Author Topic: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man  (Read 38614 times)

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blackwater

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http://vaccinenewsdaily.com/news/213653-woman-contracts-smallpox-from-recently-vaccinated-man

I HOPE ALEX TALKS ABOUT THIS!!!!

Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated man

by Jeffrey Bigongiari on July 6, 2010


In the state of Washington, a woman in her 20s has reportedly been infected with smallpox after having sexual relations with her boyfriend in the military who had recently been vaccinated for smallpox.

There have been five known cases in the last year of women in four states acquiring the vaccinia virus, which is the virus found in the smallpox vaccine, after having sexual contact with members of the military, the Centers for Disease Control’s July 2 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report stated.

The vaccination site of a recently inoculated person generally remains infectious for two to three weeks after vaccination and inadvertent inoculation to another part of the body or to another person can occur during this period. The CDC encourages education be given to vaccinees about the potential for sexual transmission. People with weakened immune systems, a history of dermatological conditions and pregnant women are at risk of facing complications from vaccinia infection.

The Washington state woman had a history of eczema as a child, but, when she sought out medical treatment, was only tested for common sexually transmitted diseases, despite voicing concern about her boyfriend’s recent smallpox vaccination. She complained of painful areas of vaginal swelling, several sores and a swollen lymph node over several visits to separate clinics before seeing an infectious diseases specialist who tested for vaccinia.

Health care providers are not required to nationally notify in the case of positive vaccinia testing but are encouraged to report such findings to the CDC.




Offline oyashango

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« Reply #1 on: July 06, 2010, 09:17:54 pm »
What was this serviceman doing being given this particular vacination in the first place? Wasn't this supposed to be given in elementary school? Isn't it dangerous to give this as an adult?
What region of the world was he being deployed where this vacination was even necessary?  Is the military using this as a bioagent in Afghanistan, Iraq or Pakistan?  ???

Offline agentbluescreen

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #2 on: July 06, 2010, 09:32:27 pm »
Aahh the joys of voluntary offensive-militarist servitude, the gift that keeps on taking...

H0llyw00d

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #3 on: July 06, 2010, 09:37:17 pm »
Aahh the joys of voluntary offensive-militarist servitude, the gift that keeps on taking...

:) :D  ;D

Offline tjw3128

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #4 on: July 06, 2010, 09:37:26 pm »
ya it dont matter what u supposed to have as a kid. back when i was in the military we got smallpox vaxination chickenpox vaxniation hepititus vaxnation and 4 others and a flu vaxnation we had to snort like coke it was weird was a liquid they said we had to snort and they took half of a saringe without the needle and put it up 1 side ur nose and u had to snort it then other half in other sied was really weird but they give u all te shots just to b sure u had them as not all kids get the shots cuz not every1 can afford them or does it
"The strength of the nation derives from the integrity of the home."
-Confucius

Online TahoeBlue

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It's official CDC:

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5925a2.htm
Vaccinia Virus Infection After Sexual Contact with a Military Smallpox Vaccinee --- Washington, 2010

July 2, 2010 / 59(25);773-775

On March 1, 2010, the Washington State Department of Health (WADOH) notified Public Health -- Seattle & King County (PHSKC) of a suspected case of contact transmission of vaccinia virus from sexual contact with a member of the military who had been vaccinated against smallpox. Vaccinia virus infection after sexual contact has been reported previously (1--4).

Despite the patient's exposure history and clinical presentation, the diagnosis initially was not considered by the patient's physician, who ordered laboratory testing for several common sexually transmitted infections. The patient was seen by a second physician and referred to an infectious disease specialist, who obtained a swab sample of a genital lesion for laboratory testing for vaccinia virus. Vaccinia virus was confirmed by the Washington State Public Health Laboratory (WAPHL) and the CDC Poxvirus Laboratory.

The patient resided in a household with an immunosuppressed renal transplant recipient. Appropriate contact precautions were recommended to the patient. No additional cases of contact transmission were reported. This report describes the patient's clinical course and the associated epidemiologic investigation. Health-care providers caring for U.S. military personnel or their contacts should consider vaccinia virus infection in the differential diagnosis of clinically compatible genital lesions. Contact precautions should be emphasized to all persons who are vaccinated, as well as their contacts with unexplained lesions that might represent vaccinia infection from contact transmission.

Case Report

On February 26, 2010, a patient in her 20s visited an urgent-care clinic and reported a 2-day history of painful, ring-shaped, vaginal "swellings." She denied any history of fever or other symptoms. Physical examination revealed a single, raised, circular lesion with central ulceration on the right labia majora. The patient reported that her boyfriend was a military service member who recently was vaccinated for smallpox, and she expressed concern that the lesions might have been related to this exposure.

The health-care provider did not make a diagnosis, but cultured for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and herpes virus, and treated the patient with valacyclovir, azithromycin, cefazolin, and ceftriaxone, with instructions to follow-up with her primary-care physician in the next several days.

Three days later, on March 1, the patient visited a different clinic because of increased pain at the site of the lesion. She said she noted new sores in her vaginal and vulvar areas and an enlarged and tender right inguinal lymph node. The patient again expressed concern about the possibility of vaccinia virus infection. On physical examination, additional painful, circular, nonvesicular lesions with raised borders and ulcerated centers were present on both labia minora and within the vaginal vault. The lesion on the right labia majora was approximately 1.5 cm in diameter. Examination also revealed an enlarged and tender right inguinal lymph node, and shotty, tender, left inguinal lymphadenopathy.

The physician sent a lesion swab specimen in viral transport media to a commercial laboratory for herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus testing and referred the patient to an infectious disease specialist for further evaluation. The preferred specimen for vaccinia virus testing is a swab placed in a dry tube, not viral transport media; therefore, the swab was not tested for vaccinia virus, and PHSKC facilitated collection of a second swab specimen during the patient's referral visit.

The next day, on March 2, the infectious disease specialist's examination showed a single 1.5--2.0 cm inguinal lymph node. A 3 cm region of ulceration was present in the vaginal vault, and three ulcers ranging in size from 1 cm to 2 cm were present on the vulva. The cervix appeared normal. The specialist made a diagnosis of suspected vaccinia infection, collected a swab specimen from an ulcer, and submitted it to WAPHL, a member of the Laboratory Response Network, for testing for vaccinia virus infection. The specialist prescribed Vicodin for pain and counseled the patient about infection control. A week later, the patient followed up with the same infectious disease specialist, who noted healing vaginal lesions that were smaller and more superficial, with some granulation tissue.

On March 3, WAPHL tested the clinical specimen (lesion swab) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for orthopoxvirus and for nonvariola orthopoxvirus, both of which yielded positive findings. WAPHL called the CDC Poxvirus Program on March 3, and a duplicate swab was sent to CDC for confirmatory testing. CDC confirmed the WAPHL results and confirmed the presence of vaccinia virus in the patient's specimen using a vaccinia-specific real-time PCR assay.

Epidemiologic Investigation

On March 1, WADOH was contacted by the commercial laboratory with questions about vaccinia testing. WADOH obtained contact information for the patient and provider and notified PHSKC. The patient's clinical presentation, epidemiologic history, and positive vaccinia virus test results met CDC's case definition for vaccinia contact transmission (5). PHSKC interviewed the patient to determine whether any close contacts were at risk for infection or severe complications due to vaccinia virus infection, and also to reinforce infection control techniques (6).

The patient's boyfriend received a smallpox vaccination on February 15 at a military base in a neighboring county. On February 20, the boyfriend removed the bandage covering his vaccination site; that same day, the couple had unprotected sexual intercourse preceded by digital vaginal contact. Four days later (on February 24), the first lesion appeared on the patient's right labia majora.

The patient had a history of eczema as a child, but had not been symptomatic since she was age 10 years. She had no history of smallpox vaccination. She reported no underlying medical conditions or history of sexually transmitted diseases. Her boyfriend was her only sex partner, and he had not reported any genital lesions.

The patient shared a home with three other persons: two did not have any underlying risk factors for vaccinia complications, but the third had received a kidney transplant in 2001 and was on immunosuppressant drugs. This person previously served in the military and might have been vaccinated for smallpox in the past, but PHSKC was unable to obtain verification through medical records.

The patient did not report any other social or familial contacts who were immunosuppressed, had a history of dermatologic conditions, or were pregnant. The boyfriend vaccinee could not be interviewed because he was deployed overseas. However, interviews with the vaccinee's mother and his roommate revealed no other close contacts at high risk for serious complications from vaccinia virus infection. The Military Vaccine Agency (MILVAX)* was notified of this case.

Interviews with the three health-care providers who examined the patient revealed that they had worn gloves and followed CDC-recommended contact precautions. A total of three health-care workers who were exposed to the patient and the laboratories who handled her clinical specimens were alerted of the diagnosis; no underlying health conditions were identified among the exposed health-care workers, and none had symptoms of vaccinia.

Reported by
J Pauk, MD, M Gonchar, MD, The Polyclinic, Seattle; A Baer, PhD, TS Kwan-Gett, MD, J Duchin, MD, Public Health -- Seattle & King County; C DeBolt, MPH, D Russell, Washington State Dept of Health. M Reynolds, PhD, K Wilkins, W Davidson, MPH, Y Li, PhD, K Karem, PhD, I Damon, MD, PhD, Div of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases; M Kay, DVM, AM McCollum, PhD, EIS officers, CDC.

Editorial Note
After a person is vaccinated with vaccinia, the vaccination site contains infectious virus from the time of papule formation until the scab separates from the skin (a period of approximately 2--3 weeks). During this period, a risk exists for inadvertent inoculation to another body site or another person (7). The most frequently reported sites of vaccinia infections caused by unintentional transfer are the face, nose, mouth, lips, genitalia, anus, and eye (5). The case described in this report was in a female patient who was exposed to vaccinia virus via digital vaginal contact with a recent military smallpox vaccinee.

The U.S. military reinitiated routine smallpox vaccination for service members in 2002. The case described in this report is one of several that have been reported after sexual contact with a recent military vaccinee (1--3).

In addition, CDC is aware of four similar unpublished cases in North Carolina, Minnesota, California, and Kansas in the past 12 months. Each of these occurred in female patients presenting with vaginal lesions who had a history of sexual contact with a military vaccinee; each infection was confirmed as vaccinia virus by laboratory testing. Increased awareness of the potential for vaccinia virus infections is recommended for health-care providers and public health departments caring for military personnel and their contacts.

To help prevent transmission of the virus, health-care providers should educate vaccinees about methods to prevent transmission and inadvertent autoinoculation. These methods include frequent hand washing, keeping the vaccination site covered with a bandage, and not sharing linens or clothing with unvaccinated persons (5,6).

The first physician who saw the patient on February 26 only pursued laboratory testing for common sexually transmitted infections, although the patient stated that she had recent sexual contact with a smallpox vaccinee. Gonorrhea and chlamydia infections have different clinical presentations than the case described in this report. Primary syphilis infections generally present with a painless ulcer at the site of invasion. Clinicians should suspect infections with vaccinia virus in patients with vesiculopapular rashes and known exposures to recent smallpox vaccinees, including sexual contact.

