There seemed to be only one answer to what one should do. The right thing to do was to act to break the American monopoly.

On November 1, 1999, Theodore Hall died in Cambridge, England. He had suffered from Parkinson's disease, although he died of renal cancer at the age of 74
Theodore Hall - US scientist-spy who escaped prosecution and spent 30 years in biological research at Cambridge

Theodore Hall, who has died at the age of 74, was the American atomic scientist discovered by the United States authorities to have been a wartime Soviet spy - but who was never prosecuted.
The information he gave Moscow was at least as sensitive as that which sent Julius and Ethel Rosenberg to the electric chair. But the Americans decided not to charge Hall because of the security and legal difficulties of disclosing that they had penetrated some of the Soviet Union's most secure diplomatic codes. Subsequently, and with the tacit consent of the British security authorities, Hall spent more than 30 productive years as a respected researcher at Cambridge University until he retired in 1984 aged 59.

His espionage was uncovered through the highly-secret Venona project, Washington's long and painstaking effort to decrypt 35,000 pages of Soviet diplomatic traffic intercepted between 1942 and 1946. In the end only about 3,000 of the original texts were ever recovered, mostly long after their transmission.


The first clear reference to Hall had come in a message transmitted on November 12 1944 by the KGB station in New York but not eventually deciphered until April 1961. "BEK visited Teodor KhOLL, 19 years old, the son of a furrier. He is a graduate of Harvard university. As a talented physicist, he was taken on for government work... At the present time H is in charge of a group at CAMP-2. He handed over to Bek a report about the camp and named the key personnel employed on ENORMOUS."

"Bek" was Sergei Kurnakov, a Soviet journalist working in New York; "Camp-2" was the US scientific research centre at Los Alamos, and "Enormous" was Moscow's cryptonym for the Manhattan Project, America's top-secret programme to develop the atomic bomb.

This was the only message that ever mentioned Hall, and his fellow spy Saville Sax, by name. All other references used their code names - MLAD (Young) for Hall and STAR (Old) for Sax - which the Venona team had unravelled much earlier but could not identify. The message had been sent shortly after Hall had started work at Los Alamos.

From an early age he had displayed an astonishing talent for mathematics and physics. In 1940, aged 14, he had achieved some of the highest marks ever recorded in the entrance examination at Columbia University, but was then told he was too young to enrol. He went instead to Queen's College, New York, transferring two years later to Harvard, where he was allowed to skip the first year of his course.

There he immersed himself in relativity and quantum mechanics and was well-enough regarded to be awarded a special scholarship. As the Nazis went from one military success to another in Europe, he also became increasingly involved in leftwing politics, along with his room-mate Sax.

Hall had become a star pupil of Professor John Van Vleck, one of America's leading experts in quantum theory. The professor had been secretly recruited by the leading US scientist Robert Oppenheimer to help design the atomic bomb - and he, in turn, recommended Hall for work at Los Alamos.

Hall's government interviewer had said no more than that the proposed job was very secret and important to the war effort. The first idea of passing information to the Russians apparently emerged when Hall mentioned the project to Sax.

In June 1944, after Hall had been working at Los Alamos for some months, he was awarded a first-class degree in absentia by Harvard. This brought him promotion, at the age of 18, to head a team involved in designing the implosion trigger for one of the experimental bombs - the one which was eventually detonated successfully at the Trinity site in New Mexico on July 16 1945.

After preliminary tests of the mechanism's practicality, Hall took annual leave to celebrate his 19th birthday with his parents in New York. But - as he explained to two American journalists, Joseph Albright and Marcia Kunstel, 50 years later - he had by then decided to tell the Russians about his work.


The Boy Who Gave Away The Bomb
By Joseph Albright and Marcia Kunstel; Joseph Albright and Marcia

The New York Times Company The New York Times September 14, 1997, Sunday, Late Edition
Section 6; Page 70; Column 1; Magazine Desk HEADLINE:
By Denver Post Wire Services

The Secret Story Of America's Unknown Atomic Spy Conspiracy
By Joseph Albright and Marcia Kunstel,
Times Books, $25

Nov. 9 - For five decades it was Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and the physicist Klaus Fuchs. They were the villains, along with Ethel's brother David Greenglass and a few other dedicated socialists who gave away U.S. atomic secrets, who aided and abetted Joe Stalin, murderer of 25 million and enemy of humankind.
But there was at least one other spy within the Manhattan Project who aided the Soviets during World War II. He was a brilliant teenage scientist working on the A-bomb at Los Alamos. He gave the Soviets far more than the Rosenbergs, and did it earlier than Fuchs.

The FBI was handed his name by Army officials who had broken the code on Soviet diplomatic messages. But the FBI couldn't build a case and he went on to live a long and comfortable life. Now, he's in his 70s, resides in Britain, and remains steadfast in the certitude that he did the right thing.

His name is Theodore Hall. "Bombshell'' is his story, well told with insight and balance by former Cox Newspapers correspondents Joseph Albright and Marcia Kunstel. Albright and Kunstel spent three years sifting through declassified Russian and U.S. documents. They interviewed hundreds of people who might have had anything to do with Ted Hall from his birth to the present. They cross-checked sources. They compiled, verified and prioritized information. They tell a complex story with no hyperbole, make no normative assessment and give new meaning to the word balance.

Special Tasks [Paperback]
Anatoli Sudoplatov (Author), Pavel Sudoplatov  
Pavel Sudoplatov (Author)
Leona P. Schecter (Author), Jerrold L. Schecter (Author)

Sudoplatov, a former intelligence official during the Stalin era, presents an updated version of his controversial memoir.

Special Tasks : The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness -A Soviet Spymaster by Pavel Sudoplatov

The atomic bomb secrets were betrayed not by the Rosenbergs but by none other than Robert Oppenheimer and Enrico Fermi

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Jan 1998
"the Youngest Spy"
Sergey Nikolaevich Kurnakov or Sergei N. Kournakoff (Russian: Сергей Курнаков), is a former tsarist cavalry officer who had immigrated to the U.S. and later became an ardent ideological Communist.
Kurnakov served as a courier to various Soviet intelligence sources, and acted as both a talent-spotter and a vetter of potential recruits. Kurnakov was a highly active liaison agent. He was accused of Communism in Time in January 1944 after teaching at a Russian course at Cornell University in the summer of 1943. He was posthumously named as a communist agent in senate hearings in 1953.
His activities as an agent were revealed when the Venona decrypts were made public in 1995. He was the contact for Flora Wovschin's father, Enos Wicher. Kurnakov also took over Mary Jane Keeney who worked for the Board of Economic Warfare and later the United Nations from Soviet Military Intelligence (GRU). Her husband Philip Keeney, who worked for what became the OSS also was taken over by Kurnakov and the KGB.
Kurnakov was the contact between Saville Sax and Theodore Hall.[citation needed] Kurnakov reported Hall to have "an exceptionally keen mind and a broad outlook," and to be "politically developed." At their first meeting Hall gave Kurnakov a report he had prepared on the Los Alamos facility, the progress of the research, and the roles of the chief scientists working on the atomic bomb. Kurnakov immediately reported to KGB Officers Anatoly Yatskov and Stepan Apresyan on his meeting with Hall.
His son, Nick Kurnakov, served in Europe with the United States Army during World War II until he defected to the Red Army and was given an officer's rank. He joined Radio Moscow after the war.[1]

Saville Sax (July 26, 1924 – September 25, 1980) was the Harvard University roommate of Theodore Hall who recruited Hall for the Soviets and acted as a courier to move the atomic secrets from Los Alamos to the Soviets
Saville was introduced to Soviet agents by his mother, Bluma, who worked for a Communist front organization called Russian War Relief.[5] Sax went by the cover name "Oldster," and periodically traveled to New Mexico to collect information from Hall.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline chris jones

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 T. In effect this represent a century of planning, organiaztion, infiltration  and operations.
    Good peice of work.
    Apprecaite your work, one question, though we all have an inkling as to the answer, what do you see as their frinal objective.

Offline TahoeBlue

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Just in case people say ther is no "World Zionist Organization" :

Mission Statement

The World Zionist Organization is committed to promoting the Zionist idea and the Zionist enterprise as vital and positive elements of contemporary Jewish life, in accordance with the principles articulated in the Jerusalem Program.

This manifesto is dedicated to instilling the centrality of Israel and Jerusalem its capital deep within Jewish consciousness, encouraging the return to Zion, fashioning an exemplary society in the Jewish state, expanding Zionist education including Hebrew language instruction, settling the land, and combating anti-Semitism.

The WZO strives to enhance the impact of Zionist ideology and activity in Jewish communities around the world, including Israel, both by working through the Zionist Federations and their constituent bodies, and by influencing the agenda of the organized Jewish community, particularly through its involvement with the Jewish Agency for Israel.

About the World Zionist Organization

The World Zionist Organization was founded at the initiative of Theodore Herzl at the First Zionist Congress which took place in august 1897 in Basel, Switzerland.

When it was founded, the goals of the Zionist movement were stated in a resolution that came of that Congress and came to be known as the “Basel Program.”

 Zionism aims at establishing for the Jewish people a legally assured home in Eretz Yisrael. To achieve this purpose, the following means shall be employed:       

Promoting the settlement of Jewish farmers, artisans, and tradesmen in Palestine.

Organizing and uniting the whole of Jewry through effective local and international means in accordance with the laws of each country.

Strengthening of the Jewish national sentiment and national consciousness. 

Preparatory steps toward obtaining the consent of governments, where necessary, in order to achieve the goals of Zionism.

The WZO consists of the following bodies:  The World Zionist Unions, international Zionist federations; and international organizations that define themselves as Zionist, such as WIZO, Hadassah, Bnai-Brith, Maccabi, the International Sephardic Federation, the three streams of world Judaism (Orthodox, Conservative, Reform), delegation from the CIS – Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Union), the World Union of Jewish Students (WUJS), and more.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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The first clear reference to Hall had come in a message transmitted on November 12 1944 by the KGB station in New York but not eventually deciphered until April 1961. "

Months after Israel was formed, Rothschild was involved with Chaim Weizmann in setting up a special nuclear physics department in a scientific institute in Rehovoth. The establishment was named after Weizmann, the nation's first president and himself a distinguished biochemist.

Weizmann Institute - Its aim even in those heady days of 1948 was to build nuclear weapons for Israel.
As head of the British Admiralty Laboratories from 1917 to 1919, Dr. Weizmann developed a process for the manufacture of synthetic acetone at a time when the British needed it desperately. He isolated certain organisms found in cereals and horse chestnuts and within a month had created synthetic acetone for British explosives.
He was also credited with having suggested to David Lloyd George the strategy of the campaign against Turkey which resulted ultimately in Allenby's victorious march on Jerusalem. For all these services the British Prime Minister asked him what he wanted in return.

Dr. Weizmann refused any monetary reward or a title, and said, "There is only one thing I want--a national home for my people."

The Balfour Declaration, issued in November, 1917, followed. It was Britain's promise to facilitate the Jews in making a homeland in Palestine and was hailed as the Magna Carta of the Zionist movement.

It was supported by a joint resolution of the Congress of the United States and led Jews everywhere to believe the redemption of Palestine was assured. The declaration was a central factor in Jewish aspirations even in the darkest days when war, then changes in British policy, including support of the Arab position, seemed to doom the whole idea of a Jewish homeland.
From 1920 to 1931, and in 1935, Dr. Weizmann, as president of the World Zionist Organization, found it necessary to compromise with the British and the Arabs and to appease his various Zionist opponents. Civil war in Palestine between the Jews and Arabs added to his difficulties. The Arabs insisted that Palestine had been exclusively theirs for thirteen centuries; the Jews maintained the right of prior occupation and historical connections related to their conquest of Palestine in 1200 B.C. Blood flowed freely in frequent clashes.

In the second World War, the British rejected his proposal to train a Jewish Army. They did train a Jewish battalion but that did not come into existence until 1944.

No Jewish mission was invited to the United Nations Conference in 1945 and it was not until 1946, when the Anglo-American Commission of Inquiry on Palestine was created, that Dr. Weizmann again had an opportunity to make an official plea for a Jewish home and unrestricted immigration.

In October, 1947, he headed a delegation from the Jewish Agency which presented its case before the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. He accepted at that time the principle of partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states provided that the Jews were free to form a "free national unit." On Nov. 30, 1947, the U. N. General Assembly approved partition, and Jews danced in the streets of Tel Aviv.

Partition was threatened temporarily when the American delegation to the U. N. switched its position and pressed for a trusteeship. This proposal was turned down, and on May 14, 1948, simultaneously with the withdrawal of the British from Palestine, the Provisional Government of the new State of Israel was created.
It was also in 1949, in June, that Dr. Weizmann finally surrendered his British citizenship to become a citizen of Israel.

The Weizmann Institute. Construction of the institute started in 1944 and each year large sums of money were contributed here toward additional buildings.

Chaim Weizmann Visiting Tel Amal (Palestine/Israel) 1944
Stockade and Tower - Tel Amal

This is an exact replica of the first Stockade and Tower settlement, Tel Amal, which saw its beginnings on December 10, 1936. This first of its kind settlement (raised literally within a day) subsequently became the model for 57 settlements established between 1936-1939.

Located in the Beit Shean Valley (the natural continuation of the eastern part of the Jezreel Valley), it was established by pioneers who had lived in nearby Kibbutz Beit Alpha.
The American Committee for the Weizmann Institute of Science (ACWIS), founded in 1944, develops philanthropic support for the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, one of the world's premier scientific research institutions
Our History
Since 1944, ACWIS has enabled Americans to play a dramatic partnership role in keeping the Weizmann Institute at the forefront of modern science. Research funds, major buildings, professorial chairs, laboratories, endowed scholarships, and many other gifts testify to vigorous American commitment to the Institute and its graduate school.

ACWIS was founded by a group of visionaries inspired by the dreams of Dr. Chaim Weizmann, the eminent chemist and Zionist leader who later became the first President of the State of Israel and of the Institute that bears his name. Outstanding business, intellectual, and opinion leaders soon joined the Committee to participate in exciting projects of support.

From modest beginnings in Boston and New York, ACWIS has grown into a prominent national organization with offices coast to coast.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Another dead scientist :
(Microsoft Research) Theory Group
We work on fundamental problems in mathematics and theoretical computer science, interact extensively with the academic community and collaborate with other researchers at MSR on challenging applied problems. Among our areas of expertise are probability theory, combinatorics, statistical physics, metric geometry, fractals, algorithms and optimization.
Oded Schramm
Born: 10 Dec 1961 in Jerusalem, Israel
Died: 1 Sept 2008 in Guye Peak, Washington State, USA

Following the award of his doctorate, Schramm worked for two years as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, San Diego.

In 1992 he returned to Israel when appointed to the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot, Israel.

This Institute was founded by Chaim Weizmann, first president of Israel, in 1934. It was renamed the Weizmann Institute of Science in 1944.

Schramm worked at the Institute for seven years until,
in 1999, he returned to the United States to take up a position in the Theory Group at Microsoft Research in Redmond, Washington

The list of awards and prizes he received shows the remarkable quality of his work. Among the first prizes he received were the Anna and Lajos Erdős Prize in Mathematics in 1996, and the Salem Prize in 2001 (jointly with Stanislav Smirnov):-
he received the 2002 Clay Research Award
He then received the Loève Prize in 2003
Next he received the Henri Poincaré Prize in 2003
He was awarded the SIAM George Pólya Prize in 2006
he received next the Ostrowski Prize in 2007.
In 2008 he was elected as a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Schramm, who was an avid climber, died in a mountaineering accident at Guye Peak, near Snoqualmie Pass, in Washington State. He had gone climbing on his own and when he failed to return as planned on 1 September 2008, his wife reported him missing. His body was discovered the next morning.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955)
After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement,
he was offered the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he declined, and
he collaborated with Dr. Chaim Weizmann in establishing the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

ca. 1920s, New York, New York, USA --- Photo shows Chaim Weizmann, Mayor John F. Hyland and Albert Einstein, apparently standing on steps during a parade in New York

Edward Teller in 1958 as Director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Born January 15, 1908(1908-01-15)
Budapest, Hungary (Austria-Hungary)
Died September 9, 2003(2003-09-09) (aged 95) Stanford, California, United States

Teller emigrated to the United States in the 1930s, and was an early member of the Manhattan Project charged with developing the first atomic bombs. During this time he made a serious push to develop the first fusion-based weapons as well, but these were deferred until after World War II. After his controversial testimony in the security clearance hearing of his former Los Alamos colleague J. Robert Oppenheimer, Teller was ostracized by much of the scientific community. He continued to find support from the U.S. government and military research establishment, particularly for his advocacy for nuclear energy development, a strong nuclear arsenal, and a vigorous nuclear testing program. He was a co-founder of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and was both its director and associate director for many years.

In his later years he became especially known for his advocacy of controversial technological solutions to both military and civilian problems, including a plan to excavate an artificial harbor in Alaska using thermonuclear explosives. He was a vigorous advocate of Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. Throughout his life, Teller was known both for his scientific ability and his difficult interpersonal relations and volatile personality, and is considered one of the inspirations for the character Dr. Strangelove in the 1964 movie of the same name.
 The political climate and revolutions in Hungary during his youth instilled a lingering animosity for both Communism and Fascism in Teller

Nuclear technology and Israel

For some twenty years, Teller advised Israel on nuclear matters in general, and on the building of a hydrogen bomb in particular.[45]

In 1952, Teller and Oppenheimer had a long meeting with David Ben-Gurion in Tel Aviv, telling him that the best way to accumulate plutonium was to burn natural uranium in a nuclear reactor.

Starting in 1964, a connection between Teller and Israel was made by the physicist Yuval Neeman, who had similar political views.

Between 1964 and 1967, Teller visited Israel six times, lecturing at Tel Aviv University, and advising the chiefs of Israel's scientific-security circle as well as prime ministers and cabinet members.

At each of his talks with members of the Israeli security establishment's highest levels he would make them swear that they would never be tempted into signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

In 1967 when the Israeli program was nearing completion, Teller informed Neeman that he was going to tell the CIA that Israel had built nuclear weapons and explain that it was justified by the background of the Six-Day War.

After Neeman cleared it with Prime Minister Levi Eshkol, Teller briefed the head of the CIA's Office of Science and Technology, Carl Duckett. It took a year for Teller to convince the CIA that Israel had obtained nuclear capability; the information then went through CIA Director Richard Helms and then to the US president.

Teller also persuaded them to end the American attempts to inspect the Negev Nuclear Research Center in Dimona.

Israel and the Bomb [Paperback]   Avner Cohen (Author)
 But with Israel and the Bomb (Columbia University Press; release date October 21; $27.50) Avner Cohen has forged an interpretive political history that draws on thousands of American and Israeli government documents-most of them recently declassified and never before cited-and more than one hundred interviews with key individuals who played important roles in this story.

Cohen reveals that Israel crossed the nuclear weapons threshold on the eve of the 1967 Six Day War, yet it continues to maintain an ambiguous posture with regard to its nuclear capability to this day.

The book focuses on a two-decade period from about 1950 until 1970, during which David Ben-Gurion's vision of making Israel a nuclear-weapon state was realized [ if you're read this thread you know this is not completely correct !] .

Cohen weaves together the story of the formative years of Israel's nuclear program, from the founding of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission in 1952, to the alliance with France that gave Israel the nuclear technology it needed, to the failure of American intelligence to identify the Dimona Project for what it was in the late 1950s, to the negotiations between President Nixon and Prime Minister Meir that led to the current policy of nuclear opacity.

Cohen also analyzes the complex forces that led Israel to conceal its nuclear program-from concerns over Arab reaction and the negative effect of the debate at home to consideration of America's commitment to nonproliferation.
Israel and the Bomb : Principal Players
Angleton, James Jesus (1917-87). Long-time CIA operative; director of CIA counterespionage (1954-74); handled the CIA Israel account; was forced to resign from the CIA after questions were raised concerning his search for a Soviet "mole" inside the agency.
Barbour, Walworth (1908-82). U.S. ambassador to Israel (1961-73).
Bergmann, Ernst David (1903-75). German born; organic chemist; Chaim Weizmann protege and scientific director of the Sieff Institute and subsequently the Weizmann Institute of Science(1934-51); member and head of the scientific department of the Haganah and IDF, first chair of the IAEC (1952-66); head of research in the Ministry of Defense (1950-66); recognized as the scientific inspiration for Israel's nuclear program
De Shalit, Amos (1926-69). Prominent Israeli scientist (nuclear physicist); among the HEMED physicists who were sent in 1949 to study nuclear physics overseas; created (1954) and headed (1954-64) the Department of Nuclear Physics at the Weizmann Institute; scientific director of the Weizmann Institute; served as the official escort to most of the American AEC teams to Dimona.
Dostrovsky, Israel (1918- ). Prominent Israeli scientist (nuclear chemist); joined the Weizmann Institute in 1948 and founded the Department of Isotope Research; commander of HEMED Gimmel (1948-51); director of research at the LAEC (1953-57); director-general of the IAEC under Prime Ministers Levi Eshkol and Golda Meir (1965-71); vice president and later president of the Weizmann Institute (1971-75).
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1890-1969). Supreme Allied commander during the Second World War; thirty-fourth president of the United States (1953-61).
Goldschmidt, Bertrand Leopold (1912- ). French physical chemist; participated in the French contingent to the Manhattan Project; among the major contributors to the French CEA as head of the Chemistry Division (1946-59) and head of External Relations and Planning.
Harriman, Averell W. (1891-1986). U.S. ambassador to the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union; governor of New York (1955-59); undersecretary of state in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations.

| - - - -
Goldschmidt, Bertrand Leopold (1912- ). French physical chemist; participated in the French contingent to the Manhattan Project; among the major contributors to the French CEA as head of the Chemistry Division (1946-59) and head of External Relations and Planning

Goldschmidt, Bertrand Leopold  was married to ... wait for it.... Naomi Louisa Nina Goldschmidt (de Rothschild) (1920 - 2007

Lionel Nathan de Rothschild father
Edmund Leopold de Rothschild brother
Bertrand Léopold Goldschmidt is the son of Paul Goldschmidt.1 He married Naomi Louisa Nina de Rothschild, daughter of Lionel Nathan de Rothschild and Marie Louise Eugénie Beer, on 26 February 1947.
Bertrand Goldschmidt  1912 - 2002

Bertrand Goldschmidt, the last surviving French participant in the wartime development of nuclear energy, died in Paris June 11 2002 at age 89.   Goldschmidt directed his country's uranium and plutonium chemistry programs after the war, and at the end of a career spent at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), culminating as director of international relations, was chairman of the IAEA board of governors in 1980.

A chemist by education, the young Goldschmidt was engaged before the last war by Marie Curie at her Radium Institute as a preparer.   He rose to become professor, but lost his position in 1940 under the collaborationist Vichy government which forbade Jews in teaching professions.

