Author Topic: British Security Coordination - "Hitler's New World Order" 1941 Roosevelt speech  (Read 90534 times)

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Offline TahoeBlue

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https://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/Martial-Law_Green.pdf

Martial Law in Hawaii
DEC 7, 1941--APRIL 4, 1943


Foreword
During the Fall of 1941 diplomatic relations between the United States and Japan, which had been steadily deteriorating, took a sudden turn for the worse. In November of that year envoys from Japan had cone to Washington ostensibly for the purpose of settling by peaceful means existing international differences.

...

The 170,000 residents of Hawaii who were of Japanese origin were a valuable asset and there can be no doubt that the Japanese Empire intended to take every possible step to insure the support of that group.

It was for the United States authorities to determine to what extent the Americans of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii subscribed to the ideology of Japan. It was indeed a tough nut to crack and the situation permitted of no second guess.


...
The "Bomb Plot" Messages

Beginning as early as September 24, 1941, the Japanese Consul General at Honolulu, acting upon directives from Tokyo, began making detailed reports concerning the movements of the American Fleet at Pearl Harbor. These reports included the berthing's of the ships in the Harbor areas.

 Such reports were first made twice a week but later were increased to daily reports. These messages were later designated as "Bomb Plot" messages because they definitely pointed the finger at the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Typical of these messages was that sent on November 24th concerning the fleet practice of leaving Pearl Harbor, conducting maneuvers and returning, and stating that the fleet had not remained for a long period of time at Lahina Road or conducted maneuvers there. It mentioned that destroyers and submarines only were anchored at Lahina Roads.

It reported the times when cruisers and other ships left for sea and the duration of their stay. All of these messages were intercepted, decoded and read in Washington. However, neither the messages nor transcripts of them were made available to the commanders at Pearl Harbor. Furthermore, the fact that such messages were being sent by the Consul General was never made known to these commanders prior to the War.

...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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There had to be a human sacrifice first ...

And what we have learned is this:
 There is no such thing as security for any nation—or any individual—in a world ruled by the principles of gangsterism.
 There is no such thing as impregnable defense against powerful aggressors who sneak up in the dark and strike without warning.
 We have learned that our ocean-girt hemisphere is not immune from severe attack—that we cannot measure our safety in terms of miles on any map any more.
 


http://web2.millercenter.org/speeches/audio/spe_1941_1209_roosevelt.mp3
This transcript contains the published text of the speech, not the actual words spoken. There may be some differences between the transcript and the audio/video content.

http://millercenter.org/president/fdroosevelt/speeches/speech-3325
Fireside Chat 19: On the War with Japan (December 9, 1941)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Transcript

My Fellow Americans:

 The sudden criminal attacks perpetrated by the Japanese in the Pacific provide the climax of a decade of international immorality.
 Powerful and resourceful gangsters have banded together to make war upon the whole human race. Their challenge has now been flung at the United States of America. The Japanese have treacherously violated the longstanding peace between us. Many American soldiers and sailors have been killed by enemy action. American ships have been sunk; American airplanes have been destroyed.

 The Congress and the people of the United States have accepted that challenge.

 Together with other free peoples, we are now fighting to maintain our right to live among our world neighbors in freedom, in common decency, without fear of assault.

 I have prepared the full record of our past relations with Japan, and it will be submitted to the Congress. It begins with the visit of Commodore Parry to Japan eighty-eight years ago. It ends with the visit of two Japanese emissaries to the Secretary of State last Sunday, an hour after Japanese forces had loosed their bombs and machine guns against our flag, our forces and our citizens.

 I can say with utmost confidence that no Americans today or a thousand years hence, need feel anything but pride in our patience and in our efforts through all the years toward achieving a peace in the Pacific which would be fair and honorable to every nation, large or small. And no honest person, today or a thousand years hence, will be able to suppress a sense of indignation and horror at the treachery committed by the military dictators of Japan, under the very shadow of the flag of peace borne by their special envoys in our midst.

 The course that Japan has followed for the past ten years in Asia has paralleled the course of Hitler and Mussolini in Europe and in Africa. Today, it has become far more than a parallel. It is actual collaboration so well calculated that all the continents of the world, and all the oceans, are now considered by the Axis strategists as one gigantic battlefield.

 In 1931, ten years ago, Japan invaded Manchukuo—without warning.
 In 1935, Italy invaded Ethiopia—without warning. In 1938, Hitler occupied Austria—without warning.
 In 1939, Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia—without warning. Later in '39, Hitler invaded Poland—without warning. In 1940, Hitler invaded Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg—without warning.
 In 1940, Italy attacked France and later Greece—without warning.

 And this year, in 1941, the Axis Powers attacked Yugoslavia and Greece and they dominated the Balkans—without warning. In 1941, also, Hitler invaded Russia—without warning. And now Japan has attacked Malaya and Thailand—and the United States—without warning.

 It is all of one pattern.

 We are now in this war. We are all in it—all the way. Every single man, woman and child is a partner in the most tremendous undertaking of our American history. We must share together the bad news and the good news, the defeats and the victories—the changing fortunes of war.
 So far, the news has been all bad. We have suffered a serious setback in Hawaii. Our forces in the Philippines, which include the brave people of that Commonwealth, are taking punishment, but are defending themselves vigorously. The reports from Guam and Wake and Midway Islands are still confused, but we must be prepared for the announcement that all these three outposts have been seized.

 The casualty lists of these first few days will undoubtedly be large. I deeply feel the anxiety of all of the families of the men in our armed forces and the relatives of people in cities which have been bombed. I can only give them my solemn promise that they will get news just as quickly as possible.

 This Government will put its trust in the stamina of the American people, and will give the facts to the public just as soon as two conditions have been fulfilled: first, that the information has been definitely and officially confirmed; and, second, that the release of the information at the time it is received will not prove valuable to the enemy directly or indirectly.

 Most earnestly I urge my countrymen to reject all rumors. These ugly little hints of complete disaster fly thick and fast in wartime. They have to be examined and appraised.

 As an example, I can tell you frankly that until further surveys are made, I have not sufficient information to state the exact damage which has been done to our naval vessels at Pearl Harbor. Admittedly the damage is serious. But no one can say how serious, until we know how much of this damage can be repaired and how quickly the necessary repairs can be made.

 I cite as another example a statement made on Sunday night that a Japanese carrier had been located and sunk off the Canal Zone. And when you hear statements that are attributed to what they call "an authoritative source," you can be reasonably sure from now on that under these war circumstances the "authoritative source" is not any person in authority.

 Many rumors and reports which we now hear originate, of course, with enemy sources. For instance, today the Japanese are claiming that as a result of their one action against Hawaii they hare gained naval supremacy in the Pacific. This is an old trick of propaganda which has been used innumerable times by the Nazis. The purposes of such fantastic claims are, of course, to spread fear and confusion among us, and to goad us into revealing military information which our enemies are desperately anxious to obtain.

 Our Government will not be caught in this obvious trap—and neither will the people of the United States.

 It must be remembered by each and every one of us that our free and rapid communication these days must be greatly restricted in wartime. It is not possible to receive full and speedy and accurate reports front distant areas of combat. This is particularly true where naval operations are concerned. For in these days of the marvels of the radio it is often impossible for the Commanders of various units to report their activities by radio at all, for the very simple reason that this information would become available to the enemy and would disclose their position and their plan of defense or attack.

 Of necessity there will be delays in officially confirming or denying reports of operations, but we will not hide facts from the country if we know the facts and if the enemy will not be aided by their disclosure.

To all newspapers and radio stations—all those who reach the eyes and ears of the American people—I say this: You have a most grave responsibility to the nation now and for the duration of this war.

 If you feel that your Government is not disclosing enough of the truth, you have every right to say so. But in the absence of all the facts, as revealed by official sources, you have no right in the ethics of patriotism to deal out unconfirmed reports in such a way as to make people believe that they are gospel truth.
 Every citizen, in every walk of life, shares this same responsibility. The lives of our soldiers and sailors—the whole future of this nation—depend upon the manner in which each and every one of us fulfills his obligation to our country.
 Now a word about the recent past and the future. A year and a half has elapsed since the fall of France, when the whole world first realized the mechanized might which the Axis nations had been building up for so many years. America has used that year and a half to great advantage. Knowing that the attack might reach us in all too short a time, we immediately began greatly to increase our industrial strength and our capacity to meet the demands of modern warfare.
 Precious months were gained by sending vast quantities of our war material to the nations of the world still able to resist Axis aggression. Our policy rested on the fundamental truth that the defense of any country resisting Hitler or Japan was in the long run the defense of our own country. That policy has been justified. It has given us time, invaluable time, to build our American assembly lines of production.
 Assembly lines are now in operation. Others are being rushed to completion. A steady stream of tanks and planes, of guns and ships and shells and equipment—that is what these eighteen months have given us.
 But it is all only a beginning of what still has to be done. We must be set to face a long war against crafty and powerful bandits. The attack at Pearl Harbor can be repeated at any one of many points, points in both oceans and along both our coast lines and against all the rest of the Hemisphere.
 It will not only be a long war, it will be a hard war. That is the basis on which we now lay all our plans. That is the yardstick by which we measure what we shall need and demand; money, materials, doubled and quadrupled production—ever-increasing. The production must be not only for our own Army and Navy and air forces. It must reinforce the other armies and navies and air forces fighting the Nazis and the war lords of Japan throughout the Americas and throughout the world.
 I have been working today on the subject of production. Your Government has decided on two broad policies.
 The first is to speed up all existing production by working on a seven day week basis in every war industry, including the production of essential raw materials.
 The second policy, now being put into form, is to rush additions to the capacity of production by building more new plants, by adding to old plants, and by using the many smaller plants for war needs.

 Over the hard road of the past months, we have at times met obstacles and difficulties, divisions and disputes, indifference and callousness. That is now all past—and, I am sure, forgotten.

 The fact is that the country now has an organization in Washington built around men and women who are recognized experts in their own fields. I think the country knows that the people who are actually responsible in each and every one of these many fields are pulling together with a teamwork that has never before been excelled.

 On the road ahead there lies hard work—grueling work—day and night, every hour and every minute.
 I was about to add that ahead there lies sacrifice for all of us.

 But it is not correct to use that word. The United States does not consider it a sacrifice to do all one can, to give one's best to our nation, when the nation is fighting for its existence and its future life.

 It is not a sacrifice for any man, old or young, to be in the Army or the Navy of the United States. Rather it is a privilege.
 It is not a sacrifice for the industrialist or the wage earner, the farmer or the shopkeeper, the trainmen or the doctor, to pay more taxes, to buy more bonds, to forego extra profits, to work longer or harder at the task for which he is best fitted. Rather it is a privilege.
 It is not a sacrifice to do without many things to which we are accustomed if the national defense calls for doing without it.

 A review this morning leads me to the conclusion that at present we shall not have to curtail the normal use of articles of food. There is enough food today for all of us and enough left over to send to those who are fighting on the same side with us.

 But there will be a clear and definite shortage of metals for many kinds of civilian use, for the very good reason that in our increased program we shall need for war purposes more than half of that portion of the principal metals which during the past year have gone into articles for civilian use. Yes, we shall have to give up many things entirely.

 And I am sure that the people in every part of the nation are prepared in their individual living to win this war. I am sure that they will cheerfully help to pay a large part of its financial cost while it goes on. I am sure they will cheerfully give up those material things that they are asked to give up.

 And I am sure that they will retain all those great spiritual things without which we cannot win through.

 I repeat that the United States can accept no result save victory, final and complete. Not only must the shame of Japanese treachery be wiped out, but the sources of international brutality, wherever they exist, must be absolutely and finally broken.

 In my Message to the Congress yesterday I said that we "will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again." In order to achieve that certainty, we must begin the great task that is before us by abandoning once and for all the illusion that we can ever again isolate ourselves from the rest of humanity.

 In these past few years—and, most violently, in the past three days—we have learned a terrible lesson.
It is our obligation to our dead—it is our sacred obligation to their children and to our children—that we must never forget what we have learned.

 And what we have learned is this:

 There is no such thing as security for any nation—or any individual—in a world ruled by the principles of gangsterism.
 There is no such thing as impregnable defense against powerful aggressors who sneak up in the dark and strike without warning.
 We have learned that our ocean-girt hemisphere is not immune from severe attack—that we cannot measure our safety in terms of miles on any map any more.

 We may acknowledge that our enemies have performed a brilliant feat of deception, perfectly timed and executed with great skill. It was a thoroughly dishonorable deed, but we must face the fact that modern warfare as conducted in the Nazi manner is a dirty business. We don't like it—we didn't want to get in it—but we are in it and we're going to fight it with everything we've got.

 I do not think any American has any doubt of our ability to administer proper punishment to the perpetrators of these crimes.

 Your Government knows that for weeks Germany has been telling Japan that if Japan did not attack the United States, Japan would not share in dividing the spoils with Germany when peace came. She was promised by Germany that if she came in she would receive the complete and perpetual control of the whole of the Pacific area—and that means not only the Ear East, but also all of the Islands in the Pacific, and also a stranglehold on the west coast of North, Central and South America.

 We know also that Germany and Japan are conducting their military and naval operations in accordance with a joint plan. That plan considers all peoples and nations which are not helping the Axis powers as common enemies of each and every one of the Axis powers.

 That is their simple and obvious grand strategy. And that is why the American people must realize that it can be matched only with similar grand strategy. We must realize for example that Japanese successes against the United States in the Pacific are helpful to German operations in Libya; that any German success against the Caucasus is inevitably an assistance to Japan in her operations against the Dutch East Indies; that a German attack against Algiers or Morocco opens the way to a German attack against South America and the Canal.
 On the other side of the picture, we must learn also to know that guerilla warfare against the Germans in, let us say Serbia or Norway, helps us; that a successful Russian offensive against the Germans helps us; and that British successes on land or sea in any part of the world strengthen our hands.

