Author Topic: Iraq's Post-Conflict Reconstruction Assessment by CSIS started June 26, 2003  (Read 6013 times)

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Offline Dig

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Iraq's Post-Conflict Reconstruction - A Field Review and Recommendations
http://csis.org/publication/iraqs-post-conflict-reconstruction-field-review-and-recommendations
By Johanna Mendelson Forman, John J. Hamre, Frederick D. Barton, Bathsheba N. Crocker, Dr. Robert Orr
Jul 17, 2003

A team of CSIS experts in the field of post-conflict reconstruction went to Iraq from June 26 to July 7, 2003 to assess the reconstruction efforts and traveled throughout the country



Really? June 26, 2003? A war that started in March 19, 2003? A War where the three principal enemy leaders (Saddam and his two sons) were not even located yet?

Here is a timeline: http://thinkprogress.org/iraq-timeline

So CSIS gets first crack at setting up civil war conflicts and resource theft while US soldiers are being blown up and black ops are detonating false flags everywhere.

How the hell is CSIS allowed to get away with such anti-government radical fundamentalist sedition?
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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more timelines:

http://www.warchronicle.com/iraq/news/timeline_iraq_war.htm
http://usiraq.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000670
http://usforeignpolicy.about.com/od/newsiss3/a/iraqwartimeline.htm
http://middleeast.about.com/od/iraq/a/me022708.htm


May 6, 2003: President Bush appoints L. Paul Bremer head of the Coalition Provisional Authority. Bremer is essentially Iraq’s ruler.

July 16, 2003: U.S. military officials in Baghdad concede they’re facing a “classic guerilla-type campaign.”
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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Well look what else happened during that time period where CSIS was being flown into the warzone...



The Spoils of War-Billions over Baghdad
http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2007/10/iraq_billions200710
by Donald L. Barlett and James B. Steele October 2007

Between April 2003 and June 2004, $12 billion in U.S. currency—much of it belonging to the Iraqi people—was shipped from the Federal Reserve to Baghdad, where it was dispensed by the Coalition Provisional Authority. Some of the cash went to pay for projects and keep ministries afloat, but, incredibly, at least $9 billion has gone missing, unaccounted for, in a frenzy of mismanagement and greed. Following a trail that leads from a safe in one of Saddam's palaces to a house near San Diego, to a P.O. box in the Bahamas, the authors discover just how little anyone cared about how the money was handled.



How Did $9B in Cash Airlifted From the Fed to Iraq Go Missing?
http://www.infowars.com/articles/iraq/corruption_9_billion_cash_airlifted_from_fed_to_iraq_go_missing.htm
Democracy Now | September 12, 2007

One month after the invasion of Iraq, the United States began airlifting planeloads of cash to Baghdad. Between April 2003 and June 2004, a total of $12 billion dollars of US currency was shipped to Iraq where it was to be dispensed by the Coalition Provisional Authority for reconstruction. To date, at least $9 billion dollars cannot be accounted for.


In a startling new expose in Vanity Fair, Pulitzer Prize winning investigative journalists Donald Barlett and James Steele follow the money trail from the Federal Reserve to Iraq. [includes rush transcript] One month after the invasion of Iraq, the United States began airlifting planeloads of cash to Baghdad...literally. Stacks of $100 dollar bills were packed into bricks, assembled into large palettes and loaded onto cargo planes bound for the Iraqi capital.

Beginning in April 2003 and continuing for little more than a year, a total of $12 billion dollars of US currency was shipped from the Federal Reserve to Iraq. The US military delivered the banknotes to the Coalition Provisional Authority where it was to be dispensed for Iraqi reconstruction. What happened to it? To date, at least $9 billion dollars cannot be accounted for.

In a startling new expose, Vanity Fair contributing editors Donald Barlett and James Steele follow the money trail from the Fed to Iraq. Barlett and Steele are two of the nation's top investigative journalists. Together they have won two Pulitzer Prizes and two national magazine awards.
James Steele , investigative journalist and Vanity Fair contributing editor.
Donald Barlett , investigative journalist and Vanity Fair contributing editor.

RUSH TRANSCRIPT

This transcript is available free of charge. However, donations help us provide closed captioning for the deaf and hard of hearing on our TV broadcast. Thank you for your generous contribution.
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AMY GOODMAN: One month after the invasion of Iraq, the United States began airlifting planeloads of cash to Baghdad, literally. Stacks of $100 bills were packed into bricks, assembled into large pallets and loaded onto cargo planes bound for the Iraqi capital. Beginning in April 2003, continuing for little more than a year, a total of $12 billion of US currency was shipped from the Federal Reserve to Iraq. The US military delivered the bank notes to the Coalition Provisional Authority, where it was to be dispensed for Iraqi reconstruction.

What happened to it? To date, at least $9 billion cannot be accounted for. In a startling new expose, Vanity Fair contributing editors Donald Barlett and James Steele follow the money trail from the Fed to Iraq. Barlett and Steele are two of the nation's top investigative journalists. Together they have won two Pulitzer Prizes, two national magazine awards. Don Barlett and Jim Steele join us now in our firehouse studio, up from Philadelphia. Thanks so much for joining us.

JAMES STEELE: Great to be with you.

DONALD BARLETT: Good to be with you, Amy.

AMY GOODMAN: Jim, let's start with where this money was in this country before it was sent off.

JAMES STEELE: The money that went to Iraq was basically impounded funds: Iraqi assets dating back to the original Gulf War, oil money that had been under the control of the United Nations. And this money was basically under the care of the US government, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

And when they wanted to make this shipment, what we were so fascinated by was just how it get there, where did it come from. And what we found out, there's a warehouse ten miles west of Manhattan, about a mile west of Giants Stadium, that nobody knows is there. It's a huge facility, larger than your biggest Wal-Mart, and this thing is packed with cash. It's the largest currency vault, apparently, in the world, certainly the largest repository of American cash. And when they wanted this money, they had to ship it out of this facility. They loaded it into eighteen --

AMY GOODMAN: This is in East Rutherford, New Jersey?