Goldschmidt enrolled in the Free French Forces in New York and became the only Frenchman to work on the Manhattan Project.   He worked with Glenn Seaborg on plutonium separation before being assigned, along with two other prominent French scientists, Hans Halban and Lew Kowarski, to the Anglo-Canadian nuclear development effort in Montreal.   There, Goldschmidt developed the basic solvent extraction process that is still the most widely used to reprocess spent nuclear fuel.   He also worked at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, "a fascinating undertaking, the creation in pine and birch forests of a new town" ("The Atomic Adventure", B. Goldschmidt, 1964).

After the war, Goldschmidt became part of the small team that led the CEA's development of a nuclear energy and weapons capability, as director of chemistry.   In late 1949, his unit separated the first micrograms of French plutonium.

His wartime and post-war experiences-including the abrupt dismissal of the "Canadians" from the Anglo-American nuclear development work and the blackout of further information by a U.S. government that regarded French scientists as dangerously pro-Soviet-made Goldschmidt wary of what he liked to call "Anglo-Saxon" dictates in the world of nuclear diplomacy.   He wrote several books, including "Pioneers of the Atom" which told the story of the wartime effort, while "The Atomic Complex" recounted nuclear diplomatic relations to the early 1980s.   "The Atomic Adventure" told the international history of nuclear science and technology to 1964.

This 1947 photo is from the book "The Nuclear Age" (Jacques Leclercq, 1986), and shows Bertrand Goldschmidt on the right, with (l to r) Jules Guéron, Francis Perrin, Jean Stohr, Raoul Dautry, Irène Curie, Frédéric Joliot and Lew Kowarski - "The Zoé team".  

Zoé was France's first nuclear reactor, a copy of the ZEEP reactor (i.e. natural uranium and heavy water pool-type) built in Chalk River under the direction of Kowarski.

No Frenchman had stronger emotional ties to Israel than Bertrand Goldschmidt, a nuclear chemist who had served during World War II with the handful of French scientists who were permitted-despite being foreigners-to work directly with the Americans doing nuclear research. He had become an expert in the chemistry of plutonium and plutonium extraction. He also had helped build an experimental reactor fueled with natural uranium and moderated by heavy water. As a first-rate chemist, he had been offered a chance to stay in the American bomb program after the war, but instead chose to return to France and join its Atomic Energy Commission
Goldschmidt was a Jew whose family had suffered, as had most Jewish families in Europe, during the war.

His ties to Israel were heightened by marriage; his wife was a member of the eminent Rothschild banking family, whose contributions to Israel and Jewish causes were measured in the tens of millions of dollars. Goldschmidt and his wife had made the pilgrimage to Israel in the early 1950s and been taken by Ernst Bergmann for a memorable meeting with Ben- Gurion at his frame home in the Negev. [5]

By then, Goldschmidt was serving as director of chemistry for France's Atomic Energy Commission; in the 1970's he would become a widely respected French spokesman on nonproliferation and other international atomic energy issues. He also was among the few outsiders permitted to visit the completed reactor at Dimona in the 1960s-then a classic example of illicit proliferation.

All in the family:

SALZBURG, GERMANY - JANUARY 01 1932: Baron Erich Von Goldschmidt Rothschild taking his wife and a friend for a drive.  - Photo: Alfred Eisenstaedt/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images Jan 01, 1932

Looking for a bio on the Baron who had a great pre-war art collection>
Erich von Goldschmidt-Rothschild (1899-1987), of the famous Rothschild lineage. Goldschmidt-Rothschild was also well-known for his extensive, rare book collection.
Die Sammlung Erich von Goldschmidt-Rothschild Tafelband - 1931 - Berlin - Hermann Ball, Paul Graupe

DETAILS - Two beautifully illustrated German auction catalogues - In German. Bound in blue paper covered boards. Die Sammlung Erich von Goldschmidt-Rothschild Tafelband is a volume of plates only.

These auction catalogues describe and picture a vast number of collectibles, from furniture to vases and artwork. The auctioneer for the lots which took place between 1930-1 was the well known Paul Graupe of Berlin.

The two volumes detail the collection of Erich von Goldschmidt-Rothschild (1899-1987), of the famous Rothschild lineage.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Mordechai Vanunu provided the best look at the Israeli nuclear arsenal in 1985 complete with photographs.93  A technician from Dimona who lost his job, Vanunu secretly took photographs, immigrated to Australia and published some of his material in the London Sunday Times. 

He was subsequently kidnapped by Israeli agents, tried and imprisoned. 

His data shows a sophisticated nuclear program, over 200 bombs, with boosted devices, neutron bombs, F-16 deliverable warheads, and Jericho warheads.94   The boosted weapons shown in the Vanunu photographs show a sophistication that inferred the requirement for testing.95  He revealed for the first time the underground plutonium separation facility where Israel was producing 40 kilograms annually, several times more than previous estimates. 

Photographs showed sophisticated designs which scientific experts say enabled the Israelis to build bombs with as little as 4 kilograms of plutonium.  These facts have increased the estimates of total Israeli nuclear stockpiles (see Appendix A).96 

In the words of one American, “[the Israelis] can do anything we or the Soviets can do.”97 

Vanunu not only made the technical details of the Israeli program and stockpile public but in his wake, Israeli began veiled official acknowledgement of the potent Israeli nuclear deterrent.  They began bringing the bomb up the basement stairs if not out of the basement.
The Infamous [famous] Mordechai Vanunu

VANUNU: Well, the most important point is that it was the same situation that we have right now, namely that these people continue to lie and to cheat the world as well as their own citizens by denying the truth, by declaring that they do not have atomic weapons while at the same time I was working there helping to produce them.

At that time there were more than 200 atomic weapons, in 1986, and it was at that time that they started to produce the most horrible of all weapons, the hydrogen bomb…all of this in secret, in lying and in cheating the world and all of its citizens. So I said to myself `It is impossible to keep these secrets. I must report about them and to try and stop it.’
Mordechai Vanunu (Israel)

Mordechai Vanunu was born in Morocco and moved with his family to Israel in 1963. He did three years' military service from 1971 to '74, when he was given an 'honourable discharge' having served as a First Sergeant in a unit of sappers. He became a technician at the Dimona nuclear plant in 1976 and underwent special training. In October 1979 he began studies at Ben Gurion University, Be'er-Sheva, in philosophy and geography, graduating in 1984/5.

At university Vanunu became increasingly politically active, calling for equal rights for Palestinians in Israel and for the inclusion of Palestinians in negotiations for the establishment of an independent Palestinian state. Becoming more and more disillusioned with Israel's military posture, he opposed the country's 1982 invasion of Lebanon.

In November 1985 he was made redundant in a mass lay-off of workers at Dimona.
Ten months later he talked to a London newspaper, the Sunday Times, about the Dimona plant,
revealing that Israel's nuclear capability was far greater than suspected.
He told the newspaper that Israel probably had a stockpile of 100-200 nuclear weapons,
was able to make thermonuclear devices more powerful than atomic bombs and had collaborated routinely with South Africa on nuclear matters.

Soon after the resulting article appeared, Vanunu went missing. 
Vanunu's revelations were exhaustively checked by the Sunday Times before publication and they have not been seriously challenged.
Mordechai Vanunu: “Having the atomic bomb is what has allowed Israel to fearlessly carry out its apartheid policy”
[Voltaire Network]

Mordechai Vanunu (Hebrew: מרדכי ואנונו‎); (born 14 October 1954) is a former Israeli nuclear technician who, citing his opposition to weapons of mass destruction, revealed details of Israel's nuclear weapons program to the British press in 1986.[2][3]

He was subsequently lured to Italy by a female Mossad agent, where he was drugged and kidnapped by Israeli intelligence agents.[2] He was transported to Israel and ultimately convicted in a trial that was held behind closed doors.[2]

Vanunu spent 18 years in prison, including more than 11 in solitary confinement. Released from prison in 2004, he became subject to a broad array of restrictions on his speech and movement.

Since then he has been arrested several times for violations of those restrictions, including giving various interviews to foreign journalists and attempting to leave Israel.

He says he suffered "cruel and barbaric treatment" at the hands of Israeli authorities while imprisoned, and suggests that his treatment would have been different if he were Jewish (Vanunu is a Christian convert from Judaism).[4]

In 2007, Vanunu was sentenced to six months in prison for violating terms of his parole.

The sentence was considered unusual even by the prosecution who expected a suspended sentence. In response, Amnesty International issued a press release on 2 July 2007, stating that "The organisation considers Mordechai Vanunu to be a prisoner of conscience and calls for his immediate and unconditional release."[5] In May 2010, Vanunu was arrested and sentenced to three months in jail on suspicion that he met foreigners in violation of conditions of his 2004 release from jail.

Vanunu has been characterized internationally as a whistleblower[6][7] and by Israel as a traitor.[8][9][10][11]

Daniel Ellsberg has referred to him as "the preeminent hero of the nuclear era".[ 12]

In 2010, the British artist Richard Hamilton completed a painting based on the famous press photograph of Vanunu in transit after his kidnapping, with the information concerning his capture in Rome scrawled on his hand for the press outside.
Israeli nuclear whistle-blower Mordechai Vanunu back in prison
Israeli nuclear whistle-blower Mordechai Vanunu has started a three-month jail sentence for breaking the terms of his release and meeting a foreigner.
7:00AM BST 24 May 2010

"Shame on you, Israel, and the stupid Shin Bet and Mossad spies who are returning me to jail after 24 years in which I have spoken only the truth," Vanunu shouted in court before being led away, referring to Israel's internal security arm and its international spy service.

"Freedom is a basic part of human rights. I am not an animal. You punished me in the past, but I cannot accept a violation of my freedom of expression."

The 55-year-old was arrested in December at a Jerusalem hotel while talking to a Norwegian woman
Since his release in 2004, he has been detained several times for violating the terms of his release that ban him from travel or contact with foreigners.

The Jewish state has refused to sign the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty or to allow international surveillance of Dimona in the southern Negev desert.  Vanunu became an international cause celebre during his time in prison. At home, he is still widely reviled for converting to Christianity shortly before he was kidnapped in Italy. He was jailed after being covertly shipped back to Israel.

Israel began actively investigating the nuclear option from its earliest days. In 1949, HEMED GIMMEL a special unit of the IDF's Science Corps, began a two-year geological survey of the Negev desert with an eye toward the discovery of uranium reserves.

Although no significant sources of uranium were found, recoverable amounts were located in phosphate deposits.

The program took another step forward with the creation of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) in 1952.

Its chairman, Ernst David Bergmann, had long advocated an Israeli bomb as the best way to ensure "that we shall never again be led as lambs to the slaughter."

Bergmann was also head of the Ministry of Defense's Research and Infrastructure Division (known by its Hebrew acronym, EMET), which had taken over the HEMED research centers (HEMED GIMMEL among them, now renamed Machon 4) as part of a reorganization. Under Bergmann, the line between the IAEC and EMET blurred to the point that Machon 4 functioned essentially as the chief laboratory for the IAEC.

By 1953, Machon 4 had not only perfected a process for extracting the uranium found in the Negev, but had also developed a new method of producing heavy water, providing Israel with an indigenous capability to produce some of the most important nuclear materials.

For reactor design and construction, Israel sought the assistance of France. Nuclear cooperation between the two nations dates back as far as early 1950's, when construction began on France's 40MWt heavy water reactor and a chemical reprocessing plant at Marcoule. France was a natural partner for Israel and both governments saw an independent nuclear option as a means by which they could maintain a degree of autonomy in the bipolar environment of the cold war.

In the fall of 1956, France agreed to provide Israel with an 18 MWt research reactor. However, the onset of the Suez Crisis a few weeks later changed the situation dramatically. Following Egypt's closure of the Suez Canal in July, France and Britain had agreed with Israel that the latter should provoke a war with Egypt to provide the European nations with the pretext to send in their troops as peacekeepers to occupy and reopen the canal zone. In the wake of the Suez Crisis, the Soviet Union made a thinly veiled threat against the three nations. T

his episode not only enhanced the Israeli view that an independent nuclear capability was needed to prevent reliance on potentially unreliable allies, but also led to a sense of debt among French leaders that they had failed to fulfill commitments made to a partner.

French premier Guy Mollet is even quoted as saying privately that France "owed" the bomb to Israel.

On 3 October 1957, France and Israel signed a revised agreement calling for France to build a 24 MWt reactor (although the cooling systems and waste facilities were designed to handle three times that power) and, in protocols that were not committed to paper, a chemical reprocessing plant. This complex was constructed in secret, and outside the IAEA inspection regime, by French and Israeli technicians at Dimona, in the Negev desert under the leadership of Col. Manes Pratt of the IDF Ordinance Corps.

Both the scale of the project and the secrecy involved made the construction of Dimona a massive undertaking. A new intelligence agency, the Office of Science Liasons,(LEKEM) was created to provide security and intelligence for the project. At the height construction, some 1,500 Israelis some French workers were employed building Dimona. To maintain secrecy, French customs officials were told that the largest of the reactor components, such as the reactor tank, were part of a desalinization plant bound for Latin America. In addition, after buying heavy water from Norway on the condition that it not be transferred to a third country, the French Air Force secretly flew as much as four tons of the substance to Israel.

Trouble arose in May 1960, when France began to pressure Israel to make the project public and to submit to international inspections of the site, threatening to withhold the reactor fuel unless they did. President de Gaulle was concerned that the inevitable scandal following any revelations about French assistance with the project, especially the chemical reprocessing plant, would have negative repercussions for France's international position, already on shaky ground because of its war in Algeria.

At a subsequent meeting with Ben-Gurion, de Gaulle offered to sell Israel fighter aircraft in exchange for stopping work on the reprocessing plant, and came away from the meeting convinced that the matter was closed. It was not. Over the next few months, Israel worked out a compromise. France would supply the uranium and components already placed on order and would not insist on international inspections. In return, Israel would assure France that they had no intention of making atomic weapons, would not reprocess any plutonium, and would reveal the existence of the reactor, which would be completed without French assistance. In reality, not much changed - French contractors finished work on the reactor and reprocessing plant, uranium fuel was delivered and the reactor went critical in 1964.

The United States first became aware of Dimona's existence after U-2 overflights in 1958 captured the facility's construction, but it was not identified as a nuclear site until two years later. The complex was variously explained as a textile plant, an agricultural station, and a metallurgical research facility, until David Ben-Gurion stated in December 1960 that Dimona complex was a nuclear research center built for "peaceful purposes."

There followed two decades in which the United States, through a combination of benign neglect, erroneous analysis, and successful Israeli deception, failed to discern first the details of Israel's nuclear program. As early as 8 December 1960, the CIA issued a report outlining Dimona's implications for nuclear proliferation, and the CIA station in Tel Aviv had determined by the mid-1960s that the Israeli nuclear weapons program was an established and irreversible fact.

United States inspectors visited Dimona seven times during the 1960s, but they were unable to obtain an accurate picture of the activities carried out there, largely due to tight Israeli control over the timing and agenda of the visits. The Israelis went so far as to install false control room panels and to brick over elevators and hallways that accessed certain areas of the facility. The inspectors were able to report that there was no clear scientific research or civilian nuclear power program justifying such a large reactor - circumstantial evidence of the Israeli bomb program - but found no evidence of "weapons related activities" such as the existence of a plutonium reprocessing plant.

Although the United States government did not encourage or approve of the Israeli nuclear program, it also did nothing to stop it. Walworth Barbour, US ambassador to Israel from 1961-73, the bomb program's crucial years, primarily saw his job as being to insulate the President from facts which might compel him to act on the nuclear issue, alledgedly saying at one point that "The President did not send me there to give him problems. He does not want to be told any bad news." After the 1967 war, Barbour even put a stop to military attach鳧 intelligence collection efforts around Dimona. Even when Barbour did authorize forwarding information, as he did in 1966 when embassy staff learned that Israel was beginning to put nuclear warheads in missiles, the message seemed to disappear into the bureaucracy and was never acted upon.


DIA - Nuke Inventories
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Just to backup a bit - The history of Zionism and it's links to Rothschild....

It is estimated that Edmond de Rothschild spent over $50 million dollars in supporting the settlements, and backed research in electricity by engineers and financed development of an electric generating station

Now that would be like $500 Billion today... He was probably hoping for some return on his investment... hmmm

Baron Edmond James de Rothschild

A really good link:
Palestine and Zionism 1700-1950 by Sanderson Beck
Zionism and Herzl 1839-1904

Czar Alexander II of Russia had tolerated Jews more than before, but he was assassinated on March 13, 1881. Alexander III believed that policy had failed. Pogroms against Jews in southern Russia and the Ukraine began, and on May 3, 1882 Alexander III issued a new series of anti-Jewish decrees.

The May Laws closed further rural areas to Jewish settlement. Moshe Lilienblum hid in a basement from Russian mobs for two days, and he began writing articles urging Jews to move to the land of their fathers.

Leo Pinsker published his essay Auto-emancipation (Selbstemanzipation) in September 1882, arguing that Jews needed their own nation.

Groups called the Lovers of Zion (Chovevei Zion) adopted the credo that they had to establish a government in their own land of Israel to attain salvation. Pinsker emerged as the leader, and he summoned a national conference for Chovevei Zion societies in 1884. A central office was established in Odessa with Pinsker as president. By 1890 Chovevei Zion was registered as an association by the Russian government, and the Society for the Support of Jewish Agriculturists and Artisans in Palestine and Syria was being tolerated by the government in St. Petersburg.

Lovers of an Ancient Tongue formed branches of their society and were led by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda who went to Palestine in 1882. He began using the Hebrew-in-Hebrew method of teaching at the first Hebrew school in 1903, the year the Association of Hebrew Teachers was formed to promote Hebrew education in Palestine.

In the fall of 1882 Baron Edmund de Rothschild met with Joseph Feinberg, a co-founder of Rishon Le Zion, and offered 30,000 francs to drill a well there. Rothschild insisted on keeping his contributions secret, and by 1890 he had contributed $6 million to purchase land, training, machinery, livestock, waterworks, dispensaries, synagogues, and homes for the elderly.

Rothschild also sent overseers to control how the money was spent. Residents complained that crops changed from grapes to almonds and from olives to wheat. Rothschild visited Palestine in December 1898 and was impressed by progress he saw, and he decided not to phase out his subsidies. He expected the farmers to meet their responsibilities, but he would continue to provide schools and communal buildings. He turned the management over to the Palestine Jewish Colonization Association (PICA).

Rishon LeZion (Hebrew: רִאשׁוֹן ), lit. First to Zion), is the fourth-largest city in Israel, located along the central Israeli coastal plain 12 kilometers south of Tel Aviv. It is part of the Gush Dan metropolitan area. 

Founded in 1882 by European Jewish immigrants, it was the second Jewish farm colony established in Land of Israel in the 19th century, after Petah Tikva.
The name Rishon LeZion is derived from a biblical verse: "First to Zion are they, and I shall give herald to Jerusalem"
Rishon LeZion was founded on July 31, 1882 by ten Hovevei Zion pioneers from Kharkov, Ukraine (then the Russian Empire) headed by Zalman David Levontin. Reuven Yudalevich was also a member of the group. The pioneers purchased 835 acres (337.91 ha) of land southeast of present-day Tel Aviv, part of the townland of the Arab village of Ayun Kara

The founders faced numerous difficulties. The soil was sandy, water was scarce and the settlers had no agricultural experience. After a well was dug and more pioneers arrived - the Biluim - the colony slowly took shape. Notable members of this group include Fani Belkind, Israel Belkind, Shimshon Belkind, Yoel Drubin, Dr. Haim Hissin, and David Yudilovich.

When Baron Edmond James de Rothschild took over, sending in his administrators, major progress was made in the spheres of agriculture, citrus and viticulture. Under Rothschild's patronage, the Carmel-Mizrahi Winery was established in 1886.
Development was hindered by the lack of a water source. Baron Rothschild brought in experts who located water at 42 meters below ground. The groundwater table in the area was found to be uneven and wells were mostly constructed at between 20 and 25 meters in depth. Orchards were then developed around the settlement, and by the late 1920s the city developed a burgeoning citrus industry

Petah Tikva was founded in 1878 by religious pioneers from Europe, who were led by Yehoshua Stampfer, Moshe Shmuel Raab, Yoel Moshe Salomon, Zerach Barnett, and David Gutmann, as well as Lithuanian Rabbi Aryeh Leib Frumkin.[2] It was the first modern Jewish agricultural settlement in Ottoman Palestine and has since grown to become one of Israel's most populous urban centres.
Originally intending to establish a new settlement in the Achor Valley, near Jericho, the pioneers purchased land in that area. However, Abdülhamid II cancelled the purchase and forbade them from settling there, but they retained the name Petah Tikva as a symbol of their aspirations.

Undaunted, the settlers purchased a modest area (3.40 square kilometers) from the village of Mulabbis (variants: Mlabbes, Um-Labbes), near the source of the Yarkon River. The Sultan allowed the enterprise to proceed, but because their purchase was located in what was a malarial swamp, they had to evacuate when the malaria spread, founding the town of Yehud near the Arabic village Yehudiyya about 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the south.[citation needed]

With the financial help of Baron Edmond de Rothschild they were able to drain the swamps sufficiently to be able to move back in 1883, joined by immigrants of the First Aliyah, and later the Second Aliyah.

Baron Edmond Benjamin James de Rothschild (August 19, 1845 – November 2, 1934) was a French member of the Rothschild banking family. A strong supporter of Zionism, his generous donations lent significant support to the movement during its early years, which helped lead to the establishment of the State of Israel.
However, in 1882 Edmond cut back on his purchases of art and began to buy land in Palestine. He became a leading proponent of the Zionist movement, financing the first site at Rishon LeZion. In his goal for the establishment of a Jewish homeland, he promoted industrialization and economic development. In 1924, he established the Palestine Jewish Colonization Association (PICA), which acquired more than 125,000 acres (22,36 km²) of land and set up business ventures.

Edmond de Rothschild also played a pivotal role in Israel's wine industry. Under the supervision of his administrators in Palestine, farm colonies and vineyards were established, and two major wineries were opened in Rishon LeZion and Zichron Yaakov.[1]

It is estimated that Edmond de Rothschild spent over $50 million dollars in supporting the settlements, and backed research in electricity by engineers and financed development of an electric generating station. In a 1934 letter to the League of Nations, Edmond de Rothschild stated that "the struggle to put an end to the Wandering Jew, could not have as its result, the creation of the Wandering Arab."

\ - Connect this with the Weizmann Institute : Rehovot is very close to Rishon LeZion
Rehovot, one of the earlier communities founded in the modern State of Israel, is located in the center of the country, conveniently located about 20 kilometers south of Tel Aviv. The city has a population of 114,000 people and is known as the City of Science and Culture. It is also known as Israel's citrus capital and the city emblem displays a microscope, book and orange.

Rehovot was founded in 1890 by a group of immigrants from Poland, looking for land in Palestine without being under the control of Baron Rothschild. Sixteen years later, they were joined by immigrants from Yemen. Together, they built the city that is known for its agriculture and high-tech.
In 1934 Chaim Weizmann built the Sieff Institute in Rehovot, which later became the Weizmann Institute of Science. He and his wife are buried on the Institute's manicured grounds.
The home of three world renowned institutes, Rehovot is visited by students and professors from around the world. Best known and largest is the Weizmann Institute of Science, which was founded in 1934. Chaim Weizmann, the distinguished scientist and statesmen, became the president of the Institute as well as the first President of Israel.