Health-care providers should contact their state or local health department for information on testing specimens for the presence of vaccinia; testing is available at laboratories participating in the Laboratory Response Network. Health-care providers should report vaccinia contact transmission as a vaccine adverse event to their local health authority and/or to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Surveillance case definitions are available for adverse events resulting from vaccinia vaccination (5). Vaccinia virus infections via contact transmission are not nationally notifiable; however, public health departments are encouraged to report these infections to CDC.


http://virus.stanford.edu/pox/2000/vaccinia_virus.html

VACCINIA VIRUS

Vaccinia virus is a big mystery in virology.

It is not known whether vaccinia virus is the product of genetic recombination, or if it is a species derived from cowpox virus or variola virus by prolonged serial passage, or if it is the living representative of a now extinct virus.

Vaccinia virus was used for smallpox vaccination via inoculation into the superficial layers of the skin of the upper arm. However, with the eradication of smallpox, routine vaccination with vaccinia virus has ceased. Recent interest in vaccinia has focused on its possible usage as a vector for immunization against other viruses.

Much less virulent strains than those used for vaccination against smallpox are being developed for use as vectors, in hopes of reducing the likelihood of the development of serious complications previously seen with smallpox vaccination. In this page, you will learn more about the very rare, though serious, complications that arose as a result of smallpox vaccination.

Primary response to vaccination

Four to five days following vaccination with vaccinia virus, a papule appeared at the site of vaccination. Two or three days later the papular lesion became vesicular, growing until it reached its maximum diameter on the 9th or 10th day. During this time, the draining lymph nodes of the axial were enlarged and tender. Many patients also presented a mild fever. The lesion dried from the center outward, and the brown scab fell off after about three weeks, leaving a scar- a mark by which previous vaccinees could be recognized.

Progressive vaccinia (vaccinia necrosum)-

Progressive vaccinia is a severe, potentially fatal illness characterized by progressive necrosis at the site of vaccination. This occurred only in immunocompromised individuals with deficiencies in their cell-mediated immune system. There were only about 1.6 cases of progressive vaccinia per million vaccinations reported. See picture below for clinical manifestation of progressive vaccinia.

Eczema vaccinatum- This occurred only in persons who suffered from eczema. Unvaccinated contact with a vaccinated individual was the usual mode of transmission.

In a national survey in the United States conducted after smallpox had been eliminated, there were 66 cases, with no deaths, among 14.5 million vaccinees.

Generalized vaccinia- Generalized vaccinia was characterized by a vesicular rash that sometimes covered the entire body. This usually occurred 6 to 9 days after vaccination.

The lesions usually resembled the initial lesion found at the inoculation site, but they sometimes varied in size. Generalized vaccinia was not associated with immunodeficiency. The rash was usually self-limiting and thus, little or no therapy was administered. There were about 23.4 cases per million vaccinees.

Postvaccinial encephalitis- Neurological complications were the most serious ones that occurred from vaccination with vaccinia virus. Postvaccinal encephalitis usually occurred in patients over the age of two. The case fatality rate was about 35% within a week of onset. In the United States, there were 12 cases, of which one resulted in death, among the 13 million vaccinees.

Accidental infection- Accidental infection of some part of the body away from the inoculation site was the most common complication that arose from vaccination with vaccinia. Ocular vaccinia was a common manifestation of accidental infection.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #6 on: July 07, 2010, 05:20:14 pm »
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5010a1.htm
...
Vaccinia vaccine is a highly effective immunizing agent that enabled the global eradication of smallpox. The last naturally occurring case of smallpox occurred in Somalia in 1977.

In May 1980, the World Health Assembly certified that the world was free of naturally occurring smallpox (5). By the 1960s, because of vaccination programs and quarantine regulations, the risk for importation of smallpox into the United States had been reduced. As a result, recommendations for routine smallpox vaccination were rescinded in 1971 (6).

In 1976, the recommendation for routine smallpox vaccination of health-care workers was also discontinued (7).

In 1982, the only active licensed producer of vaccinia vaccine in the United States discontinued production for general use, and in 1983, distribution to the civilian population was discontinued (8). All military personnel continued to be vaccinated, but that practice ceased in 1990.

Since January 1982, smallpox vaccination has not been required for international travelers, and International Certificates of Vaccination forms no longer include a space to record smallpox vaccination (9).

In 1980, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended the use of vaccinia vaccine to protect laboratory workers from possible infection while working with nonvariola Orthopoxviruses (e.g., vaccinia and monkeypox) (10).

 In 1984, those recommendations were included in guidelines for biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories (11). The guidelines expanded the recommendations to include persons working in animal-care areas where studies with Orthopoxviruses were being conducted. They further recommended that such workers have documented evidence of satisfactory smallpox vaccination within the preceding 3 years.

CDC has provided vaccinia vaccine for these laboratory workers since 1983 (12). In 1991, ACIP further expanded smallpox vaccination recommendations to include health-care workers involved in clinical trials using recombinant vaccinia virus vaccines and lengthened the recommendations for revaccination for persons working with vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses, or other nonvariola Orthopoxviruses to every 10 years (13).

VACCINIA VACCINE

Dryvax,® the vaccinia (smallpox) vaccine currently licensed in the United States, is a lyophilized, live-virus preparation of infectious vaccinia virus (Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., Marietta, Pennsylvania). Vaccinia vaccine does not contain smallpox (variola) virus.

Previously, the vaccine had been prepared from calf lymph with a seed virus derived from the New York City Board of Health (NYCBOH) strain of vaccinia virus and has a minimum concentration of 108 pock-forming units (PFU)/ml.

Vaccine was administered by using the multiple-puncture technique with a bifurcated needle. A reformulated vaccine, produced by using cell-culture techniques, is now being developed.

Vaccine Efficacy

Neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccinia vaccine are genus-specific and cross-protective for other Orthopoxviruses (e.g., monkeypox, cowpox, and variola viruses) (16--18). Although the efficacy of vaccinia vaccine has never been measured precisely during controlled trials, epidemiologic studies demonstrate that an increased level of protection against smallpox persists for <5 years after primary vaccination and substantial but waning immunity can persist for >10 years (19,20).

Antibody levels after revaccination can remain high longer, conferring a greater period of immunity than occurs after primary vaccination alone (3,19). Administration of vaccinia vaccine within the first days after initial exposure to smallpox virus can reduce symptoms or prevent smallpox disease (2--4).

Although the level of antibody that protects against smallpox infection is unknown, after percutaneous administration of a standard dose of vaccinia vaccine, >95% of primary vaccinees (i.e., persons receiving their first dose of vaccine) will experience neutralizing or hemagglutination inhibition antibody at a titer of >1:10 (21). Neutralizing antibody titers of >1:10 persist among 75% of persons for 10 years after receiving second doses and <30 years after receiving three doses of vaccine (22,23).

The level of antibody required for protection against vaccinia virus infection is unknown also. However, when lack of local skin response to revaccination with an appropriately administered and potent vaccine dose is used as an indication of immunity, <10% of persons with neutralizing titers of >1:10 exhibit a primary-type response at revaccination, compared with >30% of persons with titers <1:10 (24). Lack of major or primary-type reaction can indicate the presence of neutralizing antibody levels sufficient to prevent viral replication, although it can also indicate unsuccessful vaccination because of improper administration or less potent vaccine.

Recombinant Vaccinia Viruses

Vaccinia virus is the prototype of the genus Orthopoxvirus. It is a double-stranded DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) virus that has a broad host range under experimental conditions but is rarely isolated from animals outside the laboratory (25,26). Multiple strains of vaccinia virus exist that have different levels of virulence for humans and animals. For example, the Temple of Heaven and Copenhagen vaccinia strains are highly pathogenic among animals, whereas the NYCBOH strain, from which the Wyeth vaccine strain was derived, had relatively low pathogenicity (3).

Vaccinia virus can be genetically engineered to contain and express foreign DNA with or without impairing the ability of the virus to replicate. Such foreign DNA can encode protein antigens that induce protection against one or more infectious agents. Recombinant vaccinia viruses have been engineered to express immunizing antigens of herpesvirus, hepatitis B, rabies, influenza, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and other viruses (27--32).

Recombinant vaccinia viruses have been created from different strains of vaccinia virus.

In the United States, recombinants have been made from a nonattenuated NYCBOH strain, or a mouse neuroadapted derivative, the WR strain. Recombinants have also been made by using the Copenhagen and Lister vaccinia strains, which are more pathogenic among animals than the NYCBOH strain. Additionally, certain highly attenuated, host-restricted, non- or poorly replicating poxvirus strains have been developed for use as substrates in recombinant vaccine development.

These strains include the Orthopoxviruses, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and NYVAC (derived from the Copenhagen vaccinia strain), and the Avipoxviruses, ALVAC and TROVAC (derived from canarypox and fowlpox viruses, respectively) (33--36) (Table 1).

Animal studies indicate that recombinants are less pathogenic than the parent strain of vaccinia virus (37). Laboratory-acquired infections with nonhighly attenuated vaccinia and recombinant viruses derived from nonhighly attenuated vaccinia strains have been reported (38--41). However, highly attenuated poxvirus strains (MVA, NYVAC, ALVAC, and TROVAC) are unable to replicate (MVA, ALVAC, and TROVAC) or replicate poorly (NYVAC) in mammalian host cells; therefore, highly attenuated poxvirus strains do not create productive infections (36).

These highly attenuated strains have also been reported to be avirulent among normal and immunosuppressed animals (MVA, NYVAC, ALVAC, or TROVAC) and safe among humans (MVA) (33,35,42,43). Although no formal surveillance system has been established to monitor laboratory workers, no laboratory-acquired infections resulting from exposure to these highly attenuated strains or recombinant vaccines derived from these strains have been reported in the scientific literature or to CDC.

Because of the biological properties and accumulated attenuation data for NYVAC, ALVAC, and TROVAC, the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reduced the biosafety level for these viruses to biosafety level 1 (44).

The Occupational Safety and Health Board of NIH no longer requires vaccinia (smallpox) vaccination for personnel manipulating MVA or NYVAC in a laboratory where no other vaccinia viruses are being manipulated (45).

During human trials of recombinant vaccines, physicians, nurses, and other health-care personnel who provide clinical care to recipients of these vaccines could be exposed to both vaccinia and recombinant viruses. This exposure could occur from contact with dressings contaminated with the virus or through exposure to the vaccine. Although the risk for transmission of recombinant vaccinia viruses to exposed health-care workers is unknown, no reports of transmission to health-care personnel from vaccine recipients have been published.

If appropriate infection-control precautions are observed (46,47), health-care workers are at less risk for infection than laboratory workers because of the smaller volume and lower titer of virus in clinical specimens compared with laboratory material.