JAMES STEELE: East Rutherford, New Jersey, about a mile west of Giants Stadium, ten miles west of Manhattan. Thousands of commuters go by this place every day. Nobody even knows it's there. I mean, everybody knows where the Federal Reserve Bank is in Lower Manhattan, this august institution, but nobody knows this warehouse over there. You don't think of a warehouse for money. But anyway, that's what we were tracing. This is where it began. And they have it stored there on basically pallets, like it's some sort of household goods, and it's all run on a very computerized system. If somebody needs money, it comes out of that.

And the money for Iraq went into eighteen-wheeler trucks, unmarked trucks, and then these trucks quietly slipped under the New Jersey Turnpike, went down to Andrews Air Force Base near Washington. Seals were broken on the money, and the money was shipped out overnight to Iraq.

AMY GOODMAN: Where are highway spills when you need them?

JAMES STEELE: Exactly. In fact, one of the most amusing things that happened to some of the people loading this money was that one day they opened the back of one of these trucks, and the money flowed out just like it was beans or coffee or sugar or whatever it was, creating all kinds of mayhem as people scrambled around trying to get the money back onto these pallets.

But the whole process, at least in this country by the Federal Reserve Bank in New York and the Treasury Department, there were standards. I mean, there were rigid standards to watch this money and make sure that the proper amount was shipped over there. But once it got to Iraq, a totally different thing happened.

AMY GOODMAN: Don Barlett, pick it up from there. Where does it go in Iraq? Who's in charge?

DONALD BARLETT: What struck us was the incredible control, supervision and everything in this country, and then it gets to Iraq, and all controls, all supervision disappears. I mean, large chunks of it went into the palace in Baghdad. Some of it went into other palaces, all Saddam Hussein palaces around the country. And then it was distributed about, and a lot of the money went to American contractors, it went to Iraqi contractors. It was all a, basically, as-much-as-you-can-carry basis. And people stuffed it into their own pockets, basically, in a lot of cases. Now, some --

AMY GOODMAN: It was kept in a vault in the Green Zone?

DONALD BARLETT: Yes, in the beginning. But then it was moved about the country in different ways. But what is striking about this is that here you have $12 billion and actually many more billions later coming through that process, but no auditing arm established to track the money. And that is just amazing.

AMY GOODMAN: I mean, the irony of the Coalition Provisional Authority initials, CPA, that there was no accounting.

DONALD BARLETT: Exactly.

JAMES STEELE: No certified public accountant on duty.

DONALD BARLETT: No. And this is an interesting organization in itself, because when we traced it back, it is literally a rogue agency within this country. There is no formal document establishing it. Congress has funded it with taxpayer dollars at that time, but it was never created within the legal process of Congress.

AMY GOODMAN: Now, explain this, Jim, because this is quite astounding. When it comes to accountability then -- where has the money gone -- and even lawsuits, the question is: who ran the Coalition Provisional Authority?

JAMES STEELE: The Coalition Provisional Authority, which created this illusion that this was this multinational force, was basically run by the Pentagon. It was a creation of the Pentagon. Most of the contracts were awarded with the approval of the Pentagon. This was totally their entity. And it became an absolutely perfect sieve for this cash, because it only existed for fourteen months, and then we turned Iraq over to the Iraqis. And during that period, because it was not a US government agency, because it was not really an entity of the UN, because it was a rogue operation, as Don has mentioned, nobody was responsible for really what happened to that money. And, in fact, some of the litigation that has come up in this country, the traditional whistleblower things, it's basically failed so far, because you're not dealing with malfeasance within a normal US government agency.

AMY GOODMAN: Explain with the lawsuit, using that as an example.

JAMES STEELE: The reason -- courts have ruled that because this is not an entity of the United States government, normal whistleblowers, people who observe wrongdoing within an agency, see theft and so forth, cannot appeal to the courts, because nobody has authorized this thing. I mean, it's a classic Catch-22 situation. I mean, you've created this thing that isn't legitimate, therefore you can't sue it. But in the meantime, it's become this wonderful repository for this incredible amount of cash.

AMY GOODMAN: Don Barlett?

DONALD BARLETT: And the other thing is that the Pentagon did establish an auditing, basically, for us to track the money, make sure it was spent properly. So who does the auditing contract go to, but something called NorthStar Consultants, run out of a million-dollar home in La Jolla, California, with a post office box in Nassau, Bahamas, which also happens to be the post office box set up for a $200 million securities swindle a few years earlier. And the company was actually created -- the company in charge of monitoring the money to making sure it's spent right -- was created by a Bahamian man for the -- on the behalf of the San Diego man who ran it. But the Bahamas guy who set this up also had set up and been involved in companies linked to the $200 million swindle. And this was the group that the Pentagon put in charge of seeing where the money went, which means one of two things: the Pentagon didn't want anyone to know where the money was going, or they wanted it to go a certain place that nobody knows about.

AMY GOODMAN: Jim Steele, you tried to get in touch with the head of NorthStar. Ironically, the name NorthStar was the newspaper of Frederick Douglass, the great abolitionist. But talk about trying to get to the top and find how they were monitoring the billions.

JAMES STEELE: When the Pentagon provided this contract to us, they blacked out almost all the names. We were able to trace back and find out the name of the fellow who had chartered NorthStar, a fellow by the name of Thomas Howell.

AMY GOODMAN: Because the only thing they didn't black out was the --

JAMES STEELE: They didn't black out the name of the company, NorthStar Consultants, and they blacked out most of the phone number, but not all of the phone number. So we were able to see that it was somewhere in the San Diego area, La Jolla area. And by going back through some public records and so forth, we were able to find where he lived.

So, much to our surprise, when I called him, I was put through to him. And he took the position then, and in later conversations, that, gosh, he'd love to talk, but this was a Pentagon operation, and the Pentagon was his customer.

AMY GOODMAN: This is Thomas Howell.

JAMES STEELE: Thomas Howell. And he wouldn't be able to talk about it unless he got approval from them. And in subsequent conversations, he simply said that the Pentagon considered this a closed issue, that there was really no one capable on duty at this point who could actually discuss this and explain the dynamics of it. Even simple questions, like, "Well, what are you? What's NorthStar, and what does it do?" He simply took the position that he really couldn't get into that. We sent him incredible number of faxes and FedEx packages, and so forth, to give him an opportunity, but there was deafening silence out of him.

AMY GOODMAN: You went to his house.