The Institute is devoted to research and teaching in the natural sciences. Jerusalem's Hebrew University uses Rehovot as the site for its new School of Humanities and School of Agriculture. The Development Study Center for intensive study of rural development is utilized by many third world countries as well as advanced nations for graduate studies and planning for socio-economic growth.
Scientists from the "Sieff Institute" contributed towards the security effort in various areas, and at "Giv`at Hakibbutzim" there was an underground factory for the manufacture of bullets for Sten guns. [Gershom: this site, Makhon Ayalon or the Ayalon Institute, is presently a museum to the underground movements.]

Haganah officer demonstrates use of Sten gun, secretly manufactured in Haganah workshops before the war.,_Baron_Sieff
Israel Moses Sieff, Baron Sieff (4 May 1889 – 14 February 1972) was a British businessman.

He was educated at Manchester Grammar School and Manchester University. One of the theatres at the Manchester Grammar School is named in his honour. Sieff was chairman of the British retailer, Marks & Spencer from 1964 to 1967.
In 1966 he had been created a life peer as Baron Sieff, of Brimpton in the Royal County of Berkshire.

He was president of the Political and Economic Planning think-tank from its foundation in 1931, and chairman until 1939.

Upon the death of his son Daniel Sieff --- and with the financial support of his business partners and relatives by marriage, the Marks and Sacher families --- Israel Sieff endowed the 1934 creation, by Chaim Weizmann, of the Daniel Sieff Research Institute in Rehovot, present-day Israel.

Renamed the Weizmann Institute of Science in 1949 with the Sieff family's consent, it is presently Israel's premier research university in the natural sciences.
Weizmann turned again to science, founding the Daniel Sieff Research Institute at Rehovot, Palestine (1934), with the help of friends in England.

Earlier, he had toured South Africa (1931) and played a leading part in public efforts to save German Jewry and its property after the advent of the Nazis (1933).
When the Institute was conceived in 1933, the embattled Jewish population of Palestine numbered 400,000 and Rehovot was a tiny agricultural community surrounded by orange groves. In this milieu, Dr. Chaim Weizmann, who would later become the first President of the State of Israel, envisioned the establishment of a world-class scientific research center. Though resources were extremely scarce, Dr. Weizmann, a successful chemist and tireless statesman for the Zionist cause, believed such an institute was crucial to securing the future of a Jewish state, both economically and politically.

Fortunately, there were others who shared his dream. In 1934, his friends Israel and Rebecca Sieff established the Daniel Sieff Research Institute in memory of their son. Dr. Weizmann had his lab in the Daniel Sieff Institute, alongside those of 10 other full-time researchers in organic chemistry and biochemistry.

Throughout WWII and Israel's War of Independence, Institute scientists were deeply involved in the war efforts, yet under Dr. Weizmann's direction, the Institute continued to grow. The end of WWII and the founding of the new Jewish state brought an influx of new scientific talent, and with it a new determination to make Israel a center of scientific excellence. By the time it was formally dedicated in 1949, shortly after Israel's declaration of independence, the Weizmann Institute housed 60 labs in nine fields of research, including organic, inorganic and bio- chemistry, optics and electronics, bacteriology and biophysics, polymer and isotope research, and applied mathematics. The Wolfson Institute of Experimental Biology was under construction and the first residential quarters were nearing completion.
The Weizmann Institute was also a key player in the establishment of the Kiryat Weizmann Industrial Park, a 40 acre site housing over 60 hi-tech companies, many based on Institute discoveries, ranging from aircraft instruments to bioengineered drugs.

More than 70 years since the first labs were erected in the midst of bucolic orange groves, and over 60 since its official dedication, the Weizmann Institute, today more than ever, is at the forefront of global science.
Marks & Spencer: A Brief Chronology of the Marks & Spencer - Israel Relationship
Research conducted by IHRC :


Marks & Spencer (M&S) was founded in 1884 by a Russian Jewish refugee Michael Marks. Since then, the UK-based firm has been linked inextricably to Zionism.

When he became chairman in 1916, Simon Marks made a number of commercial changes. But his greatest brain wave was to take on his boyhood friend Israel Sieff as company director.

The Marks-Sieff partnership went beyond business, into Zionist activity.

Sieff had supported Zionism since meeting Chaim Weizmann in 1913.

Together with Weizmann, Marks and Sieff helped set in motion the train of events that culminated in the Balfour Declaration of 1917. The following year Israel Sieff headed a Zionist commission, and then served as Weizmann's secretary at the Versailles Conference.

Sieff's wife (and Simon's sister) Rebecca helped found WIZO, the Women's Zionist Organization, in 1920, and ran it for 20 years with Vera Weizmann.

And the Daniel Sieff Institute, set up in memory of his son who had died, served as the base when the Weizmann Institute of Science was set up in 1948 (extract from Lawrence Joffe, 'End of a Jewish Saint', Jerusalem Report, 5 June 2000)

Indeed, in a book on M&S, Lord Marcus Sieff - long time Chairman of M&S - wrote that one of the fundamental objectives of M&S is to aid the economic development of Israel (Management: The Marks & Spencer Way, Weidenfield & Nicolson, 1990).
WIZO: Women's International Zionist Organization (1920-1970) by Ofra Greenberg

The British delegation to the World WIZO Founding Conference, held in Carlsbad, 1921.
(L to R): Miriam Marks, Miriam Sacher, Edith Eder, Rebecca Sieff, Helena Weisberg, Lady Samuel, Romana Goodman, Esther Feiwel, Henrietta Irwell and Ethel Solomon

Three factors combined to contribute to the establishment of the Women’s International Zionist Organization (WIZO): the political and social awakening of European women in general and British women in particular; the Zionist movement’s increased momentum upon the publication of the Balfour Declaration, and the transfer of its center of activity to Britain after World War I; and the personal biographies of WIZO’s founders.

The Ladies’ Committee of the Zionist Federation of Britain preceded WIZO. Dissatisfied with the limited role they were permitted to play in Zionist activity, the committee members, who included three founders of WIZO—Rebecca Sieff, Vera Weizmann and Romana Goodman—decided to establish a separate Zionist women’s organization in Britain. A general assembly to found the women’s federation was held on January 12, 1919, with the agreement of the British Zionist Federation. Twelve organizations of Zionist women also joined, as well as several individuals such as Henrietta Irwell and Lady Beatrice Samuel (née Franklin, 1871–1959). Most of the women who joined either had experience in public activity, whether in local Zionist women’s organizations or in the general Jewish community, or had a general interest in political movements.

Most of the women were wives of men who held senior positions in the Zionist Federation: for example, Rebecca Sieff was the wife of Israel Sieff (1889–1972); Edith Eder was the wife of Dr. Montague David Eder (1865–1936) and Vera Weizmann was married to Dr. Chaim Weizmann.

In 1918 they accompanied their husbands, members of the Zionist Commission for Palestine, on a tour of Palestine, where they held discussions with a great number of women engaged in pioneering work. Thus alerted to the significant problems faced by women and children, they returned to London with far-sighted reports on the needs of the population and plans for improving prevailing conditions by establishing social and welfare services and institutions for the agricultural and vocational training of young women.

On July 11, 1920, at the first Zionist conference held after World War I, Olga Ginsburg initiated the founding of the Women’s International Zionist Organization, together with representatives from organizations in Palestine, England, Germany, Poland, The Netherlands, Russia and South Africa.

It was decided to establish an office in Palestine which would be a branch of the world center in London and to divide the work between the two. In time, numerous other WIZO branches were set up in Jewish communities worldwide. Their main purpose was fundraising, whether by charging membership dues or by soliciting contributions to defined goals in Palestine.
How did the Zionists acquire land in Palestine?
Although the creation of the Jewish National Fund was originally proposed by Judah Alkalai in 1847 it had to wait until the Fifth Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland in 1901 to become a reality. The Jewish National Fund (Keren Kayemeth LeYisrael) was established to buy land in Palestine for reclamation and Jewish settlement. In its first decade, the JNF built a worldwide fundraising organization based on sale of stamps, collection “Blue Boxes” in homes and schools and solicitation of donations. In the spring of 1903, JNF acquired its first parcel of land: 800 acres in Hadera. Other modest purchases were made in 1904 and 1908 in Lower Galilee, Judea, and the Lake Kinneret region, and two forms of settlement that would prove crucial in the land-acquisition enterprise were pioneered there: the cooperative (moshav) and the collective (kevutsa, later kibbutz).

From the start, the organization focused on greening the land through the planting of trees. JNF got involved in tree planting for many reasons, including as a way to fulfill the Biblical commandment. In order to solidify ownership of land purchased by JNF on behalf of the Jewish community, and in accordance with prevailing laws of the day, trees were planted whenever a new piece of land was purchased. In 1908, the first JNF trees were planted at Hulda: olive trees in memory of Theodor Herzl, the founding father of Zionism. In 1920, JNF expanded its role to help reclaim the swamps of Palestine. There quickly followed afforestation efforts. Since 1920, millions of trees have been planted in Israel by the Jewish National Fund.

Baron Benjamin (Edmond James) de Rothschild (1845-1934) enlisted in this cause after being petitioned by the leaders of Rishon Lezion, one of the First Aliya villages. His patronage embraced 12 settlements at all three levels of land redemption: purchase, reclamation and economically viable settlement.

To make these possible, he established an administration that, although staffed in part by condescending officials who evoked the independent-minded settlers’ resentment, institutionalized all three aspects of land redemption. The best-known settlements sponsored by Rothschild are Metulla, Zikhron Ya’akov, Rishon Lezion, and Rosh Pina. Metulla (est. 1896) is an example of a purchase that had the further advantages of controlling water sources and establishing the northern limit of Jewish settlement.

In 1900, Rothschild transferred the settlements, their agricultural enterprises, and 25,000 hectares of land to the Jewish Colonization Association (ICA, est. 1891), which he continued to support in various ways.

In a military biography of Moshe Dayan, the early Zionist activity is described this way:

“Using Rothschild’s money, these Jews purchased land from absentee Turkish landlords. To the Arab tenant farmers, the transfer of land from Turkish to Jewish ownership was of little consequence since the Jews rehired them as agricultural workers.”

By the time Israel became a state in 1948, JNF owned 12.5 percent of all the land of Israel on which 80 percent of Israel’s population now lives. With this ownership came the responsibility of transforming the land into a beautiful and fertile area that would be a suitable home for the new state.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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T. E. Lawrence commented in The Seven Pillars of Wisdom:

"The first of all of us was Ronald Storrs, Oriental Secretary of the Residency, the most brilliant Englishman in the Near East, and subtly efficient, despite his diversion of energy in love of music and letters, of sculpture, painting, of whatever was beautiful in the world's fruit... Storrs was always first, and the great man among us".

Storrs is credited with a classic example of British understatement when referring to the behaviour of the British toward the many tribal and regional leaders that the British were trying to influence in the Great Game: "we deprecated the imperative, preferring instead the subjunctive or even, wistfully, the optative mood".

In 1917 Storrs became, as he said, "the first military governor of Jerusalem since Pontius Pilate"[2], for which purpose he was given the army rank of colonel.

In 1921 he became Civil Governor of Jerusalem and Judea. In both positions he attempted to support Zionism while protecting the rights of the Arab inhabitants of Palestine, and thus earned the hostility of both sides. He devoted much of his time to cultural matters, including town planning, and to Pro-Jerusalem, a cultural organization that he founded.

Sir Ronald Storrs wrote a book:
Lawrence of Arabia - Zionism and Palestine  Br Sir Ronald Storrs - 1937
The religious Jews of Jerusalem and Hebron and the Sephardim were strongly opposed to political Zionism, holding that God would bring Israel back to Zion in His own good time, and that it was impious to anticipate His decree.

The Zionist Commission travelled by train from Egypt, and after some contretemps whereby they were
marooned awhile on the platform of Lydda Station, arrived by car in Jerusalem.

I received in the Governorate Major Ormsby-Gore,2 and Major James de Rothschild, Political Officers, Lieut. Edwin Samuel, attached, Mr. Israel Sieff, Mr. Leon Simon, Dr. Eder, Mr. Joseph Cowen and Dr. Chaim Weizmann, President of the World Zionist Organization.

Monsieur Sylvain Levy, an anti-Zionist, was attached to the Commission as representative of the French Government. The party being under the official aegis of the British Government, I assembled in my office the Mayor of Jerusalem and the Heads of Communities in order that they and the visitors should meet, for the first time anyhow, in surroundings at once official and friendly.

When Has The British Empire  been more powerful?

A meeting of Bedouin and Circassian leaders (T.E. Lawrence, third from right).,_the_Va%E2%80%99ad_Leumi_and_the_Jewish_Agency,_Shira_Klein,_COJS.
The Zionist Commission

As early as November 1917, following the release of the Balfour Declaration, Chaim Weizmann began to plan a commission to Palestine which would advise the British authorities on the establishment of the Jewish National Home. Authorized by the British Foreign Office and supported by the Allied governments, the Zionist Commission (Va’ad ha-Tzirim in Hebrew) consisted of several Jewish delegates from Great Britain, France, and Italy. It was accompanied by Major William Ormsby-Gore and Major James de Rothschild, representing the British Government and military.

Headed at first by Weizmann, the Commission arrived in Palestine in April 1918, when the north of the country was still in Turkish hands and the south was under British military control. The Commission, which represented the Zionist Organization in Palestine, set about organizing the Jewish population, conducting relief work, establishing schools and hospitals, and laying the foundations for the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. It also served as a liaison between the local Jews and the British authorities, whose military administration gave way to a civil one in July 1920. In 1921, the 12th Zionist Congress (the supreme authority in the Zionist Organization) decided to set up a Zionist Executive in Jerusalem, which soon replaced the Commission.

Chaim Weizmann (rechts) (* 1874) im Jahr 1948 neben Harry S. Truman
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Hi T.
 Mayby a bit off topic, long ago I attended a bible study nights, a phase of my life when younger so to say.
The point,we (students)were told the throne of England, the original, wood carved baby is carved w/ hebrew writings. T or F.
 The professor ,also explained, valid or not I can't say. The fable of the lost tribe of Israel, the fishing village inhabitants that took of from Israel ended up in Ireland (freedom). I know, off subject, just thought I', toss it in there.  ...  

There are Phoenician/Hebrew origins in Britain/Ireland/Scotland. ....
downloadable book:
see: The Phoenician Origin of Britons, Scots & Anglo-Saxons - Lawrence Austine Waddell 1925

The research of other scholars also substantiates this evidence. For example, famed Celtic scholar, John Rhys, in The Welsh People, speaks of, "convincing evidence of the presence of some element other than Celtic... We allude to an important group of Irish names formed much in the same way as Hebrew names are represented in the Old Testament. " (p. 66) Many of these scholars further assert that the Celtic ancestors of the modern English people spoke a language which was strongly influenced by both Hebrew and Egyptian down to its very root structure. Yet only the ancient Israelites of the Bible, fresh from hundreds of years of Egyptian captivity, would exhibit such a unique language style

Historians have often written about the "Phoenician" ships that sailed the Mediterranean Sea to Britain in early times, but few relate the connection between the Hebrew and Phoenician languages.

The Bible Handbook by Dr. Joseph Angus, D.D., states, "That the Hebrew language was the common tongue of Canaan and Phoenicia is generally admitted. " (p. 13) In our tract, "Ancient Hebrew Sea Migrations," we show that a significant portion of the so-called Phoenician trade was in reality Israelite. Knowledge of this little-known history sheds important light on Bible history and prophecy

| - - - -

But what is interesting is what British royality "believe" or the ideas they push.... and this idea came into existance at the same time period (1870-1880's) as the origin of zionism ... hmmm.....

British Israelism (also called Anglo-Israelism) is the belief that people of Western European descent, particularly those in Great Britain, are the direct lineal descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel.

The concept often includes the belief that the British Royal Family is directly descended from the line of King David.[1][2] There has never been a single head or an organisational structure to the movement. However, various British Israelite organisations were set up across the British Commonwealth and America from the 1870s, and many still continue to exist.
British Royal Family
James I of England (1567–1625) believed he was a king of Israel.

In 1996, The Independent, reprinted the facsimile of a 1922 letter by George VI (then Duke of York). He wrote:

...I am sure the British Israelite business is true. I have read a lot about it lately and everything no matter how large or small points to our being ’the chosen race.’ [72]

Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone was a chief patron of the British-Israel-World Federation from 1920 until her death. Her daughter Lady May Abel Smith was also a patron of the Federation until her own death in 1994.[73]

It is also claimed by modern British Israelites that Queen Victoria believed herself she descended from King David, they quote a letter she wrote supposedly supporting this view that she occupied the throne of David

The Stone of Jacob appears in the Book of Genesis as the stone used as a pillow by the Israelite patriarch Jacob at the place later called Bet-El. As Jacob had a vision in his sleep, he then consecrated the stone to God. More recently, the stone has been claimed by Scottish folklore and British Israelism.


The coronation stone which sat in Westminster Abbey, England, is the coronation stone of the Hebrew nation called Israelites. This stone was named Beth-el (house of God) by the patriarch Israel (sometimes called Jacob) roughly 2000 BC and remained with his descendents. It travelled with them for forty years in the wilderness, supplying their water, and was preserved and brought to Ireland in 583 BC by the prophet Jeremiah; eventually being transferred to Scotland, then England, and now resides in Scotland.


The Coronation Chair of England has been in constant use to crown the Monarchs of England since 1296 AD when Edward I had it constructed for his coronation. The chair was built specifically to house the Coronation Stone which Edward brought from Scotland. It had resided there since being brought by Fergus from Ireland in 500 AD.
The Stone of Scone ( /ˈskuːn/; Scottish Gaelic: An Lia F il), more commonly known as the Stone of Destiny and often referred to in England as the Coronation Stone, is an oblong block of red sandstone, used for centuries in the coronation of the monarchs of Scotland and later the monarchs of England, Great Britain and the United Kingdom. Historically, the artifact was kept at the now-ruined Scone Abbey in Scone, near Perth, Scotland. Other names by which it has sometimes been known include Jacob's Pillow Stone and the Tanist Stone, and in Scottish Gaelic clach-na-cinneamhain. Its size is about 26 inches (660 mm) by 16.75 inches (425 mm) by 10.5 inches (270 mm) and its weight is approximately 336 pounds (152 kg). The top bears chisel-marks. At each end of the stone is an iron ring, apparently intended to make transport easier.

King Edward's Chair, sometimes known as St Edward's Chair or The Coronation Chair, is the throne on which the British monarch sits for the coronation. It was commissioned in 1296 by King Edward I to contain the coronation stone of Scotland — known as the Stone of Scone — which he had captured from the Scots who had kept it at Scone Abbey. The chair was named after Edward the Confessor, and was kept in his shrine of St Edward's Chapel at Westminster Abbey.

see also:
“Lia-fail” is also known as “the Stone of Scone”, “Jacob’s Pillow Stone”, “Jacob’s Pillar Stone”, and the “Coronation Stone”.

see also: downloadable book: The Coronation stone By William Forbes Skene

Fal's Fiery Stone - Lia Fail of the Irish Celts - Serpent-cult people called "The tribe of the goddess Danu" (Tuatha de Danaan), who, significantly also are stated to have migrated to Ireland from Alban....the prehistoric Feins in Ireland is of great importance for the origin of the prehistoric Serpent cult in Ireland...And Fal's Fiery Stone was the materialized thunderbolt of the Dragon serpent of Lightning, ... So intimately was Fal identified with the early Ireland of the Feins that Erin was called "Fal's Isle" (Inis Fall); and "Fal's Hill" was the title of the sacred hill at the ancient capital, Tara.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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T. In effect this represent a century of planning, organiaztion, infiltration  and operations.
 ... Apprecaite your work, one question, though we all have an inkling as to the answer, what do you see as their final objective.


The proposal was put in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists over several months in 1946.

In his book Has Man a Future?, Bertrand Russell - an advocate of World Government - describes how it developed, first as a proposal assembled by David Lilienthal, then in a form developed by Bernard Baruch (p. 25 & p. 97).

This "Baruch Plan" was canvassed in the issues of 1946 and put to Stalin. By the end of that year, Stalin had rejected it, on the grounds that it required submission to Washington, and the Cold War had begun.

The One World conspiracy has three factions: Tory (Imperial), International Socialist, and Zionist:

[ Now I would say this is in line with the "Winners" of WWII - U.S.A. - U.K. - U.S.S.R  and the Jewish scientists "WON" the war with the Atom/Fusion bomb(s).  The USA/UK - Pilgrim Society - Anglo-American Empire  are the "Tories" - These factions rule the world. There will probably never be in our lifetimes a "Global Government

But there already is a system in place of "Global Governance".

The people who truly rule Globally do not want anyone to be able to point there fingers at them and say "You are the ones that are responsible for all this! You must be removed! ]
So we are already seeing the "final solution" from our "masters" , they and their helpers get richer and stronger while the average joe gets weaker and poorer. The neo-feudal global system is upon us. Population reduction is already upon us, the older people just haven't died yet. If things haven't changed by 2040-50 there will be a population implosion.
Global starvation? Global epedemic?  WW 3/4 ?

see :

The British-Israel-World Federation is an organization that was founded in London July 3 1919, although its roots can be traced back to the 19th century. At one time this organization enjoyed the patronage of members of the British Establishment including HRH Princess Alice of Athlone, the Duke of Buccleuch Kt., the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Dysart, the Rt. Hon. the Countess-Dowager of Radnor, the Rt. Hon. Lord Gisborough, and the Rt. Hon. W F Massey (Prime Minister of New Zealand).
British Israelism (also called Anglo-Israelism) is the belief that people of Western European descent, particularly those in Great Britain, are the direct lineal descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. The concept often includes the belief that the British Royal Family is directly descended from the line of King David.[1][2]

Jordan Maxwell - The British-Israel World Federation & the Dawn of a New Day
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Interesting records from Eisenhower and Kennedy regarding Israel were declassified in the 1990's:

YouTube - David Ben-Gurion's Vision - Science, the Negev and Israel's Future

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Jan 1995  
As early as 1958, the United States knew something about Dimona - the CIA's U2 reconnaissance program had detected unusual excavation and contruction work in the Negev desert. To the photo interpreters it looked unmistakably like a nuclear plant in the earliest phase of construction.

Some time in late 1958 or early 1959, this finding was reported to both President Eisenhower and the AEC Chairman Lewis Strauss. [And they did What ? Nothing? ]

In 1959, a delegation from the Max Planck Society, headed by its president Otto Hahn, visited the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel and established scientific contacts between German and Israeli scientists and researchers.

Following this meeting, the German government provided DM 3 million start-up capital for research projects and the exchange of scientists and researchers with the Weizmann Institute.

By Dec 2, 1960, the State Dept. had established that " a significant atomic installation was in fact being built near Beersheba"
On Dec 8 1960, CIA Director Allen Dulles reported in a meeting of the NSC " that Israel was constructing, with French assistance a nuclear complex in the Negev,"
and added that "CIA and AEC experts believe... that the Israel nuclear complex cannot be solely for peaceful puposes."
Dec 9 1960 , the Israeli reactor was the topic of a presidential conference. The minutes declassified in 1993, indicate that both the Sec of State Herter and CIA Director Allen Dulles referred to Dimona as "a plutonium production plant". Eisenhower commented that the cost of the plant was between 100 to 200 million dollars.