However, the potential does exist of nonhighly attenuated vaccinia viruses or recombinant viruses derived from these strains being transmitted to health-care personnel. Therefore, those workers who have direct contact with contaminated dressings or other infectious material from volunteers in clinical studies where such strains are used can be offered vaccination. Vaccination is not indicated for health-care personnel who are exposed to clinical materials contaminated with highly attenuated poxvirus strains used to develop vaccine recombinants.

Laboratory and other health-care personnel who work with highly attenuated strains of vaccinia virus (e.g., MVA and NYVAC) do not require routine vaccinia vaccination. Laboratory and other health-care personnel who work with the Avipoxvirus strains ALVAC and TROVAC also do not require routine vaccinia vaccination because these viruses do not grow in mammalian cells and, therefore, do not produce clinical infections among humans. In addition, antibodies induced by vaccinia vaccine are genus-specific (16) and would probably not inhibit the expression of genes incorporated into recombinant vaccines derived from ALVAC and TROVAC. Therefore, vaccination would provide no theoretical benefit in preventing seroconversion to the foreign antigen expressed by a recombinant virus if an inadvertent exposure occurred. Laboratory and other health-care personnel who work with viral cultures or other infective materials should always observe appropriate biosafety guidelines and adhere to published infection-control procedures (46--48).


Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #7 on: July 07, 2010, 05:48:16 pm »
Vaccina - Bioweapon research continues ?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=vacc&part=A53

Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Vaccines
Shortly after the World Health Assembly resolution recommending cessation of smallpox vaccination, proposals were made to use recombinant vaccinia viruses for immunization against other infectious agents.161,162 The idea was to stably insert one or more genes of other pathogens into the genome of vaccinia virus while retaining the infectivity of the latter.

Moreover, the large capacity of vaccinia virus for foreign DNA raised the possibility of polyvalent vaccines against multiple diseases.163,164

In principle, recombinant vaccinia viruses would have many of the properties of live attenuated virus vaccines and would present antigens in natural ways so as to stimulate humoral immunity to native protein conformation as well as cell-mediated immunity. Such vaccines might also retain the familiar advantages of smallpox vaccine: heat stability, low cost, ease of administration, and a scar as visible proof of vaccination.

Although recombinant vaccinia viruses are still undergoing investigation for human and veterinary vaccination, their great value for vaccine research has been widely recognized.165
...

Vaccinia Virus as a Tool for Vaccine Research

Recombinant vaccinia viruses provide a powerful means of dissecting the immune responses of humans and experimental animals to individual gene products of infectious agents.

Only a few examples can be mentioned here. Thus, recombinant vaccinia viruses were used to demonstrate that the HA and NP proteins of influenza virus induced subtype-specific and cross-reactive cytotoxic T-cell responses, respectively.189,190

Evidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-l)-specific cytotoxic T cells in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first obtained by use of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the envelope or internal proteins to prepare target cells.191,192

Indeed, recombinant vaccinia viruses have become an important tool for cellular immunologists.193 Because proteins expressed in mammalian cells by recombinant vaccinia viruses are folded, processed, and transported normally, they can be used to either induce or bind antibodies that recognize conformational epitopes.194

The wide host range of vaccinia virus makes it possible to determine protective immune responses against infectious agents in a variety of experimental animals from rodents to primates.

For example, the F glycoprotein is most important for inducing protection to respiratory syncytial virus,195 whereas the HN protein is better for parainfluenza virus type 3196 and type 5.197 Protection elicited by the syncytial virus M2 protein is due to CD8+ T cells, whereas that induced by the F and G proteins is due to antibodies.198 Similar results, with respect to the HA and NP proteins, have been obtained in studies with influenza virus.199

In some cases, vaccination has a priming effect that is followed by an anamnestic antibody response, as indicated for the protection of chimpanzees after inoculation with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the hepatitis B surface antigen.200 A list of viruses for which protective immune responses have been obtained may be found in a review.201

Human Vaccines

Although vaccinia virus vectors have proved extremely useful for vaccine research as well as for research in many other fields, the potential for human vaccines is still under investigation. As for all vaccines, the critical factors include safety and efficacy as well as the facility for vaccine production, distribution, and administration.

In addition, there are special questions regarding prior immunity to vaccinia virus acquired either through smallpox vaccination or through a recombinant vaccine and the design of polyvalent vaccines.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline davidnay

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #8 on: July 07, 2010, 05:49:26 pm »
Old article but still very relevant
-----------------------------------------------------------
Bioshield Bill turns pharmaceuticals into bioweapons factories
By Lynne Born;

The BioShield Bill currently making its way through Congress gives $6 billion of taxpayer money to the major pharmaceutical companies to subsidize the development of drugs and vaccines as "countermeasures" to possible biological and chemical attacks. The bill pays for the warehousing of drugs and vaccines for which the FDA has granted a special exemption from the usual approval process to allow the countermeasures to be fast tracked through FDA approval and used on the public with no human testing at all, an unprecedented step for an industry that is already the third leading cause of death in the United States.


The pharmaceutical industry sustains a generally excellent reputation as most people believe the drug companies always put safety first in their humane mission to develop medicines to heal the sick. But the facts belie this gentle reputation - between 100,000 and 200,000 people die each year from correctly prescribed medications in the hospital alone, not including drug-induced deaths occurring outside the hospital or from incorrectly prescribed medications. No other industry is responsible for such a shockingly high death rate repeated year after year, a death rate that would probably cause great alarm and Congressional hearings if it occurred in any other industry. Yet even these numbers are underestimated, as David Kessler, who ran the FDA for much of the 1990s, has stated that from 90 to 99 percent of all adverse drug reactions are never reported, which would make the actual death and injury rate from legal drugs astronomical.


Bush's Smallpox Program Fiasco
Looking at Bush's Smallpox Vaccination program reveals the kind of unscientific and fraudulent thinking on the part of the pharmaceuticals that leads to these kinds of death and injury rates. When the program began, Bush called for vaccination of 500,000 health care workers, the so-called "first responders" to a possible biological attack of smallpox. In the months leading up to the program, the mainstream media informed us that the public could expect 1 to 2 deaths per million from the vaccine and a serious adverse reaction rate of 1 in 4,000. However, there is no basis on which to estimate the death and injury rates for adults taking the vaccine since there has never been a long-term study on the safety of the smallpox vaccine or on any vaccine, another fact that is consistently suppressed from the public.


Because of the exorbitant number of deaths and injuries, multiple states suspended the program in the spring of 2003 and Bush's smallpox program essentially ground to a halt. As of June 2003, approximately 35,000 civilians (including the several hundred embedded reporters) of various ages and health status have been vaccinated, which gives us an initial test group from which to draw some conclusions. Of the 35,000 civilians vaccinated, 3 have died, which makes the death rate 80 times higher than we had been told to expect. Yet in mainstream media articles about the deaths in the smallpox program, the public continues to be misled with the old, inaccurate numbers rather than the newly updated and much higher death rate. Serious adverse reactions that result in hospitalization, permanent disability, and life threatening illnesses- including heart attacks, heart inflammation, brain encephalitis, uncontrolled ulceration of the skin and more, turn out to be 1 in 583, 7 times higher than the CDC's original guesstimate of 1 in 4,000.


However, it is virtually certain that even these increased death and injury rates are inaccurate and much higher than reported. First, the official definition of serious reactions discounts some effects that most of us would consider serious, such as the young, healthy 20-year-old volunteers in a test, before Bush's program began, who stated that the pain in their arm after vaccination was so intense that they wanted to cut their arm off. There were reports of fevers so high and infections so uncontrolled that antibiotics were given to 30 percent of the participants. If vaccination occurred on a mass scale as planned, the hospitals would be flooded with hundreds of thousands of acutely ill victims who would be unable to get treatment, overwhelming the system and increasing the death toll.


Also omitted from mainstream media is the fact that the federal reporting system is not mandatory, and that the time frame in which adverse reactions are noted is a vague three to four weeks. As any doctor or person who has suffered a serious chronic health problem knows, it takes time for the body to develop and display disabling symptoms of a chronic disease. Just because the causative factor is a vaccine does not mean that serious, chronic illnesses will surface quickly and suddenly or that they will be easier conditions to treat than regular chronic illnesses. The fact that the causative factor was an avoidable event - the vaccine - is even worse, as the recipients may continue to suffer from serious illnesses such as chronic heart conditions over time, which the medical profession will then deny was related to the vaccine.


Because they are not doing any kind of vaccine trial comparing vaccine recipients to a healthy control group, the opportunity to accurately track the first 35,000 has been squandered and future participants are being recklessly endangered. Poor and even non-existent adverse reporting systems are standard procedure in the pharmaceutical industry. Most people don't know that the release onto the market of a new drug or vaccine is actually the final phase of the new drug trial called Phase IV. When thousands of people are prescribed a new drug, they are unwittingly participating in the largest, most poorly controlled drug study in the world, as this is generally the phase when the 100,000 to 200,000 deaths per year noted earlier occur. Neither the pharmaceutical industry nor the FDA requires mandatory reporting of adverse reactions or even death - it is entirely voluntary. Forty percent of all doctors don't even know that an adverse reaction reporting system exists.


In a profound and deadly conflict of interest, the marketing department responsible for recouping the hundreds of millions of dollars invested in developing the new drug is also in charge of tracking and compiling any adverse reactions that would get the drug pulled from the market. This legal, but flawed, system is why so many deaths occur before the FDA pulls the product from the marketplace, as the delay and obfuscation can mean millions and millions of dollars for the pharmaceuticals before the drug's demise.


Dark History of the Smallpox Vaccine
The premeditated ineffectiveness of tracking systems to monitor vaccine injuries, chronic diseases, and death is designed to obscure the unscientific foundation of the entire concept of smallpox vaccination. Dr. Edward Jenner, the creator of the smallpox vaccine in 1796, based the vaccine on a mistaken superstition that milkmaids or farmers who had been infected with cowpox developed immunity to smallpox. (Cowpox is a non-lethal, ulcerative disease on the udders of a cow that sometimes causes ulcers on the hands of milkmaids or farmers who milk them.)


But as historical records show, many of Jenner's medical contemporaries immediately disputed his claim by noting that had he polled any number of veterinarians in his county, he could have easily uncovered dozens of cases of smallpox in humans that had followed infection by cowpox. This supposition - that cowpox gives humans natural immunity from smallpox - was never proven by Jenner, or any other practitioner of vaccination from his era, and has never been tested or proven by any of the pharmaceuticals who produce the vaccine today. The very basis of the smallpox vaccine is fundamentally flawed.


To test his vaccine, Jenner infected six children, including his infant son, with various experimental brews including cowpow, swinepox, and the grease from horses' hooves. His experiments killed an eight-year-old boy in a matter of days from an uncontrolled ulcerative infection from the horse grease vaccine and the children were never exposed to any smallpox epidemics to test their resistance. Jenner waited only four years before declaring that the vaccine that he named vaccinia provided immunity from smallpox for life.