JAMES STEELE: And we went to his -- Don went to his house. I called him a couple of times. And every case, total refusal to discuss the contract any way. And that was the same policy we got from the Pentagon. Nobody wants to talk about it.

DONALD BARLETT: This was interesting. Jim talked -- when Jim talk to him, it was on a Thursday. And the next day afternoon, or Friday afternoon, I show up at the house, and his wife comes to the door. And I introduced myself, Vanity Fair . And she says, "Well, he's out of the country now." So either he departed very quickly or something else.

JAMES STEELE: I mean, what is so interesting about this to us is that here is this Iraqi contractor, supposedly, having to trace billions of dollars airlifted to Iraq, among other things. He's operating out of a private home. What are his other businesses out of this home? Their home remodeling, things of this sort, have nothing to do with what you would normally associate with high-level --

AMY GOODMAN: Furniture and remodeling?

JAMES STEELE: Remodeling.

AMY GOODMAN: And how much money did NorthStar get?

JAMES STEELE: The contract was originally $1.4 million. And this was to oversee billions of dollars in money that supposedly went -- that did, in fact, go to Iraq.

AMY GOODMAN: L. Paul Bremer was asked about NorthStar.

DONALD BARLETT: Yes, Mr. Bremer said that -- well, originally, he was asked during the Waxman hearings, and he said he really wasn't too familiar with the company. And somebody asked him, "Would you be surprised if you were told that they had no accountants on their payroll?" And he said, "Well, I would, if that were true." It absolutely was true.

So when we talked to him, he said, "Well, NorthStar really was a creation of the Pentagon." The Pentagon, the deafening silence out of the Pentagon on this company has been astonishing. The Pentagon usually say, "No comment," or "We don't want to discuss this," or -- but no comment --

AMY GOODMAN: So you raised the question of whether there are CPAs --

DONALD BARLETT: Yes.

AMY GOODMAN: -- because, according to the rules, there have to be?

JAMES STEELE: Right.

DONALD BARLETT: Right.

AMY GOODMAN: And so, they changed the rules.

JAMES STEELE: Right, exactly

DONALD BARLETT: Yes. They changed the rules.

AMY GOODMAN: Explain.

JAMES STEELE: Exactly.

DONALD BARLETT: Well, the Pentagon -- the original order called for CPAs to audit the money -- certified public accountants. He had none on his staff. So they simply rewrote the contract rules and did away with them.

AMY GOODMAN: To this overall issue of oversight, I want to go to last February. The House Oversight Committee, Oversight and Government Reform Committee, held a hearing about the missing reconstruction funds. The committee's chair, Henry Waxman, questioned former CPA head, Paul Bremer. This is an excerpt.

REP. HENRY WAXMAN: Little more than a year, $12 billion in US currency removed from the vaults of the Federal Reserve and flown into Iraq, this money, mainly $100 bills, were packed into bricks, and each brick was worth $400,000 each. And I think we have a picture of the bricks on the screen. They were assembled into large pallets containing over $60 million in cash and flown into Iraq. In December 2003, Ambassador Bremer and the Coalition Provisional Authority asked for a shipment of $1.5 billion to be flown into Iraq, and a Federal Reserve official described this in an email as the largest payout of US currency in US history. But this didn't remain the largest for very long, because in June, $2.4 billion was sent to Iraq, and this time the Federal Reserve official wrote, quote, "Just when you think you've seen it all, the CPA is ordering $2,401,600,000 in currency."

Well, the question this committee is trying to answer is, what happened to the money? Was it spent responsibly? Was it misspent? Was it wasted? Did it go out to pay off corrupt officials? Or, worst of all, did some of this money get in the hands of the insurgents and those who are fighting us today in Iraq? Ambassador Bremer, are you concerned about the possibility that some of this money went to ghost employees -- we don't know where it went -- and might be showing up in the hands of insurgents that are fighting US troops?

PAUL BREMER: If there were evidence of that, I would certainly be concerned.

REP. HENRY WAXMAN: We don't know whether there's evidence of it, but we don't --

PAUL BREMER: I don't know.

REP. HENRY WAXMAN: -- know whether the people who got the money were entitled to it or what they did with it.

PAUL BREMER: Well, as the inspector general pointed out, the problem of ghost employees was certainly there, and it was there even before the invasion. But I have no knowledge of monies being diverted. I would certainly be concerned if I thought they were.

REP. HENRY WAXMAN: Well, $12 billion is a lot of money. It could have been used for a lot of projects that American taxpayers ended up funding through appropriations. It seems to me inconceivable that we can't explain what happened to it, but that seems to be the situation we're in.

AMY GOODMAN: That is Congressmember Henry Waxman, the House Government Oversight hearings, questioning L. Paul Bremer.

Jim Steele, your response to L. Paul Bremer's answers, and then I want to ask you both about Custer Battles.

JAMES STEELE: Well, the idea that there was no evidence of this corruption and if some of this was brought forth is pretty astonishing at this point. I think anybody who was over there at the time -- and we talked to a number of people, both military folks and civilians who were in Iraq at that time -- 2003, 2004, right during the height of the Coalition Provisional Authority, all of them talk about the level of corruption, that the corruption was everywhere. It was not just a matter of American contractors and Iraqi subcontractors. It was the Iraqis who were manning these agencies.

One particular person I talked to said that he's never forgotten the situation. He had these Iraqis placed in charge of these agencies. They had never run anything in their life. They were scared of being killed. They were scared of losing their jobs. They weren't interested in nation-building at all. They were interested in building up themselves and their own future, whatever it might be.

So, from day one, this corruption was there, this chaos was there. And anybody who was there saw it at the time. So an awful lot of this money disappeared into the hands of these types of Iraqis, who had no interest in nation-building. This is very true from the beginning. And there was no follow-up with them to see where that money was spent.

Other money went to American contractors in many cases. I mean, this money was supposedly supposed to go to Iraqis, but a lot of it went to American contractors, like Custer Battles, who you mentioned.

AMY GOODMAN: Explain -- as you say, you're not talking Little Bighorn -- explain Custer Battles, Don.

DONALD BARLETT: Custer and Battles were two former Rangers, Army Rangers. And they showed up in the streets of Baghdad right after the invasion. And to get there at that point, you had to have White House approval. And Battles had -- well, he had the rather disappointing position to be in of running against Patrick Kennedy in Rhode Island. But he didn't even survive the primary, so he didn't get that far. But he accounted for the access. And they get on the streets of Baghdad. They have no money. They have no company. They have no nothing.