Remember always that Germany and Italy, regardless of any formal declaration of war, consider themselves at war with the United States at this moment just as much as they consider themselves at war with Britain or Russia. And Germany puts all the other Republics of the Americas into the same category of enemies. The people of our sister Republics of this Hemisphere can be honored by that fact.

 The true goal we seek is far above and beyond the ugly field of battle. When we resort to force, as now we must, we are determined that this force shall be directed toward ultimate good as well as against immediate evil. We Americans are not destroyers—we are builders.
 We are now in the midst of a war, not for conquest, not for vengeance, but for a world in which this nation, and all that this nation represents, will be safe for our children. We expect to eliminate the danger from Japan, but it would serve us ill if we accomplished that and found that the rest of the world was dominated by Hitler and Mussolini.

 So we are going to win the war and we are going to win the peace that follows.

 And in the difficult hours of this day—through dark days that may be yet to come—we will know that the vast majority of the members of the human race are on our side. Many of them are fighting with us. All of them are praying for us. But, in representing our cause, we represent theirs as well—our hope and their hope for liberty under God.

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Update - China Officially declares war on Japan:

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/ww2/chinawar.html
China's Declaration of War Against Japan, Germany and Italy
(December 9, 1941)

Japan waged an undeclared war on China from July 7, 1937, and China resisted that undeclared war without technically announcing the existence of a state of war until December 9, 1941, when the text of the declaration was issued by Lin Sen, President of the Chinese Republic.

Japan's national policy has always aimed at the domination of Asia and mastery of the Pacific. For more than four years China has resolutely resisted Japan's aggression, regardless of suffering and sacrifice, in order not only to maintain her national independence and freedom but also to uphold international law and justice and to promote world peace and human happiness.

China is a peace-loving nation. In taking up arms in self-defense, China entertained the hope that Japan might yet realise the futility of her plans of conquest. Throughout the struggle all the other powers have shown the utmost forbearance likewise in the hope that Japan might one day repent and mend her ways in the interest of peace in the entire Pacific region.

Unfortunately Japan's aggressive capacities prove to be incorrigible. After her long and fruitless attempt to conquer China, Japan, far from showing any signs of penitence, has treacherously launched an attack on China's friends, the United States and Great Britain, thus extending the theater of her aggressive activities and making herself the arch-enemy of justice and world peace.

This latest act of aggression on the part of Japan lays bare her insatiable ambitions and has created a situation that no nation which believes in international good faith and human decency can tolerate.

The Chinese Government hereby formally declares war on Japan. The Chinese Government further declares that all treaties, conventions, agreements and contracts regarding relations between China and Japan are and remain null and void.

(The Chinese Government's Declaration of War on Germany and Italy.)

Since the conclusion of the Tripartite Pact of September 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan have unmistakably banded themselves into a block of aggressor states working closely together to carry out their common program of world conquest and domination. To demonstrate their solidarity Germany and Italy successively accorded recognition to Japan's puppet regimes in northeastern China and at Nanking. As a consequence, China severed her diplomatic relations with Germany and Italy last July. Now the Axis powers have extended the theater of their aggressive activities and thrown the whole Pacific region into turmoil, making themselves the enemies of international justice and world civilization.

This state of affairs can no longer be tolerated by the Chinese Government and people. The Chinese Government hereby declares that as from midnight, December 9, 1941, a state of war exists between China and Germany and between China and Italy. The Chinese Government further declares that all treaties, conventions, agreements, and contracts regarding relations between China and Germany and between China and Italy are and remain null and void.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline chris jones

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Hi T.

  WOW, great rant.......& Info.....
    A question, did you ever hear the expression" the war to end all wars"?

Offline TahoeBlue

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Another BSC reference and the suppression of documents until 2041:

http://howardblum.com/truth-in-espionage-challenge-writing-spies/
Truth in Espionage: Howard Blum on Writing and Researching Spies

While researching The Last Goodnight, I sat down to talk with a CIA official. I had come with the hope of picking the scholar’s brain about Betty Pack, the British and American secret agent who had done so much to help the Allies win World War II.

I told him I planned to write a non-fiction book about Ms. Pack. He laughed dismissively, and then launched into a lecture on the epistemology of espionage.

Too many lies?

Even non-fiction spy stories, to his way of thinking, were a search for ultimately elusive truths. The best that can be hoped for is a reliable hypothesis. No spy tale is ever the whole story; there are always too many unknowns, too many lies being passed off as facts, too many deliberate miscues by one participant or another.

And now having finished writing the non-fiction book that had prompted my visit to the CIA, I want to reiterate to its readers that The Last Goodnight is a true story.

Finding the truth about Betty Pack.

I have been able to draw on a treasure trove of information to tell Betty Pack’s story: her memoirs, tape-recorded reminiscences, childhood diaries, and a lifetime of letters; the Office of Strategic Service Papers at the National Archives; Federal Bureau of Investigation files; State Department records; the British Security Coordination Official history; Foreign Office archives at the Public Record Office; and interviews with members of both the British and American intelligence services.

And yet I am also forced to acknowledge that there is a cautionary kernel of truth in the CIA scholar’s warning. There are, among the official sources, contradictory versions of events. And another caveat – governments, even more than a half-century later, hold on to their secrets.

Betty’s 65-page FBI file is heavily redacted; tantalizing files at the National Archives are marked “Security Classified information, withdrawn at the request of a foreign government;” and the files assembled by H. Montgomery Hyde, Betty’s wartime colleague in the British secret service and her first biographer, that were bequeathed to Churchill College, Cambridge, have been edited.

Parts of this collection are “closed indefinitely;” individual documents have been removed by intelligence service “weeders;” and some papers have been officially “closed until the year 2041.”

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Betty Pack was charming, beautiful, and intelligent—and she knew it. As an agent for Britain’s MI-6 and then America’s OSS during World War II, these qualities proved crucial to her success. This is the remarkable story of this “Mata Hari from Minnesota” (Time) and the passions that ruled her tempestuous life—a life filled with dangerous liaisons and death-defying missions vital to the Allied victory.

For decades, much of Betty’s career working for MI-6 and the OSS remained classified. Through access to recently unclassified files, Howard Blum discovers the truth about the attractive blond, codenamed “Cynthia,” who seduced diplomats and military attachés across the globe in exchange for ciphers and secrets; cracked embassy safes to steal codes; and obtained the Polish notebooks that proved key to Alan Turing’s success with Operation Ultra.


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http://www.historynet.com/amy-elizabeth-thorpe-wwiis-mata-hari.htm

...
Amy Pack was recruited by the British intelligence and allotted an entertainment allowance of 20 pounds sterling to cultivate her high-placed Polish sources. Of her first official male conquest, she would later tell a biographer and future lover, ‘Our meetings were very fruitful, and I let him make love to me as often as he wanted, since this guaranteed the smooth flow of political information I needed.’ Pack met her next target at a dinner party hosted by the American ambassador. The handsome Pole seated next to her was a personal aide to foreign minister Jósef Beck. Although married, the aide was sufficiently impressed by his dinner companion to send her pink roses the next morning.

From him Pack learned Polish experts were working on overcoming the threat posed by Germany’s Enigma enciphering machine. The extent of her contribution to the ‘Ultra secret’ that gave the Allies a crucial edge over the Nazis remains a matter of conjecture. In fact, however, Britain would owe its ability to decode so much of Germany’s World War II radio traffic to the efforts of the Poles, who had cooperated with the French in working out the Enigma system.

In Prague, Pack obtained conclusive proof of Hitler’s plans to dismember Czechoslovakia. For reasons that remain unclear, in the fall of 1938 the ambassador ordered her to leave the country. The following April, having called a domestic truce, a recuperated Arthur Pack and his wife traveled to South America, where he took over his embassy’s commercial section in Santiago, Chile.

When World War II started, Amy Pack offered her talents to the British intelligence service. She soon was writing political articles for Spanish- and English-language newspapers in Chile. Britain was then gearing up its intelligence and propaganda efforts in the hemisphere, placing them in the spring of 1940 under the British Security Coordination (BSC), headed by Canadian William Stephenson.

Amy Pack left her husband and sailed to New York, where she was given her code name, ‘Cynthia,’ and an assignment to set up shop in Washington, D.C. As her cover, she posed as a journalist. Her first major assignment was obtaining the Italian naval cryptosystem. Given her mission, it was only logical that Cynthia look up her old friend Alberto Lais, now an admiral and naval attaché at Italy’s Washington embassy. Virtually all published accounts say that Cynthia pried from the 60-year-old admiral the Italian navy’s code and cipher books, as well as plans to disable Italian ships in U.S. ports to prevent their seizure. The literary consensus is that Cynthia’s amorous success contributed to British victories in the Mediterranean. The lady herself, who described her relationship with Lais as’sentimental and even sensual rather than sexual,’ said she received the ship sabotage information directly from the admiral and access to the sensitive books from his assistant with Lais’ full cooperation.
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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British Security Coordination (BSC); 13.

http://documents.theblackvault.com/documents/nsa/cold_war_i.pdf

THE CRYPTOLOGIC ALLIES

America's SIGINT relationship with Great Britain also dates to World War II. In July 1940, the British ambassador to Washington, Lord Lothian, proposed that the two nations exchange information on, among other things, technological secrets related to "submarine detection and radio traffic." This appears to have pertained generally to SIGINT, but the wording of the now famous Lothian Letter did not really say precisely what he (or Churchill) meant. It also appears that day-to-day intelligence cooperation predated the Lothian Letter, for in April of the same year President Roosevelt met Churchill's special envoy William Stephenson to discuss a plan for secret cooperation between the FBI and British secret intelligence. According to a fascinating account in the somewhat unreliable book by William Stevenson (unrelated to the wartime William Stephenson), it was at that meeting that Stephenson informed Roosevelt of British progress in breaking the German ENIGMA system. (This might have happened but was quite out of character for the security-conscious British.) This meeting did, in fact, lead to the establishment of the British Security Coordination (BSC) in Washington, with Stephenson in charge. During its early days this organization dealt primarily in HUMINT and counterintelligence. 18

...


So initial hesitance was eventually converted to approval, and on the day after Christmas 1940, the Army decided once and for all to initiate a complete cryptologic exchange with the British. In February 1941, Captain Abraham Sinkov and Lieutenant Leo Rosen of the Army's SIGINT organization, along with Lieutenant Robert Weeks and Ensign Prescott Currier of the Navy, sailed to London. They brought with them a PURPLE
Analog, a machine the Army was using to break the keys for the Japanese diplomatic cipher system
. They had instructions to initiate a complete exchange of cryptanalytic and SIGINT information.19

The British appear to have been flabbergasted. Never had they anticipated that the United States would simply walk in and plunk down their most secret cryptanalytic machine. This was, indeed, an intelligence exchange worth the money. But they were cautious. They did not tell the Army and Navy emissaries everything they were doing, and they did not show them the ENIGMA operation at first. Agreed upon in principal in
1940, the complete exchange of cryptologic information and techniques progressed slowly through the war. Once again the Navy, reluctant in the beginning, produced the more beneficial exchange. This was due largely to historical circumstances. The Army was still mobilizing and clearly would not see action in Europe until at least late 1942, if not later.

But the Navy was already engaging German U-boats in the North Atlantic. They and the British had worked out a convoy system, and daily cooperation in intelligence was essential to avoiding wolf packs. Thus it was that Commander Roger Winn, who headed the Operational Intelligence Center in the Admiralty, convinced the U.S. Navy that it must have something similar. Prompted by Winn, the U.S. Navy established the mysterious organization called F-21 (Atlantic Section, Combat Intelligence Division, U.S. Fleet) and its still more mysterious submarine tracking room. The latter used all sources of intelligence, including U-boat positions obtained by ENIGMA decrypts, passed to them by the British.

...

http://documents.theblackvault.com/documents/nsa/cold_war_ii.pdf

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http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=3623

Citation:  Charles C. Kolb. Review of Stephenson, William S., ed., British Security Coordination: The Secret History of British Intelligence in the Americas 1940-1945. H-Diplo, H-Net Reviews. December, 1999.
...
There is nothing in the BSC report that suggests that the British manipulated or withheld information about the pending Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor.

On the other hand, we have no idea what materials were in the BSC archives destroyed in 1945 and what these may have contained or if the present document is a "sanitized" version of the events or itself designed as a propaganda piece. The formal declaration of war on Japan by the United States following the "Day of Infamy" would soon be augmented by the declaration of war on the United States by Japan's allies -- Nazi Germany and Italy. What might have been the result if these latter declarations had not occurred? This is "alternative" history in the manner of Harry Turtledove.

In sum, British Security Coordination is a primary document to be added to the materials now available on the British intelligence services, particularly the late Francis Harry Hinsley's masterful British Intelligence in the Second World War, 4 vols. (London: HMSO, 1979-1990); the fifth volume is edited by Michael Howard (1990).

The BSC is mentioned only briefly in Hinsley's compendia (Vol. 2, pp. 53-55, 1981; Vol. 4 with 18 scattered references, 1990).

References to the BSC-OSS relationship may also be found in published American sources, notably the War Report of the OSS, Vol. 2 (New York: Walker, 1976) prepared by the U.S. War Department Strategic Services Unit, History Project (Office of the Assistant Secretary of War), with an introduction by Kermit Roosevelt.