Not only was the vaccine immediately noted for causing injuries and deaths, but doctors of the day emphatically pointed out that it did not prevent smallpox. There are historical records from tests on hundreds of patients from 1802-1810 in which doctors published the results and submitted their statistics of overwhelming death and injury to the government medical board in England. All of these tests occurred outside of Jenner's control and all were abject failures. In 1805, only a few years after the vaccine was introduced, out of 504 vaccinated in England, 75 died from the vaccine and almost all have had the small-pox, some sooner, some later, after their vaccination, as recounted by Dr. William Rowley, a member of the University of Oxford and of the Royal College of Physicians in London, and Physician Extraordinary to Her Majesty's Lying-in-Hospital. He continued, There is no question here of supposition or calculation of probability, it is truth. In 1799, a Dr. William Woodville conducted a study on several hundred patients that resulted in many deaths and injuries as a direct result of the vaccine. But when he tried to publish the negative results of the trial, Dr. Jenner wrote, entreated him in the strongest terms, both by letter and conversation, not to do a thing that would so much disturb the progress of vaccination, in an attempt to censor the facts that ran contrary to Jenner's theory. Even as Jenner ignored the evidence of harm and helped to suppress the facts, he was already receiving government funding by an Act of Parliament which had funded him in the hopes that a cure for smallpox had been found. When the hundreds of reports of injury and death were published during the early years of vaccination, the government should have admitted to funding a faulty program and ended it. Instead, they invested £20,000 in 1807 and £3,000 per year thereafter, accepting as science the claim that a procedure only seven-years-old would protect from smallpox for life, thereby making vaccination a permanent source of income for the medical profession.


If it seems unbelievable that the government of England should fund a medical procedure that not only didn't work, but actually caused serious harm, we need look no further than our own pharmaceutical industry and government of today for the same pattern. Drugs continue to be marketed even after they have been shown to cause death and injury and President Bush continues to push his smallpox program by offering $100 million to state programs to proceed even after the astronomical percentage of deaths and injuries from the first phase of the program, while censoring, obscuring, and rewriting the terrible science underlying this vaccine.


Just as now, once vaccination became entrenched in the medical society, doctors found a new and lucrative source of income and industries sprang up which produced the vaccine both by continuing the human to human method and by going back to the cow to produce supposedly pure cow vaccine. However, in a test of 13 different brands of vaccine in 1900, not one was found to be bacteriologically pure and in some, hundreds of colonies of teaming germs were found.


Just as there exists a controversy today about the safety and efficacy of vaccines, Jenner's medical contemporaries immediately formed a vocal Anti-Vaccinationist resistance movement to speak out against the transplanting of disease back and forth from animal to human. Voluminous historical records display excellent science, careful thinking, and methodical observations of the vaccine and a record of the same kinds of adverse reactions and deaths we see today. They noted brain swelling and encephalitis, paralysis, blindness, increased incidence of tuberculosis and pneumonia, and progressive vaccinia in which the ulcerative sores caused by the vaccine spread over the whole body down to the bone and organs, causing a terrible and painful death, some in a matter of days after the administration of the vaccine and some over an extended period of suffering.


One such case was described in 1855 by a Dr. R. T. Trall who stated, I have seen within the last year a most horridly loathsome case...in which the patient literally rotted alive at the age of 15, from unhealthy virus [vaccine] received when he was but three years of age. (As grotesque as it may seem, the bodies of the victims were so overrun with the deadly virus that they frequently decomposed in a matter of hours as if the corpse had been dead for weeks.)


Today this condition is called progressive or generalized vaccinia where the ulcer that forms at the vaccine site grows uncontrollably - we have had three cases during Bush's program that we are aware of. That it took 12 years in this case for the vaccinia virus to progress to death shows again how it takes time for the full effects of the vaccine to develop and because of the limited time frame involved in Bush's smallpox program, that death would never be attributed to the vaccine even though the illness began directly after receiving it. The number and type of adverse reactions were so consistent and so numerous that physicians actually named the condition Vaccine Disease, a recognized diagnosis that carried with it a defined and universally recognized set of symptoms.


By the 1850's, much of Europe made vaccination mandatory under threat of fine and imprisonment and it is during these years that we can see not only how ineffective the vaccine was at stopping the spread of smallpox, but also that the vaccine actually increased the incidence of smallpox. If the science of vaccination worked, it should have prevented epidemics in the first place, but instead, while the population of England increased 16 percent during the years of compulsory vaccination, smallpox deaths increased 160 percent, a figure that does not include the deaths from the vaccine. Using official records from government medical registries from town after town in Europe, the same pattern is repeated over and over of increased incidence of, and death from, smallpox among the vaccinated. Before vaccination was made mandatory in England, the highest recorded death rate from smallpox was 2,000 for any 2-year period. However after 20 years of compulsory vaccination when nearly all of the population had been vaccinated (96.5 percent from age 2 to 50), the death rate during the epidemic of 1871 was 23,000. Germany (Prussia) was over 95 percent vaccinated, enforced multiple revaccinations every few years, and kept the best vaccination records in Europe. Yet they still recorded over 1,000,000 cases of smallpox during the 1871 epidemic, suffering the highest death rate in all of Europe with 124,000, all of whom had been registered as vaccinated.


In report after report from city and health officials, hospital records repeatedly show 90 percent and more of smallpox patients had been fully vaccinated. In a report published in the British Medical Journal, Dr. L. Parry analyzed vaccination statistics from the 19th century concluding, "smallpox is five times more likely to be fatal in the vaccinated as in the unvaccinated." [HENCE, was the 30% death rate frequently reported in the media in the VACCINATED POPULATION?? The actual numbers from the German data suggests this--ST]


Anti-Vaccinationists pointed to the town of Leicester, England for proof that vaccination actually increased smallpox deaths. Leicester suffered 3,500 deaths per million of its 95 percent vaccinated population during that same epidemic of 1871, but when the people saw how many suffered and died from the vaccination and then how many of the fully vaccinated died during the epidemic, they rose up in unison with their town officials and became the first town in England to officially resist mandatory vaccination. Dire predictions of catastrophe and death from pro-vaccinationists followed, but instead, in less than 20 years the numbers reversed and 95 percent were unvaccinated. Where individual outbreaks of smallpox occurred, they were isolated by the community and given quality medical care and general assistance instead of vaccination. No case of smallpox ever grew into an epidemic again, giving Leicester the lowest smallpox mortality rate of any town in England.


By the 1890s, resistance to mandatory vaccination was so fierce in England that Parliament empowered a Royal Commission to try and understand why England was still experiencing smallpox epidemics even though the vast majority of its population was vaccinated. The great scientist and thinker Alfred Russel Wallace, a colleague of Charles Darwin, was invited to report to the Commission on the safety and efficacy of smallpox vaccination. The evidence submitted by Wallace and the other Anti-Vaccinationist doctors showed overwhelmingly that cowpox had never been proven to provide immunity from smallpox; that an impure and dangerous vaccine was created by both assing diseased pus from human to human and from diseased cow matter; that the vaccine did not prevent smallpox; that revaccination did not prevent smallpox; that the vaccine was causing multiple injuries and deaths; that the vaccine actually increased the incidence of smallpox; and that the reporting system for smallpox injury and death was inadequate because the numbers of deaths and injuries from the vaccine were vastly underreported. Through the sustained resistance of the Anti-Vaccination movement, mandatory vaccination was finally repealed in England in 1898.


While these facts stand in stark contrast to all we have been taught about smallpox epidemics, in reviewing original historical medical sources, publications and statistics from the past 200 years, it becomes clear that infectious diseases other than smallpox declined 90 percent before mass vaccination was ever introduced. The decline in smallpox was actually delayed by vaccination and the cessation of vaccination did more to end smallpox than vaccination ever did.


Instead, medical experts of today and the past attribute the cessation of all epidemic diseases such as measles, scarlet fever, whooping cough, and diphtheria to improvements in sanitation and nutrition. Just prior to 1800, a major sanitation reform movement designed and implemented drainage systems to move human waste out of the streets, where it then flowed, and into plumbing systems; to regularly clean streets and stables of horse manure and human waste; to improve roads so that vegetables and milk could be transported to cities and distributed while fresh; and to upgrade the water supply to prevent bacterial contamination. All the old terror diseases such as plague, black death, and cholera responded to these reforms without vaccination and all epidemics declined throughout the 1800s except for smallpox, which surged with mandatory vaccination and declined only after it ended. After the massive epidemic of 1871, Germany embarked on a national campaign to clean their cities and build a drainage system throughout the entire country which finally caused smallpox to become virtually extinct in less than 30 years, something which mandatory vaccination did not accomplish in 60 years. Even the CDC reported in 1999 that infectious diseases declined in the past century due to improvements in sanitation, water, and hygiene.


An extraordinary number of scientists and thinkers have objected to vaccination since its creation including Gandhi, George Bernard Shaw, Voltaire, Mark Twain, and, in the 20th century, Henry Ford and Thomas Edison. In the United States, over 300 children (that we know of) died from the smallpox vaccine between 1948 and 1971 while there wasn't a single reported case of smallpox.


Professor Ari Zuckerman, a member of the World Health Organization's advisory panel on viruses, stated, "Immunization against smallpox is more hazardous than the disease itself," and the American Medical Association, the Association of American Physicians and Surgeons, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians all recommended against use of the smallpox vaccine. Even though the World Health Organization claims credit for the eradication of smallpox worldwide through vaccination, the facts tell us that smallpox declined in countries around the world whether the population had been vaccinated or not.


Forced Vaccinations
The history of the smallpox vaccine and the resistance movement against it becomes extremely informative now that history is repeating itself in the passage of the Homeland Security Bill and state laws called the Model Health Emergency Powers Act (MEHPA). MEHPA and Section 304 of the Homeland Security Bill function like the PATRIOT Act of healthcare, except instead of depriving us of our civil liberties, they deprive us of our most fundamental right of all-the ownership of our bodies. Section 304 makes mandatory vaccination and other medical treatments legal once again, making refusal a crime punishable by fine and/or prison. It calls for forced quarantine and isolation of individuals and even entire cities, allows for the confiscation of property of anyone who refuses treatment, and authorizes the military to enforce medical treatment or quarantine. An actual act of bioterrorism isn't even necessary, a "potential" emergency will suffice such as the current smallpox delusion in which Americans are injected with the most dangerous vaccine in history for protection against a disease that died out over 30 years ago and for which no credible threat of its use as a bioweapon has ever been received. (Note that during mandatory vaccination in England, an average of 2,000 parents a year were prosecuted and jailed for refusing to allow their children to be vaccinated and hundreds had their homes and possessions confiscated.) This power to inject our bodies with toxic poisons like the smallpox vaccine rests entirely with two individuals-Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson and President Bush.