As early as 1958, the United States knew something about Dimona - the CIA's U2 reconnaissance program had detected unusual excavation and contruction work in the Negev desert. To the photo interpreters it looked unmistakably like a nuclear plant in the earliest phase of construction.

Some time in late 1958 or early 1959, this finding was reported to both President Eisenhower and the AEC Chairman Lewis Strauss. [And they did What ? Nothing? ]

So who was Lewis Strauss ? and why did he do  and say nothing about Israel's nuclear plutonium plant?
Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss

"Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss, Jr. was born on January 31, 1896 in Charleston, West Virginia, to Lewis and Rosa (Lichtenstein) Strauss. He grew up in Richmond, and became a traveling salesman for his family's wholesale shoe business. In 1917, he presented himself to Herbert C. Hoover. At the time, Hoover was organizing volunteers in the cause of Belgian relief. Later, when Hoover became head of the Food Administration, Lewis L. Strauss became his personal secretary and accompanied him on several European missions. He worked for Hoover's election to the presidency in 1928, and maintained a life-long friendship with President Hoover until the latter's death in 1964.

"In 1919, Lewis L. Strauss was hired by the investment firm Kuhn, Loeb & Company, and in 1923 he married Alice Hanauer, a daughter of a partner in the firm.

In 1929, he himself became a partner in the firm.

One of Kuhn, Loeb & Company's founders was Jacob Schiff, the important American Jewish leader and philanthropist. As a result of Lewis L. Strauss' association with Kuhn, Loeb &. Company, he became friendly with many wealthy and influential American Jewish figures, especially the core members of the American Jewish Committee.

Between 1950 and 1953, he served as financial adviser to the Rockefeller family.

"Lewis L. Strauss maintained a keen interest in scientific and technological advancements, and was an early investor in Kodachrome. After the death of his parents from cancer, his interest in the atom led him to fund the construction of a surge generator to produce isotopes for cancer treatment.

Beginning in 1926, Lewis L. Strauss was in the Navy Reserve, and he entered active duty in 1941, becoming adviser to Navy Undersecretary James Forrestal.

He directed the development of the radar proximity fuse, conceived of the Big "E" war production incentive program, and

in 1945 was promoted to the rank of Rear Admiral by President Truman.

In 1946, Truman appointed Lewis L. Strauss to serve on the Atomic Energy Commission, on which he served through 1950.

In 1953, President Eisenhower reappointed Lewis L. Strauss to the commission, this time as its chairman.

"As the breadth of the Papers of Admiral Lewis L. Strauss illustrates, Lewis L. Strauss was deeply committed to American Jewish life and Jewish welfare generally.

He served as a member of the board of directors of several important Jewish philanthropic, academic and communal organizations, and he also maintained a special interest in inter-religious affairs.

"In his lifetime, Lewis L. Strauss was thrust into public controversy on several occasions.

In the 1920s and 1930s, he played a central role in combating the anti-Semitic propaganda of Henry Ford and Father Charles E. Coughlin.

Also beginning in this period, he became a leading member of the American Jewish Committee and embroiled in disputes over Zionism and American Jewish politics, notably the American Jewish Conference.

Later, during his tenure as chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, he attracted public attention when the White House suspended the security clearance of Commissioner J. Robert Oppenheimer. Lewis L. Strauss eventually voted against Oppenheimer's reinstatement to the Atomic Energy Commission, but he did seek to have him retained in the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study and other nuclear research enterprises.

In 1954, another controversy flared when the Atomic Energy Commission engaged the Dixon-Yates combine to erect a power plant in West Memphis, Arkansas. Lewis L. Strauss, a deeply conservative Republican, was eager then to admit private industry into the nuclear field. But liberals saw in the Dixon-Yates contract a threat to the Tennessee Valley Authority and public power. They attacked the contract so vigorously that President Eisenhower canceled it in 1955.

"In 1958, President Eisenhower appointed Lewis L. Strauss to be Acting Secretary of Commerce, and in 1959 he nominated him for the position. After a protracted public debate concerning ethical considerations, and one in which the specter of anti-Semitism was also raised, the Senate refused to confirm Lewis L. Strauss' nomination.

Following this episode, Lewis L. Strauss returned to private life. On January 21,1974, Lewis L. Strauss died at the age of 78 at his home in Brandy Station, West Virginia.
Other Rockefeller Foundation spin-offs include the influential Washington think-tank, the Brookings Institution, the National Bureau of Economic Research, whose findings play a critical role in manipulating the stock market; the Public Administration Clearing House, which indoctrinates the nation's municipal employees ; the Council of State Governments, which controls the nation's state legislatures;

and the Institute of Pacific Relations, the most notorious Communist front in the United States. The Rockefellers appeared as directors of this group, funneling money to it through their financial advisor, Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss, of Kuhn, Loeb Company.
Microfilmed from the holdings of the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library

What did the President know, and when did he know it?
The Eisenhower Diaries file was created and maintained by Ann C. Whitman, Eisenhower's
personal secretary and the principal record keeper for the Oval Office.
7 DDE Diary (1). April 1954. 51pp.
Major Subjects: Stanley High on Eric Johnston and the Middle East;
to Swede Hazlett regarding information between U.S. and the world;
Army-McCarthy hearings;
French and Indochina, and British policies;
Lewis Strauss regarding Bernard Baruch comments on atomic weapons;
Dr. Robert Oppenheimer case.
In June 1947 Albert Einstein had a brainstorm about how to save the world from nuclear holocaust.
He called the secretary of state, George C. Marshall, who called Lewis Strauss, a member of the newly formed Atomic Energy Commission.
Mr. Strauss, in turn, called his assistant, a 37-year-old investment banker named William T. Golden…”You can imagine how excited I was [to meet Einstein],” Mr. Golden, now 91, recalled on a recent morning in his 50th floor office in Midtown Manhattan.

Einstein said it was essential that a world army be created, under the leadership of the U.S. Unless this was done there would be an atomic war in the next 10 years.”

Chaim Weizmann (rechts) (* 1874) im Jahr 1948 neben Harry S. Truman
President Harry S Truman (first to recognize the provisional government of Israel) at the White House receives gift of a sacred Torah from Israeli President Chaim Weizmann. Truman poses with Secretary of State George Marshall at the White House. President Truman signs a document dealing with the Marshall plan. Marshall Plan food aid lowered from a ship. President Truman speaking to an audience about peace and describing it as the goal of his life. View of the White House.

Lewis Strauss was an original Atomic Energy Commissioner, appointed in 1946 by Truman, who went on to be the AEC’s chief under Eisenhower (1953-58) during the most rabid expansion of nuclear testing which came to define the arms race policy of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD).  Strauss promoted energy from nuclear plants saying it was “too cheap to meter”. Strauss got his start in government on Herbert Hoover’s Food Administration staff as the Joint Jewish Distribution Committee liason, then a Rothschild  hospital president, a Kuhn, Loeb & Co. partner and a US Navy Rear Admiral before his appointment to the AEC.

Why 6 million? - JDC Through the Year
Lewis Strauss dropped out of highschool to recover from Typhoid fever, and went on to sell shoes for his father’s wholesale business –which he claims to have done for four years before leaving at the age of 17 to volunteer in Washington DC for Hoover’s Food Administration. (c.1914). Strauss became Hoover’s ‘secretary’, aide-de-camp, and liason for the Joint Jewish Distribution Committee.

During the same time period, at age 21, he became the president of the Rothschild’s hospital -the Jewish Hospital on Deformities and Joint Diseases (the HJD, see the Henry Frauenthal page)- a position he held through 1925.

In 1923, Lewis married Alice Hanauer, the daughter of Kuhn Loeb & Co. partner Jerome Hanauer. She was 18 and he was 27. Within five years, Strauss became a full Kuhn Loeb & Co. partner. He left the hospital in 1925 and joined the USNaval Intelligence service.
In 1939, under the imminence of war, Strauss volunteered for active duty; he was promoted to Rear Admiral  managing the Bureau of Ordnance and became a special ‘troubleshooter’ for Sec. of the Navy, James Forrestal. Personal memoirs about Strauss from his circle of friends indicate that he and ”Wild” Bill Donovan (OSS) introduced Albert D. Lasker to his second wife, Mary Woodard. He remained a close friend of the Laskers who themselves gained unprecendented influence over American health policy.
As the AEC chief (1953-1958), Strauss initiated the “Sunshine” campaign –a PR campaign to equate fallout with sunshine and assuage public fear. During this time Strauss was also on the board of Sloan-Kettering.  

The danger of fallout was kept from the public well until 1958-1959 when doctors and dentists began reporting the cumulative effects and levels of measurable ionizing chemicals in the teeth and bones of American youngsters.
in February of 1917 Strauss chanced to read about Herbert Hoover's efforts to save the Belgians from starvation and Hoover's recent appointment as US Food Administrator," and volunteered to serve without pay for a few months as Hoover's administrative assistant. "One of these assignments involved the coordination of Food Administration programs with the Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.

This brought him into contact with Felix Warburg, a partner in the international banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb and Company," and Warburg recruited him to the firm. He was an active partner in Kuhn, Loeb until 1941.
Sir William Wiseman, "the chief British spy master in America during World War I," was a Kuhn, Loeb partner and advisor to John Schiff, grandson of Jacob Schiff and the chief partner. (The Warburgs, by Ron Chernow. Random House, 1993, pp 612-613.) He was a correspondent of Strauss between 1941 and 1962.

Eustice Mullins writes: "During World War I, J. Henry Schroder Banking Company played an important role behind the scenes.

No historian has a reasonable explanation of how World War I started.

Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated at Sarajevo by Gavril Princips, Austria demanded an apology from Serbia, and Serbia sent the note of apology. Despite this, Austria declared war, and soon the other nations of Europe joined the fray.

Once the war had gotten started, it was found that it wasn't easy to keep it going.

The principal problem was that Germany was desperately short of food and coal, and without Germany, the war could not go on.

John Hamill in The Strange Career of Mr. Hoover explains how the problem was solved.

He quotes from Nordeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, March 4, 1915, 'Justice, however, demands that publicity should be given to the preeminent part taken by the German authorities in Belgium in the solution of this problem. The initiative came from them and it was only due to their continuous relations with the American Relief Committee that the provisioning question was solved.'

Hamill points out 'That is what the Belgian Relief Committee was organized for--to keep Germany in food.'

"The Belgian Relief Committee was organized by Emile Francqui, director of a large Belgian bank, Societe Generale, and a London mining promoter, an American named Herbert Hoover, who had been associated with Francqui in a number of scandals which had become celebrated court cases, notably the Kaiping Coal Company scandal in China, said to have set off the Boxer Rebellion, which had as its goal the expulsion of all foreign businessmen from China.

Hoover had been barred from dealing on the London Stock Exchange because of one judgement against him, and his associate, Stanley Rowe, had been sent to prison for ten years. With this background, Hoover was called an ideal choice for a career in humanitarian work....

As his principal assistant in the U.S. Food Administration, Hoover chose Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss, who was soon to become a partner in Kuhn Loeb Company, marrying the daughter of Jerome Hanauer of Kuhn Loeb..." (Secrets of the Federal Reserve, by Eustice Mullins. Chapter 7, The Hitler Connection.)

Frauenthals married into the Rothschild, Heinsheimer, Loeb and Sloane families.

Henry Frauenthal, married to Clara Heinsheimer, and his brother Herman, married to Minnie Rothschild, opened a hospital at the Rothschild residence-turned-dispensary in 1905. It was called the Jewish Hospital on Deformities and Joint Diseases at 588 Lexington Avenue, New York City. In time, through expansion and new facilities, the Hospital for Joint Diseases became an orthopedic surgery world leader.

1912 – March 26, Henry and Clara sail back to NYC (from a trip in France) on the Titanic.
(Among the dead, Isador Strauss, Macy’s co-owner and brother of Nathan Sr.)
1917 – the 21-yr-old Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss replaces Gattle as hospital president.
(L.L. Strauss may be a close cousin to the aforementioned Strausses (i.e. Macy's ))
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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This is just unreal - Eisenhower and Strauss in 1967 during the Vietnam war  :
The Impact of Scarce Water Resources on the Arab-Israeli Conflict

C. 1967-1982

In the wake of the 1967 war, former President Eisenhower, who 10 years earlier had sent Eric Johnston to the Mideast to negotiate a regional water plan, made public a new cooperation scheme he and former Atomic Energy Commissioner Lewis Strauss had formulated which they called simply, "A Proposal for Our Time."

Their plan, based this time on new technology, called for three nuclear desalination plants, two on the Mediterranean coast and one at the Gulf of Aqaba, producing a combined output of about 1400 MCM of freshwater a year-roughly the usable flow of the entire Jordan River-as well as "an enormous amount" of electric power.65

As Eisenhower and Strauss saw it, the availability of these new sources of energy and water would make possible an entire 'agro-industrial complex,' making an additional 4500 km2 of barren land arable, and
providing work and agriculture to help settle more than a million Arab refugees."6

The project, which would cost about a billion (1967) dollars, would be funded by an international corporation set up for the purpose and supervised by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Moreover, Eisenhower predicted that the "collaboration of Arab and Jew in a practical and profitable enterprise of this magnitude might well be the first, long step toward a permanent peace." 67

In the summer of 1967, Eisenhower communicated his project to President Lyndon Johnson. On July 28, the State Department announced the appointment of an interim Director of Water for Peace.68 In the fall,
Senator Howard Baker from Tennessee introduced a senate resolution endorsing the plan as a method of "easingpolitical tensions in the Middle East through international cooperation."69 The resolution was approved unanimously by the Foreign Relations Committee and adopted without dissent by the Senate.

The project was studied in detail over the course of the next five years by a technical group centered at the Oak Ridge National Laboratories.

Despite the overwhelming political and technical obstacles, the plan finally faltered on the basis of its economic evaluation.  [ RIGHT! ]
In 1933, Strauss had been asked by the American Jewish Committee to attend an international conference in London on the Jewish plight. There he met Dr. Chaim Weizmann and listened as the conferees agreed that an "astronomical sum" of money from the United States must be raised to help resettle what could be millions of Jews. Strauss, then fervently opposed to a Jewish state in Palestine, was the only delegate to raise his voice in dissent during the conference, a position he came to· regret. Six years later, Strauss would spend much time and effort in an unsuccessful attempt to convince the British government to donate a large chunk of colonial Africa for resettlement by European refugees, Jews and non-Jews alike. With the Nazi blitzkrieg only months away, money was no longer an object: Strauss and his American colleagues, who included Bernard Baruch, the financier, were agreed that as much as $300 million could be raised. [1] It was too late; Strauss's strong feelings about that failure-and the failure of world leadership -- are explicit in his memoir: "The tidal wave of war swept over the continents and across the ocean and a world in shock closed its eyes, figuratively and literally, to the plight of the unfortunate beings who were engulfed."
 In his memoirs, published in 1962, Strauss wrote bitterly about the Nazi Holocaust and those -including himself-who did not do enough: "The years from 1933 to the outbreak of World War II will ever be a nightmare to me, and the puny efforts I made to alleviate the tragedies were utter failures, save in a few individual cases-pitifully few."
At some point in his AEC career, Strauss, who attended most of the international conferences on the peaceful uses of the atom, met and befriended his Israeli counterpart, Ernst David Bergmann. It was a relationship shared with few; neither Strauss's biographer nor his son, Lewis, who has had access to all of his father's personal papers, knew that the two had met.

The friendship with Bergmann provides the strongest evidence of Strauss's sympathy for the Israeli nuclear weapons program.

In the fall of 1966, Strauss used his influence to get Bergmann a two-month appointment as a visiting fellow at the prestigious Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton. Strauss, who never graduated from college, had joined the institute's board of trustees during World War II, and he continued to be one of its major contributors and fund-raisers. The institute rarely dealt with chemists-its fellows are. physicists and mathematicians-but the rules were bent for Strauss. Bergmann was a bitter man at that point; he had been forced to resign his posts at the defense ministry and as head of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission after his continued objections to Prime Minister Levi Eshkol's decision-in part because of pressure from President Lyndon B. Johnson-to delay full-scale nuclear weapons production.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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I promise to start a recap and timeline page regarding all this.... But lets move on/forward to Nixon....

One thing it seems that Israel had bombs in the early sixties but not unofficially/officially till the 1969/1970's...

Nixon and NSSM 40 - Nixon doc's just released in 2006!!!
Israel Crosses the Threshold

Senior Nixon Administration Officials Considered Confronting Israel over Nuclear Weapons in 1969 but President Nixon Declined, Deciding that Washington Could Live with an Undeclared Israeli Bomb, According to Newly Declassified Documents and a Study in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists   Posted - April 28, 2006

National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 189

Washington, DC, April 28, 2006 - Today the National Security Archive publishes for the first time 30 recently declassified U.S. government documents disclosing the existence of a highly secret policy debate, during the first year of the Nixon administration, over the Israeli nuclear weapons program.

Broadly speaking, the debate was over whether it was feasible--either politically or technically--for the Nixon administration to try to prevent Israel from crossing the nuclear threshold, or whether the U.S. should find some "ground rules" which would allow it to live with a nuclear Israel. The documents published by the Archive are the primary sources for an article by Avner Cohen and William Burr, "Israel crosses the threshold," that appears in the May-June 2006 issue of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. The article is now available on-line at the Bulletin's Web site. An edited version of the article will also appear in The Washington Post's Sunday "Outlook" section on April 30, 2006.


Among the key findings in the article:

1969 was a turning point in the U.S.-Israeli nuclear relationship. Israel already had a nuclear device by 1967, but it was not until 1968-1969 that U.S. officials concluded that an Israeli bomb was about to become a physical and political reality. U.S. government officials believed that Israel was reaching a state "whereby all the components for a weapon are at hand, awaiting only final assembly and testing."

In the first months of the Nixon administration, senior officials such as Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird believed it was important that Washington try to check Israeli nuclear progress for the sake of stability in the Middle East.

In April 1969 national security adviser Henry Kissinger issued National Security Study Memorandum (NSSM) 40 requesting the national security bureaucracy to develop options for dealing with the Israeli nuclear problem. A Senior Review Group (SRG), chaired by Henry Kissinger, was formed to deliberate and propose avenues for action to the President.

The SRG outlined policy objectives to President Nixon and proposed initiating a probe with Israeli Ambassador Rabin designed to achieve those objectives. Nixon approved the SRG's proposal for action but declined to use deliveries of advanced F-4 Phantom jets as leverage for the probe. This decision was fateful for the entire exercise.

On July 29, 1969 Ambassador Rabin was summoned by Acting Secretary of State Elliott Richardson and Deputy Secretary of Defense David Packard as the first step in the probe. The two officials pressed Rabin on three issues: (1) the meaning of Israel's "non-introduction" pledge; (2) Israel's signature on the NPT; (3) Israel's intentions on the missile issue. Rabin provided no replies and subsequently proposed to leave the whole issue for the meeting between President Nixon and Prime Minister Meir in late September.

On the eve of Meir's visit the State Department prepared a background paper for the President concluding that "Israel might very well now have a nuclear bomb" and certainly "had the technical ability and material resources to produce weapons grade uranium for a number of weapons."
No written record of the meeting between President Nixon and Prime Minister Meir on September 26 is available, but it was a key event in the emergence of the 1969 US-Israeli nuclear understanding. Subsequent documents suggest that Meir pledged to maintain nuclear restraint-no test, no declaration, no visibility-and after the meeting the Nixon White House decided to "stand down" on pressure on Israel.

On October 7, 1969 Ambassador Rabin formally provided his belated answers to the US questions: Israel will not become a nuclear power; Israel will decide on the NPT after its election in November; Israel will not deploy strategic missiles until 1972.

On February 23, 1970 Ambassador Rabin informed Kissinger that, in light of President Nixon's conversation with Meir in September 1969, Israel "has no intention to sign the NPT."

Subsequently, the White House decided to end the secret annual U.S. visits to the Israeli nuclear facility at Dimona. Lower-level officials were not told of the decision and as late as May 1970 they were under the impression that the visits could be revived.

By 1975, in keeping with the understanding with Israel, the State Department refused to tell Congress that it was certain that Israel had the bomb, even though U.S. intelligence was convinced that it did.

The newly declassified documents are from State Department records and Nixon Presidential Materials at the National Archives, College Park. They represent, however, only a small fraction of a large body of documents on NSSM 40 that remain classified. To elucidate the U.S. government debate over the issue of the Israeli bomb the National Security Archive has filed declassification requests for those key documents.
The Untold Story of Israel's Bomb
By Avner Cohen and William Burr

Sunday, April 30, 2006; Page B01
On Sept. 9, 1969, a big brown envelope was delivered to the Oval Office on behalf of CIA Director Richard M. Helms. On it he had written, "For and to be opened only by: The President, The White House." The precise contents of the envelope are still unknown, but it was the latest intelligence on one of Washington's most secretive foreign policy matters: Israel's nuclear program. The material was so sensitive that the nation's spymaster was unwilling to share it with anybody but President Richard M. Nixon himself.

The now-empty envelope is inside a two-folder set labelled "NSSM 40," held by the Nixon Presidential Materials Project at the National Archives. (NSSM is the acronym for National Security Study Memorandum, a series of policy studies produced by the national security bureaucracy for the Nixon White House.) The NSSM 40 files are almost bare because most of their documents remain classified.

With the aid of With the aid of recently declassified documents , we now know that NSSM 40 was the Nixon administration's effort to grapple with the policy implications of a nuclear-armed Israel. These documents offer unprecedented insight into the tense deliberations in the White House in 1969 -- a crucial time in which international ratification of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) was uncertain and U.S. policymakers feared that a Middle Eastern conflagration could lead to superpower conflict. Nearly four decades later, as the world struggles with nuclear ambitions in Iran, India and elsewhere, the ramifications of this hidden history are still felt.

Israel's nuclear program began more than 10 years before Helms's envelope landed on Nixon's desk.

In 1958, Israel secretly initiated work at what was to become the Dimona nuclear research site. Only about 15 years after the Holocaust, nuclear non-proliferation norms did not yet exist, and Israel's founders believed they had a compelling case for acquiring nuclear weapons.

In 1961, the CIA estimated that Israel could produce nuclear weapons within the decade.

The discovery presented a difficult challenge for U.S. policymakers. From their perspective, Israel was a small, friendly state -- albeit one outside the boundaries of U.S. security guarantees -- surrounded by larger enemies vowing to destroy it. Yet government officials also saw the Israeli nuclear program as a potential threat to U.S. interests. President John F. Kennedy feared that without decisive international action to curb nuclear proliferation, a world of 20 to 30 nuclear-armed nations would be inevitable within a decade or two.

The Kennedy and Johnson administrations fashioned a complex scheme of annual visits to Dimona to ensure that Israel would not develop nuclear weapons. But the Israelis were adept at concealing their activities. By late 1966, Israel had reached the nuclear threshold, although it decided not to conduct an atomic test.