All of a sudden, this cash that's in the palace shows up being delivered to them, $2 million right off the top to start up a business in the first contract to protect flights into the Baghdad airport, which there were none. So -- but it was the beginning of contracts that ultimately, by the end of the year, were totaled about $100 million to these two men. Again, it was cash.

AMY GOODMAN: So you're talking Scott K. Custer and Michael J. Battles --

DONALD BARLETT: Michael Battles, right.

AMY GOODMAN: -- Battles, who ran against Kennedy, had been a CIA operative before.

DONALD BARLETT: Yes.

AMY GOODMAN: They're Rangers in their mid-thirties.

DONALD BARLETT: Right.

AMY GOODMAN: Any experience?

DONALD BARLETT: In the security field? No.

AMY GOODMAN: And the first amount of money they got, Custer Battles got, was how much?

JAMES STEELE: I believe it was -- one of the biggest shipments was $2 million. And, in fact, we interviewed the fellow who shows up in his office one day, and somebody higher up in the CPA who had originally agreed to the contract with Custer Battles had authorized a payment to them of $2 million. The guy comes back to his office, finds it spread out on a desk. And, of course, he had never seen that kind of money in his entire life. And somebody said, "This has just been wheelbarrowed in" to basically pay Custer Battles an installment on their contract.

AMY GOODMAN: I mean, when you're talking about connections, as you lay out in your piece in Vanity Fair , talking about the Battles half of the team, his benefactors, his contributors in the Patrick Kennedy race included Haley Barbour, the longtime Washington powerbroker, former chair of the Republican National Committee, now Mississippi governor, and Fred Malik, and for those who lived through the Nixon years and beyond, a former special assistant to President Nixon, who survived the Watergate scandal, went on to become an insider in the Reagan and both Bush administrations. These guys may not have experience, but they're connected.

DONALD BARLETT: They were really well connected politically.

AMY GOODMAN: You say, one of their first no-bid contracts, $16.5 million to protect civilian aircraft flights, of which at the time there were few into Baghdad International Airport.

DONALD BARLETT: I think we were being charitable there. We don't think there were really any, but gave them the benefit of the doubt and said there were a few.

JAMES STEELE: Maybe one sneaked in at some point.

AMY GOODMAN: So they don't have a viable business. They don't have any money. But they get this money. And this, as you pointed out at the beginning, is Iraqi money, actually. Yes, from the United States, but this is from Iraq.

JAMES STEELE: Right.

DONALD BARLETT: The other thing that happened here, it's really very important, is this -- the cavalier handling of all this money, because so many people do say, "Well, this is Iraqi money. Who really cares?" It set the tone for the following years in Iraq, in which this just unlimited corruption continues to this day, and nobody really cares about it.

AMY GOODMAN: So, at this point, with your investigation, we're talking $9 million of perhaps $12 billion, and you point out there are billions that went there beyond that.

JAMES STEELE: Right. This is just the cash.

DONALD BARLETT: Right. The total -- yeah, the CPA had $23 billion under its control. In addition, this isn't touching the oil revenue, and the oil pipelines are still, to this day, un-metered in Iraq, which means steal as much oil as you want.

AMY GOODMAN: When L. Paul Bremer left Iraq two days earlier than people expected, he changed another law, which had to do with accountability and holding anyone responsible.

JAMES STEELE: He basically took off the hook all contractors. In other words, they could not be charged later for any malfeasance, any improper billing, all the normal things that a whistleblower lawsuit or even the US government might bring in looking at performance. This was taken off the books.

Everything was attributed to the fact that it was a war zone, it was an unusual situation, and so therefore unusual measures were called for. But the fact of the matter is, this is why it's going to be hard to ever find, totally, where any of this money went, because they paved the way for an operation that could just rip off this money, send it wherever it wanted it to go, and nobody would ever be able to fully track it.

AMY GOODMAN: Well, I want to thank you for doing this investigation. It is surprising to link your name to Vanity Fair . I'm so used to saying the Pulitzer Prize-winning reporters from Time magazine. What happened? You were fired? You were two --

JAMES STEELE: Our contracts were not renewed, I guess would be the nicest way to put it. But the fact of the matter is, this has been a wonderful venue, because Vanity Fair believes in long-form journalism. And ever since we've been there, they've encouraged this, and it's become a great outfit for that reason.

AMY GOODMAN: But I do want to ask you about the question of media consolidation and what this means.

JAMES STEELE: Sure.

AMY GOODMAN: I think the media community, the journalistic community in this country, were shocked, when you guys, well, we would say 'sacked,' you would say your contracts were not renewed.

DONALD BARLETT: 'Sacked' is fair. 'Sacked' is fair.

JAMES STEELE: 'Sacked' is a fair statement.

AMY GOODMAN: What happened at Time ? What is the problem? Are they in the red?

JAMES STEELE: We were told that it was simply a budget issue, and that's probably right, not that -- you know, our work is not as expensive as people think, once you get beyond salaries or whatever we're paid. That's not the issue. The issue with investigative reporting is always commitment. How much of a commitment do you want to make to it? How much do you want to go for it? And we were simply told that it was a budget issue. And then, frankly, with most of the editorial people we knew, they were as stunned and as really shocked by this as people on the outside.

DONALD BARLETT: I think the budgetary aspect of this also includes devoting the kind of space that our work requires, that Time magazine no longer has, quite frankly. If you look at the magazine today, the long stories that we wrote could not appear today.

JAMES STEELE: The other thing that's happening with the media, too, which Time is part of, and that is -- and this has been written about and talked about by far more people than us -- and that is the public ownership of a lot of these companies has been very destructive to the media everywhere. Having to meet those quarterly returns, and so forth, has very often led to all kinds of staff cuts, all kinds of shrinkage on a very radical basis, that has not been good for the properties. So anywhere you see that public ownership, in so many cases it has been very counterproductive -- not everywhere, but in far too many places.