In a cynical move that protects the government and manufacturers from the history of deception and bad science, no public figure can be held accountable for any harm or death that the medical procedure may produce. This protection extends to the manufacturer of the vaccine, eliminating any financial incentive to create a safe vaccine or responsibly investigate the efficacy of any vaccination program.


BioWeapons Factories
The fraudulent science of the smallpox vaccine and the draconian laws of the Homeland Security Bill set the stage for a radical revision of the mission and purpose of the pharmaceuticals. Ominously, the first bioterror countermeasure that the BioShield bill calls for development is another smallpox vaccine that uses the same, deadly vaccinia virus in the current vaccine, but has additional dangerous potential effects because it is genetically engineered, another science that has a dark history of injuries, diseases, deaths, and cover-ups. The bill also calls for development of bioterror drugs and vaccines in response to anthrax, botulinum toxin, plague, and ebola. In order to develop drugs and vaccines that are supposed to respond to biological and chemical warfare agents, the companies will have to create and store the actual agent.


Until now, bioweapons have been handled and stored at labs such as Fort Detrick, labs which are supposed to operate under strict controls with guidelines for safety set out by the U.S. government (not that the government labs have been models of efficiency as their poor past record and accidental releases have shown). But the BioShield bill doesn't set out provisions for the handling of these agents or any safety measures at all, even though the bill effectively turns the pharmaceuticals into new bioweapons factories. Six billion dollars may be a small price to pay if the pharmaceuticals can accomplish the goal as set out in the bill - to protect us from biological and chemical attack. But common sense tells us any country technologically advanced enough to create, store, and modify a bioweapon for release would be competent enough to alter or genetically engineer it in any number of ways that would make the creation of a drug or vaccine to that particular strain of bioweapon impossible. Will the bioterrorists really be so cooperative as to create only those few weapons for which the pharmaceuticals have developed and warehoused countermeasures? Since the pharmaceuticals said it would be unethical to test bioweapon countermeasures on humans and pushed the FDA for the exemption from human testing, why is it ethical to use the Homeland Security Bill to force people under threat of imprisonment, fine, or quarantine to take these same untested medicines?


The Bush administration is perpetrating a pharmaceutical scam justified by the "war on terror," rewarding the pharmaceuticals for the $262 million they invested to get Bush elected, more than any other industry. The bill substantially enriches the pharmaceuticals by creating a virtually endless supply of cash for the creation of untested drugs and vaccines to be warehoused for possible use against the public. Tommy Thompson's stated goal is that every "American man, woman and child will have a vaccine with their name on it" and hundreds of million of dollars are being invested to bring that goal to reality even as the deaths and injuries in the current program continue to mount. He has stated that even one case of smallpox will unleash a massive program of forced vaccination through the Homeland Security Bill, vaccinating or quarantining every American to "protect" them from the uncontrolled threat. But there is no historical precedent or evidence to support the notion that one person infected with smallpox will set off an chain reaction infecting millions and millions of people. A compliant media disseminates every myth the government feeds it without checking any sources or seeking precedents.


A tragic situation has been created in which the best scenario for the American people is that their money will be wasted by letting these untested vaccines remain forever warehoused, although the best scenario would have been not to create them in the first place and instead spend the money on real health-care problems. But the precedent was set when they pulled the 40-year-old smallpox vaccine out of the warehouse without even a hint of a threat of smallpox attack, released it on the U.S. population, making the Bush administration the real bioterrorist. As Dr. Benjamin Rush, signer of the Declaration of Independence and physician to George Washington, said ten years before the creation of the smallpox vaccine, "Unless we put medical freedom into the Constitution, the time will come when medicine will organize into an undercover dictatorship."


About the Author
Lynne Born has been an independent medical researcher, writer, and health activist for 20 years. She also works at a consumer advocacy law firm that

specializes in pharmaceutical fraud.


Offline attietewd

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #9 on: July 07, 2010, 06:13:37 pm »
Those CDC bastards hate admitting this actually happens.  My daughter got measles from her young son after a live vaccine and he shed live cells and she changed his diaper and got Acute disseminated Encephalomyelitis from it.  NO ONE will accept responsibility. 
“Thus, condemnation will never come to those who are in Christ Jesus…”

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #10 on: July 07, 2010, 06:46:29 pm »
my·o·per·i·car·di·tis  - Inflammation of the muscular wall of the heart and of the enveloping pericardium.

http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/289/24/3283.pdf
Myopericarditis Following Smallpox Vaccination Among Vaccinia-Naive US Military Personnel

JAMA. 2003;289(24):3283-3289 (doi:10.1001/jama.289.24.3283)

Context In the United States, the annual incidence of myocarditis is estimated at 1
to 10 per 100000 population. As many as 1% to 5% of patients with acute viral infections
involve the myocardium. Although many viruses have been reported to cause
myopericarditis, it has been a rare or unrecognized event after vaccination with the
currently used strain of vaccinia virus (New York City Board of Health
).

Objective To describe a series of probable cases of myopericarditis following smallpox
vaccination among US military service members reported since the reintroduction
of vaccinia vaccine.


http://www.fda.gov/downloads/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/UCM142613.pdf
Smallpox Vaccine -
Dried, Calf Lymph Type~ [email protected] Dried Smallpox Vaccine
...
ACUTE MYOPERICARDITISHAS BEEN OBSERVED FOLLOWING THE ADMINISTRATION OF [email protected] TO HEALTHY ADULTS (see WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS).

ENCEPHALITIS, ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE VACCINIA, SEVERE VACCINIAL SKIN INFECTIONS, AND BULLOUS ERYTHEMA MULTIFORMA RESULTING IN PERMANENT
SEQUELAE OR DEATH HAVE OCCURRED FOLLOWING EITHER PRIMARY VACCINATION OR REVACCINATION WITH [email protected]
(see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

DRYVAX IS CONTRAINDICATEDIN NON-EMERGENCYSITUATIONSIN THE FOLLOWING INDIVIDUALS:

IMMUNOCOMPROMISEDINDIVIDUALS, INCLUDING THOSE TAKING IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE MEDICATIONS
PERSONS WITH CARDIAC DISEASE, OR A HISTORY OF CARDIAC DISEASE
PERSONS WITH ECZEMA AND PERSONS WITH A HISTORY OF ECZEMA
OR OTHER ACUTE OR CHRONIC EXFOLIATIVE SKIN CONDITIONS
WOMEN WHO ARE PREGNANT, BREAST FEEDING, OR SUSPECT THEY MAY BE PREGNANT
INFANTS LESS THAN 12 MONTHS OF AGE


DESCRIPTION
Smallpox Vaccine, Dried, Calf Lymph Type, [email protected]' ,a live-virus preparation of vaccinia
virus derived from the New York City Board of Health vaccinia strain, prepared from calf lymph. The calf lymph is purified, concentrated, and dried by lyophilization. During processing,
polymyxin B sulfate, dihydrostreptomycin sulfate, chlortetracycline hydrochloride, and
neomycin sulfate are added, and trace amounts of these antibiotics may be present in the final
product. The reconstituted vaccine has been shown by appropriate test methods to contain not
more than 200 viable bacterial organisms per mL.
...
The Armed Forces recommends use of smallpox vaccine for certain categories of personnel. See
the most recent issue of Immunizations and Chemoprophylaxis, Departments of the Army, the
Navy, the Air Force, and Transportation (Army Regulation 40-562, BUMEDINST 6230.15, Air
Force Joint Instruction 48-1 10, CG COMDTINST ~ 6 2 3 0 . 4a~nd) D~e partment of Defense
@OD) Directive 6205.3~fo r current recommendations concerning use.
...

WARNINGS
Myopericarditis

There is an increased risk of acute myopericarditis following vaccinia smallpox vaccinations (see
ADVERSE REACTIONS).
...
The long-term complications of myopericarditis following Dryvax vaccination, if any, are
currently unknown.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Ischemic cardiac events, including fatalities, have been reported following routine
non-emergency vaccine use
; the relationship of these events, if any, to Dryvax is unknown. The
non-emergency use of Dryvax has not been recommended for persons with certain risk factors
for cardiac disease
...
Benign and malignant lesions have been reported to occur at the smallpox vaccination site. Any
postvaccination lesion other than a smooth scar, regardless of duration since vaccination,
warrants further evaluation...

There have been rare reports of photophobia following smallpox vaccination, some of which
required hospitalization.'

More severe complications that may follow either primary vaccination or revaccination include:
postvaccinial encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, encephalopathy, myopericarditis, progressive
vaccinia (vaccinia necrosum), and eczema vaccinatum
.

Such complications may result in severe disability, permanent neurological sequelae, and Death  Although a rare event, approximately 1 death per million primary vaccinations and 1 death per 4 million revaccinations have occurred after vaccinia vaccination.

Death is most often the result of postvaccinial encephalitis or progressive vaccinia.

Death has also been reported in unvaccinated contacts of individuals who have been Vaccinated.

Myopericarditis

In a recent clinical trial among primary vaccinees comparing Dryvax and an investigational
smallpox vaccine also derived from the New York City Board of Health vaccinia strain, 8 cases
of suspected or probable myopericarditis, including both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases,
were detected when active monitoring was used. These cases occurred among 1,162 subjects
enrolled in the combined study groups. For the 289 Dry-vax recipients, 3 cases of suspected or
probable myopericarditis including one symptomatic and 2 asymptomatic cases were detected
for a rate estimate of 104 per 10,000 primary Dryvax vaccination^.^'^

Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc. Philadelphia, PA 19 101
US Govt. License No. 3

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #11 on: July 07, 2010, 10:14:08 pm »
Healthy sailor gets a smallpox vaccination and two weeks later he has Acute Mylegenous Leukemia,  a form of blood cancer. The U.S. Navy Medical Corp. saves him....

Take note that they are using the Baxter "Vero Cell" technology, vat's of goo containing Green Monkey Kidney cells with whatever grows in it (SV-40 HIV)...

http://www.leukemia-lymphoma.org/all_mat_toc.adp?item_id=3113
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
About 12,810 new cases of AML were expected to be diagnosed in the United States in 2009. As of January 2006 an estimated 27,838 people were living with (or were in remission from) AML. Although AML can occur at any age, adults aged 60 years and older are more likely to develop the disease than younger people.

Interesting its NOT DryVax Wyeth its ACAM2000  developed by Sanofi Pasteur Biologics Co. (formerly Acambis) cultured in kidney epithelial cells (Vero cells) from an African green monkey
.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ACAM2000
ACAM2000 is a smallpox vaccine developed by Acambis.

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/07/briefing/2007-4292B2-02.pdf
ACAM2000 Smallpox Vaccine
Sponsor: Acambis Inc. 38 Sidney Street Cambridge, MA 02139 - 18 April 2007

The goal in developing ACAM2000 was to produce a clonally pure virus derived from Dryvax® that would provide effective protection against smallpox disease, possess an acceptable safety profile, and which could be
manufactured efficiently in serum-free tissue culture (Vero cells) to produce a second generation, purified, and lyophilized smallpox vaccine. The advantages with cell culture based manufacturing over production in calf skin include better control for adventitious agents and a more consistent product quality with higher purity.