By the time Prime Minister Levi Eshkol visited President Lyndon B. Johnson in January 1968, the official State Department view was that despite Israel's growing nuclear weapons potential, it had "not embarked on a program to produce a nuclear weapon." That assessment, however, eroded in the months ahead. By the fall, Assistant Defence Secretary Paul C. Warnke concluded that Israel had already acquired the bomb when Israeli Ambassador Yitzhak Rabin explained to him how he interpreted Israel's pledge not to be the first country to introduce nuclear weapons into the region. According to Rabin, for nuclear weapons to be introduced, they needed to be tested and publicly declared. Implicitly, then, Israel could possess the bomb without "introducing" it.

The question of what to do about the Israeli bomb would fall to Nixon. Unlike his Democratic predecessors, he and his national security adviser, Henry A. Kissinger, were initially skeptical about the effectiveness of the NPT. And though they may have been inclined to accommodate Israel's nuclear ambitions, they would have to manage senior State Department and Pentagon officials whose perspectives differed. Documents prepared between February and April 1969 reveal a great sense of urgency and alarm among senior officials about Israel's nuclear progress.

As Defence Secretary Melvin R. Laird wrote in March 1969, these "developments were not in the United States' interests and should, if at all possible, be stopped." Above all, the Nixon administration was concerned that Israel would publicly display its nuclear capabilities.

Apparently prompted by those high-level concerns, Kissinger issued NSSM 40 -- titled Israeli Nuclear Weapons Program -- on April 11, 1969. In it he asked the national security bureaucracy for a review of policy options toward Israel's nuclear program. In the weeks that followed, the issue was taken up by a senior review group (SRG), chaired by Kissinger, that included Helms, Undersecretary of State Elliot Richardson, Deputy Defence Secretary David Packard and Joint Chiefs Chairman Earle Wheeler.
Over time, the tentative Nixon-Meir understanding became the foundation for a remarkable U.S.-Israeli deal, accompanied by a tacit but strict code of behaviour to which both nations closely adhered. Even during its darkest hours in the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Israel was cautious not to make any public display of its nuclear capability.

Yet set against contemporary values of transparency and accountability, the Nixon-Meir deal of 1969 now stands as a striking and burdensome anomaly. Israel's nuclear posture is inconsistent with the tenets of a modern liberal democracy. The deal is also burdensome for the United States, provoking claims about double standards in U.S. nuclear non-proliferation policy.

It is especially striking to compare the Nixon administration's stance toward Israel in 1969 with the way Washington is trying to accommodate India in 2006. As problematic as the proposed nuclear pact with New Delhi is, it at least represents an effort to deal openly with the issue.

Unlike the case of Iran today -- where a nation is publicly violating its NPT obligations and where the United States and the international community are acting in the open -- the White House in 1969 addressed the Israeli weapons program in a highly secretive fashion. That kind of deal-making would be impossible now.

Without open acknowledgment of Israel's nuclear status, such ideas as a nuclear-free Middle East, or even the inclusion of Israel in an updated NPT regime, cannot be discussed properly. It is time for a new deal to replace the Nixon-Meir understandings of 1969, with Israel telling the truth and finally normalizing its nuclear affairs.

Licorne, July 3rd, 1970

These are four scanned pictures of hardcopies I possess of the French nuclear test codenamed Licorne, which was fired on July 3rd, 1970 . The French army had those pictures taken on site. Those pictures were readily available at the time at Tahiti and Moruroa military base, and mine have been quite degraded. I scanned them and tried to restore them

In 1957, soon after Suez and the resulting diplomatic tension with both the USSR and the United States, French president René Coty decided the creation of the C.S.E.M. in the then French Sahara, a new nuclear tests facility replacing the C.I.E.E.S.[7] With the return of Charles de Gaulle to the presidency of France in the midst of the May 1958 crisis, the final decisions to build a bomb were taken, and a successful test took place in 1960. Since then France has developed and maintained its own nuclear deterrent.
In 1956 the French agreed to secretly build the Dimona nuclear reactor in Israel and soon after agreed to construct a reprocessing plant for the extraction of plutonium at the site. The following year Euratom was created and under cover of the peaceful use of nuclear power the French signed deals with Germany and Italy to work together on nuclear weapons development.[8] The West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer told his cabinet that he "wanted to achieve, through EURATOM, as quickly as possible, the chance of producing our own nuclear weapons".[9] The idea was short-lived. In 1958 de Gaulle became President and Germany and Italy were excluded.
France is understood to have tested neutron or enhanced radiation bombs in the past, apparently leading the field with an early test of the technology in 1967 [10] and an 'actual' neutron bomb in 1980
Saharan experiments centers (1960–1966)
Further information: Gerboise Bleue and Agathe (atomic test)
A series of atmospheric tests was conducted by the Centre Saharien d'Expérimentations Militaires ("Saharan Military Experiments Center") from February 1960 until April 1961.
The first French atmospheric nuclear test, called "Gerboise bleue" ("blue jerboa") took place on 13 February 1960 in the French Sahara, during the Algerian War (1954–62). The explosion took place at 40 km from the military base of Reggane, which is the last town on the Tanezrouft Track heading south across the Sahara to Mali, and 700 km south of Béchar.[14] The device had a 70 kiloton yield. Although Algeria became independent in 1962 France continued nuclear tests there until 1966 although the later tests were underground rather than atmospheric. The General Pierre Marie Gallois was named le père de la bombe A ("Father of the A-bomb").
Three other atmospheric tests were carried out from 1 April 1960 to 25 April 1961. These four atmospheric tests were carried out at with a forward base at Hammoudia near Reggane. Military, workers and the nomadic Touareg population of the region were assisted at the test sites, without any significant protection. At most, a shower after each test according to L'Humanité.[15] Gerboise Rouge (5kt), the third atomic bomb, half as powerful as Hiroshima, exploded on 27 December 1960, provoking protests from Japan, USSR, Egypt, Morocco, Nigeria and Ghana.[16]
After the independence of Algeria on 5 July 1962, following the 19 March Evian agreements, the French military moved to In Ecker, also in the Algerian Sahara. The Evian agreements included a secret article which stated that "Algeria concede... to France the use of certain air bases, terrains, sites and military installations which are necessary to it [France]" during five years.
Pacific experiments center (1966–1996)
A total of 193 nuclear tests were carried out in Polynesia from 1966 to 1996.
[edit] Atmospheric tests at Mururoa & Fangataufa
Further information: Canopus (nuclear test)
The French began development of the hydrogen bomb and built a new test range on the French Polynesian islands of Mururoa and Fangataufa. On 24 August 1968 France succeeded in detonating a thermonuclear weapon - codenamed Canopus - over Fangataufa. A fission device ignited a lithium 6 deuteride secondary inside a jacket of highly enriched uranium to create a 2.6 megaton blast which left the whole atoll uninhabitable because of radioactive contamination.
By 1968 only France and China were detonating nuclear weapons in the open air and the contamination caused by the H Bomb blast led to a global protest movement against further French atmospheric tests

Marcoule Nuclear Site (French: Site nucléaire de Marcoule) is a nuclear plant in the Chusclan and Codolet communes, near Bagnols-sur-Cèze in the Gard department of France, which is in the touristic, wine and agricultural Côtes-du-Rhône region. The plant is around 25 km north west of Avignon, on the banks of the Rhone.

Operational since 1956, Marcoule is a gigantic site run by the atomic energy organization Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique (CEA) and Areva NC.

The first industrial and military plutonium experiments took place in Marcoule. Diversification of the site was started in the 1970s with the creation of the Phénix prototype fast breeder reactor, which was operational until 2009, and is nowadays an important site for decommissioning nuclear facilities activities. The Phénix reactor is likely to be succeeded by the sodium-cooled fast reactor ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technical Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) in the 2015-2020 time frame.
French officials reciprocated the Israeli trust: Israeli scientists were the only foreigners allowed access throughout the secret French nuclear complex at Marcoule. Israelis were said to be able to roam "at will."

One obvious reason for the carte blanche was the sheer brilliance of the Israeli scientists and their expertise, even then, in computer technology. The French would remain dependent for the next decade-the first French nuclear test took place in 1960  -- on Israeli computer skills.

A second reason for the Israeli presence at Marcoule was emotional: many French officials and scientists had served in the resistance and maintained intense feelings about the Holocaust. And many of France's leading nuclear scientists were Jewish and strong supporters of the new Jewish state, which was emerging-to the delight of these men-as France's closest ally in the Middle East.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Dr. Chaim Weizmann - Prez World Zionist Organization - Israel gets the bomb
« Reply #24 on: September 14, 2011, 12:03:04 pm »
bump - many updates  - Please post/pm any info on Baron Erich Von Goldschmidt Rothschild  - he seems to have sold his "famous" art/book collection in 1930-31 with the rise of Hitler and he must have left germany during the war. I have not been able to find a bio - All I know is he lived in Germany and lived from 1899-1987...

the Goldschmidt-Rothschild branch:

Goldschmidt-Rothschild family is originally from Frankfurt am Main in Germany .

 Its members are descended from the union in 1878 in Minna Caroline von Rothschild (1857-1903), a daughter of Baron Wilhelm Carl von Rothschild (1828-1901), the last representative of the branches in Frankfurt and Naples in the famous family, and Banker's Maximilian Benedict Goldschmidt .  It changed its name to Goldschmidt-Rothschild in 1878, and was ennobled (with the title of baron ) in 1903 .

The name Rothschild in Frankfurt this will remain so until his death in 1940 in his palace at Bockenheimer Landstrasse where the Nazis had allowed to keep a room

Maximilian von Goldschmidt came in 1862 in Frankfurt in his father's bank Hayum Benedict Goldschmidt (1798-1873), which he shared with his brother Adolf Hayum Benedict Goldschmidt led (1838-1918) until the death of her father's  Then the brothers decided to give up the banking business and to leave Frankfurt. . While Adolphe first to Paris and then to London , drew Maximilian went to Berlin .

Not least through his marriage to the heiress Minna Caroline Rothschild Baroness von Rothschild (1857-1905) in 1878, he was regarded as the richest individual in the richest family of the German Reich .  With an estimated fortune of 163 million gold marks, he was even richer than the German Emperor.

Maximilian and his wife, Minna, had five children:
Erich (1894-1987) - founded in exile in the U.S., where the Egoro Corp..
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Dr. Chaim Weizmann - Prez World Zionist Organization - Israel gets the bomb
« Reply #25 on: September 15, 2011, 11:36:34 am »
Israel Nuke tests:
by  Warner D. Farr, LTC, U.S. Army
In 1972, two Israeli scientists, Isaiah Nebenzahl and Menacehm Levin, developed a cheaper, faster uranium enrichment process.  It used a laser beam for isotope separation.  It could reportedly enrich seven grams of Uranium 235 sixty percent in one day.80  Sources later reported that Israel was using both centrifuges and lasers to enrich uranium.81

Questions remained regarding full-scale nuclear weapons tests.  Primitive gun assembled type devices need no testing.  Researchers can test non-nuclear components of other types separately and use extensive computer simulations.  Israel received data from the 1960 French tests, and one source concludes that Israel accessed information from U.S. tests conducted in the 1950s and early 1960s.  This may have included both boosted and thermonuclear weapons data.82

Underground testing in a hollowed out cavern is difficult to detect.  A West Germany Army Magazine, Wehrtechnik, in June 1976, claimed that Western reports documented a 1963 underground test in the Negev.  Other reports show a test at Al-Naqab, Negev in October 1966.83

A bright flash in the south Indian Ocean, observed by an American satellite on 22 September 1979, is widely believed to be a South Africa-Israel joint nuclear test.  It was, according to some, the third test of a neutron bomb.  The first two were hidden in clouds to fool the satellite and the third was an accident—the weather cleared.84 

Experts differ on these possible tests.  Several writers report that the scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory believed it to have been a nuclear explosion while a presidential panel decided otherwise.85  President Carter was just entering the Iran hostage nightmare and may have easily decided not to alter 30 years of looking the other way.86  The explosion was almost certainly an Israeli bomb, tested at the invitation of the South Africans.  It was more advanced than the “gun type” bombs developed by the South Africans.87  One report claims it was a test of a nuclear artillery shell.88  A 1997 Israeli newspaper quoted South African deputy foreign minister, Aziz Pahad, as confirming it was an Israeli test with South African logistical support.89

Controversy over possible nuclear testing continues to this day

In June 1998, a Member of the Knesset accused the government of an underground test near Eilat on May 28, 1998.  Egyptian “nuclear experts” had made similar charges.  The Israeli government hotly denied the claims
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Dr. Chaim Weizmann - Prez World Zionist Organization - Israel gets the bomb
« Reply #26 on: November 14, 2011, 05:21:16 pm »
Oh and they release this info in 2007: George Koval - also connections to the Soviet J.A.R.
Spy’s Path: Iowa to A-Bomb to Kremlin Honor

President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia and intelligence officers at a ceremony posthumously honoring George Koval, left, an American-born Soviet spy who infiltrated the Manhattan Project.

Published: November 12, 2007
He had all-American cover: born in Iowa, college in Manhattan, Army buddies with whom he played baseball.

George Koval also had a secret. During World War II, he was a top Soviet spy, code named Delmar and trained by Stalin’s ruthless bureau of military intelligence.

Atomic spies are old stuff. But historians say Dr. Koval, who died in his 90s last year in Moscow and whose name is just coming to light publicly, was probably one of the most important spies of the 20th century.

On Nov. 2, the Kremlin startled Western scholars by announcing that President Vladimir V. Putin had posthumously given the highest Russian award to a Soviet agent who penetrated the Manhattan Project to build the atom bomb.

The announcement hailed Dr. Koval as “the only Soviet intelligence officer” to infiltrate the project’s secret plants, saying his work “helped speed up considerably the time it took for the Soviet Union to develop an atomic bomb of its own.”

Since then, historians, scientists, federal officials and old friends have raced to tell Dr. Koval’s story — the athlete, the guy everyone liked, the genius at technical studies. American intelligence agencies have known of his betrayal at least since the early 1950s, when investigators interviewed his fellow scientists and swore them to secrecy.

George Abramovich Koval (Russian: Жорж (Георгий) Абрамович Коваль, Zhorzh Abramovich Koval, December 25, 1913 – January 31, 2006) was a Soviet intelligence officer. According to Russian sources, Koval's infiltration of the Manhattan Project as a Glavnoye Razvedyvatel'noye Upravleniye (GRU) agent "drastically reduced the amount of time it took for Russia to develop nuclear weapons." [1]

Koval was born to Jewish immigrants in Sioux City, Iowa, USA.

Shortly after reaching adulthood he traveled with his parents to the Soviet Union to settle in the Jewish Autonomous Region near the Chinese border.

Koval was recruited by the Soviet Main Intelligence Directorate, trained, and assigned the code name DELMAR. He returned to the United States in 1940 and was drafted into the US Army in early 1943. Koval worked at atomic research laboratories and, according to the Russian government, relayed back to the Soviet Union information about the production processes and volumes of the polonium, plutonium, and uranium used in American atomic weaponry, and descriptions of the weapon production sites.

After the war, Koval left on a European vacation but never returned to the United States.

In 2007 Russian President Vladimir Putin posthumously awarded Koval the Hero of the Russian Federation decoration for "his courage and heroism while carrying out special missions".
He graduated in 1929 at the age of 15. Koval studied electrical engineering at the University of Iowa for the next two-and-a-half years. Meanwhile, his parents left Sioux City as the Great Depression deepened. Abram Koval became the secretary for ICOR, the Organization for Jewish Colonization in the Soviet Union.[3] Founded by American Jewish Communists in 1924, the group helped to finance and publicize the development of the "Jewish Autonomous Region" – the Communist answer to Jewish emigration to the British Mandate of Palestine then being undertaken by the Zionist movement.[4]

The Koval family emigrated in 1932, traveling with a United States family passport.[3] They settled in Birobidzhan, near the border of Manchuria
George Koval improved his Russian language skills in the collective and began studies at the Mendeleev Institute of Chemical Technology in 1934. At the university he met and married fellow student Lyudmila Ivanova. Koval graduated with honors in five years and received Soviet citizenship
Later, Koval was recruited by the Soviet Main Intelligence Directorate (Главное Разведывательное Управление), or GRU. By the time he received his degree he had left Moscow under orders as part of a subterfuge.

He was drafted into the Soviet army in 1939 to explain his sudden disappearance from the city.

Though his parents had relinquished their US family passport, Koval returned to the United States in 1940,[5] replacing a spy recalled during Stalin's purges.[6]

Arriving in San Francisco, he made his way to New York City. According to Arnold Kramish, an American colleague he befriended and with whom he re-established contact in 2000, it was there that Koval assumed deputy command of the local GRU cell. This outpost operated under the cover of the Raven Electric Company, a supplier to firms such as General Electric. Koval told coworkers he was a native New Yorker and an only child.

He ingratiated himself with everyone he met.[5] While Koval originally worked under a pseudonym, gathering information on toxins for use in chemical weapons, his handlers decided to have him work under his real name.[7]

During the beginning of World War II, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had re-introduced the draft (conscription) in September 1940, and Koval registered for it on January 2, 1941. Raven Electric Company secured him a year's deferment from service until February 1942.

According to historian Vladimir Lota, Koval's handlers wanted him to steal information about chemical weapons, and felt that he would not be able to do so while drafted.

When the deferment expired, however, Koval was inducted into the United States Army. He received basic training at Fort Dix in New Jersey before being sent to the Citadel in Charleston, South Carolina. There, Koval served as a private in the 3410th Specialized Training and Reassignment Unit. On August 11, 1943, he was transferred to the Army Specialized Training Program, a unit established in December 1942 to provide talented enlistees with an education and technical training
...the Manhattan Project. Koval was assigned to Oak Ridge, Tennessee; at the time, Project scientists were researching enriched uranium and plutonium-based bombs, with the Oak Ridge laboratories central to the development of both.[8] The Project suffered from a lack of human resources, and asked the Army for technically qualified men.[7]
Oak Ridge workers operating mass spectrometers. Koval's job as a health officer meant he had his own car and access to many sensitive areas of the facility.Koval enjoyed free access to much of Oak Ridge;[7] he was made a "health physics officer", and monitored radiation levels across the facility.

According to Federal Bureau of Investigation records, the job gave him top-secret security clearance

Koval was transferred from Oak Ridge to a top-secret lab in Dayton, Ohio on June 27, 1945, where polonium initiators were fabricated.
The initiator for the plutonium bomb was, according to Russian military officials, "prepared to the 'recipe' provided by military intelligence agent Delmar [Koval]". [9]

See also:
George Koval: Atomic Spy Unmasked

Iowa-born and army-trained,
how did George Koval manage to steal a critical U.S. atom bomb secret for the Soviets, that is only now coming to light?  
By Michael Walsh  Smithsonian magazine, May 2009
The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Russian: Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast; Yiddish: ייִדישע אווטאָנאָמע געגנט, yidishe avtonome gegnt[12]) is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous oblast) situated in the Russian Far East, bordering Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast of Russia and Heilongjiang province of China. Its administrative center is the town of Birobidzhan.

Soviet authorities established the autonomous oblast in 1934. It was the result of Joseph Stalin's nationality policy, which allowed for the Jews of the Soviet Union to receive a territory in which to pursue Yiddish cultural heritage within a socialist framework
According to Joseph Stalin's national policy, each of the national groups that formed the Soviet Union would receive a territory in which to pursue cultural autonomy in a socialist framework. In that sense, it also responded to two supposed threats to the Soviet state:

Judaism, which ran counter to official state policy of atheism
Zionism — the advocacy of a Jewish national state in Palestine — which countered Soviet views of nationalism.
The Soviets envisaged setting up a new "Soviet Zion", where a proletarian Jewish culture could be developed. Yiddish, rather than Hebrew, would be the national language, and a new socialist literature and arts would replace religion as the primary expression of culture.

Stalin's theory on the National Question regarded a group as a nation only if it had a territory, and since there was no Jewish territory, per se, the Jews were not a nation and did not have national rights. Jewish Communists argued that the way to solve this ideological dilemma was by creating a Jewish territory, hence the ideological motivation for the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. Politically, it was also considered desirable to create a Soviet Jewish homeland as an ideological alternative to Zionism and the theory put forward by Socialist Zionists such as Ber Borochov that the Jewish Question could be resolved by creating a Jewish territory in Palestine. Thus Birobidzhan was important for propaganda purposes as an argument against Zionism which was a rival ideology to Marxism among left-wing Jews.
"Soviet Union": The Jewish story about Birobidzhan (Birobidjan) 1928-1970

Flag of Birobidzhan province

The Organization for Jewish Colonization in Russia (Idishe Kolonizatsie Organizatsie in Rusland), commonly known by its transliterated acronym of ICOR, was a Communist-sponsored mass organization in North America devoted to supporting settlement in the Jewish socialist republic of Birobidzhan in the Soviet Union. The organization was founded in the United States in 1924 and soon spread to Russia.


The founding meeting was held in New York City in December 1924 and the initial mission of the organization was to raise money to fund Jewish collective farms in Crimea and to provide a humanitarian alternative for Jews facing anti-Semitism in Europe.

One of ICOR's initial patrons was Julius Rosenwald, president of Sears, Roebuck and Company who contributed more than $2 million to ICOR.[1]

When, in 1928, the Soviet Union abandoned the idea of Jewish settlement in Crimea and endorsed instead the eventual formation of a Jewish Autonomous Republic in the eastern USSR, ICOR followed suit. ICOR worked closely with the Komzet, the Soviet agency facilitating Jewish settlement, and its partner, the OZET.
The chief American behind the establishment of the new organization was William W. Cohen, a banker and stockbroker who had been a Congressman from New York's 17th Congressional District from 1926 to 1928.[2] Cohen saw the establishment of a Jewish Autonomous Region in the USSR as providing an important "haven for the salvage and rehabilitation of many thousands of Jews suffering in the infernos of central and eastern Europe" and supported the establishment of Ambidjan with his money, time, and effort...

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline chris jones

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Re: Dr. Chaim Weizmann - Prez World Zionist Organization - Israel gets the bomb
« Reply #27 on: November 14, 2011, 06:37:07 pm »
 We have been dowwn this road before, though I apprecate this post, and commend  Tahoes history of events.
 I do remember my brother, a Green Beret telling me in the 60's, Israel has nukes. My remark created all kinds of debates, but I have to say my bro had kicked around a bit, and probably should not have confided this.
 One point, Kennedy did ask, (though i don't have the original letter handy) Ben Gurian if he would allow inspections, many things were to follow and they were some hefty problems, began in Isreal and the USA.

Offline TahoeBlue

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Evidence suggests that "Red China's" first explosion of a nuclear device was in fact a joint venture between Israel and Red China.

Shaul Eisenberg - Permindex - Red China Nuclear Program - JFK Assassination

Shaul Eisenberg, Merchant of Death

Another and probably the primary reason for Kennedy's assassination is he fact that he made it quite clear to Israeli prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, that under no circumstances would he agree to Israel becoming a nuclear state.