AMY GOODMAN: Well, as the New York Times said in a piece by Steve Lovelady, or Steve Lovelady quoting from the Times , he says "In a doleful shirttail or footnote to the New York Times story this morning on the appointment of a new managing editor at Time magazine, we learn this: Don Barlett and James Steele, two investigative reporters who've chronicled the vicissitudes of the American economy for Time magazine since 1997, have lost their jobs in a budget squeeze." The Times said, "The reporting duo who together won two Pulitzer Prizes, two National Magazine Awards, were on the payroll of Time Inc. Their jobs were among about 650 that the company has eliminated in the last six months. With that, there ended a chapter in American journalism, the likes of which we may not see again. First at the Philadelphia Inquirer for twenty-six years, then at Time for nine, Barlett and Steele came to be regarded by many as the premier investigative team in the business, and one that consistently met benchmarks to which others could only aspire."

Well, I want to thank you very much for continuing your work, and we'll read more of your work, we hope, in Vanity Fair and other places. Thanks so much for joining us.

DONALD BARLETT: Thank you.

JAMES STEELE: Great to be with you.

AMY GOODMAN: Jim Steele and Don Barlett.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Anti_Illuminati

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Iraq's Post-Conflict Reconstruction - A Field Review and Recommendations
http://csis.org/publication/iraqs-post-conflict-reconstruction-field-review-and-recommendations
By Johanna Mendelson Forman, John J. Hamre, Frederick D. Barton, Bathsheba N. Crocker, Dr. Robert Orr
Jul 17, 2003

A team of CSIS experts in the field of post-conflict reconstruction went to Iraq from June 26 to July 7, 2003 to assess the reconstruction efforts and traveled throughout the country



Really? June 26, 2003? A war that started in March 19, 2003? A War where the three principal enemy leaders (Saddam and his two sons) were not even located yet?

Here is a timeline: http://thinkprogress.org/iraq-timeline

So CSIS gets first crack at setting up civil war conflicts and resource theft while US soldiers are being blown up and black ops are detonating false flags everywhere.

How the hell is CSIS allowed to get away with such anti-government radical fundamentalist sedition?
Just more admissions that the entire thing was a battle laboratory, implementing cybernetics to determine how to roll out those same cybernetic principals to the U.S. and the rest of the world.

Here's some info just to show how completely insane these people all--replete with all of their warmongering semantics:

http://c4i.gmu.edu/events/reviews/2008/abstracts_bios.php

GMU C4I Center-AFCEA Symposium
May 20-21, 2008


Command and Control Common Semantic Core
Required to Enable Net-centric Operation

Erik Chaum, NUWC
Richard Lee, OSD-DDR&E

May 20, 2008 at 10:30

ABSTRACT

Commanders and decision makers require timely and accurate information. The power of information and information sharing are fundamental tenets of the ongoing defense transformation. Making information discoverable, accessible, and understandable are critical to achieving net-centric capability. Of these, the most difficult to accomplish is the requirement to make shared information "understandable". This paper discusses enabling shared understanding in the joint and multinational operational context and recommends leveraging the ongoing work of the Multilateral Interoperability Programme (MIP). It also looks at cost and performance factors.

BIO

Erik Chaum is a member of the Center for Advanced System Technology at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport, RI. He performs command and control research, experimentation and standardization work in multiple multinational fora including; the Multilateral Interoperability Programme (MIP) as a member of the U.S. delegation, and The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) where he is the U.S. National Leader in Maritime Systems Group's Maritime Command and Control and Information Management Panel. In the recent past he served two years as the Assistant Director, Defense Modeling and Simulation (M&S) Office focused on M&S and C2 interoperability. In this capacity, he additionally served as a M&S TTCP National Leader and NATO RTO co-chair. He has led Navy C2 experimental initiatives looking at innovative techniques to improve man-man and man-machine collaboration through sharing JC3IEDM structured data. Mr. Chaum is a 1977 graduate of the US Naval Academy and a 1984 graduate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Management of Technology program.

Richard Lee is the Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Information Integration and Operations, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology & Logistics), Defense Research & Engineering Directorate, Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Advanced Systems and Concepts, with oversight for Advanced Concepts and Joint Capabilities Technology Demonstrations in communications, information operations, interoperability, and computer network defense. Mr. Lee served in the United States Navy as a Surface Warfare Officer, commanding USS OLIVER HAZARD PERRY (FFG 7) from 1990 to 1992. Ashore he served as a Military Observer with the United Nations, managed various communications, command and control, and information operations programs. He retired as a Captain in 1999. Mr. Lee joined the Office of the Secretary of Defense in May 2001. He is a graduate of the US Naval Academy with a Bachelor of Marine Engineering degree, and holds a Master of Electrical Engineering degree with a concentration in communications systems from the US Naval Postgraduate School.
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Tactical Voice Integration Services
for Dismounted Urban Operations

Thomas Massie, MITRE
Dr. Leo Obrst, MITRE
Dr. Duminda Wijeskera, GMU

May 20, 2008 at 10:30

ABSTRACT

Voice automated computing and speech recognition technology are beginning to revolutionize the commercial industry as speech recognition systems are becoming widely used in many real world applications, such as commercial banking and airline reservations. Speech has many advantages over other forms of communication, which make speech recognition systems useful to businesses and customers. We show the utility of speech recognition technology to support the command, control and information fusion needs of dismounted soldiers engaged in specialized tactical operations. TVIS is presented, in terms of an operational and systems architecture, which includes a vocabulary of grammar and sample voice choreography. These artifacts are used to illustrate autonomous voice access, which is defined as a soldier's ability to voice authenticate, access, search and retrieve tactical information assets from backend systems equipped with speech recognition services. The authors believe that as voice and data networks continue to converge, speech recognition and integrated voice response (IVR) technology will drive the evolution of voice-enabled tactical communication portals, thus enabling soldiers to remotely access information through specialized voice enterprise services.

BIO

Dr. Leo Obrst is principal artificial intelligence scientist in the Information Discovery and Understanding department at MITRE's (www.mitre.org) Command and Control Center, where he leads the Information Semantics group (semantics, ontological engineering, knowledge representation and management), and has been involved in many projects on Semantic Web rule/ontology interaction, context-based semantic interoperability, ontology-based knowledge management, conceptual search and information retrieval, metadata and taxonomy/thesaurus construction for community knowledge sharing, intelligent agent technology, semantic support for natural language processing, and ontology-based modeling of complex decision-making for situational awareness, command and control, information integration and analysis.