Therefore, British Security Coordination provides the reader with more than a glimpse into the BSC's activities in the Western Hemisphere and suggests that yet classified revealing documents may be found among the classified materials in the United States and, especially, the London Whitehall's wartime espionage and intelligence archives.

We cannot assess further the questions of the completeness or the accuracy of the 1998 publication in comparison with the 1945 report. Nonetheless, the current volume is the most comprehensive report extant on the BSC's organization, mission, and activities in the Western Hemisphere and it does shed light on U.S. and British prewar cooperation, British objectives in having the Americans join in the European conflict, and the resulting postwar world.


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http://www.ossreborn.com/files/War%20Report%20of%20the%20OSS%20Volume%201.pdf
WAR REPORT OF THE OSS (Office of Strategic Services)
with a new introduction by Kermit Roosevelt
Prepared by History Project, Strategic Services Unit,
Office of the Assistant Secretary of War, War Department, Washington, D.C.

WALKER AND COMPANY

...

Kermit Roosevelt
...
I came to the history project as a former student who had been working on his Ph.D. in history prior to the war and had interrupted his studies to
go to work for General Donovan during the summer of 1941 as one of the very early recruits in office of the Coordinator of Information.
My doctoral dissertation, almost but never quite completed, was on "Propaganda Techniques in the English Civil Wars." As a by-product, as the war grew
more and more intense in Europe, I had done a draft article on the kind of wartime intelligence and propaganda agency which it seemed to me the U.S. required. This was shown to General Donovan, who was about to be named Coordinator of Information. He requested me to put aside any idea of publication and come to work for him instead.
...

The North African Operation had begun before the existence of Cal, and was under the direction of Robert D. Murphy, who had been charge d' affaires in Vichy and was subsequently Ambassador to Belgium and Japan. It derived from the conclusion of the Weygand-Murphy Accord in February 1941, under which the U.S. had agreed to send certain essential materials and supplies to North Africa on condition that they be used there and not reshipped to Europe, where they might benefit the Axis.

It was understood also that the U.S. would send to French North Africa certain officials to see that this proviso was not disregarded. In the spring of 1941, twelve Control Officers were selected by G-2, State Department and ONI. They were dispatched  in the summer of 1941 to be stationed in Casablanca, Algiers, Oran, Tunis, and Rabat. The career officers already in these cities did not know the real purpose of the control officers, however, and the new group was actually responsible to Murphy in Algiers
...



The Overseas Targets: War Report of the OSS Vol. II Hardcover  – July, 1976
by Strategic Services Unit History Project (Author)


\ - - - -

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Daniel_Murphy
Born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Murphy began his federal career at the United States Post Office (1916) then moved to be cipher clerk at the American Legation in Bern, Switzerland (1917). He was admitted to the U.S. Foreign Service in 1921. Among the several posts he held were Vice-Consul in Zürich and Munich, consul in Seville, consul in Paris from 1930 to 1936, and chargé d’affaires to the Vichy government. He was also the one-time State Department specialist on France.

In February 1941, Murphy negotiated the Murphy-Weygand Agreement, which allowed the United States to export to French North Africa in spite of the British blockade and trade restrictions against the Vichy-governed area
...

http://www.nytimes.com/1978/01/11/archives/robert-d-murphy-diplomat-dies-at-83-planned-allied-invasion-of.html?_r=0
...
Former Ambassador Robert D. Murphy, the career diplomat credited with planning the Allied invasion of North Africa in World War II, died Monday at his home at 1009 Park Avenue. He was 83 years old and had been ill since suffering a stroke last November.
...
Mr. Murphy, who served as Ambassador to Belgium and Japan and as Under Secretary of State during a diplomatic career that spanned more than four decades. had been chairman of Corning Glass International and a director of the Corning Glass Works since retiring from Government service in 1959.
...

He was awarded the country's Distinguished Service Medal and also received a number of foreign honors, including ihe French Croix de Guerre with palm, the Belgian Order of Leopold, the Japanese Order of the Rising Sun, the German Order of Merit and the Spanish Order of Isabella.

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http://www.hcs.harvard.edu/tempus/archives_files/x2_02.pdf
The OSS and Operation TORCH: The Beginning of the Beginning
Eleony Moorhead, Harvard Class of 2011, History Concentrator
Tempus: The
...
Tempus 1

Until July 1941, America had never run a clandestine service. The U.S. government had operated under the rule, famously articulated by former Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson: “Gentlemen do not read each other’s mail.”1

But in early 1941, as President Franklin D. Roosevelt confronted the possibility of U.S. entry into World War II, he saw the need to create an agency that would bring U.S. foreign intelligence – then conducted on an ad hoc basis by various federal departments – under one roof.

On July 11, 1941, FDR appointed Colonel William J. ‘Wild Bill’ Donovan – a decorated World War I hero and well-known Republican lawyer – as the leader of this new civilian agency, dubbed the Office of the Coordinator of Information (COI) and answerable only to the President.

 A little less than a year later, a presidential military order transformed COI into the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) – an arm of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, charged with collecting and analyzing strategic information and performing covert operations.
...

| - - - -
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Kerr,_11th_Marquess_of_Lothian
Philip Henry Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothian, KT CH PC DL (18 April 1882 – 12 December 1940), known as Philip Kerr until 1930, was a British politician, diplomat and newspaper editor
...

Ambassador to the United States

In September 1939, Lothian was appointed Ambassador to the United States,[17] a post he held until his death, the following year. He was sworn of the Privy Council in August 1939[18] and made a Knight of the Thistle in November 1940.[19]
...
On 19 July 1940, Hitler in a speech put out peace feelers to Britain. Without seeking permission from the British government, Lothian asked Malcolm Lovell, an American Quaker in touch with the Germans, to inquire what terms were on offer to "a proud and unconquered nation". However, on 22 July, Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax delivered a speech rejecting the offer.[20] Harold Nicolson wrote in his diary, "Lothian claims that he knows the peace terms and they are most satisfactory. I am glad to say that Halifax pays no attention to this".[21]

Lothian played a central role in enlisting American support for economic aid to the British war effort.[22] Upon his arrival in New York on 23 November 1940, he told the assembled journalists: "Well, boys, Britain's broke; it's your money we want".[23] The near-bankruptcy of the United Kingdom had been a closely guarded secret, and Lothian went well beyond Prime Minister Winston Churchill's instructions in divulging it. The remarks caused a sudden drop in confidence in sterling and were exploited by German propaganda. Lothian's statement helped force President Franklin Roosevelt's hand in responding to British appeals by proposing the Lend-Lease Program to aid Britain.[24] He initiated the joint Anglo-American military organisation of the Combined Chiefs of Staff
...

| - - - - '

https://archive.org/details/BritishSecurityCoordinationIntelligenceOperations
British Security Coordination Intelligence Operations, 1939-1941
by Federal Bureau of Investigation


https://ia600205.us.archive.org/12/items/BritishSecurityCoordinationIntelligenceOperations/British%20Security%20Coordination%20-%20Intelligence%20Operations,%201939-1941.pdf
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Dec 10 1941 - Guam surrendered to Japanese forces:

http://www.historynet.com/battle-of-guam
...
More than 60 years ago, death and destruction were all over this beautiful beach. It began with the surprise Japanese invasion of the strategically located island on December 8, 1941, one hour after the attack on Pearl Harbor (there is a significant time zone difference), which overran Guam’s meager defensive forces in only two days.

For the next two and a half years, the native Chamorro population was subjected to beatings, forced labor, executions, brainwashing, and—near the end of the Japanese occupation—internment in concentration camps.

Then, on July 21, 1944, 55,000 Americans landed on Asan and Agat beaches to wrest the American territory away from its occupiers. By August 10, after an intense and deadly struggle, the Americans regained control of the island; it soon became the command post for their Western Pacific operations.
...
The Battle of Guam: 1944

In July 1944, US forces retook the island of Guam after weeks of fierce fighting, leading to over 7,000 American casualties and over 18,000 Japanese killed.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Dec 11 1941:  Japanese Invasion of Burma Begins - Hitler Declares War on the U.S.A.

http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=59
Invasion of Burma

Contributor: C. Peter Chen

Burma, isolated from the rest of the world with mountainous ranges on her western, northern, and eastern borders, was a British colony with a degree of autonomy. With the pressure from Japan, British armed Burma with some British and Indian troops and obsolete aircraft so that there would be a small buffer between Japan and India, crown jewel of Britain's Asiatic empire. United States also aimed to help Burma as a direct result of Japanese pressure, but the reason was much different than that of the British; the United States looked to maintain Burmese outside Japanese control so that supply lines into China would remain open. The supplies traveled into China via the Burma Road, a treacherous gravel road that connected Kunming, China with Lashio, Burma that opened in 1938. Britain and United States' worries about Burma were not unfounded, as Japan did look to incorporate Burma into her borders. Beyond the wish to cut off China's supply lines, a Japanese-occupied Burma would also provide Japan added security from any potential flanking strikes from the west against the southward expansion that was about to take place.

The Invasion Began
11 Dec 1941

On 11 Dec 1941, only days after Japan's declaration of war against Britain, Japanese aircraft struck airfields at Tavoy, south of Rangoon. On the next day, small units of Japanese troops infiltrated into Brumese borders and engaged in skirmishes against British and Burmese troops. On the same day, a Flying Tigers squadron transferred from China to Rangoon to reinforce against the upcoming invasion.

Under the banner of liberating Burma from western imperialism, the Japanese 15th Army of the Southern Expeditionary Army under the command of Shojiro Iida marched across the border in force from Siam. Airfields at Tavoy and Mergui fell quickly, removing the whatever little threat the obsolete British aircraft posed and preventing Allied reinforcements from the air.

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http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v08/v08p389_hitler.html

Germany's Declaration of War Against the United States
Hitler's Reichstag Speech of December 11, 1941

    It has often been said that Hitler's greatest mistakes were his decisions to go to war against the Soviet Union and the United States . Whatever the truth may be, it's worth noting his own detailed justifications for these fateful decisions.

On Thursday afternoon, December 11, 1941, four days after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hitler spoke to the Reichstag in Berlin.

The 88-minute address, which he had written himself, was broadcast to the nation. In it the German leader recounted the reasons for the outbreak of war in September 1939, explained why he decided to strike against the Soviet Union in June 1941, reviewed the dramatic course of the war thus far, and dealt at length with President Franklin Roosevelt's hostile policies toward Germany. Hitler detailed the increasingly belligerent actions of Roosevelt's government, and then dramatically announced that Germany was now joining Japan in war against the United States.

The day after it was delivered, an inaccurate and misleading translation of portions of the address appeared in The New York Times. Although this historic address should be of particular interest to Americans, a complete text has apparently never before been made available in English.

...

Deputies! Men of the German Reichstag!

A year of world-historical events is coming to an end. A year of great decisions is approaching. In this grave period I speak to you, deputies of the Reichstag, as the representatives of the German nation. In addition, the entire German nation should also review what has happened and take note of the decisions required by the present and the future.

After the repeated rejection of my peace proposal in 1940 by the British prime minister [Winston Churchill] and the clique that supports and controls him, it was clear by the fall of that year that this war would have to be fought through to the end, contrary to all logic and necessity. You, my old Party comrades, know that I have always detested half-hearted or weak decisions. If Providence has deemed that the German people are not to be spared this struggle, then I am thankful that She has entrusted me with the leadership in a historic conflict that will be decisive in determining the next five hundred or one thousand years, not only of our German history, but also of the history of Europe and even of the entire world.

The German people and its soldiers work and fight today not only for themselves and their own age, but also for many generations to come. A historical task of unique dimensions has been entrusted to us by the Creator that we are now obliged to carry out.

The western armistice which was possible shortly after the conclusion of the conflict in Norway [in June 1940] compelled the German leadership, first of all, to militarily secure the most important political, strategic and economic areas that had been won. Consequently, the defense capabilities of the lands which were conquered at that time have changed.

...

A truly impressive amount of authentic material is now available which confirms that a Soviet Russian attack was intended. We are also sure about when this attack was to take place. In view of this danger, the extent of which we are perhaps only now truly aware, I can only thank the Lord God that He enlightened me in time, and has given me the strength to do what must be done. Millions of German soldiers may thank Him for their lives, and all of Europe for its existence.

I may say this today: If this wave of more than 20,000 tanks, hundreds of divisions, tens of thousands of artillery pieces, along with more than 10,000 airplanes, had not been kept from being set into motion against the Reich, Europe would have been lost.

Several nations have been destined to prevent or parry this blow through the sacrifice of their blood. If Finland [for one] had not immediately decided, for the second time, to take up weapons, then the comfortable bourgeois life of the other Nordic countries would quickly have been extinguished.

If the German Reich, with its soldiers and weapons, had not stood against this opponent, a storm would have burned over Europe that would have eliminated, once and for all time, and in all its intellectual paucity and traditional stupidity, the laughable British idea of the European balance of power.

...

The attack began at dawn on June 22 [1941]. With dauntless daring, the frontier fortifications that were meant to protect the Soviet Russian build-up against us from surprise attack were broken through. Grodno fell by June 23. On June 24, following the capture of Brest-Litovsk, the fortress [there] was taken in combat, and Vilnius and Kaunas [in Lithuania] were also taken. Daugavpils [in Latvia] fell on June 26.