The Israeli newspaper Ha'aretz states on February 5, 1999, in a Review of Avner Cohen's book "Israel and the Bomb" the following :

"The murder of American President John F. Kennedy brought to an abrupt end the massive pressure being applied by the U.S. Administration on the government of Israel to discontinue the nuclear program... The book implied that, had Kennedy remained alive, it is doubtful whether Israel would today have a nuclear option."

| - - - - -


Evidence suggests that "Red China's" first explosion of a nuclear device was in fact a joint venture between Israel and Red China.

Pol Pott Funded By the Empire

Max Fisher - Eisenberg and the JFK Assassination:
Final Judgment
China Tests Atomic Bomb, Asks Summit Talk On Ban; Johnson Minimizes Peril
Oct. 16, 1964

Hong Kong, Oct. 16--Communist China announced tonight that it had exploded its first atom bomb. Peking pledged that it would never be the first to use nuclear weapons in the future.

A communique stated that a nuclear test was successfully conducted at 3 P.M. Peking time (3 A.M., Eastern daylight time) in the western region of China. No details were disclosed. [In Washington, the test site was reported to be in Sinkiang, a province bordering the Soviet Union.]

"The success of China's nuclear test is a major achievement of the Chinese people in the strengthening of their national defense and the safeguarding of their motherland as well as a major contribution by the Chinese people to the cause of the defense of world peace," the communique asserted.

An accompanying Government statement declared that the purpose of developing nuclear weapons was to protect the Chinese people "from the danger of the United States' launching a nuclear war."
Communist China Explodes Its First Nuclear Device
By Robert J. Samuelson,
Published: Saturday, October 17, 1964

Experts appeared to agree on two points:

* that it will take from four to ten years before the Chinese can develop an operational nuclear delivery system
Yesterday's test caught few experts by surprise. On Sept. 29, Secretary of State Dean Rusk announced that the United States expected the Chinese to set off their first atomic bomb "in the near future."
New Economy or Transnational Ownership?
The Global Political Economy of Israel
Shimshon Bichler, Haifa University - Jonathan Nitzan, York University

The world is ours, we are its lords, and ours it shall remain.
– Jack London, The Iron Heel



Together, the two processes of centralisation and transnationalisation made the ownership scene dynamic to an extent never seen before in Israel. And indeed, incessant restructuring was now the third hallmark of the Israeli power structure. What was until a decade ago a very rigid structure, has turned into one of permanent flux. For instance, during the first 50 years of its existence, Koor was under the joint ownership of the Histadrut and Bank Hapoalim. And then, in a matter of ten years, the company was sold and bought several times, first to Shamrock, an investment arm of the Disney family, who then sold it to Bronfman and Kolber, who in turn dismembered it by selling off unwanted assets and buying new ones. Similarly, state assets, once privatised, began rotating between the different actors.

The Israel Corporation and Israel Chemical Industries, for instance, were sold to one of Israel’s biggest foreign investors, Saul Eisenberg.

When Eisenberg died in 1997, his family resold the companies to the Ofer brothers, who then proceeded to chop it to pieces, keeping the parts they liked and selling those they didn’t.

The investment company Clal, which since its inception in 1962 was held jointly by IDB, Bank Leumi and Bank Hapoalim, was taken over by IDB and merged into its operation through massive reorganisation.

All in all, the ownership structure remains as concentrated, complicated and interlinked as before; but now it was also constantly changing.
The Global Political Economy of Israel
Jonathan Nitzan and Shimshon Bichler

First published 2002 by Pluto Press

By now, our reader must find it a little difficult to make head and tail of this complicated genealogy of the military, politics and business – and yet the plot continues to thicken.

The Elyashar clan, with which these figures were intermarried, dates back to the Ottoman period. The family represented various  European business interests and Zionist organisations, and generally got along well with the regional superpower of the day, supplying food to the Turkish army during the First World War (in partnership with the famous Palestinian Hussaini family), and to the British forces during the Second World War. From this perspective, Israel’s independence in 1948 was somewhat of a setback, particularly since the Israeli Defence Ministry seemed to favour ‘Ashkenazi’ suppliers like Saul Eisenberg and Marcus Katz, over ‘Sephardi’ dealers such as the Elyashars.

And, indeed, Elyashar’s memoirs, To Live with Jews, are replete with nostalgia for the good old days, before the Ashkenazi took over the country, destroying the beautiful coexistence between Sephardi nobility and local Palestinians.

Of course, by the 1980s, when these memoirs were written, the Elyashars were so deeply intertwined with other Israeli ruling families, Ashkenazi as well as Sephardi, that the ethnic line sounded a bit hollow.

Some of these family ties included the Navons, founders of the Jaffa–Jerusalem line, Palestine’s first railroad; the Amzalegs, who represented the British Lloyds, and the Valeros, who were among the first Jerusalem bankers.
All of these families were in turn connected through marriage with the affluent Moialle, Kookia and Shlush families.

The Moialles themselves were linked to Israel Rokach, who, when acting as Interior Minister in Sharet’s government,
nominated his cousin, Aharon Moialle, as his general manager. Yossef Kookia, whose family was Jerusalem’s biggest landlord in the 1930s and the Recanati’s first big depositor, became General Manager of the Justice Ministry during the Austerity period. The Shlush family had intimate business links with the Carassos, Recanati’s partners in  Discount, as well as with the Saharovs with whom they also intermarried.

Like many of its contemporaries, the Saharov family started its career in the wood business, from which it ventured into new areas such as insurance, banking, weaponry and, of course, public service.

Their eldest son, Yekhezkel, was Chaim Weitzman’s bodyguard and Israel’s first chief-of-police.

His deputy in the force was Amos Ben-Gurion, who was nominated for the post while his father, David Ben-Gurion, was Prime Minister. In their infinite wisdom, both Chief Saharov and Deputy Ben-Gurion were hectically mixing public duty with private business, and eventually, after dozens of scandals, were forced to quit their posts. Both were given a second chance.

Amos Ben-Gurion was made manager of Israel’s largest clothing company, Ata, which belonged to Swiss
financier Tibor Rosenbaum
, and whose Israeli representative at the time was Amos Manor, former head of Shin Beit (Israel’s internal security service). When Rosenbaum’s Banque de Crédit Internationale collapsed with much fanfare in the mid-1970s, Ata was passed on to Saul Eisenberg, who replaced Amos Ben-Gurion with Yossef Hermelin, another former head of the Shin Beit.

Yekhezkel Saharov didn’t fare any better. After leaving the police he became Israel’s ambassador to Austria, but was ousted on convictions of false testimony; later, he also got entangled in scandalous land deals in the West Bank. His brother, Liberal Party controller Israel Saharov, had a less illustrious but perhaps more productive career. When Ezer Weitzman became Minister of Defence in Begin’s government, he nominated him to manage the state-owned Israel Aircraft Industries, the country’s largest industrial company. As it turned out, his main job was less to manage and more to privatise, a task to which he devoted himself with much zeal. The news of his success spread quickly, and when Yigal Hurwitz, Weitzman’s second cousin, became Minister of Industry and Trade, he moved Saharov to the helm of another government-owned firm, Israel Chemical Industries, for much the same purpose. Incidentally, the earlier nomination to Israel Aircraft Industries was also motivated by Weitzman’s own business dealings.

As it turns out, Saharov’s daughter was married to a family friend of the Begins, David Koolitz, who, together with Ezer Weitzman and Michael Albin of the Eisenber group, were among the first Israelis to deal openly in arms. Their company, Elul Technologies, represented the U.S.-based General  Dynamics. When American weapon shipments started flowing into the region during the 1970s, the three partners were making commission on every F-16
fighter jet delivered to the IDF.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline Optimus

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If at first you don't succeed, lie, lie again!

CBS/AP/ October 8, 2012, 12:17 PM
Group: Iran can make material for nuke in 2-4 mos.

VIENNA Iran now could produce enough weapons-grade uranium to arm a nuclear bomb within two to four months but would still face serious "engineering challenges" — and much longer delays — before it would be able to use the material in an atomic warhead, a respected U.S. think tank said Monday.

While Iran denies any interest in possessing nuclear arms, the international community fears it may turn its peaceful uranium enrichment program toward weapons making — a concern that is growing as Tehran expands the number of machines it uses to enrich as well as its stockpile of enriched uranium. And as apprehension increases, so does anxiety that Israel will make good on threats to attack Iran's nuclear facilities before that nation reaches the bomb-making threshold.

In a strident call for an internationally drawn "red line" on what he said was Iran's move toward nuclear arms, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said Sept. 28 the world has until next summer at the latest to stop Tehran before it can build an atomic bomb. Flashing a diagram of a cartoon-like bomb before the U.N. General Assembly, he said Iran was ready to move to the "final stage" of making such a weapon by then.

For now, U.S. military and intelligence officials say they don't believe Iran's leadership has made the decision to build a bomb, while also warning that the country is moving closer to the ability to do so.

“The Constitution is not an instrument for the government to restrain the people,
it's an instrument for the people to restrain the government.” – Patrick Henry

>>> Global Gulag Media & Forum <<<

Offline TahoeBlue

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NSA releases data about Israel obtaining "YellowCake" from Argentina after French supply dried up
The Israel-Argentina Yellowcake Connection

Previously Secret Documents Show That Canadian Intelligence Discovered That Israel Purchased Yellowcake from Argentines during 1963-1964

Information Later Shared with British and Americans, Who Accepted It after Hesitation

 U.S. State Department Insisted that Uranium Sales Required Safeguards to Assure Peaceful Use but Israel Was Uncooperative and Evasive About the Yellowcake's Ultimate Use

National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 432
Posted - June 25, 2013

That Argentina made the yellowcake sale to Israel has already been disclosed in declassified U.S. intelligence estimates, but how and when Washington learned about the sale and how it reacted to it can now be learned from largely untapped archival sources. Among the disclosures in today's publication:

French restrictions on Israel's supply of uranium in 1963 made U.S. and British officials suspect that Israel would attempt to acquire yellowcake from other sources without any tangible restrictions to sustain its nuclear weapons program
• A Canadian intelligence report from March 1964 asserted Israel had all of the "prerequisites for commencing a modest nuclear weapons development project."
•When the Canadians discovered the Argentine-Israeli deal they were initially reluctant to share the intelligence with Washington because the United States had refused to provide them with information on a recent U.S. inspection visit by U.S. scientists to Dimona.
•U.S. and British intelligence were skeptical of the Canadian finding until September 1964 when U.S. Embassy sources in Argentina confirmed the sale to Israel.
•The Israelis evaded answering questions about the transaction. When U.S. scientists visited the Dimona facility in March 1966 as part of the August 1963 secret agreement between President Kennedy and Prime Minister Eshkol, they asked about the yellowcake but their Israeli hosts said that question was for "higher officials."
•In 1964 U.S. officials tried to persuade the Argentines to apply strong safeguards to future uranium exports but had little traction for securing agreement.
•In 1965, while the CIA and the State Department were investigating the Argentine yellowcake sale, Washington pursued rumors that the French uranium mining company in Gabon had sought permission to sell yellowcake to Israel.

Ever since late 1960, when the CIA learned that the Israelis had been constructing, with French assistance, a major nuclear facility near Dimona in the Negev Desert, the United States and its close allies, Canada and the United Kingdom , and even its Soviet adversary, suspected that Israel had a nuclear weapons program under way.[1] Closely monitoring Israeli nuclear activities Canadian intelligence discovered the yellocake sale sometime in the spring of 1964 and soon shared this sensitive information with the British
Israel's interest in uranium is as old as the state itself. As early as 1949-50, Israel started with a geological survey of the Negev to determine whether and to what extent uranium could be extracted from the phosphates deposits there. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s Israel explored the viability of the phosphates option, some pilots plants were built, but finally it was determined that it would be too costly. Israel, therefore, had to find uranium from overseas sources.

For the Dimona project the Israelis initially had gotten uranium from France, but in the early 1960s Paris began to restrict the supply and Israel sought to diversify its sources by securing uranium from Argentina, South Africa and elsewhere.[2] Conversely, because the United States was worried about the Israeli nuclear program and its implications for stability in the region, it made efforts to monitor closely Israeli purchases of nuclear material and investigated the Argentine-Israeli deal. While Washington was then exploring ways to establish a global safeguards system to regulate nuclear supplies through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), nothing yet was available with any teeth, such as the future Nuclear Suppliers Group, to check such sales, much less restrict the Israeli nuclear program.
The documents in today's publication are from the U.S. and the British National Archives. All of the U.S. documents were declassified in the mid-1990s but have lingered in a relatively obscure folder in the State Department's central foreign policy files at the U.S. National Archives. They may never have been displayed in public before as the file appeared to be previously untouched. A few of the British documents have been cited by other historians, including ourselves, but the fascinating story of British-Canadian-United States intelligence cooperation and coordination has also been buried in relative obscurity. The juxtaposition of U.S. and British records makes a fuller account possible, although some elements of the story remain secret, such as the identity of the Canadian intelligence source on the yellowcake purchase.

Only Israeli and Argentine documents, however, can provide the full story of the yellowcake sale.


Alan C. Goodison (1906-2006), trained as an Arabist, worked on Israeli nuclear matters at the British Foreign Office's Eastern Department in the mid-1960s. He coordinated the analysis and distribution of the sensitive Canadian intelligence report on the Argentine yellowcake sale. Goodison is shown in 1983 when he became Ambassador to Ireland

Admiral Oscar A. Quihillalt [Argentina!!!]   (b. 1913), chief of the National Atomic Energy Commission, 1955-73, presided over the creation of Argentina's nuclear establishment. In 1964, he bore the brunt of U.S. State Department inquiries about the yellowcake sale to Israel. This image shows him in 1967 when he was elected Chairman of the Board of Governors of the international Atomic Energy Agency (Image courtesy of Archives, International Atomic Energy Agency).


Walworth Barbour (1908-82) was ambassador to Israel during 1961-73.  [ Bilderberger (see prev post) ] He presided over the vain effort by U.S. diplomats and CIA officers to learn what Israel had done with the yellowcake. (Image from Still Pictures Branch, National Archives, RG 59-SO). [ i.e. he controlled the flow of information ! ]

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Argentine Documents on the Yellowcake Sale  

Israeli documents on the yellowcake purchase from Argentina are not available, but German researcher Dr. Gaby Weber has identified and published significant Argentine records relating to the purchase. They include several unclassified Argentine presidential decrees from 1960, 1962 and 1963.

The first authorized the sale of 6 tons of yellowcake to the German firms Nukem and Metallgesellschaft in 1960;
the second (1962) the sale of 10 tons of yellowcake directly to Israel; and
the third the 1963 sale of the100 tons of yellowcake.

In an interview with Weber, Roberto Ornstein, an official of the Argentine Atomic Commission, acknowledged that the yellowcake in all three sales went to Israel. The German role in the first transaction raises questions about the Israel-West Germany nuclear connection, which Dr. Weber explores in her publications. More needs to be learned about internal Argentine decision-making on these transactions.

Through a FOIA request to the Department of Energy, Dr. Weber has also acquired several U.S. documents relating to the yellowcake sales. One is a memorandum to A.A. Wells, director of the Division of International Affairs, dated March 5, 1962, on "sales of uranium concentrate to Israel by Argentina." According to the report, the AEC's Acting Scientific Representative at the Buenos Aires Liaison Office "has informed us that the government of Argentina has recently concluded a sale of 10 metric tons of U3O8 in the form of uranium concentrates to the government of Israel." The Argentine government made the sale public "despite a request by the Israeli government that the transaction be kept secret." The memo also mentioned the sale of the 6 tons in 1960 to the FRG.

Oct 19 1964
Meeting with embassy officials, the chief of the National Atomic Energy Commission Admiral Oscar A. Quihillalt informed them that Argentine uranium sales agreements had only general safeguard provisions stipulating that the uranium would be used peacefully, and did not require reports, inspections, or any other independent verification that were loosely equivalent to Article XIII of the IAEA statute.

Oct 27 1964

When embassy officers provided the aide-memoir and the paper on IAEA safeguards to Admiral Quihillalt, the chief of the National Atomic Energy Commission, he was more receptive to the US position than previously and was glad to know that the US was not in touch with the Israelis about the sale.

Feb 3 1965

This airgram details a meeting with Admiral Quihillalt, director of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentinia, who notes that since the deal with Israel had been concluded before the IAEA established protocols for safeguard measures, the Argentine government did not feel the need to include reporting and inspection requirements. However, safeguards would be placed on future sales. Attached is a note from the Argentine Foreign Ministry, with an unofficial translation.

Cmlte.  Oscar A.  Quihillalt

Wednesday September 19, 2001

At age 88 died on Sunday last, in this city, Rear Admiral Oscar Armando Quihillalt retired engineer who served between October 1955 and May 1973 as president of the National Atomic Energy Commission (Conea), during whose term development widely that activity in our country.

 Born July 4, 1913 in Buenos Aires, Quihillalt graduated as a midshipman from the Naval Academy in 1934 and as an engineer, Faculty of Sciences, University of Buenos Aires.  It was perfected in Sweden.

 With the rank of lieutenant commander was appointed in October 1955 as President of the National Atomic Energy Commission, a position he held until 1973.  During that time represented our country in various international organizations involved in nuclear power.

 Between 1956 and 1973 he was governor in the International Atomic Energy Agency in Austria, and from 1976 to 1978 was president of that body.

 Between 1961 and 1969 he held the American Nuclear Energy Commission, a period in which he became a strong advocate of nuclear energy not only in Argentina but also in Latin America.

 For his career merited the award of the National Order of Merit in the grade of Commander awarded by France in 1964 and the Grand Cross of Isabel the Catholic, in October 1967.  This latter distinction received by its action in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy.

 Just considered one of the world's most representative figures in the field of development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, during his tenure at the Conea RA1 was built, the first Argentine and Latin American nuclear reactor

A business in our country and abroad, representing Argentina, joins his work as a consultant in Iran between 1974 and 1979.

 His remains were buried in the Pantheon Naval No.2 of Chacarita

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Israeli Lies Fueled Nuclear Weapons Program
by Richard Silverstein on July 6, 2013 · 7 comments
in Mideast Peace

Avner Cohen, the leading academic on Israel’s nuclear weapons program, has written a riveting article about the lies which Israel’s leaders used to obfuscate and mislead its allies about its nuclear ambition.  As part of the research for the article, Cohen has amassed 42 supporting government documents which he’s made public as well.

France had designed and helped build the Dimona nuclear reactor beginning in the late 1950s.  But when Charles de Gaulle came to power in the early 1960s, he exerted much greater constraint on French involvement. He restricted the supply of uranium offered to the Israelis and put conditions on its use [ and was the target of assassination like Kennedy ] .

This severely restricted Israel’s ambitions to build a nuclear weapon.  Publicly, Israel’s prime minister and senior cabinet ministers kept up a front asserting the nuclear program was for peaceful purposes only.  But this wasn’t true and behind the scenes Israel pursued WMD at breakneck speed.

In 1964, Canadian intelligence received word that Argentina had agreed to sell 80 tons of uranium yellowcake to Israel, which replaced the fuel Israel had expected from France.  Eventually, the British told the U.S. about the deal and the latter instructed its embassies in Israel and Argentina to confirm the sale.  Secrecy around the program in Israel was air-tight and the U.S. embassy could uncover nothing.  But the embassy in Argentina did manage to confirm the sale.

Intelligence experts estimated that Israel could have a nuclear weapon in 18-24 months.  Turns out, it had a crude device ready by the 1967 War which served as a fail-safe in case Israel faced a cataclysmic defeat.

On August 22, 1962, President Charles De Gaulle of France survives one of several assassination attempts against him thanks to the superior performance of the presidential automobile: The sleek, aerodynamic Citroen DS 19, known as "La Deesse" (The Goddess).   ...

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Israel’s secret “Doomsday” Nuke base revealed by US

A location and details of a top secret Israeli base which could be used to launch nuclear attacks on China or North America was published last week. Immediate moves were made to “spin” the story away.

The base, intended to house Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) built in cooperation with India is also to include, not just a doomsday “Fuhrer-bunker” for Netanyahu and the Zionist elites but storage for nuclear, biological and chemical warheads as well.

According to intelligence sources in Pakistan, India is supplying Israel with missiles capable of carrying 10 MIRV (Multiple Independent-targetable Re-entry Vehicle) warheads each with a range of up to 11,000 miles. A single missile from this US financed complex could knock out all major population centers on America’s eastern seaboard.

The thermonuclear warheads and guidance systems for these advanced weapons were made possible through espionage activities tied to AIPAC, the American Israeli Public Affairs Committee.

Newspapers claim the underground base, one of a series being built across Israel, is part of an air defense system. This is, of course, utterly absurd.

Detailed plans on the massive underground facility at Tel Shahar, intended to be Israel’s answer to NORAD’s Cheyenne Mountain fortress in Colorado, were made public when the US published over 1000 pages of documents, including key information on location, design and vulnerabilities to attack
From SheeraFrenkel at McClatchy News, “The Obama administration had promised to build Israel a state-of-the-art facility to house a new ballistic-missile defense system, the Arrow 3. As with all Defense Department projects, detailed specifications were made public so that contractors could bid on the $25 million project. The specifications included more than 1,000 pages of details on the facility, ranging from the heating and cooling systems to the thickness of the walls.”

... advance copies of the IAEA report due to be released on Monday, June 10, 2013, show that America’s intelligence assessments indicating Iran has no military nuclear program have been right all along.

Now even school children with their iPhones can read about Israel’s underground nuclear weapons storage, about equipment for storing, protecting and deploying nuclear weapons.

What they may not know is that the money that might have helped finance their college education paid for this highly secret and equally highly illegal equipment.

US spills Israeli missile defense secrets

US government website reveals numerous highly sensitive details of launch site to be built for Arrow 3 system, crucial to Israel’s protection against nuclear threats

By Stuart Winer June 4, 2013

According to the tender, the complex is to be built at Tal Shahar, midway between Jerusalem and Ashdod. The sensitive details about the project have since been removed from the website where the tender was originally published.


Jane's Defence Weekly magazine recently published a story showing how official U.S. publications reveal plans to construct a secret Israel missile base designated for the Arrow III. According to the story, this is part of an Israel Air Force plan to expand an existing facility in Tel Shahar, between Jerusalem and Ashdod, whose location has never been officially revealed.

The estimated cost of this expansion is $25 million. The report detailed the construction plans: Four underground missile launchers, each carrying six interceptors (Reshef model). The report said this information means that Israel can potentially launch 24 Arrow III interceptors against a barrage of ballistic missiles.

The report on a construction tender documents published by the U.S. government details the type of building that will be built in Israel, which includes highly durable concrete structures, blast doors and steel screens. A system to handle high pressure levels will also be built inside the structures, enabling the electrical components to be protected. According to the documents, the companies responsible for building the basis will have to complete the work within 485 days of the moment they receive the go ahead to begin.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline chris jones

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JFK questioned the Israel big dogs about Nukes, he was the last president to do this.

The murder of American President John F. Kennedy brought to an abrupt end the massive pressure being applied by the U.S. Administration on the government of Israel to discontinue the nuclear program... The book implied that, had Kennedy remained alive, it is doubtful whether Israel would today have a nuclear option."