Thomas Massie is a senior information systems engineer in the Army Enterprise Solutions department at The MITRE Corporation's Command and Control Center (C2C). He currently supports the Army CIO/G6 and is involved with development and analysis of architectures, intelligence and surveillance systems, and supports maturation of trade-off strategies used to evaluate Army systems and capabilities. He is also pursuing his PhD in Information Technology at George Mason University. His PhD advisor is Dr. Duminda Wijesekera.

Duminda Wijesekera is an associate professor in the Department of Information and Software Engineering at George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia. During various times, he has contributed to research in security, multimedia, networks, systems, avionics and theoretical computer science.
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Realizing the Army Net-Centric Data Strategy (ANCDS)
in a Service Oriented Archecture (SOA)

Michelle Dirner
Army Net-Centric Data Strategy (ANCDS) Center of Excellence (CoE)

Eric Yuan
Booz Allen Hamilton

James Blalock
Army CIO / G6 Architecture, Operations & Space Directorate

May 20, 2008 at 10:30

ABSTRACT

Net-Centric Operational Warfare (NCOW) describes how the United States Department of Defense (DoD) will conduct business operations, warfare, and enterprise management in the future. It is based on the information technology (IT) concept of an assured, dynamic, and shared information environment that provides access to trusted information for all users, based on need, independent of time and place. NCOW is an information-enabled concept of operations that generates increased combat power by networking sensors, decision makers, and shooters. This enables shared awareness, increased speed of command, higher tempo of operations, greater lethality, increased survivability, and a degree of self-synchronization. In essence, network-centric warfare translates information superiority into combat power by effectively linking knowledgeable entities in the battlespace.

The DoD has mandated that the Global Information Grid (GIG) will be the primary infrastructure capability to support NCOW. Under this directive, all advanced weapons platforms, sensor systems, and command and control centers are eventually to be linked via the GIG. In the DoD vision, implementation of this massive integration effort relies on a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) model and Net-Centric Data Strategy approach, along with extensive use of the Extensive Markup Language (XML) and other web service standards.

This paper attempts to explain in plain language the inter-relationship between the various IT components that will provide the Net-Centric environment and assist the Army in migrating towards the Net-Centric Warfare concept.

BIO

Mrs. Michelle Dirner is the lead for Data Services team under the Army Net-Centric Data Strategy Center of Excellence charted by The Office of the Army Chief Information Officer (CIO/G6). In this position she is tasked to provide the Data Strategy for the Army Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) Foundation in alignment with the Army Net-Centric Data Strategy (ANCDS) through the implementation of data services, data products, and pilots.

Mrs. Dirner received a BS Degree in Computer Science from Rutgers University - New Brunswick, NJ in 2002 and a MS Degree in Software Engineering from Monmouth University, NJ in 2005.

Eric Yuan is a Senior Associate with Booz Allen Hamilton's Information Technology (IT) Team. He has over thirteen (13) years of professional experience in software development and IT consulting in both commercial and public sectors. In recent years he has provided technical leadership for several Net-Centricity and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) initiatives across DoD. He is currently supporting defense clients in areas such as SOA standards and specifications, System of Systems evolution and governance, architecture methodologies, and IT portfolio management. Mr. Yuan holds an MS degree in Systems Engineering from University of Virginia.

James Blalock retired from the Army in August 2002. He has a Bachelor of Science degree in Business from Old Dominion University and a Master of Science Degree in Telecommunications from the University of Colorado. From 1998 to 2002 he was responsible for corporate Army data policy and management. He currently supports the Army CIO/G-6 Operations, Architectures, Networks and Space (AONS), Enterprise Architecture Division as a Senior Systems Analyst and Data Strategy SME, supporting the development, oversight and execution of Army Net-Centric Data Strategy policy, guidance and governance. He leads the Army Net-Centric Data Strategy (ANCDS) Current Operations Team, assisting CIO/G6 leadership in the management and oversight of CIO/G6 supported Army, Joint, and Coalition data strategy efforts. In his capacity as the ANCDS Current Operations lead, he also leads the ANCDS Engineering Review Board made up of technical experts and engineers from the Army Net-Centric Data Strategy Center of Excellence.
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Mission Thread Market:
A Faster, Better, Cheaper Path to Net-enabled Capability

Chris Gunderson,
Naval Postgraduate School, Joint Interoperability Test Command,
World Wide Consortium for the Grid (W2COG)

David Minton,
Planning Systems Incorporated, QinetiQ North America, W2COG

May 20, 2008 at 12:00

ABSTRACT

Joint Interoperability Test Command (JITC) employs the W2COG Institute (WI), a government and industry expert body established by OSD, to serve as a computer network-enabling "Capability Broker." Accordingly, the WI has designed a "Mission Thread Market" (MTM) process to incentivize sustained COTS software competition around government use case requirements in 90 day production cycles. In particular, Government seeks to incentivize industry to bind innovative SOA solutions to government-furnished high assurance services, e.g. for authentication and authorization. WI executed a case study that compares a typical government-managed pilot project to a pilot managed by a Capability Broker. The Capability Brokered project employs the MTM process. Both eighteen-month pilots, executed simultaneously, aimed to deliver the same SOA enabled C2 and high assurance security capabilities. Both used the same baseline GFE software. The MTM process will deliver an open standard COTS/GOTS architecture that addresses ~80% of government requirements; government cost was ~$100K; COTS (e.g. SAML 2.0) is up to date; availability is 2Q FY09 via COTS procurement. The government pilot has not identified any functional architectures or use cases; government cost was $1.5M; COTS (e.g. SAML 1.1.) is eighteen months out of date; availability TBD, but greater than eighteen months. JITC's capability broker has mapped the MTM process to standard DoD procurement methods. It takes about 90 days to establish an MTM from scratch, and an additional 30 days to deliver MTM-based acquisition documents. Establishing an MTM from scratch costs about $2.4M

BIO

Chris Gunderson is Naval Postgraduate School Associate Research Professor of Information Science. His research interest is effective information exchange across a network of experts. He is detailed to the National Capital Region to support Joint Interoperability Command efforts to create a government/ industry partnership for adaptive collaborative development and validation and verification of netcentric capability modules.