The first two great encirclement battles near Bialystok and Minsk were completed on July 10. We captured 324,000 prisoners of war, 3,332 tanks and 1,809 artillery pieces. By July 13 the Stalin Line had been broken through at almost every decisive point. Smolensk fell on July 16 after heavy fighting, and German and Romanian units were able to force their way across the Dniester [river] on July 19. The Battle of Smolensk ended on August 6 after many encircling operations. As a result, another 310,000 Russians were taken as prisoners. Moreover, 3,205 tanks and 3,120 artillery pieces were counted -- either destroyed or captured. Just three days later the fate of another Soviet Russian army group was sealed. On August 9, in the battle of Uman, another 103,000 Soviet Russian prisoners of war were taken, and 317 tanks and 1,100 artillery pieces were either destroyed or captured.

Nikolayev [in the Ukraine] fell on August 13, and Kherson was taken on the 21st. On the same day the battle near Gomel ended, resulting in 84,000 prisoners as well as 144 tanks and 848 artillery pieces either captured or destroyed. The Soviet Russian positions between the Ilmen and Peipus [lakes] were broken through on August 21, while the bridgehead around Dnepropetrovsk fell into our hands on August 26. On the 28th of that month German troops entered Tallinn and Paldiski [Estonia] after heavy fighting, while the Finns took Vyborg on the 20th. With the capture of Petrokrepost on September 8, Leningrad was finally cut off from the south. By September 16 bridgeheads across the Dnieper were formed, and on September 18 Poltava fell into the hands of our soldiers. German units stormed the fortress of Kiev on September 19, and on September 22 the conquest of [the Baltic island of] Saaremaa [Oesel] was crowned by the capture of its capital.

And now came the anticipated results of the greatest undertakings. The battle near Kiev was completed on September 27. Endless columns of 665,000 prisoners of war marched to the west. In the encircled area, 884 tanks and 3,178 artillery pieces were captured. The battle to break through the central area of the Eastern front began on October 2, while the battle of the Azov Sea was successfully completed on October 11. Another 107,000 prisoners, 212 tanks and 672 artillery pieces were counted. After heavy fighting, German and Romanian units were able to enter Odessa on October 16. The battle to break through the center of the Eastern front, which had begun on October 2, ended on October 18 with a success that is unique in world history. The result was 663,000 prisoners, as well as 1,242 tanks and 5,452 artillery pieces either destroyed or captured. The capture of Dagoe [Hiiumaa island] was completed on October 21. The industrial center of Kharkov was taken on October 24. After very heavy fighting, the Crimea was finally reached, and on November 2 the capital of Simferopol was stormed. On November 16 the Crimea was overrun as far as Kerch.

As of December 1, the total number of captured Soviet Russian prisoners was 3,806,865. The number of destroyed or captured tanks was 21,391, of artillery pieces 32,541, and of airplanes 17,322.

During this same period of time, 2,191 British airplanes were shot down. The navy sank 4,170,611 gross registered tons of shipping, and the air force sank 2,346,180 tons. Altogether, 6,516,791 gross registered tons were destroyed.

My Deputies! My German people!

These are sober facts and, perhaps, dry figures. But may they never be forgotten by history or vanish from the memory of our own German nation! For behind these figures are the achievements, sacrifices and sufferings, the heroism and readiness to die of millions of the best men of our own people and of the countries allied with us. Everything had to be fought for at the cost of health and life, and through struggle such as those back in the homeland can hardly imagine
...

From June 22 to December 1 [1941], the German army has lost in this heroic struggle: 158,773 dead, 563,082 wounded and 31,191 missing. The air force has lost: 3,231 dead, 8,453 wounded and 2,028 missing. The navy: 310 dead, 232 wounded and 115 missing. For the German armed forces altogether: 162,314 dead, 571,767 wounded and 33,334 missing.

...


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Germany's Formal Declaration of War Against the United States

About two hours before Hitler began his address to the Reichstag, Germany formally declared war against the United States when Reich Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop delivered a diplomatic note to the American Charge d'Affaires in Berlin, Leland B. Morris.

At almost the same time, the German Charge d'Affaires in Washington, Hans Thomsen, presented a copy of this note to the Chief of the European Division of the Department of State, Ray Atherton. Here is the text of the note:

The government of the United States of America, having violated in the most flagrant manner and in ever increasing measure all rules of neutrality in favor of the adversaries of Germany, and having continually been guilty of the most severe provocations toward Germany ever since the outbreak of the European war, brought on by the British declaration of war against Germany on September 3, 1939, has finally resorted to open military acts of aggression.

On September 11, 1941, the President of the United States of America publicly declared that he had ordered the American Navy and Air Force to shoot on sight any German war vessel. In his speech of October 27, 1941, he once more expressly affirmed that this order was in force.

Acting under this order, American naval vessels have systematically attacked German naval forces since early September 1941. Thus, American destroyers, as for instance, the Greer, the Kearny and the Reuben James, have opened fire on German submarines according to plan. The American Secretary of the Navy, Mr. Knox, himself confirmed that the American destroyers attacked German submarines.

Furthermore, the naval forces of the United States of America, under order of their government and contrary to international law, have treated and seized German merchant ships on the high seas as enemy ships.

The German government therefore establishes the following facts: 

Although Germany on her part has strictly adhered to the rules of international law in her relations with the United States of America during every period of the present war, the government of the United States of America from initial violations of neutrality has finally proceeded to open acts of war against Germany. It has thereby virtually created a state of war.

The government of the Reich consequently breaks off diplomatic relations with the United States of America and declares that under these circumstances brought about by President Roosevelt, Germany too, as from today, considers herself as being in a state of war with the United States of America.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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http://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/local/article119215493.html
December 6, 2016 3:42 PM
 
SC man seeks to restore grandfather’s honor Navy Adm. Husband Kimmel, commander-in-chief of the Pacific Fleet , 75 years after Pearl Harbor

...
A quick history lesson: Without provocation, Japan launched a surprise attack on the U.S. bases early on Dec. 7, killing 2,403 Americans and wounding 1,178. The raid brought the United States into World War II.

Navy Adm. Husband Kimmel, commander-in-chief of the Pacific Fleet, and U.S. Army Gen. Walter Short were in charge at Pearl Harbor and nearby Army facilities at the time. Kimmel was relieved of command 10 days later. His family says he was shamed into retiring in March 1942 as a two-star admiral rather than at the four-star rank he held before the attack.

Since then, Kimmel and his family have worked diligently to restore not only Kimmel’s and Short’s reputations, but also the ranks they held prior to Dec. 7, 1941.

With the attention prompted by the attack’s anniversary on Wednesday – plus the recent release of a book, “A Matter of Honor,” and a documentary based on the book airing on The History Channel on Wednesday – Manning Kimmel, Husband’s grandson, thinks now is a “small window of opportunity that will close, perhaps forever, when this (Obama) administration leaves office.”

“A Matter of Honor”
was written by Pulitzer Prize finalists Anthony Summers and Robbyn Swan with the subtitle “Pearl Harbor: Betrayal, Blame, and a Family’s Quest for Justice.”

Our work has in fact turned up much new evidence that Admiral Kimmel and General Short were scapegoats,” Swan said by email. “We now feel strongly that the two men should have their ranks posthumously restored.”

Manning Kimmel is urging people to buy the book and to sign a petition at www.kimmelpetition.org

...

Many outside the family have stood up for Husband Kimmel, including Vice President Joe Biden and Secretary of State John Kerry. Investigations indicate responsibility for the Pearl Harbor attacks should be shared by many. Historians debate whether the Date of Infamy would have had a different outcome had officials in Washington shared more top secret intelligence gathered from intercepted Japanese messages with Kimmel and Short.

“A Matter of Honor” reports some of the messages not shared with the Hawaii commanders showed the Japanese were gathering detailed information about Pearl Harbor and the location of ships there. The messages also indicated the Japanese had set a deadline for 7:30 a.m. Dec. 7 in Hawaii. The attack started just before 8 a.m.
...
Read more here: http://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/local/article119215493.html#storylink=cpy

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http://www.kimmelfamily.net/Husband3.htm
Text from Section 546 of Public Law 106-398

formerly of Section 582 of Senate Bill S1059
and Section 537 of House Bill HR4205
(106th Congress)

National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001

POSTHUMOUS ADVANCEMENT ON RETIRED LIST OF REAR ADMIRAL HUSBAND E. KIMMEL AND MAJOR GENERAL WALTER C. SHORT, SENIOR OFFICERS IN COMMAND IN HAWAII ON DECEMBER 7, 1941.

 ...

(3) Numerous investigations following the attack on Pearl Harbor have documented that Admiral Kimmel and Lieutenant General Short were not provided necessary and critical intelligence that was available, that foretold of war with Japan, that warned of imminent attack, and that would have alerted them to prepare for the attack, including such essential communiques as the Japanese Pearl Harbor Bomb Plot message of September 24, 1941, and the message sent from the Imperial Japanese Foreign Ministry to the Japanese Ambassador in the United States from December 6 to 7, 1941, known as the Fourteen-Part Message.

(4) On December 16, 1941, Admiral Kimmel and Lieutenant General Short were relieved of their commands and returned to their permanent grades of rear admiral and major general, respectively.

....

(6) On October 19, 1944, a Naval Court of Inquiry--

(A) exonerated Admiral Kimmel on the grounds that his military decisions and the disposition of his forces at the time of the December 7, 1941, attack on Pearl Harbor were proper `by virtue of the information that Admiral Kimmel had at hand which indicated neither the probability nor the imminence of an air attack on Pearl Harbor';

 (B) criticized the higher command for not sharing with Admiral Kimmel `during the very critical period of November 26 to December 7, 1941, important information . . . regarding the Japanese situation'; and


 (C) concluded that the Japanese attack and its outcome was attributable to no serious fault on the part of anyone in the naval service.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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fyi - After FDR had served his purpose - he was quickly eliminated and no questions or autopsies were made ... :

http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/daybyday/daylog/april-15th-1945/
April 15 1945
Times Log Location Source
8:30am Funeral train arrived Hyde Park, NY STE 
11:00am FDR was laid to rest in Garden of the Roosevelt Estate
Note: Last entry in stenographer's log. Entries for Mrs. Roosevelt in usher's log continue until April 20, 1945, when she left for NYC
Hyde Park, NY
 
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eleanor_Roosevelt_at_Franklin_D._Roosevelt_funeral_in_Hyde_Park,_New_York_-_NARA_-_195418.jpg

Eleanor Roosevelt and DeGaulle at Franklin D. Roosevelt grave in Hyde Park, 26 August 1945

not a big fan of FDR - but when they wanted him gone - it took only 70 hours to have him buried ...

http://www.reformation.org/assassination-of-president-roosevelt.html
The Assassination Of President Roosevelt!!

On March 30, 1945, President Roosevelt arrived in Warm Springs, Georgia, for a 2-week vacation. Just 12 days later he was assassinated by poisoning. The President was only 63-years-old.

Just like the assassination of our beloved President Lincoln, the fingerprints of the British Secret Service are all over this assassination . . . and its outcome.

Dr. Ross T. McIntire was the White House physician in charge of President's Roosevelt's health. Dr. McIntire predicted that the President would be a "different man" when he returned:
...
President Roosevelt drank the poison cup at 12:40 PM, and by 3.35 PM, April 12, 1945, he was pronounced dead.

So rapidly did the funeral take place that by 11 AM, April 15, the President was laid to rest at the Roosevelt estate in Hyde Park, New York.

No more that 70 hours elapsed between the assassination and the burial of the President
...
Violating Georgia state law, no autopsy was performed on the President, as his body was rushed back to Washington City for a quick funeral service, and then burial in Hyde Park, New York.
...

Nicholas Robbins (real name Nicholas Kotzubisky) was the driver and photographer for Elizabeth Shoumatoff. Roosevelt was having his portrait painted by Russian born artist Elizabeth Shoumatoff when he took a break for lunch:

At twenty minutes to one, Arthur Prettyman, the valet, came in and set a cup of gruel, a pitcher of cream, and a glass with a green fluid beside the president. FDR grimaced and without lifting his eyes from his reading, downed the latter, a vile concoction that was supposed to increase his appetite. Daisy got up, poured cream into the gruel, and mixed it. Franklin absently took a few mouthfuls, still absorbed in his papers. (Persico, Franklin & Lucy, p. 339).

After drinking  the vile concoction, Roosevelt complained of a terrible headache.

...
From death to burial took only 70 hours!!

...

The parallels between the assassination of President Lincoln and President Roosevelt are remarkable. In both cases, a war of unprecedented destruction was ending, with the forces of evil on the retreat everywhere.

In both cases, the losers hoped to reverse the course of the war by assassinating the Commander-in-Chief and replacing him with their puppet. [Truman ] John Wilkes Booth was licensed to kill President Lincoln, and the British Secret Service had penetrated every single governmental department in Washington City.

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http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/19/books/review/Heilbrunn-t.html?_r=0

The Devious Bachelor
By JACOB HEILBRUNN
 Published: October 17, 2008

Roald Dahl is famous for his mischievous children’s stories. But as Jennet Conant reports in “The Irregulars,” he was also a British spy. Conant, who has written popular accounts of the secret development of radar and the atomic bomb, shows that Dahl, a former R.A.F. hero, parachuted himself into Washington blue-blood circles in 1942 and used his embassy post to begin spying on Britain’s closest and most important ally.
...
Dahl’s entry into Washington high-life was immeasurably smoothed by the avuncular Texas newspaper magnate and oil tycoon Charles Edward Marsh, who had moved to the capital to aid the New Deal. Marsh, who lived in a 19th-century mansion in Dupont Circle, introduced Dahl to his friends. Soon, Dahl was hobnobbing with Eleanor Roosevelt during weekends at Hyde Park, where he also met the president, allowing him to become, Conant expansively concludes, “a back-channel conduit of information” to Churchill.