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Dr. Chaim Weizmann - Prez World Zionist Organization - Israel gets the bomb
« Reply #33 on: November 23, 2013, 03:25:12 pm »
'I'm proud of what I did': Hollywood producer reveals his double life as an arms dealer and Israeli spy - and says the late Sydney Pollack participated too

    Movie tycoon Arnon Milchan, who owns New Regency Films and produced Fight club and Pretty Woman, opened up in a tv interview about his clandestine deals to acquire weapons for Israel in the 70s
    He says he worked to promote the country's alleged nuclear program
    Claims he convinced other Hollywood bigwigs, including the late director Sydney Pollack, to get involved
    Robert De Niro says he knew what Milchan was doing at the time
    He used a big-name actor as a lure, calling people 'star-f******'
    'I did it for my country and I'm proud of it,’ says the movie producer
    Milchan's next film is Noah, a Darren Aronofsky-directed take on the Bible, starring Russell Crowe, Emma Watson and Anthony Hopkins

By Marie-louise Olson
PUBLISHED: 13:30 EST, 22 November 2013

A major Hollywood producer is planning to spill the beans about his double life as an arms dealer and Israeli intelligence operative in the late 1970s.

Arnon Milchan, the Israeli producer of smash hits including Fight Club and Pretty Woman, is opening up for the first time ever in an Israeli TV show on Monday to speak about his involvement in clandestine deals to acquire arms for Israel and his work to promote the country's alleged nuclear program.

Russell Crowe, Robert De Niro, Ben Affleck and other major Hollywood players are also featured in the controversial report to be aired on Israel’s Channel 2.

In the interview he tells her how he tried to engage Hollywood colleagues in his work for Israel's Defense Ministry, according to Haaretz.

He claims he managed to convince other Hollywood bigwigs, including the late director Sydney Pollack, to get involved.

Pollack, who died in 2008, acquired arms and other military equipment for Israel in the 1970s, reveals Milchan in the TV report.

Pollack knew of the details of the deals, says Milchan, who adds that he ‘didn't want to scare him because he's American… He could have said "no". He said "no" many times, but he also said "yes" many times’.

Two years ago, a book titled Confidential: The Life of Secret Agent Turned Hollywood Tycoon Arnon Milchan, was published by authors Meir Doron and Joseph Gelman.

The book alleged that Milchan was an operative for Israel's Bureau of Scientific Relations, which gathered information for Israel's alleged nuclear program.

The bureau was closed after Jonathan Pollard was arrested for spying on behalf of Israel in 1986.

Milchan is still making movies, and his company, New Regency films, is working on four films slated for release in 2013-14.

One of those is Noah, a Darren Aronofsky-directed take on the Biblical flood story starring Russell Crowe, Emma Watson and Anthony Hopkins.
Arnon Milchan (Hebrew: ארנון מילצ'ן‎; December 6, 1944) is an Israeli Hollywood film producer who has produced over 120 full-length motion pictures.[2]

Mr. Milchan is also a former key Israeli intelligence operative from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s.[3][4]

Milchan's films include The War of the Roses, Once Upon a Time in America, Pretty Woman, Natural Born Killers, Under Siege, The Devil's Advocate, The Fountain, Unfaithful, L.A. Confidential and many others. He is an Israeli citizen, and a resident of Israel.

Early Life

Milchan was born in Rehovot, British Mandate for Palestine, in 1944. His family was Jewish.[5] His father owned a fertilizer company,[6] which Milchan turned into a successful chemical business.[7] He also earned a degree from the London School of Economics, before being recruited to LAKAM, a top secret Israeli intelligence organization responsible for obtaining technology and material for Israel's nuclear program, and other highly secretive programs

Arms Dealing

Speculation about Milchan's involvement in arms dealing and intelligence activities was sparked after "the indictment in 1985 of Richard Kelly Smyth, an aerospace executive who had made illegal shipments of Krytrons (nuclear triggers) through one of Milchan's companies."

This remained hearsay until biographers Meir Doron and Joseph Gelman confirmed in a book published July 2011, that Milchan was indeed involved in espionage and arms-dealing. The research in Confidential - The Life Of Secret Agent Turned Hollywood Tycoon established that "at least through the mid-1980s [Milchan] was a full-fledged operative for Israel’s top-secret intelligence agency, Lakam.

His activities included "buying components to build and maintain Israel’s nuclear arsenal" and supervising "government-backed accounts and front companies that financed the special needs of the entirety of Israel’s intelligence operations outside the country.".[3] Interviewed regarding Milchan's intelligence activities, Israeli President Shimon Peres stated:

"Arnon is a special man. It was I who recruited him.... When I was at the Ministry of Defense, Arnon was involved in numerous defense-related procurement activities and intelligence operations. His strength is in making connections at the highest levels.... His activities gave us a huge advantage, strategically, diplomatically and technologically." (interview dated February 8, 2010, documented in Meir Doron and Joseph Gelman's "Confidential: Secret Agent turned Hollywood Tycoon Arnon Milchan" p. xi)

Lekem, (also pronounced "Lakam") an acronym for ha-Lishka le-Kishrei Mada (Hebrew: הלשכה לקשרי מדע‎, Bureau of Scientific Relations), was an Israeli intelligence agency headed by spy-master Benjamain Blumberg (1957-1981), and by spy-master Rafi Eitan (1981-1986). It collected scientific and technical intelligence abroad from both open and covert sources, particularly for Israel's nuclear program. It was disbanded in 1986 following the arrest of Jonathan Pollard for espionage on behalf of Israel. Pollard was a United States Navy intelligence employee in the Naval Antiterrorist Alert Center in Washington, D.C. He was paid for delivering large amounts of classified documents to Lekem agents. Pollard was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment.[1]

The high proifile Pollard case was not the only problematic case for Lekem in 1985.

In California, a US Aerospace Engineer, Richard Kelly Smyth, the President of a company called MILCO, was indicted that same year for smuggling over 800 krytron switches (a component used in nuclear weapons) to Israel without the required US State Department Munitions Export License.

Just before trial, and facing a possible 105 years in prison, Richard Kelly Smyth and his wife suddenly disappeared. Sixteen years later they were discovered and arrested while living as fugitives in Malaga, Spain, and extradited back to the United States where he was convicted in the case.

The krytrons shipped by Smyth were sent to an Israeli company called Heli-Trading Ltd. owned by notable Israeli movie producer Arnon Milchan. Before his prominent Hollywood career, Mr, Milchan had served for decades as a Lekem agent, under the direct command of Lekem spy-master Benjamin Blumberg. It later became clear that the company MILCO served as a Lekem front company for obtaining sensitive equipment, technologies and materials for Israeli secret defense-related programs, and in particular its nuclear program.[2]

The Israeli government asserted that the Krytron incident was a simple mistake by the "exporter" Milco, and that the Pollard operation was an unauthorized deviation from its policy of not conducting espionage in the United States before an admission in 1998 of Israeli responsibility. In 1987 the Israeli government set up a commission to investigate the Pollard affair, which found it would be in Israel's interest to take responsibility for the case. In 1987 following the difficult Pollard and Milco cases, the Israeli government decided to disband Lekem, whose functions were assigned to the Director of Security of the Defense Establishment, adding technical and scientific intelligence to its responsibilities which include internal investigations of the defense ministry.
Netanyahu Worked Inside Nuclear Smuggling Ring
Counterespionage debriefing reveals how Israel targeted U.S.
by Grant Smith, July 04, 2012
On June 27, 2012, the FBI partially declassified and released seven additional pages [.pdf] from a 1985–2002 investigation into how a network of front companies connected to the Israeli Ministry of Defense illegally smuggled nuclear triggers out of the U.S.*

The newly released FBI files detail how Richard Kelly Smyth — who was convicted of running a U.S. front company — met with Benjamin Netanyahu in Israel during the smuggling operation. At that time, Netanyahu worked at the Israeli node of the smuggling network, Heli Trading Company.

Netanyahu, who currently serves as Israel’s prime minister, recently issued a gag order that the smuggling network’s unindicted ringleader refrain from discussing “Project Pinto.”

In Confidential, a recent biography of Arnon Milchan, Israel's LAKAM agent Number One, the authors reveal that Milchan and Peres are "strategic partners" and "holders of some of Israel's most significant secrets." Chief among these secrets would certainly be how Israeli agents carried out 9/11.

"MR. ISRAEL" - Israel's senior LAKAM agent Arnon Milchan (center) has long been the man bridging Israel's intelligence establishment with each new government.

In this photo from 2005, Milchan sits between his old friends Vice Prime Minister Shimon Peres and Finance Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, a former employee of Milchan's chemical company,
Milchan Bros. Milchan was the essential agent in building Israel's nuclear arsenal. So, what does he know about the Israeli-made super-thermite that demolished the World Trade Center?

The first photograph of legendary Israeli spy-master Benjamin Blumberg  ever published. Blumberg created and ran Israel's super-secret LAKAM spy  agency. Image published in Israel's Maariv Newspaper 04-06-2012.
FBI investigates MILCO nuclear trigger smuggling to Israel
"...also met Benyamin Netanyahu while Netanyahu worked at Heli Trading..."


California-based MILCO International Inc. shipped 15 orders totaling 800 krytrons to the Israeli Ministry of Defense between 1979 and 1983. Israeli movie producer Arnon Milchan's Heli Trading Company brokered the transactions. A krytron is a gas-filled tube used as a high speed switch.  Export from the US requires a US State Department munitions license because krytrons can be used as triggers for nuclear weapons.  The US rejected several requests for krytron export licenses to Israel.  MILCO obtained the krytrons from EG&G Inc.
Record of a phone call between a supervisory special agent in Los Angeles and a special agent in Portland classified as "secret." The special agent notifies LA of impending news media coverage of "an extremely successful movie producer in Hollywood" [Arnon Milchan] noting his ties to "Oliver Stone, Sidney Pollack, Barbara Streisand, Tom Cruise, Richar Dreyfuss and Robert DeNiro.  The subject's likely location and wealth "close to $1 billion" and close ties to "Labor Party officials in Israel" is noted. Milchan's arms dealing through MILCO and ties to another American are explored in the heavily redacted file.

Through a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) appeal, the FBI released heavily censored files on Arnon Milchan, files that were not scheduled for release until 2036. None-the-less, these files are revealing as to the intensity of the FBI's focus on Mr. Milchan, including memos to the Director of the FBI, keeping him informed of developments in the case. These memos confirm numerous facts detailed in the book Confidential, including the US Attorney's attempt to "flip" Richard Kelly Smyth against Mr. Milchan, an attempt that failed. Smyth of course disappeared shortly thereafter. The sheer amount of material that was censored in these documents is testimony to the sensitivity placed on this entire matter, to this day.
Arnon Milchan
Net Worth $4.2 B As of March 2013

Hollywood producer Arnon Milchan's New Regency films, the company he founded, produced no movies in 2012 as he worked to rebuild his management team, but four movies are slated for release in 2013, including "Noah," a Darron Aronofsky-directed setting of the Biblical flood story starring Russell Crowe, Emma Watson and Anthony Hopkins.

The company recently reopened its television division, which earlier produced "Malcolm in the Middle" and "The Bernie Mac Show."

Once a business student and professional soccer player, Milchan transformed his family's bankrupt fertilizer company into a $125 million business with interests in agriculture, aerospace, animal health products, plastic, fiber optics and pharmaceuticals. An avid art collector, he has lately been doing paintings of his own. He has seven homes around the world.

[ No mention in forbes of him being an Israeli agent and Arms Dealer ,,, hmmm ]
EG&G, formally known as Edgerton, Germeshausen, and Grier, Inc., was a United States national defense contractor and provider of management and technical services. The company was involved in contracting services to the United States government during World War II, and conducted weapons research and development after the war. Its close involvement with some of the government's most sensitive technologies has led to its being cited in conspiracy theories related to Department of Defense black projects.

The group's high-speed photography was used to image implosion tests during the Manhattan Project. The same skills in precisely timed high-power electrical pulses also formed a key enabling technology for nuclear weapon triggers. After the war, the group continued their association with the burgeoning military nuclear effort, and formally incorporated Edgerton, Germeshausen, and Grier, Inc. in 1947
From 1999 until 2001, EG&G was wholly owned by The Carlyle Group

A “Nuclear-Free Zone” in the Middle East? Why Israel will not Join the Non-Proliferation Treaty
By Timothy Alexander Guzman
Global Research, September 27, 2013

Iran’s New President Hassan Rouhani has requested that Israel to sign and become a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as he spoke for a second time at the United Nation General Assembly. “As long as nuclear weapons exist, the threat of their use exists,” Rouhani said, citing the American bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945.  Rouhani is calling for “nuclear-free zone” in the Middle East.  Israel is the only country in the Middle East that had not and will not sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.  Israel would use nuclear weapons if it felt it was threatened by any nation in the Middle East.

The nuclear capability of Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) defensive capabilities just reached another plateau this past April.  It purchased its 5th nuclear submarine that can be deployed anywhere in the world with first strike capability.  The Israel News Agency reported that Israel purchased a fifth Dolphin class submarine called the “INS Rahav” from Germany.  The article headlined “Israel Launches Ninth Submarine, Ready To Strike Iran Nuclear Weapons.”  Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said “The submarines are a strong, strategic tool for the IDF. The State of Israel is ready to act anytime, anywhere – on land, sea and air – in order to ensure the security of Israel’s citizens.”  The submarines are equipped with Israeli-designed Popeye missiles that are capable of carrying nuclear warheads.  It is no secret that Israel has nuclear weapons.  Some estimates suggest that Israel has between 100 and 400 nuclear weapons.  No one knows exactly how many nuclear bombs Israel possesses, but we do know they have the capability to produce them at a moment’s notice.

Since Israel is not a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty; the Dimona Nuclear Research center is not subject to inspections from the international community such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).  According to the Federation of American Scientists in a 2007 report, Israel has between 75 and 400 nuclear warheads, but some estimates have their nuclear warheads at less than 200. It is also known that Israel has the ability to deliver them by intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) with a range of 5,500 kilometers or 3,400 miles, the Jericho III missile named after the biblical city of Jericho, various aircrafts and of course submarines.  

By the late 1950s Shimon Peres had established LEKEM, or the ‘Science liaison Bureau’ a new intelligence service that would search for technology, materials and equipment needed for Israel’s nuclear program.

By 1952, Hemed Gimmel was under Israel’s Ministry of Defense to become the Division of Research and Infrastructure (EMET).    By June 1952, The Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) was established with Ernest David Bergmann as the first chairman.  Hemed Gimmel was renamed Machon 4 which became the “chief laboratory” of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC).  France was a major partner for Israel’s nuclear program.  France also sold weapons to Israel.  The France-Israel relationship was instrumental in the development of the Dimona Nuclear Research Center. Israel signed American President Dwight Eisenhower’s Atoms for Peace, an agreement for peaceful nuclear cooperation between the U.S. and Israel along with Turkey to build a“small swimming pool research reactor” at Nachal Soreq.

In 1958, Charles de Gaulle became President of France.  Almost immediately after he assumed office, he wanted to end France’s assistance to Israel’s nuclear program.  He would only support Israel’s nuclear program if international inspectors were allowed to inspect Dimona and that Israel would declare that its nuclear program was for peaceful purposes and that under no circumstances reprocess plutonium.  Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres negotiated with the French government allowing a window of opportunity for French companies to continue its work until 1966 with the Israeli government.  Israel also had declared its nuclear program was “peaceful”. [ On August 22, 1962, President Charles De Gaulle of France survives one of several assassination attempts against him  - There were thirty serious assassination attempts on De Gaulle's life between 1958 and 1965    ]


The Obama administration is not seeking any negotiations with Iran unless they stop its nuclear program which will not happen.  Iran will insist that they are signatories to the NPT and have an “inalienable right” to use nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. 

Israel will not be a signatory to the NPT because “This resolution is deeply flawed and hypocritical. It ignores the realities of the Middle East and the real threats facing the region and the entire world” according to Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.

So the rest of us are idiots for signing the NPT ...

More to follow.... (Pollard)
The Jonathan Pollard Spy Case: The CIA's 1987 Damage Assessment Declassified
New Details on What Secrets Israel Asked Pollard to Steal

CIA Withholding Overturned on Appeal by National Security Archive
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 407

Posted - December 14, 2012
UPDATED January 9, 2013
Edited by Jeffrey T. Richelson

Washington, DC, December 14, 2012 – When Naval Investigative Service analyst Jonathan Pollard spied for Israel in 1984 and 1985, his Israeli handlers asked primarily for nuclear, military and technical information on the Arab states, Pakistan, and the Soviet Union – not on the United States – according to the newly-declassified CIA 1987 damage assessment of the Pollard case, published today by the National Security Archive at George Washington University (

The damage assessment includes new details on the specific subjects and documents sought by Pollard's Israeli handlers (pages 36-43), such as Syrian drones and central communications, Egyptian missile programs, and Soviet air defenses. The Israelis specifically asked for a signals intelligence manual that they needed to listen in on Soviet advisers in Syria. The document describes how Pollard's handler, Joseph Yagur, told him to ignore a request, from Yagur's boss, for U.S. "dirt" on senior Israeli officials and told Pollard that gathering such information would terminate the operation (page 38).

Under the heading "What the Israelis Did Not Ask For," the assessment remarks (page 43) that they "never expressed interest in US military activities, plans, capabilities, or equipment."

The assessment also notes that Pollard volunteered delivery of three daily intelligence summaries that had not been requested by his handlers, but which proved useful to them, and ultimately handed over roughly 1,500 such messages from the Middle East and North Africa Summary (MENAS), the Mediterranean Littoral Intelligence Summary (MELOS), and the Indian Ocean Littoral Intelligence Summary, in addition to the more than 800 compromised documents on other subjects that Pollard delivered to the Israelis in suitcases.

The damage assessment also features a detailed 21-page chronology of Pollard's personal life and professional career, including his work for the Israelis, highlighting more than a dozen examples of unusual behavior by Pollard that the CIA suggests should have, in retrospect, alerted his supervisors that he was a security risk. Prominent on the list were false statements by Pollard during a 1980 assignment with Task Force 168, the naval intelligence element responsible for HUMINT collection. Pollard is now serving a life sentence in prison for espionage.


Pollard's disclosures were alarming to U.S. officials for several reasons, some of which were noted in their official declarations (Document 7a, Document 10) – some of which were direct responses (Document 9) to claims and analysis made by Pollard in his sentencing memorandums (Document 6, Document 8b). One, despite the fact that both the U.S. and Israeli considered each other legitimate intelligence targets, was Israel's willingness to run a human penetration operation directed at the U.S. government.

Another, was the damage to the intelligence sharing arrangement with Israel – since its acquisition of material from Pollard weakened the U.S. position vis-a-vis intelligence exchanges with Israel. In addition, there was no guarantee that such documents, revealing both sources and methods as well as assessments, would not find their way to the Soviet Union via a Soviet penetration of the Israeli intelligence or defense community – as had happened with a number of other allies. Further, since Israel was a target of U.S. intelligence collection – particularly technical collection - operations, the documents could be used by Israeli counterintelligence and security organizations to help Israel neutralize or degrade U.S. collection operations.

Of all the spy cases from 1985, the Pollard case has been the one that has had the longest life in terms of media coverage - in part because of efforts, both by private citizens and the Israeli government to have his life sentence commuted.

Why Obama Will Free Jonathan Pollard
President accepts Israel infallibility doctrine
by Grant Smith, June 09, 2012

The US Department of Justice has released new files about convicted spy Jonathan Pollard’s bid for presidential clemency

Pollard was sentenced to life in prison in 1987 after passing more than a million highly classified documents to Israel while working as an intelligence analyst for the US Navy

Documents in the Freedom of Information Act response (PDF) reference 32 pages of government agency deliberative communications and 37 pages of new communications between Pardon Attorney Ronald Rogers and Pollard’s legal team — all produced since July of 2011. While the contents have been withheld, their existence signals that the Pollard commutation request may be nearing a conclusion within the Obama administration.  June 18 could mark the culmination of a massive lobbying campaign for release.  Obama’s dismal record on Israeli accountability suggests Pollard will soon walk free.

Released documents reveal that the Rabbinical Assembly — claiming to represent "1.5 million Jews worldwide" — passed a formal resolution asking Obama to commute Pollard’s sentence.

Pollard’s ongoing imprisonment has uniquely and singularly defied Israel’s doctrine of accountability.  Israel’s history is replete with demands that it should never be held accountable for any act committed anywhere — including in the US — that is perpetrated in the name of Israel’s national security.

Less widely known is that Israeli front company Telogy was caught in the summer of 2010 illegally shipping nuclear weapons components out of California to Israel

When such crimes occurred in the past — such as in the case of MILCO smuggling nuclear triggers out of California to Israel — the US at least criminally investigated Israel’s US operatives even while carefully steering around the true masterminds such as Arnon Milchan and high Israeli intelligence officials.  In the case of Telogy, the Obama administration simply leaked tidbits of the export violations to friendly press, helpfully allowing Telogy to quickly roll up its illegal US operations.  Rather than raids, arrests, publicity and prosecutions,

Israel’s only punishment for Telogy was a mild admonishment (PDF) issued by former weapons inspector David Albright from his perch at a think tank almost singularly devoted to analyzing Iran’s — but not Israel’s — nuclear program in the establishment news media.
Pollard Begins 29th Year in Prison, Despite Calls for Release
November 21, 2013

Jonathan Pollard, the convicted American spy for Israel, began his 29th year behind bars today.

Thursday marked the 28th anniversary of Pollard’s arrest outside the Israeli Embassy in Washington. His time in prison has been marked by myriad protests calling for his release, including a vocal effort in Israel.

On Wednesday, the convict’s wife, Esther, called on President Barack Obama to commute her husband’s sentence to time served and release him from prison.

Esther Pollard also criticized Israeli President Shimon Peres for saying the US president has responded favorably to all Israeli requests. Last year, Peres formally asked Obama to commute Pollard’s sentence.

Pollard, a civilian US Navy intelligence analyst who spied for Israel, was sentenced to life in prison in 1987, despite a plea bargain in which he admitted his guilt. Several Israeli leaders and an increasing number of US political figures from both parties have made requests that the United States pardon Pollard.

Pollard was made a citizen of Israel during his imprisonment. He will be eligible for parole in two years.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Dr. Chaim Weizmann - Prez World Zionist Organization - Israel gets the bomb
« Reply #34 on: November 23, 2013, 10:33:59 pm »
Israel will not be a signatory to the NPT because “This resolution is deeply flawed and hypocritical. It ignores the realities of the Middle East and the real threats facing the region and the entire world” according to Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
List of parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
Non-signatory states

Four UN member states have never signed the treaty.


 South Sudan
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Dr. Chaim Weizmann - Prez World Zionist Organization - Israel gets the bomb
« Reply #35 on: March 22, 2014, 01:12:16 pm »
I never posted the Richard Smyth extradition article (interesting AFTER 9/11/2001 )  :
Arnon Milchan had to know what was going on and the previously posted links show that he did know.

Oh but Milchan goes on producing films in HOLYWOOD his latest:
12 years a slave and NOAH  , but his name is never mentioned in promotion!.