Gunderson retired from the US Navy as a Captain in October 2004 following 27 years' service as a Navy Oceanographer. His last assignment in the Navy was Commanding Officer of Fleet Numerical Oceanographic & Meteorological Center, a high-performance computing center in Monterey, Calif.

David Minton As Chief Engineer, David Minton is responsible for overall systems engineering and integration for the World Wide Consortium for the Grid (W2COG). With more than 20 years� experience in advanced systems engineering and management of major development and acquisition programs, Minton�s experience includes electronic warfare; database design and mining; anti-submarine warfare; and precise engineering and management of nuclear reactor systems. In addition to his role with W2COG, Minton serves as the Chief Science Officer for Planning Systems, Inc, where he is responsible for the high assurance software and systems engineering.

Prior to his work with Planning Systems, Inc., Minton worked for the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command for 10 years, where he was a Chief Engineer in the C4ISR Directorate and had overall technical and management responsibilities ranged across a variety of disciplines, contracts, labs and vendors. Minton also worked as head of the Software Engineering Division of the Naval Electronic Systems Command in Vallejo, Calif. and served on the faculty of the physics department at California State University. Minton served in the U.S Army in the Republic of Vietnam and Cambodia from 1969 until 1971.

Minton earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Physics and Philosophy and a Master of Arts degree in Psychology and Philosophy from California State University and an Associate of Arts degree in Math and Physical Science from American River College.

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Framework for an SOA in Bandwidth-Limited Environments

J. D. Boggs
Nova Southeastern University

May 20, 2008 at 13:30

ABSTRACT

Management and use of Web services-based SOA involves message exchanges for discovery, invocation, security, status, control, and response delivery. Most of these messages consume network resources often needed to deliver response payloads in a timely manner. A broad-based engineering methodology is particularly critical when designing network resources to implement mobile access by first responders or by forward-deployed troops. This paper scopes the technical problems of SOA in a bandwidth-limited environment. Additionally, the paper presents an approach to engineer solutions for this environment, identifies promising techniques specific to the technical problems, and proposes research to further potential solutions for using an SOA in constrained conditions.

BIO

James Boggs, a certified enterprise architect, consults in enterprise network communications. Concurrent with his support to federal agencies, he pursues research in implementing Web-based SOA. Mr. Boggs started in electrical engineering, has Masters degrees in management science/operations research and in information architecture, and is an information systems doctoral student at Nova Southeastern University.
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Bridging the Digital Divide
with Net-Centric Tactical Services

Scott D. Crane, Charles Campbell, Laura Scannell
Booz Allen Hamilton

May 20, 2008 at 13:30

ABSTRACT

The DoD Net-Centric Data Strategy (May 2003) goals are to make data assets visible, accessible, and understandable [1]. This strategy establishes a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach as the preferred means by which data producers and capability providers can make their data assets and capabilities discoverable on the Global Information Grid (GIG). Likewise, the strategy establishes an SOA approach as the preferred means by which consumers can access these data assets and capabilities. Programs such as the Defense Information Systems Agency's (DISA's) Net-Centric Enterprise Services (NCES) are providing SOA-based infrastructure services to enable information sharing across the Department of Defense (DoD) [2].
The technologies employed in an SOA environment for exchanging data including Extensible Markup Language (XML) and Web Services are conducive for use in fixed environments that have reliable, high bandwidth TCP/IP networks. However, in a tactical environment where communications may be intermittent and bandwidth is limited, this presents problems. In order for data producers and consumers on a tactical network to leverage the capabilities available on the GIG, a framework is needed that will extend the power of enterprise services to users on low bandwidth networks at the tactical edge. This will allow the vision of the Net-Centric Data Strategy to provide value to users at all levels.
Net-Centric Tactical Services (NCTS) provides a gateway and software framework for tactical users to realize the benefits of information sharing across an SOA environment. The framework resides in the tactical environment and supports a set of services and functions to enable communications and messaging translation, data publishing, data subscription, and tactical device management. It is an attempt to bridge the present day technology gap between low bandwidth and high bandwidth data producers and consumers.

BIO

Scott Crane has over 11 years experience in system integration and software solution development for DoD and other government clients. Currently, he is focused on tactical system and sensor integration for the U.S. Army. Mr. Crane provides the U.S. Army with full lifecycle development of mobile systems and is working to provide solutions that bridge-the-gap between low-bandwidth tactical radio networks and enterprise SOA architectures.

Laura Scannell has over 13 years experience developing tactical system solutions for the U.S. Army and other DoD clients. Currently, she is focused on providing the U.S. Army with full lifecycle development of mobile systems and is working to provide solutions that bridge-the-gap between low-bandwidth tactical radio networks and enterprise SOA architectures.
_____________________

Interoperability Problems Caused by Transitioning
to a Service Oriented Environment

Chris Black, Dick Brown, Stan Levine, Bill Sudnikovich
Simulation to C4I Interoperability (SIMCI)

May 20, 2008 at 13:30

ABSTRACT

A major Department of Defense challenge continues to be the synchronized interoperability of multiple command and control and M&S programs. The Army has three major Command and Control (C2) efforts to contend with: ABCS migration, FCS development, and the Joint Net Enabled Command and Control (NECC) program. These C2 systems will be operating in a Service Oriented Environment (SOE) that will be implemented/fielded in phases over time. There is no single process that is aligning these efforts at a level that includes totally synchronized technical exchanges of standards, data, and re-use of components. Two of the Army's key M&S initiatives also have development cycles that do not parallel the C2 schedules and do not yet fully address operating in a SOE. The JLCCTC development has to date been on an annual development cycle but is currently moving to a 2 year cycle. The other big M&S initiative, LVC-IA, is developing a prototype system with a target date of FY10. Integrating all of these phased C2 and M&S programs will require innovative technical and programmatic methods.

BIO

Christopher Black is a Senior Systems Analyst with the Colsa Corporation. He currently supports the SIMCI and Intra Army Interoperability Certification process as the Program Executive Officer Simulation Training and Instrumentation (PEO STRI) Liaison working in the Central Technical Support Facility at Fort Hood, Texas. Mr. Black has over twelve years experience integrating and testing simulations with the Army Battle Command System (ABCS) development process, and has been a part of the Army C4I and Simulation Initialization System effort since its inception in FY02. He also serves as the lead architect for the SIMCI OIPT. Mr. Black's simulations experience is based on over 25 years in the United States Army where he used simulations for operational tests and unit training, and training simulation management at HQDA, G3. Mr. Black has a Bachelor of Arts degree from Clemson University.