In 1943 a crafty Canadian industrialist and associate of Winston Churchill, William Stephenson, tapped Dahl to join his spy network, British Security Coordination. Stephenson’s original mandate had been to help push America into World War II. After Pearl Harbor, he was assigned to keep tabs on America’s postwar plans and to counter any lingering isolationist sentiments.

Despite America’s entry into the war, a number of conservative newspapers and socialites remained rabid Roosevelt haters and loathed the British Empire. Many of them lived in Washington; according to Conant, “with the playgrounds of Europe closed to tourists, moneyed society was forced to stay home, and Washington was brimming with wealthy dowagers and their bored, unmarried daughters.” What the journalist Joseph Alsop later called the “WASP ascendancy” ruled Washington social life.

...


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update - FLETCHER PROUTY COMMENTARY says it was the Churchill gang ... 
http://www.prouty.org/coment11.html
....
Roosevelt accepted this offer and did interview Stalin there. At the end of a long interview, he turned to the Generalissimo and asked one more question, "Why is it that my mother has never been permitted to visit Moscow even though she has made three very formal applications for the trip?"

 Stalin glared at Elliott and said, "You don't know why?"

 Elliott replied, "No!"

 Quickly, Stalin responded, "Don't you know who killed your father?"

 Roosevelt-shocked-answered, "No."

 Stalin rising from his chair, continued, "Well, I'll tell you why I have not invited her here. As soon as your father died, I asked my ambassador in Washington to go immediately to Georgia with a request to view the body." Stalin believed that if Gromyko could see the body he would confirm that the cerebral hemorrhage that had caused his death had caused extensive discoloration and distortion.

 Elliot responded that he knew nothing about that and then Stalin said, "Your mother refused to permit the lid of the coffin to be opened so that my ambassador could see the body." Adding "I sent him there three times trying to impress upon your mother that it was very important for him to view the President's body. She never accepted that. I have never forgiven her."


 This forced Elliott to ask this last question, "…but why?"

 Stalin took a few steps around the office, and almost in a rage roared, "They poisoned your father, of course, just as they have tried repeatedly to poison me."

 "They, who are they," Elliot asked


"The Churchill gang!" Stalin roared, "They poisoned your father, and they continue to try to poison me…the Churchill gang!"
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline Al Bundy

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@Tahoe Blue
I do not believe that FDR was poisoned. He was ill in 1943. 
I heard the phrase from pro-Ally Serbian emigrants about Conference in Teheran 1943. As they said about 3 Statesmen: two without souls ( Churchill and "Stalin" ) and one without brain or brain damage ( FDR ). "

Offline TahoeBlue

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http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/commander-at-pearl-harbor-canned
Dec 17 1941
Commander at Pearl Harbor canned

On this day, Rear Admiral Husband E. Kimmel was relieved of his command of the U.S. Pacific Fleet as part of a shake-up of officers in the wake of the Pearl Harbor disaster.

Admiral Kimmel had enjoyed a successful military career, beginning in 1915 as an aide to the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He served admirably on battleships in World War I, winning command of several in the interwar period. At the outbreak of World War II, Kimmel had already attained the rank of rear admiral and was commanding the cruiser forces at Pearl Harbor. In January 1941, he was promoted to commander of the Pacific Fleet, replacing James Richardson, who FDR relieved of duty after Richardson objected to basing the fleet at Pearl Harbor.
...

When Admiral Kimmel’s Story, an “as told to” autobiography, was published in 1955, Kimmel made it plain that he believed FDR sacrificed him—and his career—to take suspicion off himself; Kimmel believed Roosevelt knew Pearl Harbor was going to be bombed, although no evidence has ever been adduced to support his allegation.
,...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Just to continue the time track of 1941:

What is interesting here is the formation of the shadow govt. at this point . the war powers act was never ended even after wwii ie the cold war was started. Secret funding of military projects began ( Manhattan and radar ) , the black budget never ended ,, the OSS was formed for WWII and then post wwii became the NSA/CIA 

Today we have the yearly NDAA bill passing to continue the perpetual war that the USA is engaged in.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/December_1941#December_18.2C_1941_.28Thursday.29
...
December 18, 1941 (Thursday)

Japanese troops landed on Hong Kong Island.[25]
...

The War Powers Act of 1941 was put into law in the United States.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Powers_Act_of_1941
The War Powers Act of 1941, also known as the First War Powers Act, was an American emergency law that increased Federal power during World War II. The act was signed by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and put into law on December 18, 1941, less than two weeks after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The act was similar to the Departmental Reorganization Act of 1917 as it was signed shortly before the U.S. engaged in a large war and increased the powers of the president's U.S. Executive Branch.[1]

The act gave the President enormous authority to execute World War II in an efficient manner. The president was authorized to reorganize the executive branch, independent government agencies, and government corporations for the war cause. With the act, the President was allowed to censor mail and other forms of communication between the United States and foreign countries. The act and all changes created by its power were to remain intact until six months after the end of the war at which time, the act would become defunct.[1]

Three months after passing the first, the Second War Powers Act was passed on March 27, 1942. This further strengthened the executive branch powers towards executing World War II.


Manhattan Project: The S-1 Committee formally met for the first time[44] and recommended that $400,000 be assigned to Ernest Lawrence's work in electromagnetic isotope separation.[45]

President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8983, appointing a commission headed by Supreme Court Justice Owen Roberts to investigate the Pearl Harbor attack in order to determine "whether any derelictions of duty or errors of judgment on the part of United States Army or Navy personnel" contributed to the success of the Japanese attack, "and if so, what these derelictions or errors were, and who were responsible therefor."[46]

http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=16065
149 - Executive Order 8983 Establishing a Commission to Investigate the Pearl Harbor Attack.
December 18, 1941

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roberts_Commission
...
The first Roberts Commission was a presidentially-appointed commission formed in December 1941, shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese, to investigate and report the facts relating to the attack. The commission was headed by U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice Owen Josephus Roberts, and for this reason it was known as the Roberts Commission. The commission found the commanders of Pearl Harbor, Adm. Husband Kimmel and Gen. Walter Short, guilty of 'dereliction of duty'. The Commission presented their findings to Congress January 28, 1942. Members of the commission besides Justice Roberts were Adm. William H. Standley, Adm. Joseph M. Reeves, Gen. Frank R. McCoy, and Gen. Joseph T. McNarney. The commission was a fact-finding commission, and not a court martial for Gen. Short or Adm. Kimmel.

http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/investigations/PearlHarbor.htm
Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack
(The Pearl Harbor Committee)  Final report issued : Jun 20, 1946

German submarines U-256, U-407 and U-601 were commissioned.
...
Died: Dmitry Lavrinenko, 27, Russian tank commander and Hero of the Soviet Union (killed in action)


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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Powers_Resolution
The War Powers Resolution (also known as the War Powers Resolution of 1973 or the War Powers Act) (50 U.S.C. 1541–1548)[1] is a federal law intended to check the president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of the U.S. Congress
...
The War Powers Resolution was passed by both the House of Representatives and Senate but was vetoed by President Richard Nixon. By a two-thirds vote in each house, Congress overrode the veto and enacted the joint resolution into law on November 7, 1973.
...

Possible repeal[edit]

On January 16, 2014, Senators John McCain and Tim Kaine unveiled legislation that would repeal the existing War Powers Resolution and replace it with a new law for greater presidential consultation to Congress before committing military forces to a war or armed conflict. Senator McCain justifies the effort by pointing out that Congress has not formally declared war since June 1942 and that the nature of war has changed since then.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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December 25th 1941 Hong Kong fell to the Japanese War machine ,,,, with great atrocities

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Hong_Kong
The Battle of Hong Kong (8–25 December 1941), also known as the Defence of Hong Kong and the Fall of Hong Kong, was one of the first battles of the Pacific War in World War II. On the same morning as the attack on Pearl Harbor, forces of the Empire of Japan attacked the British Crown colony of Hong Kong. The attack was in violation of international law as Japan had not declared war against the British Empire. The Japanese attack was met with stiff resistance from the Hong Kong garrison, composed of local troops as well as British, Canadian and Indian units. Within a week the defenders abandoned the mainland and less than two weeks later, with their position on the island untenable, the colony surrendered.
...

On the morning of 25 December, Japanese soldiers entered the British field hospital at St. Stephen's College and in the St. Stephen's college incident tortured and killed a large number of injured soldiers, along with the medical staff.[24]

By the afternoon of 25 December 1941, it was clear that further resistance would be futile and British colonial officials headed by the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Mark Aitchison Young, surrendered in person[25] at the Japanese headquarters on the third floor of the Peninsula Hong Kong hotel. This was the first occasion on which a British Crown Colony had surrendered to an invading force.[citation needed] (British Somaliland which fell to the Italians in August 1940 was a protectorate.) The garrison had held out for 17 days. This day is known in Hong Kong as "Black Christmas".

...

http://www.dontow.com/2007/04/massacre-and-atrocities-in-hong-kong-during-wwii/

Massacre and Atrocities in Hong Kong during WWII

Hong Kong was a British colony before and after WWII, but from 12/25/1941 to 8/15/1945 when Japan surrendered, Hong Kong was under the control of Japan. This article recounts the massacre and atrocities committed by the Japanese troops during those three years and eight months of occupation of Hong Kong. The purpose of recounting these events is not to bash Japan or to generate hatred of Japan, but to make sure that we do not forget the lessons of history so that similar events do not occur again in the future. This is especially important taking into consideration that Japan’s current prime minister recently denied any major atrocity committed by Japan during WWII and Japan’s school textbooks have been rewriting history.

Japan started its invasion of Hong Kong on 12/8/1941 (or 12/7/1941 U.S. time, the same day Japan attacked Pearl Harbor). Great Britain surrendered Hong Kong to Japan on Christmas day, 12/25/1941, on a day that the people of Hong Kong called Black Christmas.



Although what happened in Hong Kong during this period pales in comparison to what happened during the 1937-38 Nanking Massacre, a great deal of massacre and atrocities were committed by the Japanese soldiers against the Chinese, British, Canadians, and other people living in Hong Kong at that time.

As many as 10,000 women were raped in the first few days. Tens of thousands, including women and children, were killed. Many more starved to death. Many parts of Hong Kong were ransacked and burned, and many residents left, deported, or escaped to even famine/disease-ridden areas of mainland China. Basically a reign of terror ruled Hong Kong during those three years and eight months, resulting in Hong Kong’s population of 1.6 million shrinking to 600,000 at the end of that period.

The atrocities were not just against the Chinese, but also British, Canadians, and people of other nationalities
. For example, at a hospital for injured British soldiers, the Japanese soldiers slaughtered 170 recuperating soldiers and a few hospital staff. The eyes, ears, noses, tongues, or limbs were cut off on many victims. Seventy of the soldiers were killed with swords while they were lying in bed. The hospital’s seven nurses were raped, sometimes while lying on top of the bodies of murdered British soldiers. Several of the nurses were also slaughtered, and one of them almost had her head severed. All these actions were in complete violation of the 1864 Geneva Red Cross Agreement (which was the beginning of the establishment of the International Red Cross) regarding the treatment of prisoners-of-war.

After 18 days of fighting and bombing and the British surrendered on 12/25/1941, many people came out of hiding in the bomb shelters. Upon seeing many mean-looking Japanese solders with guns pointing at them, some ran either out of fear or not being able to understand the Japanese command to stop, they were shot dead on the spot. Some children cried and before the parents could stop their crying, the children were shot and killed.

...

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Abe is to spend two days in Hawaii starting Dec. 26. The Japanese prime minister is to meet with U.S. President Barack Obama in a ceremony

http://www.nbcconnecticut.com/news/national-international/Japanese-Leader-Abe-to-Visit-Pearl-Harbor-With-Obama-404734516.html?_osource=AMP
...
Abe, in a brief statement, said he would visit Hawaii on Dec. 26 and 27 to pray for the war dead at Pearl Harbor and to hold a final summit meeting with Obama before his presidency ends.



http://www.voanews.com/a/japanese-prime-minister-to-take-non-apology-tour-to-pearl-harbor/3644879.html

Japanese PM to Take Non-apology Tour to Pearl Harbor
December 21, 2016 3:25 AM  
Brian Padden


SEOUL — 
Next week, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is expected to engage in a now familiar diplomatic offensive to reconcile lingering resentment over his country’s wartime past when he visits the Pearl Harbor memorial in Hawaii. Japan’s surprise attack on the U.S. naval base in 1941 killed over 2,000 Americans and drew the United States into World War II.

After alienating regional neighbors in 2013 by visiting the Yasukuni war shrine that honors millions of war dead, but also includes the names of over a thousand convicted war criminals, the conservative Japanese leader has taken a very proactive role to address concerns over his efforts to recast wartime history with a less apologetic tone, and to ease the limits of Japan's pacifist constitution.
...

Revisionist

Abe is a perceived nationalist who embraces a revisionist view of history that portrays Japan not as the imperialistic aggressor in World War II, but as a nation that tried to push back against U.S. and European domination of Asia.

“The counter narrative, one of revisionists, the one that is led by Abe, is that that is one sided and biased, and that Japan is the victim of victors’ justice and victors’ history, that unfairly impugns Japan and tarnishes its reputation,” said Jeff Kingston, the director of Asian Studies at Temple University in Tokyo, during a recent seminar at the school.
...

Trump

Abe’s visit to Pearl Harbor is in part a reciprocal gesture for President Barack Obama’s visit to Hiroshima in May. The first sitting U.S. president to visit the site of the initial U.S. atomic bomb attack in 1945, Obama offered sympathy for the victims, but no apology.