ACAM2000 is a lyophilized preparation of purified live vaccinia virus containing the following non-active excipients:
• 6-8 mM HEPES (pH 6.5-7.5)
• 2% human serum albumin United States Pharmacopeia (USP)
• 0.5 -0.7% sodium chloride USP
• 5% mannitol USP
Trace levels of residual neomycin and polymyxin B from the manufacturing process may be
present in the vaccine. The diluent for ACAM2000 contains 50% (v/v) Glycerin USP, 0.25%
(v/v) Phenol USP in Water for Injection USP, and is supplied in 3 mL clear glass vials containing
0.6 mL of diluent.
...
ACAM2000 was produced under a contract awarded by the CDC in November 2001 for the
development and manufacture of a second generation smallpox vaccine.
Under this contract
more than 192.5 million doses have been manufactured and supplied to the US Government
SNS.

ACAM2000 will not be marketed for general commercial distribution. The product will be manufactured solely for the following groups:
1. The CDC of the US Government for stockpiling at the SNS and for limited use in
accordance with CDC and DoD regulations,
2. The World Health Organization (WHO) for stockpiling, and
3. Foreign governments for stockpiling and potential use outside the US.
...
[he Master seed virus] all were derived from the Dryvax® NYCBH vaccinia virus strain...Based on its reduced neurovirulence in suckling mice and similarity to Dryvax® in other characteristics, clone number 2 was selected as the best candidate for further development and was renamed ACAM1000
...
The ACAM1000 master virus seed (Passage 7) was used to prepare the second candidate vaccine, ACAM2000, by growth in a continuous line of African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells under serum-free conditions (cell line established and provided by Baxter International, Inc.).


http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm094065.htm

http://www.sanofipasteur.us/sanofi-pasteur2/front/index.jsp?siteCode=SP_US&codeRubrique=69
ACAM2000®, (Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine, Live) is a live, vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine licensed in the U.S. by the Food and Drug Administration for active immunization against smallpox disease for persons determined to be at high risk for smallpox infection. It was developed by Sanofi Pasteur Biologics Co. (formerly Acambis) under a contract with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Today, ACAM2000 vaccine is the primary smallpox vaccine for use in a bioterrorism emergency and forms the majority of the U.S. Government's smallpox vaccine stockpile. Sanofi Pasteur Biologics Co. has supplied more than 196 million doses of ACAM2000 vaccine to the US Government for its Strategic National Stockpile. Sanofi Pasteur Biologics Co. has also supplied ACAM2000 vaccine under an FDA Investigational New Drug application to several other governments around the world.


It was approved for use in the United States by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on 31 August 2007. It contains live vaccinia virus, cloned from the same strain used in an earlier vaccine, Dryvax. While the DryVax virus was cultured in the skin of calves and freeze-dried, ACAM2000's virus is cultured in kidney epithelial cells (Vero cells) from an African green monkey.

Efficacy and adverse reaction incidence are similar to DryVax. The vaccine is not available to the US public; it is, however, used in the military and kept in the Strategic National Stockpile.[1]

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http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5819a5.htm
Progressive Vaccinia in a Military Smallpox Vaccinee --- United States, May 19 2009
On May 19, this report was posted as an MMWR Early Release on the MMWR website (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr).

Progressive vaccinia (PV), previously known as vaccinia necrosum, vaccinia gangrenosum, or disseminated vaccinia, is a rare, often fatal adverse event after vaccination with smallpox vaccine, which is made from live vaccinia virus

(1).  During recent vaccination programs potential cases of PV were investigated, but none met standard case definitions
(2). PV has not been confirmed to have occurred in the United States since 1987
(3). On March 2, 2009, a U.S. Navy Hospital contacted the Poxvirus Program at CDC to report a possible case of PV in a male military smallpox vaccinee. The service member had been newly diagnosed with acute mylegenous leukemia M0 (AML M0). During evaluation for a chemotherapy-induced neutropenic fever, he was found to have an expanding and nonhealing painless vaccination site 6.5 weeks after receipt of smallpox vaccine.

Clinical and laboratory investigation confirmed that the vaccinee met the Brighton Collaboration and CDC adverse event surveillance guideline case definition for PV (4,5). This report summarizes the patient's protracted clinical course and the military and civilian interagency governmental, academic, and industry public health contributions to his complex medical management. The quantities of investigational and licensed therapeutics and diagnostics used were greater than anticipated based on existing smallpox preparedness plans.

To support future public health needs adequately, the estimated national supply of therapeutics and diagnostic resources required to care for smallpox vaccine adverse events should be reevaluated.

Case Description

On January 13, 2009, a healthy service member aged 20 years received a primary smallpox vaccination (ACAM2000 [Acambis, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts]) in accordance with the U.S. Department of Defense smallpox vaccination policy*;

no other vaccinations were administered that day. Twelve days later, the patient visited a local hospital with fever and headache of 1 day's duration and was admitted for workup of leukopenia after his white blood cell count was found to be 1,400 cells/mm3.

On January 28, after transfer to a U.S. Navy tertiary-care facility, he was diagnosed with AML M0.

On January 30 and February 13, the patient underwent two successive rounds of induction chemotherapy with cytarabine, idarubicin, and dexamethasone. Before initial chemotherapy, the vaccination site pustule had a central crust and measured approximately 1 cm in diameter with minimal surrounding erythema.

During the patient's hospital stay from the end of January to the beginning of March, his vaccination site dressing was changed daily.

On March 2, during the evaluation of neutropenic fever, the failure of the patient's vaccination site to heal was described
...

...
On March 3, imiquimod was applied directly to the lesion. Within 24 hours of confirmation of PV on March 4, the patient received licensed Vaccinia Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human) (VIGIV) (Cangene Corporation, Winnipeg, Canada). On March 5 and March 6, oral and topical ST-246 (SIGA Technologies, Corvallis, Oregon) were administered under an Emergency Investigational New Drug (E-IND) application. The patient remained stable until the evening of March 7, when he became septic with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, likely from a perirectal abscess. He required intubation, maximal vasopressor support, multiple antibiotics, and stress dose corticosteroids.

He then developed multiorgan failure and began continuous venovenous hemodialysis. During the next 12 days, the patient slowly stabilized. As a consequence of the duration and amount of vasopressor support, the patient required a bilateral trans-tibial amputation because of dry gangrene of his feet.

During March 6--19, the patient received additional oral and topical ST-246 and VIGIV; his ST-246 levels were noted to be lower than those achieved both in healthy subjects in phase I clinical trials and in successful treatment of nonhuman primates with systemic orthopoxvirus disease. The lesion size remained unchanged, but the central crust of the vaccination site sloughed off, followed by most of the outer "ring" flattening, leaving a shallow ulcer with healthy-appearing granulation tissue. During his steroid taper, additional satellite lesions surrounding the vaccination site appeared on March 18, and viral DNA was detected again in the blood. These lesions became vesicular in nature, and on March 26, after a second E-IND was issued, CMX001 (Chimerix, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina), a lipid conjugate of cidofovir, was administered.
...
On May 5, contact precautions were discontinued because of the lack of viable virus in lesion specimens from the previous 4 weeks. No cases of contact vaccinia were identified among this patient's health-care workers or close contacts.
...
As of May 12, the patient had no demonstrable IgM response to orthopoxvirus; IgG levels appeared fully reliant on VIGIV infusion.

...

The rapid mobilization of military, CDC, FDA, NIH, drug manufacturer, and academic and health-care human resources to review the case's status and to provide daily, then biweekly laboratory findings that guided treatment recommendations, was enabled by smallpox public health preparedness research and training efforts.

Future cases of PV likely will require similar intensive and multidisciplinary clinical consultation. Experts with background in vaccine safety, PV treatment, clinical virology, infectious disease, and immunodeficiencies should be engaged.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #12 on: July 08, 2010, 11:08:52 am »
It is interesting that once they get the Government contract for the smallpox vaccine ACAM2000 in 2007 they change there name (show there true colors).
Acambis, Inc. and changed its name to Sanofi Pasteur Biologics Co. in December, 2008

http://www.biospace.com/jobListingCompany.aspx?JOB_CUSTOMER_ENTITY_ID=358532
sanofi pasteur, Acambis Campus

Sanofi Pasteur is the vaccines division of the sanofi-aventis Group. As the vaccines division of the sanofi-aventis Group, sanofi pasteur is devoted exclusively to the research, production, and worldwide distribution of human vaccines

http://investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=32511

Sanofi Pasteur Biologics Co. engages in the discovery, development, and commercialization of vaccine and antibody products for the prevention and treatment of human infectious diseases. Sanofi Pasteur Biologics Co. was formerly known as Acambis, Inc. and changed its name to Sanofi Pasteur Biologics Co. in December, 2008. The company was incorporated in 1990 and is based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

As of May 11, 1999, Sanofi Pasteur Biologics Co. was a subsidiary of Acambis plc.

It now operates as a subsidiary of Sanofi-Aventis.

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http://assets.inknowvation.com/node/4597

Web: www.acambis.com

Profile:
Previously an independent, publicly held biopharmaceutical company, in May 1999 Acambis Inc, (previously known as Oravax) was acquired British firm Peptide Therapeutics Group PLC.

Subsiquent investment in its vaccine production was French firm Pasteur Merieux.

Another firm, Baxter, also invested and acquired parts of the Acambis vaccine group.

The firm was acquired outright in July 2008 by the vaccines division of France's Sanofi-Aventis .

The firm is now a wholly-owned subsidiary of Sanofi Pasteur, the vaccine division of Sanofi-Aventis.

The firm is focused on the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases of humans by applying recent advances in the fundamental understanding of mucosal immunity, the first line of defense against the majority of bacterial and viral agents.

After the acquistion by Peptide, Acambis received a substantial NIH awards to work on West Niles Virus.

Originally made as an SBIR award, the project was reclassified an RO1 after it was ascertained that the firm was no longer SBIR-eligible.

Acambis has since been recruited to produce 209 million doses of smallpox vaccine for the US Government for the purposes of countering the threat of smallpox as a bioterrorist weapon. This is part of the US Government’s plan to provide a dose of smallpox vaccine for every man, woman and child in the US.

The company is developing oral vaccines and monoclonal IgA antibodies. Acambis Inc's focus on the mucosal immune system is novel because augmenting immunity at the mucosal surface exploits defense mechanisms that have been largely ignored by traditional vaccine strategies. Product development is being pursued through a combination of internal research and development, external research agreements with leading academic institutions, and contract manufacture. OraVax develops oral vaccines and noninjected antibody products. It targets treatments for diseases caused by bacteria and viruses that infect the body through mucous membranes such as the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts.