Story of Noah minus God - Russell Crowe - Arnon Milchan Israeli Nuke spy
Engineer Sentenced in Nuclear Trigger Case

Weapons: Richard Kelly Smyth, extradited from Spain, admitted a 'grave error' in shipping to Israel devices that can fire nuclear weapons.


A Southern California engineer who fled the country in 1985 after being indicted on charges of selling Israel electronic devices that can be used to fire nuclear weapons was sentenced Monday to 40 months in federal prison.

Richard Kelly Smyth, now 72 and in frail health, was discovered living in southern Spain last year. He was arrested by local police and extradited to the United States.

He pleaded guilty in December to violating the U.S. Arms Export Control Act and making a false statement about the contents of one shipment of the devices, which are known as krytrons and have a variety of applications, from triggering nuclear warheads to operating photocopying machines.

Despite the sentence, federal Judge Pamela A. Rymer ruled that Smyth could immediately apply to be released on parole. She also fined him $20,000.

Israeli authorities denied having acquired the 2-inch-long krytrons for their nuclear weapons arsenal. After Smyth's indictment, they returned the remaining devices to U.S. authorities.

Appearing in Los Angeles federal court Monday, Smyth said he made a "grave error" when he shipped about 800 krytrons in the early 1980s to Heli Trading Co. in Israel without State Department approval.

Heli Trading was owned at that time by Arnon Milchan, an Israeli-born arms trader who later became a successful Hollywood film producer. His movies have included "Pretty Woman" and "L.A. Confidential."

Milchan has denied involvement in the krytron deal. He told CBS' "60 Minutes" two years ago that he had allowed the Israeli government to use his company for trading with the United States.

In court, Smyth also apologized for fleeing the United States just before the start of his scheduled 1985 trial before Rymer, now a federal appeals court judge. He said he panicked after reading newspaper articles saying he could be sentenced to up to 105 years in prison if convicted on all of the 30 criminal counts originally lodged against him.

The 105 years represented the maximum sentence allowed by statute. Statutory maximums are only rarely applied.

Abandoning his engineering business, Milco International Inc., and an expensive home in Orange County, Smyth and his wife, Emelie, flew to Switzerland and then settled in Malaga, Spain, passing themselves off as retirees.

Smyth, using his real name, was vice president of the American Club in Malaga. He and his wife got along on Social Security and occasional gifts from relatives.

U.S. authorities learned of Smyth's whereabouts by accident. Last year, he opened an account at a bank in Malaga, noting in his application that he was a U.S. citizen. A routine check by the bank with Interpol turned up an arrest warrant issued in Los Angeles. Smyth was taken into custody by Spanish police.
In sentencing Smyth, Rymer said she found it difficult to accept the notion that he was naive about the law.
Observing that he and his wife spent "15 idyllic years in Spain" after fleeing the United States, she questioned why he made no effort to come back on his own to face the music.
New Book Recounts Tale of Israeli Agent at Home in Hollywood

Meir Doron, left, and Joseph Gelman wrote a book on Arnon Milchan, which says he at one point sold nuclear-triggering devices.
 Published: July 17, 2011
 LOS ANGELES — “Never, never tell jokes about a man with easy access to weapons of mass destruction,” Peter Chernin, a former News Corporation official, once light-heartedly warned of Arnon Milchan, who has long tantalized Hollywood with his dual identity as a producer of popular movies and a businessman tied to the arms industry.

Mr. Chernin may have been even more right than he knew.

“Confidential: The Life of Secret Agent Turned Hollywood Tycoon Arnon Milchan,” written by Meir Doron and Joseph Gelman, and set for publication on July 30 by Gefen Books, now holds that Mr. Milchan — whose credits include “Love and Other Drugs” and “Knight and Day” — at least through the mid-1980s was a full-fledged operative for Israel’s top-secret intelligence agency, Lakam. (The acronym is from the Hebrew for the blandly named Science Liaison Bureau.)

In that capacity, according to the book, Mr. Milchan supervised government-backed accounts and front companies that financed “the special needs of the entirety of Israel’s intelligence operations outside the country.”

The “special needs” serviced by Mr. Milchan, who is now 66 years old, included buying components to build and maintain Israel’s nuclear arsenal. But with the indictment in 1985 of Richard Kelly Smyth, an aerospace executive who had made illegal shipments of nuclear triggers through Milchan companies, Mr. Milchan unexpectedly found his arms-dealing in the news even as he was wrangling with Universal Pictures over the near collapse of a movie, “Brazil,” directed by Terry Gilliam.

Mr. Smyth became a fugitive. He was finally arrested in 2001, convicted and imprisoned. He was released on probation in 2005.

Mr. Milchan was not accused of wrongdoing, but the case drew scrutiny to his activities in the arms business even as he stepped up his film career under deals first at Warner Brothers, then at 20th Century Fox, whose parent company bought a stake in his Regency Enterprises. In the glow of friendships with the likes of Brad Pitt and Robert De Niro, speculation about his intrigues seemed to fade — until a pair of unlikely biographers decided to figure out why Israel had been filtering a large part of its military budget through Hollywood hands.
“I did it for my country, the money did not go to me,” Mr. Gelman recalled Mr. Milchan explaining, when the three later met, and began a series of sessions that went on for six months.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Dr. Chaim Weizmann - Prez World Zionist Organization - Israel gets the bomb
« Reply #36 on: April 01, 2014, 01:13:17 pm »
US 'may release Israeli spy Jonathan Pollard to kickstart peace process'

Agent held since 1985 could be freed in deal to persuade Israel to press on with a planned release of Palestinian prisoners

Peter Beaumont in Jerusalem
The Guardian, Tuesday 1 April 2014 09.18 EDT   

An American currently serving a life sentence in a US jail for spying for Israel could be released as part of a putative 'grand bargain' to breathe life into the stricken Middle East peace process.

Indications that the US is considering releasing Jonathan Pollard, currently in his 29th year at a North Carolina prison, came in the last 36 hours amid a frantic round of US diplomacy that could see the secretary of state, John [FORBES] Kerry [KOHN]   , back in the Middle East on Wednesday for the third time in a week for talks with the Palestinian president, Mahmoud Abbas.

Palestinian officials said that visit was likely to depend on a meeting of political leaders on Tuesday night who were deciding their response to the proposed deal.

As part of his latest efforts Kerry met with Israel's prime minister, Binyamin Netanyahu, on Monday evening and again on Tuesday before flying to Brussels for a Nato crisis meeting on Ukraine.

Kerry has been spearheading efforts to find a way out of the current deadlock in the US-sponsored Middle East peace process, which was restarted eight months ago, after Israel failed to release a fourth group of long-term Palestinian prisoners at the weekend as it had agreed to do.

Sources close to the talks have described a proposed deal that would see Pollard being released in exchange for a far larger release of Palestinian prisoners – up to 400 according to some estimates.
Kerry leaves Israel after holding meetings with Netanyahu to save peace talks

Sources close to negotiation reporting Pollard may be released as part of deal whereby Israel would free fourth batch of prisoners, talks would continue.
Netanyahu and Kerry

Netanyahu and Kerry, March 31, 2014. Photo: DAVID AZAGURY, US EMBASSY TEL AVIV

US Secretary of State John Kerry met in Jerusalem Monday evening and again on Tuesday morning with Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu, amid reports the US may release Israeli spy Jonathan Pollard by mid-April as part of a wider package designed to resuscitate the negotiations.

GOBAL WARMING "cause of cold snap"

oh I love this... John FORBES Kerry (KOHN) . .. ( yes please for the love of pete understand that Kerry is a FORBES! )
Climate change in Communist China!!! I'd laugh but it just makes me _____
Kerry announces 'unique co-operative effort' with China on climate change

•US secretary of state is currently on Asia tour
•Kerry: countries have ‘special role’ to play to reduce emissions

Martin Pengelly in New York, Saturday 15 February 2014 11.37 EST   

John [FORBES] Kerry torques an engine bolt during a tour of the Foton Cummins Engine plant in Beijing. Photograph: Evan Vucci /AFP /Getty Images

Secretary of State John Kerry on Saturday announced a “unique co-operative effort” with China on the issue of combating climate change.

In a press conference at a Beijing car-making factory, the Cummins-Foton Joint-Venture Plant, which he visited as part of an Asia tour, Kerry said he and local representatives had “succeeded in completing our agreement with respect to some steps we are going to take to move the climate change process forward”.
Kerry said China and the US, the world’s largest emitters of greenhouse gas, had a “special role” to play in reducing those emissions, and cited progress made on the issue during vice-president Joe Biden’s visit to Beijing last year.

The Forbes family is a wealthy extended American family originating in Boston. The family's fortune originates from trading between North America and China in the 19th century plus other investments in the same period. The name descends from Scottish immigrants, and can be traced back to Sir John de Forbes in Scotland in the 12th century. Notable family members are businessman John Murray Forbes (1813–1898), part of the first generation who accumulated wealth, and politician John Forbes Kerry (born 1943).

The Boston trading firm Perkins & Co. sent many young men of their extended family to participate in their business activities abroad. Ralph Forbes being married to Margaret Perkins, their children were encouraged in the business. Following the death overseas of his older brother, Thomas Tunno Forbes, the Perkinses encouraged John Murray Forbes to travel to China, too. There John was mentored by the Chinese merchant Houqua who treated him like a son.

Perkins & Co., like many other Boston trading firms in the early 19th century, sent ships to China to get tea for sale in America (although some was ultimately re-exported to Britain and Europe). To pay for the tea, they exported to China large quantities of silver and also furs, manufactured goods, cloth, wood, opium and any other items that they thought the Chinese market would absorb.

[ they never mention his Mother FORBES... ]
Rosemary Isabel Forbes (October 27, 1913 – November 14, 2002 ...  the mother of John Forbes Kerry

She was one of eleven children of James Grant Forbes of the Protestant Forbes family and Margaret Tyndal Winthrop of the Dudley–Winthrop family
During her lifetime, she was the beneficiary of Forbes family trusts, which her son John Kerry is now the partial beneficiary; as Rosemary was one of 11 children, there is not much that remained.
Rosemary was also the mother of another son, Cameron, who is General Counsel of the U.S. Department of Commerce, and was formerly a Boston lawyer, an adjunct law professor at Suffolk Law School

[ Commerce for the Chinese and the Forbes ?? ]

 Cameron Forbes Kerry (born September 6, 1950) is the younger brother and political confidant of John Forbes Kerry and the General Counsel of the US Department of Commerce.[1]

He was appointed Acting United States Secretary of Commerce on June 1, 2013 [2] and resumed his position as General Counsel on June 26, 2013 when Penny Pritzker was sworn in as the 38th United States Secretary of Commerce.

As the General Counsel of the Department of Commerce, Cameron Kerry is the principal legal advisor to the Secretary of Commerce and third ranking secretarial officer. President Obama nominated him on April 20, 2009 and he was confirmed unanimously by the United States Senate on May 21, 2009.

| - - - -

Update - I won't even go into how John's last name Kerry is really Kohn ! :
Kerry's Grandfather Left Judaism Behind in Europe
Published: May 16, 2004

On May 18, 1905, Frederick A. Kerry, a 32-year-old Viennese, arrived in New York City by steamship, the Königin Luise, with his wife and 4-year-old son, hopeful that his new country would bring him the success and social acceptance that had eluded him in Europe.

Mr. Kerry probably could not have imagined that within a century a grandson, John Forbes Kerry, would find himself the Democratic candidate for president.

Frederick Kerry brought with him a secret: he was born a Jew, Fritz Kohn, in what is now the Czech Republic, but he and his wife, Ida, had converted to Roman Catholicism. Senator Kerry, a Catholic whose maternal side includes such blueblooded names as Winthrop and Forbes, said he did not know his paternal grandfather was Jewish until a reporter for The Boston Globe told him last year that it had been discovered by a genealogist in Vienna who scoured church records from the Austro-Hungarian empire.

Tomas Jelinek, chairman of the Jewish community in Prague, and Rabbi Norman R. Patz, president of the New Jersey-based Society for the History of Czechoslovak Jews, said that Czech Jews, in contrast to those in Poland, wore their identity somewhat more lightly. Given periodic spasms of anti-Semitism and the difficulty of advancing in the government and military as a Jew, many, like the parents of Madeline K. Albright, the former secretary of state, found conversion made their lives immeasurably easier.
Czech Records Tell the Story of How Jewish Kohn Became Catholic Kerry
Published February 27, 2004

OPAVA, Czech Republic — Ever since The Boston Globe broke the story of Senator John Kerry’s Jewish roots last year, the rise of the humble Kohn family of Silesia to Boston Brahmanism has been presented to the public as a prime example of the American Dream.
In the now-heavily publicized ledger, we found a man named Fritz Kohn, born a Jew in 1873 in the town of Horni Benesov (then Bennisch) to Benedict Kohn, and, on the very last page, appended to the ledger, is a notation that “Kohn, Fritz” received permission on March 17, 1902, from Viennese authorities to change his surname to Kerry. By the time this decree had reached the priest who made the ledger notation in Opava, Fritz Kerry was living in Vienna and had converted to Catholicism, following the lead of his brother Otto, who had converted and changed his name in 1897. Later, Fritz Kohn left for America, changed his first name to Fredrick, and eventually shot himself in the head in a Boston hotel, leaving behind a few hundred dollars in stock and a Cadillac.

Now his grandson — a lifelong Boston Catholic, a senator and a member of the Forbes and, through marriage, Heinz clans — is set to become the Democratic nominee for the presidency of the United States. If he wins, he’ll be the first American president with known Jewish roots.
Kerry's Brother: John's Not Anti-Semitic, We're Jewish
By Andrea Mitchell
First published February 14th 2014

John Kerry's brother has responded to charges of anti-Semitism against the U.S. Secretary of State by some conservative Israelis — including a prominent minister — by writing publicly about the family’s Jewish roots.

Cameron Kerry wrote a column in Israel's largest circulation daily newspaper, Yediot, saying the accusations “would be ridiculous if they were not so vile.”

The move illustrates how seriously the State Department wants to rebut the charge of anti-Semitism by some conservative Israeli critics of the Secretary of State’s peace negotiations.

Earlier this month, members of Israel Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's cabinet accused Kerry of endorsing "anti-Semitic" efforts to impose sanctions on Israel when he voiced concern that failure to reach a peace accord with the Palestinians could lead to economic boycotts.
John Kerry said it was a "revelation" when he learned in 2003 from a Boston Globe report, shortly before he ran for president, that his grandfather changed his family name from Kohn and converted to Catholicism before coming to the U.S. in 1905.

Cameron Kerry married a Jewish woman and the family are practicing Jews. He writes that their relatives were killed in the Nazi death camps.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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  interesting since even in 1969 the Israelis had the bomb (maybe no icbm capability till 1970 ?)  but no one wanted it to be a public fact:  here Nixon and Kissinger  sucessfully conspire to keep the Israel Nukes a secret - recently DE-classified :
Israel Crosses the Threshold II: The Nixon Administration Debates the Emergence of the Israeli Nuclear Program

DOD's Paul Warnke Warned in Early 1969 that Israeli Nuclear Program is "the Single Most Dangerous Phenomenon in an Area Dangerous Enough Without Nuclear Weapons"

President Nixon Overrode Near Consensus of Senior U.S. Officials on Threat Posed by Israeli Nuclear Program in 1969

NSSM 40 and Related Records Released in Full for First Time
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 485
Posted - September 12, 2014
Edited by William Burr and Avner Cohen

For more information contact:
 William Burr - 202/994-7000 or [email protected]
 Avner Cohen - 831/647-6437 or 202/489-6282Â (cell); [email protected]

Nixon, Laird, and Wheeler inside the Pentagon on Flag Day. Standing behind Laird is his military assistant, U.S. Air Force Colonel Robert Pursley, who played a significant role in moving forward the relevant papers on the Israeli nuclear issue. Pursley had served as military assistant to Secretaries of Defense Robert McNamara and Clark Clifford. (Photo source: National Archives, Still Pictures Division, RG 342B, box 1156)

Washington, D.C., September 12, 2014 – During the spring and summer of 1969, officials at the Pentagon, the State Department, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the White House debated and discussed the problem of the emergence of a nuclear Israel. Believing that Israel was moving very close to a nuclear weapons capability or even possession of actual weapons, the Nixon administration debated whether to apply pressure to restrain the Israelis or even delay delivery of advanced Phantom jets whose sale had already been approved.

Recently declassified documents produced in response to a mandatory declassification review request by the National Security Archive, and published today by the Archive in cooperation with the Nuclear Proliferation International History Project, show that top officials at the Pentagon were especially supportive of applying pressure on Israel.

On 14 July 1969, Deputy Secretary of Defense (and Hewlett-Packard co-founder) David Packard signed a truly arresting memorandum to Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird, arguing that failure to exert such pressure "would involve us in a conspiracy with Israel which would leave matters dangerous to our security in their hands."

In the end, Laird and Packard and others favoring pressure lost the debate. While National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger supported some of their ideas, he also believed that, at the minimum, it would be sufficient for U.S. interests if Israel kept their nuclear activities secret. As he put on his draft memo to President Nixon on or around July 19, "public knowledge is almost as dangerous as possession itself." Indeed, Nixon opposed pressure and was willing to tolerate Israeli nuclear weapons as long as they stayed secret.

This nonpartisan consensus highlights how at the end independent-in fact, secretive and aloof-President Nixon was as he made his own decisions on the matter. Thus, he ruled against using the Phantoms as pressure and in doing so left the United States with no leverage whatsoever.

ISCAP's declassification actions take away some-but surely not all-of the mystery surrounding NSSM 40. The details of the intelligence findings that raised U.S. government concerns about the Israeli nuclear program remain classified, and ISCAP upheld excisions made by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The CIA used its statutory exemption to withhold information, but it is not clear whether that was true of all of the intelligence details that were exempted from the documents presented below.
Document 10: Memorandum from Henry Kissinger to President Nixon, "Israeli Nuclear Program," n.d., with enclosures dated 19 July 1969, Top Secret, excised copy  

Source: Richard Nixon Presidential Library, National Security Council Files, box 612, Israeli Nuclear Program

After Packard sent his memo to Laird, Kissinger assessed the discussions at the two Senior Review Group meetings and appears to have reached somewhat parallel conclusions. This fascinating memorandum was declassified some years ago, after the publication of "Israel Crosses the Threshold." The file at the Nixon Library includes no evidence about how this memorandum was used, whether it was a working draft, a final draft, or whether some version of it actually went to President Nixon. Kissinger may well have used it for discussion purposes with Nixon.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Did I post this already ? - - - Oh Kerry's  [ Kohn ] crypto dad connection ....
The U.S. Discovery of Israel's Secret Nuclear Project - 1960 - Eisenhower

Israeli Cover Stories about the Dimona Reactor Dismayed Top Level Officials Who Saw a "Clearly Apparent Lack of Candor"

U.S. Embassy Telegram Quotes Ben-Gurion Aide That It Was a "Stupid Mistake" by Israel to Cloak the Nuclear Project in Secrecy

To Prevent Military Uses of the Facility, U.S. Officials Believed the International Atomic Energy Agency Should Monitor Dimona (It Never Has)

Today's Posting Inaugurates the National Security Archive's Special Web Site on Israeli Nuclear History
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 510
Posted - April 15, 2015

Washington, D.C., April 15, 2015 – The U.S. government first learned of Israel's secret nuclear program at Dimona from an American corporate official talking to U.S. diplomats in Tel Aviv during mid-summer 1960, according to a declassified document published today for the first time by the National Security Archive, the Nuclear Proliferation International History Project, and the Center for Nonproliferation Studies of the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey. Other documents published today detail the discovery of the secret project that some in the U.S. government believed from the very start aimed at a weapons capability; the U.S. debates over Israel's lack of candor; and U.S. government efforts to pressure the Israelis to answer key questions about the nature of the Dimona project.

This "discovery," which came as the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower was drawing to a close, caused apprehension in Washington by raising concern about regional stability and nuclear proliferation, but it also produced annoyance because Israeli officials at all levels repeatedly provided less than credible answers to U.S. questions about Dimona. Thus, in September 1960, when embassy officials asked about a new construction site when they were on a helicopter ride nearby, an adroit Israeli official, Addy Cohen, improvised a story to keep the secret: it was the site of a textile factory, he said; a story that was not wholly false because there was a textile plant near Dimona. An interview with Addy Cohen detailing the episode appears in this posting for the first time.

Documents published in this collection shed light on a particularly notable intelligence failure: how Washington missed warning signs that the Israelis had a nuclear project underway, but also how the U.S. belatedly realized what the Israelis were doing, and how Eisenhower and his senior advisers reacted to this discovery. Among the documents are:
• The June 1959 Israel-Norway secret agreement providing for the sale of Norwegian heavy water to Israel (through the United Kingdom), transmitted by Oslo Embassy political officer Richard Kerry (father of Secretary of State John Kerry).

•Reports about information from a then-covert source — University of Michigan nuclear engineering professor Henry Gomberg — who learned that the Israelis had a secret nuclear reactor project that involved experiments with plutonium.
•A telegram from the U.S. embassy in Tel Aviv reporting on Finance Ministry official Addy Cohen's statement that "we've been misbehaving," and one by an unidentified official close to Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion that the secrecy surrounding Dimona was unjustifiable and that it was "a stupid mistake on the part of Israel."
• Reports by U.S. Ambassador Ogden Reid on conversations with Ben-Gurion.
•A State Department message to the embassy in Tel Aviv conveying irritation that the responses of the Israeli government showed a "lack of candor."
•Messages about a role for the International Atomic Energy Agency in inspecting and safeguarding Dimona.
December 30, 1960
Letter from Richard Kerry, U.S. Embassy Oslo, to William
Burdette, Office of British Commonwealth and Northern
European Affairs
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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US said preparing to release Israeli spy Jonathan Pollard

Officials say chances of life-termer going free ‘better than ever’ as US seeks to sooth Israel over Iran; Justice Department denies report

By Rebecca Shimoni Stoil and Times of Israel staff July 24, 2015, 11:29 pm 44

The Obama administration is preparing to release Jonathan Pollard, who was convicted in 1987 of spying for Israel, in hopes of alleviating tensions over the Iranian nuclear deal, the Wall Street Journal reported Friday.

According to US officials cited in the report, some are pushing for Pollard’s release in a matter of weeks
, while others say it could take months. Still other US officials mentioned in the report denied any link between the Iranian nuclear deal and Pollard’s potential release.
Mr. Pollard’s status will be determined by the United States Parole Commission according to standard procedures,” added National Security Council spokesman Alistair Baskey. “There is absolutely zero linkage between Mr. Pollard’s status and foreign policy considerations.”

Israeli government officials — including Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu himself — activists, and even members of Congress have for decades lobbied successive US administrations for Pollard’s release.

The US has at times considered releasing Pollard, but has been met with fierce opposition by some in the CIA, the FBI and the Justice Department. This could again be the case if indeed the Obama administration is considering it, but “[Pollard’s] chances at winning freedom are better now than they have ever been,” according to the WSJ report that attributes the belief to unnamed US officials.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5