Abe had fostered close ties with Obama in supporting the Trans Pacific Pact (TPP) free trade agreement, and to expand its military role to counter the North Korean nuclear threat and China’s aggressive moves in the South China Sea.

But the recent presidential election victory of Donald Trump may have added new urgency for Abe to show solidarity with the United States. Trump has opposed TPP and during the campaign he criticized Tokyo for not paying its fair share of mutual defense costs for the 50,000 American troops stationed in Japan.

http://www.chinadailyasia.com/focus/2015-08/13/content_15303470.html
...


Right: A headstone dedicated to the doctors and nurses on duty at St Stephen’s College hospital who were brutally murdered by the Japanese soldiers on the morning of Dec 25, 1941.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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So now the day after the fall of Hong Kong and the murder of hundreds that surrendered ,,, Churchll addresses a joint session of Congress Dec 26, 1941 ...  What is also interesting is the dangerous trip across the Atlantic to make this speech in Washington...

There is little information about the trip itself and he takes an airplane that arrives at Washington airport .


http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/Churchill_Addresses_Congress.htm
December 26, 1941
Churchill Addresses Congress

The date was December 26, 1941. Outside the U.S. Capitol Building, platoons of soldiers and police stood at high alert. Shortly after noon, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill entered the Senate Chamber to address a joint meeting of Congress. He took his place at a lectern bristling with microphones. Above his head, large, powerful lamps gave the normally dim room the brilliance of a Hollywood movie set. Motion picture cameras began to roll.

The Christmas holiday had thinned the ranks of senators and representatives still in town, and had dictated moving the joint meeting from the House to the smaller Senate Chamber to avoid the embarrassment of empty seats. Yet, all 96 desks were filled with members, justices of the Supreme Court, and cabinet officers—minus the secretaries of state and war. The overflow gallery audience consisted largely of members' wives.

Less than three weeks after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and as German submarines appeared off the coast of California, Churchill had arrived in Washington to begin coordinating military strategy with the president and leaders of Congress.

The eloquent prime minister began his address on a light note. He observed, "If my father had been an American, and my mother British, instead of the other way around, I might have gotten here on my own. In that case, this would not have been the first time you would have heard my voice." He then grimly predicted that Allied forces would require at least 18 months to turn the tide of war and warned that "many disappointments and unpleasant surprises await us."

Regarding the Japanese aggressors, he asked, "What kind of a people do they think we are?

Is it possible that they do not realize that we shall never cease to persevere against them until they have been taught a lesson which they and the world will never forget?" As for the German forces, "With proper weapons and proper organization, we can beat the life out of the savage Nazi." These "wicked men" who have brought evil forces into play must "know they will be called to terrible account if they cannot beat down by force of arms the peoples they have assailed."

When Churchill concluded his 30-minute address, he flashed a "V" for victory sign and departed to thunderous applause. One journalist described this historic address as "full of bubbling humor, biting denunciation of totalitarian enemies, stern courage—and hard facts."


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R95rjk_nEI8
Uploaded on Dec 20, 2011
Winston Churchill addresses congress Dec 26 1941.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pYDLTDL-YD8
Mr Churchill Addresses Congress - Dec 26 1941 - SOUND  (16 minutes )

https://www.nationalchurchillmuseum.org/churchill-address-to-congress.html
Address to Joint Session of US Congress, 1941

Members of the Senate and of the House of Representatives of the United States, I feel greatly honored that you should have thus invited me to enter the United States Senate Chamber and address the representatives of both branches of Congress. The fact that my American forebears have for so many generations played their part in the life of the United States, and that here I am, an Englishman, welcomed in your midst, makes this experience one of the most moving and thrilling in my life, which is already long and has not been entirely uneventful. I wish indeed that my mother, whose memory I cherish, across the vale of years, could have been here to see. By the way, I cannot help reflecting that if my father had been American and my mother British instead of the other way around, I might have got here on my own. In that case this would not have been the first time you would have heard my voice. In that case I should not have needed any invitation. But if I had it is hardly likely that it would have been unanimous. So perhaps things are better as they are.


I may confess, however, that I do not feel quite like a fish out of water in a legislative assembly where English is spoken. I am a child of the House of Commons. I was brought up in my father's house to believe in democracy. "Trust the people." That was his message. I used to see him cheered at meetings and in the streets by crowds of workingmen way back in those aristocratic Victorian days when as Disraeli said "the world was for the few, and for the very few."

Therefore I have been in full harmony all my life with the tides which have flowed on both sides of the Atlantic against privilege and monopoly and I have steered confidently towards the Gettysburg ideal of government of the people, by the people, for the people.

I owe my advancement entirely to the House of Commons, whose servant I am. In my country as in yours public men are proud to be the servants of the State and would be ashamed to be its masters. The House of Commons, if they thought the people wanted it, could, by a simple vote, remove me from my office. But I am not worrying about it at all.

As a matter of fact I am sure they will approve very highly of my journey here, for which I obtained the King's permission, in order to meet the President of the United States and to arrange with him for all that mapping out of our military plans and for all those intimate meetings of the high officers of the armed services in both countries which are indispensable for the successful prosecution of the war.

I should like to say first of all how much I have been impressed and encouraged by the breadth of view and sense of proportion which I have found in all quarters over here to which I have had access. Anyone who did not understand the size and solidarity of the foundations of the United States, might easily have expected to find an excited, disturbed, self-cantered atmosphere, with all minds fixed upon the novel, startling, and painful episodes of sudden war as they hit America. After all, the United States have been attacked and set upon by three most powerfully armed dictator states, the greatest military power in Europe, the greatest military power in Asia-Japan, Germany and Italy have all declared and are making war upon you, and the quarrel is opened which can only end in their overthrow or yours.

But here in Washington in these memorable days I have found an Olympian fortitude which, far from being based upon complacency, is only the mask of an inflexible purpose and the proof of a sure, well-grounded confidence in the final outcome. We in Britain had the same feeling in our darkest days. We too were sure that in the end all would be well.

You do not, I am certain, underrate the severity of the ordeal to which you and we have still to be subjected. The forces ranged against us are enormous. They are bitter, they are ruthless. The wicked men and their factions, who have launched their peoples on the path of war and conquest, know that they will be called to terrible account if they cannot beat down by force of arms the peoples they have assailed. They will stop at nothing. They have a vast accumulation of war weapons of all kinds. They have highly trained and disciplined armies, navies and air services. They have plans and designs which have long been contrived and matured. They will stop at nothing that violence or treachery can suggest.

It is quite true that on our side our resources in manpower and materials are far greater than theirs. But only a portion of your resources are as yet mobilized and developed, and we both of us have much to learn in the cruel art of war. We have therefore without doubt a time of tribulation before us. In this same time, some ground will be lost which it will be hard and costly to regain. Many disappointments and unpleasant surprises await us. Many of them will afflict us before the full marshalling of our latent and total power can be accomplished.

For the best part of twenty years the youth of Britain and America have been taught that war was evil, which is true, and that it would never come again, which has been proved false. For the best part of twenty years, the youth of Germany, of Japan and Italy, have been taught that aggressive war is the noblest duty of the citizen and that it should be begun as soon as the necessary weapons and organization have been made. We have performed the duties and tasks of peace. They have plotted and planned for war. This naturally has placed us, in Britain, and now places you in the United States at a disadvantage which only time, courage and untiring exertion can correct.

We have indeed to be thankful that so much time has been granted to us. If Germany had tried to invade the British Isles after the French collapse in June, 1940, and if Japan had declared war on the British Empire and the United States at about the same date, no one can say what disasters and agonies might not have been our lot. But now, at the end of December, 1941, our transformation from easy-going peace to total war efficiency has made very great progress.

The broad flow of munitions in Great Britain has already begun. Immense strides have been made in the conversion of American industry to military purposes. And now that the United States is at war, it is possible for orders to be given every day which in a year or eighteen months hence will produce results in war power beyond anything which has been seen or foreseen in the dictator states.

Provided that every effort is made, that nothing is kept back, that the whole manpower, brain power, virility, valor and civic virtue of the English-speaking world, with all its galaxy of loyal, friendly or associated communities and states-provided that is bent unremittingly to the simple but supreme task, I think it would be reasonable to hope that the end of 1942 will see us quite definitely in a better position than we are now. And that the year 1943 will enable us to assume the initiative upon an ample scale.

Some people may be startled or momentarily depressed when, like your President, I speak of a long and a hard war. Our peoples would rather know the truth, somber though it be. And after all, when we are doing the noblest work in the world, not only defending our hearths and homes, but the cause of freedom in every land, the question of whether deliverance comes in 1942 or 1943 or 1944, falls into its proper place in the grand proportions of human history. Sure I am that this day, now, we are the masters of our fate. That the task which has been set us is not above our strength. That its pangs and toils are not beyond our endurance. As long as we have faith in our cause, and an unconquerable willpower, salvation will not be denied us. In the words of the Psalmist: "He shall not be afraid of evil tidings. His heart is fixed, trusting in the Lord."

Not all the tidings will be evil. On the contrary, mighty strokes of war have already been dealt against the enemy-the glorious defense of their native soil by the Russian armies and people; wounds have been inflicted upon the Nazi tyranny and system which have bitten deep and will fester and inflame not only in the Nazi body but in the Nazi mind. The boastful Mussolini has crumpled already. He is now but a lackey and a serf, the merest utensil of his master's will. He has inflicted great suffering and wrong upon his own industrious people. He has been stripped of all his African empire. Abyssinia has been liberated. Our Armies of the East, which were so weak and ill-equipped at the moment of French desertion, now control all the regions from Teheran to Bengazi, and from Aleppo and Cyprus to the sources of the Nile.

For many months we devoted ourselves to preparing to take the offensive in Libya. The very considerable battle which has been proceeding there the last six weeks in the desert, has been most fiercely fought on both sides. Owing to the difficulties of supply upon the desert flank, we were never able to bring numerically equal forces to bear upon the enemy. Therefore we had to rely upon superiority in the numbers and qualities of tanks and aircraft, British and American. For the first time, aided by these-for the first time we have fought the enemy with equal weapons. For the first time we have made the Hun feel the sharp edge of those tools with which he has enslaved Europe. The armed forces of the enemy in Cyrenaica amounted to about 150,000 men, of whom a third were Germans. General Auchinleck set out to destroy totally that armed force, and I have every reason to believe that his aim will be fully accomplished. I am so glad to be able to place before you, members of the Senate and of the House of Representatives, at this moment when you are entering the war, the proof that with proper weapons and proper organization, we are able to beat the life out of the savage Nazi.

What Hitlerism is suffering in Libya is only a sample and a foretaste of what we have got to give him and his accomplices wherever this war should lead us in every quarter of the Globe.

There are good tidings also from blue water. The lifeline of supplies which joins our two nations across the ocean, without which all would fail,-that lifeline is flowing steadily and freely in spite of all that the enemy can do. It is a fact that the British Empire, which many thought eighteen months ago was broken and ruined, is now incomparably stronger and is growing stronger with every month.

Lastly, if you will forgive me for saying it, to me the best tidings of all-the United States, united as never before, has drawn the sword for freedom and cast away the scabbard.

All these tremendous facts have led the subjugated peoples of Europe to lift up their heads again in hope. They have put aside forever the shameful temptation of resigning themselves to the conqueror's will. Hope has returned to the hearts of scores of millions of men and women, and with that hope there burns the flame of anger against the brutal, corrupt invader. And still more fiercely burn the fires of hatred and contempt for the filthy Quislings whom he has suborned.

In a dozen famous ancient states, now prostrate under the Nazi yoke, the masses of the people, all classes and creeds, await the hour of liberation when they too will once again be able to play their part and strike their blows like men. That hour will strike. And its solemn peal will proclaim that night is past and that the dawn has come.

The onslaught upon us, so long and so secretly planned by Japan, has presented both our countries with grievous problems for which we could not be fully prepared. If people ask me, as they have a right to ask me in England, "Why is it that you have not got an ample equipment of modern aircraft and army weapons of all kinds in Malaya and in the East Indies?"-I can only point to the victory General Auchinleck has gained in the Libyan campaign. Had we diverted and dispersed our gradually-growing resources between Libya and Malaya, we should have been found wanting in both theaters.

If the United States has been found at a disadvantage at various points in the Pacific Ocean, we know well that that is to no small extent because of the aid which you have been giving to us in munitions for the defense of the British Isles and for the Libyan campaign, and above all because of your help in the Battle of the Atlantic, upon which all depends and which has in consequence been successfully and prosperously maintained.

Of course, it would have been much better, I freely admit, if we had had enough resources of all kinds to be at full strength at all threatened points. But considering how slowly and reluctantly we brought ourselves to large-scale preparations, and how long these preparations take, we had no right to expect to be in such a fortunate position.

The choice of how to dispose of our hitherto limited resources had to be made by Britain in time of war, and by the United States in time of peace. And I believe that history will pronounce that upon the whole, and it is upon the whole that these matters must be judged, that the choice made was right. Now that we are together, now that we are linked in a righteous comrade-ship of arms, now that our two considerable nations, each in perfect unity, have joined all their life-energies in a common resolve-a new scene opens upon which a steady light will glow and brighten.

Many people have been astonished that Japan should in a single day have plunged into war against the United States and the British Empire. We all wonder why, if this dark design with its laborious and intricate preparations had been so long filling their secret minds, they did not choose our moment of weakness eighteen months ago. Viewed quite dispassionately, in spite of the losses we have suffered and the further punishment we shall have to take, it certainly appears an irrational act. It is of course only prudent to assume that they have made very careful calculations and think they see their way through. Nevertheless, there may be another explanation.