Its products, which are in various stages of development, include the HNK20 antibody for the prevention of viral pneumonia in children and a vaccine against Japanese Encephalitis.

OraVax (Acambis Inc) has an agreement with Pasteur Merieux Serums & Vaccines to develop and market its H. pylori vaccines, which prevent and treat peptic ulcers, stomach cancer, and gastritis.

http://www.thefreelibrary.com/OraVax,+Inc.+Completes+Merger+With+Peptide+Therapeutics+Group+plc%3B...-a054601764
CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BW HealthWire)--May 11, 1999--

OraVax, Inc.,OTC  BB:ORVX) a Cambridge, Massachusetts . biopharmaceutical company, announced today that the holders of its outstanding common stock voted to approve its acquisition by Cambridge, England based Peptide Therapeutics Group plc   at a special meeting held on May 10, 1999.

The merger creates a larger biopharmaceutical company involved in the development of novel drugs, vaccines and antibody products that control significant human diseases with a total of ten products in development, eight of which are currently in clinical trials, and two scheduled to go into clinical trials during the next twelve months.

The enlarged company also has multiple corporate partnerships including those with Pasteur Merieux Connaught, SmithKline Beecham, Pfizer, Eli Lilly, Novartis and Medeva. This new business combination results in a broader portfolio of product programs and greater market presence, as well as the potential for expanded corporate partnerships.

The completion of the acquisition has also triggered the expansion of a strategic alliance with Pasteur Merieux Connaught relating to the ChimeriVax(tm) vaccine technology. The existing alliance to develop vaccines against Dengue fever  has been expanded to include vaccines against Japanese encephalitis . and Hepatitis C . .

Under the alliance, Pasteur Merieux Connaught will fund the costs of research and development, make milestone payments and pay royalties on sales. Peptide could receive up to a total of $60 million in milestone payments under these agreements

See: Bilderberg 2009 Attendee List  

http://www.notablebiographies.com/newsmakers2/2005-Pu-Z/Vasella-Daniel.html
Daniel Vasella Biography
Chief Executive Officer of Novartis

Born in 1953 in Fribourg, Switzerland; son of Oskar (a history professor) Vasella; married Anne-Laurence, 1978; children: one daughter, two sons. Education: University of Bern, M.D., 1979.

He became CEO of Sandoz in 1994, and when Sandoz merged with rival Ciba-Geigy to form Novartis in 1996, Vasella was named the new company's CEO. His family ties to Sandoz made some feel he had gotten the job out of nepotism, but others disagree. "
...
He moved the company's research and development headquarters from Basel, Switzerland, to Cambridge, Massachusetts, to take advantage of the Boston area's heavy concentration of medical researchers and personally recruited a top scientist from Harvard Medical School to run the lab.

As a doctor, Vasella can oversee research better than other drug company CEOs, his admirers say, because he can ask his research teams complex questions.
...
He looked longingly at Roche, also based in Basel, and began buying its stock, but Roche's CEO and the family who owns the majority stake in the company were opposed to a merger. As of early 2005, Novartis had only managed to acquire 33 percent of Roche. He also pursued a merger with French drug company Aventis, but he backed off after the French government, preferring that the company remain French, put up hurdles to a deal.

Think "Sanofi-Aventis"


Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #13 on: July 09, 2010, 11:36:04 am »
Down the vaccine rabbit hole: One thing to note is this is a "new" vaccine and has only been in use for two-three years

http://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(04)00134-1/abstract
ACAM2000 clonal Vero cell culture vaccinia virus (New York City Board of Health strain) – a second-generation smallpox vaccine for biological defense

Summary
The threat of smallpox as a biological weapon has spurred efforts to create stockpiles of vaccine for emergency preparedness. In lieu of preparing vaccine in animal skin (the original method), we cloned vaccinia virus (New York City Board of Health strain, Dryvax®) by plaque purification and amplified the clone in cell culture. The overarching goal was to produce a modern vaccine that was equivalent to the currently licensed Dryvax® in its preclinical and clinical properties, and could thus reliably protect humans against smallpox.

A variety of clones were evaluated, and many were unacceptably virulent in animal models. One clonal virus (ACAM1000) was selected and produced at clinical grade in MRC-5 human diploid cells. ACAM1000 was comparable to Dryvax® in immunogenicity and protective activity but was less neurovirulent for mice and nonhuman primates.

To meet requirements for large quantities of vaccine after the events of September 11th 2001, the ACAM1000 master virus seed was used to prepare vaccine (designated ACAM2000) at large scale in Vero cells under serum-free conditions. The genomes of ACAM1000 and ACAM2000 had identical nucleotide sequences, and the vaccines had comparable biological phenotypes. ACAM1000 and ACAM2000 were evaluated in three Phase 1 clinical trials. The vaccines produced major cutaneous reactions and evoked neutralizing antibody and cell-mediated immune responses in the vast majority of subjects and had a reactogenicity profile similar to that of Dryvax®.

http://www.vaccines.mil/documents/1156ALNAV_27FEB08.pdf
SUBJECT: TRANSITION FROM CURRENT DRYVAX SMALLPOX VACCINE TO ACAM2000 FEB 2008
FM SECNAV WASHINGTON DC
TO ALNAV
BT
UNCLAS
ALNAV 018/08
MSGID/GENADMIN/SECNAV WASHINGTON DC/-/FEB//
SUBJ/TRANSITION FROM CURRENT DRYVAX SMALLPOX VACCINE TO ACAM2000
SMALLPOX VACCINE//
REF/A/DOC/MILVAX DIRECTOR/23JAN2008//
REF/B/DOC/ASD (HA)/26NOV2002//
REF/C/MSG/CNO/(N09)/CNO WASHINGTON DC/091532ZJAN03//
REF/D/DOC/BUMEDINST 6230.15A/29SEP06//
REF/E/DOC/COMFLTFORCOM/NORFOLK VA//161133ZJAN03//
...
1. PER REFERENCE (A), DOD IS TRANSITIONING FROM WYETHS DRYVAX BRAND OF
SMALLPOX VACCINE TO ACAMBIS ACAM2000 BRAND OF SMALLPOX VACCINE.
ACAM2000 IS A VACCINE LICENSED AND APPROVED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG
ADMINISTRATION (FDA) FOR PROTECTION AGAINST SMALLPOX. THE FDA APPROVED
LICENSURE OF ACAM2000 ON 31 AUGUST 2007. SUBSEQUENTLY, WYETH (THE
MANUFACTURER OF DRYVAX) ANNOUNCED ITS PLANS TO WITHDRAW LICENSURE OF
DRYVAX VACCINE.
2. SMALLPOX VACCINATION PROGRAM (SVP) POLICY. NAVY AND MARINE CORPS
POLICY FOR THE SVP REMAINS THE SAME. THIS TRANSITION TO A NEW VACCINE
DOES NOT CHANGE THE POPULATION BEING VACCINATED OR THE PREVIOUS
REQUIREMENTS OF THE SVP
.
3. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS TIMELINES:
A. IN JANUARY 2008 DRYVAX VACCINE AT HIGH VOLUME SITES WERE REPLACED
WITH ACAM2000.

B. ALL NAVY AND MARINE CORPS COMMMANDS AND IMMUNIZATION CLINICS SHALL
STOP USING DRYVAX SMALLPOX VACCINE ON 29 FEBRUARY 2008
AND CONTINUE THE
SVP USING THE ACAM2000 VACCINE.
...
D. ACAMBIS ACAM2000 WILL BE FULLY IMPLEMENTED AS THE DODS SMALLPOX
VACCINE ON 1 APRIL 2008.


4. CLINICAL REQUIREMENTS:

A. ACAM2000 IS ADMINISTERED SIMILAR TO THE DRYVAX VACCINE BY
PERCUTANEOUS ROUTE (SCARIFICATION) USING A BIFURCATED NEEDLE. LIKE
DRYVAX VACCINE ACAM2000 SHALL NOT BE ADMINISTERED BY THE INTRADERMAL,
SUBCUTANEOUS, INTRAMUSCULAR, OR INTRAVENOUS ROUTE.

B. ACAM2000 WAS EVALUATED AGAINST DRYVAX SMALLPOX VACCINE IN SIX
PRELICENSURE CLINICAL STUDIES AND FOUND TO HAVE A COMPARABLE SIDEEFFECT
PROFILE. THE MOST COMMON SIDE-EFFECTS FOLLOWING VACCINATION
WITH ACAM2000 INCLUDES: ITCHING, SWOLLEN LYMPH NODES, SORE ARM, FEVER,
HEADACHE, BODY ACHE, MILD RASH, AND FATIGUE. THERE WAS NO STATISTICAL
DIFFERENCE IN THE INCIDENCE OF SERIOUS ADVERSE EVENTS (MYOCARDITIS OR
PERICARDITIS) BETWEEN ACAM2000 VACCINE AND DRYVAX VACCINE.


http://www.siliconfenbusiness.com/articles/Acambis-swings-into-loss-reports-good-progress-on-vaccines-in-the-pipeline/35
Acambis swings into loss; reports 'good' progress on vaccines in the pipeline - 09/03/06
...
Further progress on pipeline
...
Mr Smith said Acambis also aims to exploit its competitive strengths in the smallpox arena to gain as much value as possible from its franchise of products. It made progress with its existing MVA3000 contract, including delivering 500,000 doses to the US Government, and, in January 2006, started submission of a US licence application for ACAM2000.

During 2006, based on indications from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Acambis expects to sign and initiate a US Government warm-base manufacturing contract for ACAM2000. It also expects a decision on the US Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) stockpiling tender, for which it submitted a proposal in October 2005.

Mr Smith said the group expected further "good progress" from its pipeline this year and that it was "confident that during 2006 we will also achieve greater clarity around our smallpox franchise.

"Based on indications from the CDC, we continue to expect to sign and initiate a US Government warm-base manufacturing contract for ACAM2000 and we also expect to receive a decision on the US MVA stockpiling tender process in the second quarter".

He said that as in previous years, some revenues in 2006 will be more predictable than others, namely those from sales of Vivotif and existing ACAM2000 and MVA3000 contracts. "We estimate that, depending upon the timing of activities for the existing smallpox contracts, our predictable revenues in 2006 will be £20-25m," he said.

There is significant potential for additional revenues from contracts currently being pursued, particularly further ACAM2000 and MVA3000 US Government contracts.

So what's MVA3000? a warm attenuated  "not-live" (non-refrigerated) Small-pox vaccine

http://www.chemie.de/news/e/50698/
Acambis completes delivery of 500,000 doses of MVA3000 smallpox vaccine to US Government

06 Dec 2005 - Acambis plc announced that it has completed the delivery under contract terms of 500,000 doses of its investigational MVA attenuated smallpox vaccine, MVA3000, to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ("NIAID"), part of the US National Institutes of Health. The delivery fulfils a core requirement of the contract that was awarded to Acambis by the NIAID in September 2004 for the manufacture and development of an MVA vaccine.  
 