We know that for many years past the policy of Japan has been dominated by secret societies of subalterns and junior officers of the army and navy, who have enforced their will upon successive Japanese cabinets and parliaments by the assassination of any Japanese statesmen who opposed or who did not sufficiently further their aggressive policy. It may be that these societies, dazzled and dizzy with their own schemes of aggression and the prospect of early victories, have forced their country-against its better judgment-into war. They have certainly embarked upon a very considerable undertaking.

After the outrages they have committed upon us at Pearl Harbor, in the Pacific Islands, in the Philippines, in Malaya and the Dutch East Indies, they must now know that the stakes for which they have decided to play are mortal. When we look at the resources of the United States and the British Empire compared to those of Japan; when we remember those of China, which have so long valiantly withstood invasion and tyranny-and when also we observe the Russian menace which hangs over Japan-it becomes still more difficult to reconcile Japanese action with prudence or even with sanity. What kind of a people do they think we are? Is it possible that they do not realize that we shall never cease to persevere against them until they have been taught a lesson which they and the world will never forget?

Members of the Senate, and members of the House of Representatives, I will turn for one moment more from the turmoil and convulsions of the present to the broader spaces of the future. Here we are together, facing a group of mighty foes who seek our ruin. Here we are together, defending all that to free men is dear. Twice in a single generation the catastrophe of world war has fallen upon us. Twice in our lifetime has the long arm of fate reached out across the oceans to bring the United States into the forefront of the battle.

If we had kept together after the last war, if we had taken common measures for our safety, this renewal of the curse need never have fallen upon us. Do we not owe it to ourselves, to our children, to tormented mankind, to make sure that these catastrophes do not engulf us for the third time?

It has been proved that pestilences may break out in the Old World which carry their destructive ravages into the New World, from which, once they are afoot, the New World can not escape. Duty and prudence alike command first that the germ-centers of hatred and revenge should be constantly and vigilantly served and treated in good time, and that an adequate organization should be set up to make sure that the pestilence can be controlled at its earliest beginnings, before it spreads and rages throughout the entire earth.

Five or six years ago it would have been easy, without shedding a drop of blood, for the United States and Great Britain to have insisted on the fulfilment of the disarmament clauses of the treaties which Germany signed after the Great War. And that also would have been the opportunity for assuring to the Germans those materials-those raw materials-which we declared in the Atlantic Charter should not be denied to any nation, victor or vanquished. The chance has passed, it is gone. Prodigious hammer-strokes have been needed to bring us together today.

If you will allow me to use other language, I will say that he must indeed have a blind soul who cannot see that some great purpose and design is being worked out here below of which we have the honor to be the faithful servants. It is not given to us to peer into the mysteries of the future. Still, I avow my hope and faith, sure and inviolate, that in the days to come the British and American peoples will, for their own safety and for the good of all, walk together in majesty, in justice and in peace.

Winston Churchill
December 26, 1941
Addressing a joint session of US Congress

| - - - - 

http://www.post-gazette.com/news/nation/2011/12/25/Christmas-1941-With-world-at-war-Churchill-joins-FDR-for-Washington-Yule/stories/201112250236

....

In the Dec. 20, 1941, edition of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Raymond Z. Henle, the newspaper's Washington correspondent, hinted to readers that a meeting of world leaders was in the works and went so far as to mention that Churchill had been absent from Britain's House of Commons for several days.

But the visit remained a secret until Churchill arrived Dec. 22.

"With Churchill at the White House, Washington became literally the wartime capital of the world," Mr. Henle wrote. "It is the first time in history that the heads of two mighty nations at war have met in the White House to discuss methods of crushing a common enemy."

A Post-Gazette editorial reflected the respect and optimism of most Americans of the day.

"Churchill is a welcome visitor," it said. "For a year and a half, during which he has led Britain from the deep depression of Dunkirk to within sight of ultimate victory, this country has watched and cheered his course. Out of the Washington conferences, it is certain, there will come the unity, not only of purpose but of action, which is best calculated to bring the war to a successful end in the least possible time."

The Post-Gazette was not alone in its adulation of Churchill. When the prime minister and the president held a joint news conference the evening of Dec. 23, more than 200 reporters from around the world crowded the room.
...

"Mr. Churchill and his party were delightful Christmas guests," Mrs. Roosevelt recalled years later, "and they accepted with very good grace their inclusion in our family celebration when they must have missed their own."

...

| - - - -

http://ww2today.com/22nd-december-1941-winston-churchill-arrives-at-the-white-house
...
There was some surprise when it was announced that Churchill had arrived in Washington, having crossed the U-Boat infested Atlantic. He had been corresponding with the U.S. President since the very beginning of the war, before he had become Prime Minister. They had only met once before during the war, at the Atlantic Conference, when the United States was still neutral.
...

We … landed after dark on December 22 at the Washington airport


https://www.washingtonian.com/2016/12/22/winston-churchill-came-dc-75-years-ago-today/


British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (Far right) on the HMS York December 1941. Photo via Wikimedia commons.

| - - -
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Duke_of_York_(17)
...
In mid-December 1941, Duke of York embarked Prime Minister Winston Churchill for a trip to the United States to confer with President Franklin D. Roosevelt. She arrived at Annapolis, Maryland, on 22 December 1941, made a shakedown cruise to Bermuda in January 1942, and departed for Scapa Flow on 17 January with Churchill returning home by air
...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scapa_Flow
Scapa Flow (/ˈskɑːpə/ or /ˈskæpə/; from Old Norse Skalpaflói, meaning "bay of the long isthmus"[1]) is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray,[2] South Ronaldsay and Hoy

| - - -

http://www.naval-history.net/xGM-Chrono-01BB-HMS_Duke_of_York.htm
....


December
 

At Scapa, work-up in continuation.

9th – At 1400 hours Vice Admiral Sir Alban Thomas Buckley Curteis CB RN, Vice-Admiral Commanding 2nd Battle Squadron & Second-in-Command, Home Fleet transferred his flag to DUKE OF YORK from RENOWN. Almost immediately Vice Admiral Curteis struck his flag and transferred it to the base ship DUNLUCE CASTLE. At 1600 hours DUKE OF YORK escorted by the destroyers FAULKNOR, FORESIGHT and MATABELE sailed from Scapa for the Clyde.

(On Sunday, December 7, 1941, Winston Churchill was dining at Chartwell with the US special envoy Averell Harriman and the US Ambassador John Winant. The radio was on, and the three men were suddenly attentive to the announcement of the newsreader that the Japanese, Axis allies of Germany and Italy, had attacked Pearl Harbour. Churchill immediately phoned the US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, asking for confirmation. "It's quite true," FDR said. The prime minister then said he would come to Washington for talks. DUKE OF YORK was en route to Greenock to embark the Prime Minster)

10th – At 1215 hours when DUKE OF YORK and escort were in the Firth of Clyde south of the Isle of Arran they received orders to immediately return to Scapa.

(When the Admiralty received the news of the sinking of the PRINCE OF WALES and REPULSE the immediate concern was that the Kriegsmarine would take advantage of the Royal Navy’s weakness and send the TIRPITZ on a raiding mission into the Atlantic. DUKE OF YORK was recalled to Scapa to be available if TIRPITZ should attempt a breakout)

11th – At 1015 hours DUKE OF YORK and destroyers FAULKNOR, FORESIGHT and MATABELE arrived back at Scapa. At 1630 hours DUKE OF YORK escorted by the destroyers FAULKNOR, FORESIGHT and MATABELE sailed from Scapa for the Clyde.

12th – At 1500 hours DUKE OF YORK and destroyers FAULKNOR, FORESIGHT and MATABELE arrived in the Clyde. At 1530 hours DUKE OF YORK anchored off Greenock.

13th – At 1100 hours whilst off Greenock the Prime Minster, Winston Churchill, embarked on DUKE OF YORK. Among those who embarked with Churchill were, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Dudley Pound, The First Sea Lord; Field Marshal Sir John Dill, Chief of the Imperial General Staff; Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Portal, Chief of the Air Staff; and Averell Harriman. At 1500 hours DUKE OF YORK and destroyers FAULKNOR, FORESIGHT and MATABELE sailed from the Clyde for the USA. The intention had been to take the great circle route but the weather forecast for the North Atlantic was so bad that the decision was made to first head south through the Irish Sea towards the Azores. This decision meant accepting the risk of possible U-boat attack as they crossed the main U-boat route from the French Biscay ports to the North Atlantic.

14th – The weather was a full gale and speed had to be reduced to enable the destroyers to keep in contact. Speed had to be reduced to 6 knots for some time.

15th – The gale continued.

16th - The weather abated but there was a heavy swell which continued to cause problems for the destroyers.

17th – The weather again deteriorated and at 0900 hours FORESIGHT experienced steering difficulties and had to heave to. After a short time FORESIGHT caught up with the main group who had been forced to reduce speed due to the weather. At 0930 hours DUKE OF YORK increased speed to 19 knots, which the destroyers were unable to maintain, so speed was again reduced. At 1800 hours the destroyers were released to refuel at Ponta Delgada. At 1830 hours in approximate position 38-30N, 23W DUKE OF YORK was joined by the destroyers HIGHLANDER, HARVESTER and LIGHTNING from Ponta Delgada.

20th – At 1800 hours in approximate position 35N, 40W, the destroyers HIGHLANDER, HARVESTER and LIGHTNING detached to Ponta Delgada.

21st – In approximate position 38N, 66-30W, DUKE OF YORK RVed with the USN destroyers BRISTOL, TRIPPE and WARRINGTON who then escorted the battleship to Chesapeake Bay.

22nd – DUKE OF YORK arrived in Chesapeake Bay. She then proceeded to Norfolk Navy Yard where Churchill and party disembarked and travelled to Washington for their series of meetings which became known as the ARCADIA conference.

(The ARCADIA conference and its outcome was arguably the most important conference of the war for Great Britain; for as General Marshall, the chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, stated, "notwithstanding the entry of Japan into the war, our view is that Germany is still the prime enemy and her defeat is the key to victory". FDR courageously endorsed this view and took the decision of ‘Germany first’, for at the time the US population were clamouring for revenge after Pearl Harbour and felt less urgency in securing the defeat of Hitler. So Churchill achieved what was his main priority for the conference.


The two leaders also called for the formation of a "grand alliance of the Allies" and between them they drew up a solemn declaration to be signed by all nations at war with Germany, as they had done with the Atlantic Charter.

On 1/1/42, representatives of 26 Allied nations signed the "Declaration by the United Nations". Pledging to support the Atlantic Charter, the signatories agreed to commit their full resources to the defeat of the Axis powers, promised to make no separate peace, and agreed to preserve idealistic virtues such as freedom and justice. Later it would be said that this signing was the birth of the United Nations. At a time when the Germans controlled the European continent and the Japanese were sweeping across the Far East the Philippines and the Pacific, the Declaration provided millions with an uplifting message of hope.
 
The conference also established a Joint Anglo-American Chiefs of Staff to control the future conduct of the war, the most complete unification of military effort ever achieved by two allied nations)

23rd – DUKE OF YORK remained at Norfolk, Va to re-embark the Prime Minster after the conference, which was scheduled to last a week


(In fact, the Prime Minster did not leave the White House until 14/1/42)



1 9 4 2

January
 
3rd – DUKE OF YORK departed Chesapeake Bay, escorted by destroyers HARVESTER, HIGHLANDER and LIGHTNING, the destroyers had arrived on 31/1/41, For Bermuda.

5th - DUKE OF YORK, HARVESTER, HIGHLANDER and LIGHTNING arrived at Bermuda, from where DUKE OF YORK continued her working up exercises while awaiting the arrival of Prime Minister for return to the UK.

13th – HARVESTER, HIGHLANDER and LIGHTNING departed Bermuda for St Johns, Newfoundland.

15th – Churchill and his party arrived by air at Bermuda from Washington.

16th – Churchill decided to return to the UK by commercial flying boat. The members of his party who were unable to travel on the aircraft returned on DUKE OF YORK.

17th – DUKE OF YORK departed Bermuda, escorted by the US destroyers LANG, EDISON and NICHOLSON, for the Clyde.

21st – In approximate position 53N, 38-30W, HARVESTER, HIGHLANDER and LIGHTNING joined and LANG, EDISON and NICHOLSON detached.

23rd – In approximate position 56-30N, 24W, the destroyers BADSWORTH, LAMERTON, and WIVERN joined.

25th – In the North Channel the destroyers BADSWORTH, LAMERTON, HARVESTER and HIGHLANDER detached. Later in the day DUKE OF YORK, LIGHTNING and WIVERN arrived in the Clyde.

29th – DUKE OF YORK escorted by the destroyers HARVESTER, VERITY and the Polish ORP BLYSKAWICA sailed from the Clyde for Scapa Flow.
 
30th - DUKE OF YORK escorted by HARVESTER, VERITY and BLYSKAWICA arrived at Scapa Flow to continue her working up exercises.

| - - - -

http://bernews.com/2012/03/churchills-1942-flying-bermuda-visit/
Winston Churchill’s 1942 Flying Bermuda Visit
 March 10, 2012


British Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s return to the UK from Bermuda aboard Boeing flying boat in January, 1942 — the first transatlantic air trip by a world leader
— fired the imaginations not only of his devoted countrymen but of the entire democratic world.

People reading of his long flight from Bermuda and safe landing at Plymouth in the United Kingdom chuckled with affectionate glee mixed with relief.

With transatlantic air travel still in its infancy, the British wartime leader’s impulsive decision to fly from Bermuda was viewed as a characteristically audacious — and potentially perilous — move. The Prime Minister had visited the island for a secret 24-hour stop-over and addressed the House of Assembly, expressing his gratitude to Bermuda for allowing the construction of US military bases the previous year.

He flew to Bermuda on January 15, 1942 from Virginia aboard the British Overseas Airline Corporation’s Boeing 314 flying boat “Berwick”. The British Prime Minister had been in Washington for several weeks after the sneak Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour on December 7, 1941 brought America into World War Two [1939-1945].

He had been conferring with ally President Franklin Roosevelt at the White House and had delivered one of his most famous wartime speeches — “the United States, united as never before, have drawn the sword for freedom and cast away the scabbard” — to a joint session of the US Congress.

Soon after the flight departed for Bermuda, the Prime Minister entered the “Berwick’s” cockpit smoking his trademark cigar, and Captain Kelly Rogers waived the rules and let him continue, even allowing him to strike a match when it went out.

He tried the controls of the huge craft, as Kelly Rogers whispered into the co-pilot’s ear, ordering him to apply corrections only if it looked as if the plane was getting out of the Prime Minister’s control.

Mr. Churchill was allowed to do a couple of slightly banked turns, and was photographed by one of the official cameramen [above and below].
...

The battleship HMS “Duke of York”, with an escort of fast destroyers, had been dispatched to Bermuda to collect the Prime Minister to take him back to the United Kingdom.

But after flying to Bermuda by flying boat he decided that it might be preferable to return to England all the way by air, accompanied by only the most important members of his staff, including Sir Dudley Pound, Chief of the Naval Staff and Sir Charles Portal, Chief of the Air Staff.

A transatlantic air flight was no small undertaking at this time even for a Boeing clipper, widely regarded as representing the apex of flying boat technology.

Powered by four 1,600 horsepower engines, the magnificent 106-foot long aircraft had a wingspan of 152 feet and was designed to carry 68 passengers and 11 crew in unrivalled comfort for an aircraft of its era. Still, reaching the UK from Bermuda non-stop only just fell within the “Berwick’s” maximum operational range of 3,600 miles
...

The Boeing 314′s departure from Bermuda on January 16 was not as easy as its arrival had been.

“It was, as the Captain had predicted, quite a job to get off the water,” Churchill later recalled. “Indeed, I thought that we should hardly clear the low hills which closed the harbour. There was really no danger; we were in sure hands. The flying-boat lifted ponderously a quarter of a mile from the reef, and we had several hundred feet of height to spare.”
...

On the morning of January 17, as the “Berwick” approached Britain, Captain Kelly discovered a navigational error in not sufficiently correcting for the prevailing winds. This had allowed the aircraft to drift south of its intended landfall.

“When they did not pass over the Isles of Scilly at the expected time it was realised that they were heading for the port of Brest, the most heavily defended of all the German occupied towns in Europe,” said historian Martin Cherrett, editor of the World War II Today website.

“They were only six miles off when the decision was made to turn abruptly north, and the Luftwaffe planes scrambled to investigate a raider heading in from the sea never found them. They were lucky again as they approached the Royal Navy base at Plymouth. Coming in from an unexpectedly southern direction they were now thought to be a German raider and ‘six Hurricanes from Fighter Command were ordered to shoot us down’ Churchill later recalled.”

Fortunately — as the Prime Minister curtly noted — “they failed in their mission.”


Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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So Dec 27 1941 ... Japanese have a victory parade  in Hong Kong :

http://www.combinedfleet.com/HongKong_t.htm

Dec 27 1941 - LtGen Sakai and Vice Admiral Niimi on Parade in Hong Kong

http://worldwar2daybyday.blogspot.com/2011_12_01_archive.html
December 27, 1941
Hong Kong. Japanese General Sakai, commander of Hong Kong Operation, parades 38th Infantry Division in triumph through Victoria, Hong Kong.


back to dec 25 1941 - Christmas DAY , Hong Kong Surrendered hoping for some honor from the Japanese and received none: 
http://www.hksw.org/despatches_106_1_j.htm
...
The end came almost suddenly late on Christmas Day.  Having rejected yet another surrender ultimatum in the morning, the situation deteriorated rapidly when the fighting was renewed.  General Maltby decided that further resistance would entail the useless slaughter of his remaining troops without affecting the inevitable outcome.
...
Following Maltby’s decision the formal surrender took place at 1800 and the 6500 survivors were lead off into captivity, during which thousands were to die.  Their resistance had not been entirely in vain, for seventeen days they had deflected the Japanese troops, aircraft and shipping from more important objectives.  Winston Churchill’s message on 21st December ended: “Everyday that you are able to maintain your resistance, you help the Allied cause all over the world”.

| - - -

Back to Dec 18 1941 - Japanese invasion of Hong Kong:

http://www.qaranc.co.uk/bmh_bowen_road_hong_kong.php
BMH Bowen Road Hong Kong
Information about the British Military Hospital Bowen Road Hong Kong including the history of the BMH during World War Two:

...
Atrocities By The Japanese Troops

The next day a doctor ran into theatre and announced The Japs are here. Sister Currie was assisting the surgeon and without a thought for her own safety grabbed her helmet and ran to her young nurses. She was met by armed Japanese troops with fixed bayonets and was captured and tied up and taken outside. She was hit by a Japanese soldier with his rifle butt who tripped over her legs. She became angry and berated him for not obeying the Geneva Convention for their prisoners of war who were medical personnel. This attracted the attention of a Japanese officer who had been educated at Oxford University. She informed him that she had tried her utmost to respect his dead General. She took him to the General's body in the mortuary. Looking from the body to the English woman the officer asked Do Englishwomen never cry? To which Sister Mary Currie replied Not when they have work to do (cited in the book Sisters In Arms: British Army Nurses Tell Their Story.

The officer was so impressed by her behaviour that he left Sister Mary Currie in charge of the temporarily hospital whilst he would remain to ensure the safety of her fellow nurses. These were the only nurses at Hong Kong to escape the atrocities by the Japanese troops and many of the VADs wrote to the QAIMNS Matron in Chief after the war and to tell her about the courage of Sister Mary Currie and she was awarded the Royal Red Cross medal. The letter survives at the AMS Museum and is cited in the book Sisters In Arms: British Army Nurses Tell Their Story.

The book Sisters In Arms: British Army Nurses Tell Their Story has extracts from the diary of Sister Mary Currie that she was able to keep during this time.
...

The VAD and Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps nurses and assistants were murdered. Late on the 25 December the soldiers ordered the staff and patients that had survived the atrocities to bring all the furniture into the grounds to form a bonfire. This was used by the Japanese troops to burn the bodies of their murder victims and any evidence of their atrocities such as the bloodied mattresses.

The surviving QAs were released and returned to BMH Bowen Road Hong Kong to continue to nurse despite their terrible ordeal. Alcohol supplies were destroyed to prevent any further atrocities from drunk Japanese soldiers.

| - - - -

http://www.dontow.com/2007/04/massacre-and-atrocities-in-hong-kong-during-wwii/
...

Charles says:    October 6, 2013 at 5:39 pm   

I have studied WW2 extensively. I was 6 years old when Pearl Harbor was so savagely attacked by the Japs. I remember my Mom & Dad being very alarmed; my Dad drove downtown to buy an Extra edition of the local Roswell, NM paper. All during the War–the Germans/Nazis were made fun of–such as hop-skip & jump upon a crude drawing of either Hitler–or Tojo.

The atrocities were not known until as the last months of the War–when Nazi death camps were captured and prisoners in Japanese held territory that were still alive-told the almost unbelievable tales of torture-death-extreme brutality all in the name of the Emperor.

All of the books–please read The Rape of Nanking – it shows & tells of unimaginable brutality. I have never quite forgiven the Japanese–their Government has purposely tried to minimize and outright try to re-write history. Japan–and yes I have been there as a US Naval Medical Officer and found them to be lukewarm friendly.

Many apologists try to say that our Nuclear bombing of Hiroshima/Nagasaki was uncalled for — but it would have cost over 100,000 US troops to pacify Honshu, not counting the awful toll on the Japanese population. The Japs were the most horrific killers-rapist-brutal beatings and the death toll will never be known. And in the light of all atrocities – modest-unfelt apology — Doesn’t work for me CDP

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Arcadia Conference:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcadia_Conference
The First Washington Conference, also known as the Arcadia Conference (ARCADIA was the code name used for the conference), was held in Washington, from December 22, 1941 to January 14, 1942.

It brought together the top British and American military leaders in Washington, December 22, 1941, to January 14, 1942. Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt and their aides had very candid conversations that led to a series of major decisions that shaped the war effort in 1942-1943. The decision was made to invade North Africa in 1942, to send American bombers to bases in England, and for the British to strengthen their forces in the Pacific.

The Conference established the Combined Chiefs of Staff, headquartered in Washington, which approved and finalized all military decisions. The conference also created a unified American-British-Dutch-Australian Command (ABDA) in the Far East; the ABDA fared poorly. Finally the conference drafted the Declaration by the United Nations, which committed the Allies to make no separate peace with the enemy, and to employ full resources until victory.[1]

Arcadia was the first meeting on military strategy between Britain and the United States; it came two weeks after the American entry into World War II. The Arcadia Conference also had a wider international diplomatic and political aspect concerning the terms of the post-war world, which followed from the Atlantic Charter, agreed between Churchill and Roosevelt in August 1941. On January 1, 1942, 26 governments attending the conference agreed to the Declaration by United Nations.[2]

Although Roosevelt was under some domestic pressure to concentrate the United States war effort on Japan because of its attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, Germany's declaration of war made this decision more politically acceptable to opinion in the United States than it would otherwise have been. With these developments, the United States government agreed that to win the war, the prime objective was the defeat of Nazi Germany. This was termed the Europe first strategy. It was also agreed at the conference to combine military resources under one command in the European Theater of Operations (ETO).[3]



https://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/Dip/Conf/Arcadia/ARCADIA.PDF
Dec 24 1941 - Jan 14 1942

...
11. BOMBARDMENT OF JAPAN. -
ADMIRAL STARK asked as to the situation in China for air fields to be used as bases for bombing attacks against Japan.
GENERAL ARNOLD stated that General Brett had written for air transport planes for use in reconnaissance work and for supply. He stated that no bombing operations should be undertaken against Japan unless they are strong enough to create substantial damage; that the minimum number of bombers should be 50; that unsustained attacks would only tend to solidify the Japanese people.
-


https://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/research/finding_aids/pdf/Combined_CoS_Conference_Proceedings.pdf
DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER LIBRARY ABILENE, KANSAS
COMBINED CHIEFS OF STAFF: Conference Proceedings, 1941-45
SCOPE AND CONTENT NOTE
...
The ten volumes of conference proceedings of the Combined Chiefs of Staff cover the dates of December 24, 1941, the date of the first Combined Chiefs of Staff meeting (ARCADIA Conference), through July 26, 1945, the date of the U.S.-Soviet Union Chiefs of Staff Military meeting (TERMINAL Conference). Each conference was composed of a series of meetings attended by high-ranking military officials, most generally of the U.S. and Great Britain which formed the Combined Chiefs of Staff. However, on occasion military officers of the U.S.S.R. were also present. In addition to the Combined Chiefs of Staff meetings, most of the conferences included Plenary Meetings which were attended by the President of the U.S. and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. There were also several Tripartite Meetings when these heads of state were joined by Marshal Stalin of the Soviet Union. The Conference volumes are divided into two sections, the minutes of the meetings and the approved documents created at the meetings.
...

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.618.3009&rep=rep1&type=pdf
ABSTRACT
THE WORLD WAR II CONFERENCES IN WASHINGTON, D.C.
AND QUEBEC CITY: FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
AND WINSTON S. CHURCHILL
Diane K. DeWaters, PhD
The University of Texas at Arlington, 2008
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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75th anny of the Globalist  UN ... less than 30 days after pearl harbor ...






https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zzguvTVEJpU
The Arcadia Conference 1942

January 1st 1942, The United States of America plays host to 22 World leaders in the hops of forming a pact to stop The AXIS power for good! This synopsis of the conference is accompanied by two speeches, one from British Prime Minister Winston Churchill given on December 26th 1941, and the other by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt March 9th 1939. ENJOY :)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcadia_Conference
On January 1, 1942, 26 governments attending the conference agreed to the Declaration by United Nations.[2]

see: 20/20: FDR's Secret Plan to Bomb Japan Before Pearl Harbor (July 1941)
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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http://worldwar2daybyday.blogspot.com/2012/01/day-860-january-7-1942.html
Day 860 January 7, 1942
Malaya. Japanese tanks rout Indian 11th Division defenses at Slim River before breakfast.

At 3.30 AM, mortar and artillery bombardment cuts communication lines preventing British artillery from ranging on Major Shimada's tanks and a battalion of motorised infantry as they advance 15 miles and cross both road and railway bridges by 9.30 AM (Japanese have 17 killed and 60 wounded). Shimada probes another 3 miles beyond until stopped by 2 howitzers of 155th Field Artillery Regiment. Allied rearguard areas are stampeded, abandoning 50 armored cars and many trucks. Unsuspecting troops are shot up as they are assembling and Indian 11th Division is decimated (500 killed and 3200 taken prisoner) although some units take to the jungle and remain active until the end of the war and beyond (1 Gurkha will be found in 1949).

Mindanao, Philippines. Japanese invasion force moves on to the next engagement, departing Davao Bay to land on the tiny island of Tarakan for the invasion of Dutch Borneo.

In Washington, President Roosevelt submits his budget to Congress; $29,000,000,000 (29 billion dollars) to build 60,000 planes, 45,000 tanks and 8,000,000 tons of shipping.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5