Acambis is co-developing MVA3000 with Baxter Healthcare SA ("Baxter"), which produced the 500,000 doses at its facilities and provides process development and manufacturing services.
 
In August, the Department of Health and Human Services issued a Request for Proposals (RFP) for the manufacture of up to 20 million doses of MVA attenuated smallpox vaccine and advanced clinical testing up to and including obtaining a product license for MVA. It also included options for the purchase of up to 60 million additional doses of MVA and "warm-base" manufacturing over the longer term. Acambis submitted a proposal in response to the RFP in October and the US Government has indicated that contract award(s) will be made in February 2006.

http://www.biocentury.com/dailynews/company/2007-03-15/acambis-discontinuing-mva3000
Acambis discontinuing MVA3000
Published on Thursday, March 15, 2007

Acambis (LSE:ACM) said that this year it will wind down activities related to its MVA3000 smallpox vaccine. In November, ACM received notification from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that the vaccine was no longer being considered as part of the Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) smallpox vaccine tender process (See BioCentury Extra, Tuesday, Nov. 14, 2006). ACM said it will end the program following the completion of an existing MVA R&D contract with the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) that concludes in September.

So what's  Modified Vaccinia Ankara ?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modified_vaccinia_Ankara

Vaccinia viruses re-engineered to express foreign genes are robust vectors for production of recombinant proteins, the most common being a vaccine delivery system for antigens. Concerns about the safety of the vaccinia virus have been addressed by the development of vectors based on attenuated vaccinia viruses. One of them, the Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus, is a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus that was developed towards the end of the campaign for the eradication of smallpox by Professor Anton Mayr in Germany. Produced by hundreds of passages of vaccinia virus in chicken cells, MVA has lost about 10% of the vaccinia genome and with it the ability to replicate efficiently in primate cells.
...
Recently, vaccination with smallpox vaccine (a vaccinia virus related to MVA) has been shown, on rare occasions, to cause heart problems in people who received it: heart inflammation (myocarditis), inflammation of the membrane covering the heart (pericarditis), and a combination of these two problems (myopericarditis). A few cases of cardiac chest pain (angina) and heart attack have also been reported following smallpox vaccination. It is not known at this time if smallpox vaccination causes angina or heart attacks. MVA is an attenuated vaccinia virus and does not replicate in the human body as efficiently as vaccinia. However, whether MVA can induce the same side effects as vaccinia is not known at this time
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #14 on: July 09, 2010, 10:51:35 pm »
The Origins of Vaccinia virus in itself is a mystery. Possibly the first virus hybrid "selected" by man.....

Quote: "Vaccinia Virus has no Natural Host"


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1139117/pdf/medhist00088-0102.pdf
DERRICK BAXBY, Jenner's smallpox vaccine. The riddle of vaccinia virus and its origin,
London, Heinemann Educational Books, 1981, 8vo, pp. xiv, 214, illus.. £8.50.
....

Dr. Baxby believes, on the basis of a mixture of research
and conjecture, that none of the possible origins so far suggested for vaccinia virus makes real
sense. He has good reasons for opposing even the most attractive of the hypotheses previously
put forward, that vaccinia virus might have been the result of hybridization of smallpox and
cowpox viruses in the early years of vaccinations carried out within Woodville's Smallpox
Hospital.


He also has an equally attractive and inspired alternative to offer. He believes that the
surviving closely related strains of vaccinia virus may be descendants of the now extinct virus of
horsepox
, bearing in mind that Jenner himself thought that his cowpox originated in the horse,
although he also introduced the unfortunate and confusing concept of "grease".

It is a theory which is unlikely ever to be tested, in spite of the rapid advance of structural
analyses of proteins and of DNA at the molecular level, since horsepox disappeared at the
beginning of the present century. Dr. Baxby concludes that the origin of the vaccine virus which
provided the means for the first planned eradication of a virus disease worldwide may remain
forever a mystery.
We may add that his contribution, although supplying yet another facet to
the mystery, and supported only by the most tenuous of circumstantial evidence, nevertheless
offers a beguiling fresh possibility for those who enjoy conjecture in this area, with the added
bonus of a refreshingly complete and fair summing-up of the tangled history of Jenner, his
friends and foes, and the orthopoxviruses which united and divided them.

http://www.jstor.org/pss/30107196


Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #15 on: July 09, 2010, 11:14:23 pm »
"Warm Based" Vaccine Manufacturing - What does it mean?

As a Military term:http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/camp-able-sentry.htm
After almost 10 years of being an Intermediate Staging Base for the Balkans, Camp Able Sentry (CAS) will became a warm base by the first of 2003.  ...the base went to “warm base” status, which means it will be maintained by a small group of civilian contractors in case operations need to be reactivated in the area.

http://www.govtech.com/gt/articles/125371
HHS Awards Two Contracts to Expand Domestic Vaccine Manufacturing Capacity for Potential Influenza Pandemic Jun 15, 2007, News Report

HHS Secretary Mike Leavitt has announced the award of two contracts to expand the domestic influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity that could be used in the event of a potential influenza pandemic.

The department has awarded two cost-reimbursable contracts totaling $132.5 million to sanofi pasteur and MedImmune over five years to retrofit existing domestic vaccine manufacturing facilities on a cost-sharing basis and to provide warm-base operations for manufacturing pandemic influenza vaccines. In warm-base operations, the contractor does not shut down the facility.

"We must prepare for a flu pandemic, although it may not be possible to be certain when the next one will come or how severe it will be," Secretary Leavitt said. "These contracts are important advances in the path of preparation because they help the nation build its capacity to respond."

The five-year contracts were awarded to sanofi pasteur, a manufacturer of a U.S.-licensed egg-based inactivated influenza vaccine product, for $77.4 million and to MedImmune, a manufacturer of a U.S.-licensed egg-based live, attenuated vaccine product, for $55.1 million. The contracts provide funding for renovation of manufacturing facilities and manufacturing warm-base operations for two years with options for an additional three years of warm-base operation.

Upon completion, these facilities will expand domestic pandemic vaccine manufacturing capacity by 16 percent. Additionally, these facilities will afford year-round production of pre-pandemic influenza vaccines for the national stockpile, which is limited currently to three months each year.

The HHS Pandemic Preparedness Plan, issued in November 2005, outlines public health preparedness and response activities for an influenza pandemic. Major vaccine goals include the establishment of pre-pandemic influenza vaccine stockpiles for 20 million persons in the critical workforce and the expansion of domestic pandemic vaccine manufacturing surge capacity for 300 million persons within six months of the onset of an influenza pandemic.

HHS' Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, which oversees medical countermeasure development and acquisition efforts through its Office of Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), formerly the Office of Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures, will manage these contracts

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122456648/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
Manufacturing a rapid biologic response

$1B program to shift to cell-based influenza vaccine manufacturing (DHHS Press Release

http://www.novavax.com/download/File/BioPham_Reprints_Jan_09_FO.pdf
An Alternative to the Scale-up and Distribution of Pandemic Influenza Vaccine

Newer methods are being developed to replace the chicken egg with a cell line developed
from various mammalian species
, although the purification and inactivation are managed in a
similar manner.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #16 on: August 12, 2010, 01:23:30 pm »
Mycoplasma are the new BW,  variations can be added to the vaccine "vats" and remain undetectable.

http://www.whale.to/m/mycoplasma9.html
Mycoplasma quotes

"That's a quote, "pathogenic mycoplasma." And if you know anything about mycoplasmas, myco indicates fungal, but yet mycoplasma is not really a fungus, it's not really a bacteria, it's not really a virus. It's sort of like a pseudo all of them. It has no cell wall, it goes deep into the cell nuclei thereby making it very difficult to mount an immune response against.

It's man-made. It can be used as a biological weapon. It was developed as an AIDS vaccine-related organism. It was extracted from AIDS patients. It is responsible for virtually all of the symptoms which AIDS patients suffer from. The AIDS virus is at best a co-factor, and not even such a strong co-factor as to bring on all of the symptoms of AIDS.     ...There's only speculation and the most likely thesis that I'm looking at is through contaminated vaccines, contaminated blood supplies. I don't know any other suitable mode of transmitting that kind of infectious agent. http://www.whale.to/b/nazi_flu.html
...
"Researchers  Dr. Garth Nicolson and his wife Nancy have found a tiny bacterial microbe (a "mycoplasma")  in the blood of nearly half the ill vets with GWI.  Amazingly, this infectious agent has a piece of HIV (the AIDS virus)  attached to it.  

This microbe could never have occured naturally. On the contrary, the composition of the microbe suggests  a man-made and genetically-engineered biological warfare agent."--Dr Cantwell MD

http://www.whale.to/v/cantwell.html
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline thompson44

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #17 on: September 05, 2010, 07:17:04 am »
The Washington state woman had a history of eczema as a child, but, when she sought out medical treatment, was only tested for common sexually transmitted diseases, despite voicing concern about her boyfriend’s recent smallpox vaccination. She complained of painful areas of vaginal swelling, several sores and a swollen lymph node over several visits to separate clinics before seeing an infectious diseases specialist who tested for vaccinia.
Health care providers are not required to nationally notify in the case of positive vaccinia testing but are encouraged to report such findings to the CDC.
thompson44
Colorado Business Immigration

Offline global_fiefdom

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #18 on: December 21, 2011, 05:46:42 pm »
BUMP

I wonder what will happen when the gov't vaccinates troops/civilians with anthrax/malaria, AIDS, and/or smallpox during a "flu" (bioweapon vector) outbreak.

horizontal and vertical transmission,
mutating virus stacking infections,
AIDSlike reactions, hyper-reactions and super-high fevers in specific (targeted) organs.


Welcome to the desert of the real,
to use a line from the Matrix.

Offline decemberfellow

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #19 on: December 21, 2011, 06:12:12 pm »
Those CDC bastards hate admitting this actually happens.  My daughter got measles from her young son after a live vaccine and he shed live cells and she changed his diaper and got Acute disseminated Encephalomyelitis from it.  NO ONE will accept responsibility. 

More and more we are seeing this.
My wake up call:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PIXluhu4AoU
Rev21:4
And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed away.


Who am I
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v7Fk6dt_uHo

Offline Freeski

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #20 on: December 21, 2011, 08:39:51 pm »
Bleak
"He who passively accepts evil is as much involved in it as he who helps to perpetrate it. He who accepts evil without protesting against it is really cooperating with it." Martin Luther King, Jr.

Offline spinner

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #21 on: December 26, 2011, 11:49:23 am »
Don't even know what to say after watching that except I'll pray for her and I'm glad I home school and mt 5 kids have no vaccines.

Offline Constitutionary

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Re: Woman contracts smallpox from recently vaccinated MILITARY man
« Reply #22 on: January 25, 2012, 07:29:47 pm »
People are still getting vaccinated after what happened to Desiree Jennings ?  The Cheerleader that got dystopia from all her vaccinations.