Richard F (Dick) Brown is a consultant to the Battle Command Battle Laboratory working under contract for Billy Murphy and Associates. His current work focuses on simulations and C3 systems interoperability. Over the last 25 years he has worked on tactical fire control systems, integrated equipment and processes that form command posts and several communications systems. Mr. Brown is a 1967 graduate of the University of Massachusetts with a BS in Experimental Psychology. He retired from the US Army Reserve as a lieutenant colonel in 1997. He retired from the US Civil Service in 2006 after more than 39 years.

Stanley H. Levine is Research Professor at George Mason University. He also serves as a senior consultant to several Army and Department of Defense organizations in the areas of information system technologies, architectures, System of Systems acquisition, and interoperability. He has over 36 years experience in systems acquisition. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Electronic Engineering and a Master of Science degree in Physics from Monmouth University, and a PhD in Engineering Management from Madison University. Dr. Levine served in many Army civilian positions (including the Senior Executive Service) for over 31 years. He concentrated on Command and Control systems research and development. Dr. Levine is a recipient of over 60 awards, commendations, and letters of appreciation including the Army's three highest Civilian Service Awards. He was selected to be a member of the Federal 100 top executives who had the greatest impact on the government information systems community. Dr. Levine has published 35 papers on a wide variety of technical and management subjects. He has also been a keynote or invited speaker at 33 major national or international symposiums and conferences.

William P. Sudnikovich is a Project Manager for Atlantic Consulting Services in Shrewsbury, NJ and a technical architect for the Army's SIMCI OIPT. Mr. Sudnikovich also supports the Army's CIO/G6 office through the Army Net-Centric Data Strategy Center of Excellence at Ft. Monmouth, NJ. Prior to joining ACS Mr. Sudnikovich held various technical and management positions with the US Army CECOM RDEC and was influential in establishing M&S activities there. He was an active contributor to the development of the IEEE 1278 DIS standard and is a former Chairperson of the C4I Forum of the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization. Mr. Sudnikovich holds BS and MS degrees in Computer Science from Rutgers University and Fairleigh Dickinson University.
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Geospatial Data Quality
for Analytical Command and Control Applications

Robert F. Richbourg and George E. Lukes
Institute for Defense Analyses

May 20, 2008 at 13:30

ABSTRACT

Have you traced a digital representation of a road with so many switchbacks that you questioned the map accuracy? Have you asked an Internet utility to provide a travel route and found the result unintuitive? In each case, flaws in the road network representation may be to blame. Road switchbacks can result from digitization errors such as kinks and kickbacks. Route planning can be defeated by breaks in the network. Much of the digital map data used to represent the physical environment comes from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). While the NGA has a large holding of internally-produced geospatial data, the agency's current strategy includes substantial data production under contract and a large cooperative effort with other nations under the Multinational Geospatial Co-production Program (MGCP).

The development, codification, and enforcement of detailed quality standards are critical to this acquisition strategy. This paper uses the modeling and simulation application area to exemplify problems that can arise when digital feature data is used for command and control purposes such as automated route planning. This paper describes the type of quality standards that are to be applied in production of geospatial feature data and illustrates a process to transform semantic descriptions into specific guidance suitable for software implementation. The process includes experimentation to determine appropriate reasoning strategies that will permit identification of substandard data while minimizing false positive notifications. The paper describes the impact on simulation entities using the digital data to exemplify a typical problem, details the experiment designed to address the problem, and presents the results of conducting the experiment. The paper concludes with observations on the potential impact of these geospatial data developments on computer applications that use the data in various reasoning domains.

BIO

Robert F. Richbourg is a member of the Research Staff at the Institute for Defense Analyses. He is a retired Army officer who earned his Ph.D. in computer science in 1987. In his last active duty assignment, he was an Academy Professor and Director of the Artificial Intelligence Center at the United States Military Academy, West Point. He has been working on applications exploiting geospatial data for 10 years under sponsorship of DARPA, DMSO, JFCOM and NGA.

George E. Lukes is a member of the Research Staff at the Institute for Defense Analyses. From 1994 to 2000, he served as a Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency where his responsibilities included the Synthetic Environment Program for the Synthetic Theater of War (STOW) ACTD and the Image Understanding Program. Previously, he led research and development efforts at the U.S. Army Topographic Engineering Center in automated and computer-assisted photo interpretation, and terrain database generation for advanced distributed simulation.
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Geospatially Enabling Battle Command

John Day and David Swann
ESRI

May 20, 2008 at 13:30

ABSTRACT

The paper analyzes and gives a new perspective on how Geospatial Technology can support Battle Command, and more specifically the integration of GIS technology with services architecture concepts. After some general background on desirability and feasibility, the paper will demonstrate how GIS might be used in a services-enabled battlefield. Finally some examples of systems that integrate these concepts for air, ground, and maritime operations will be highlighted.

BIO

John Day is a former British Army officer with 30 years of experience in military engineering. Since joining ESRI in 1997 he has been advising the US Defense and Intelligence Community on how emerging commercial GIS technologies and solutions translate to defense systems. Mr. Day became a US citizen in 2002, and in 2003 was appointed as Director of ESRI's Defense and Intelligence Business Development Team, which is responsible for managing relationships with all ESRI Defense and Intelligence Community customers. Mr. Day has a bachelors degree in Engineering from Cambridge University, England and a masters degree in GIS from Edinburgh University, Scotland. He lives in Dunn Loring, VA with his wife.

David Swann is the International Defense Business Development lead for ESRI. David Swann served for 12 years with the British Army, primarily with the United Kingdom Military Survey, rising to the rank of Major. He was educated at the University of Wales, the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and received an MSc in Geographic and Geodetic Information Systems from University College London. In the 10 years since he joined ESRI, he has visited 60 countries and witnessed incredible progress in defense uses of GIS. He has contributed chapters to definitive textbooks on GIS as well as numerous articles for defense publications.
_____________________

Integrating GIS for C2 and Intelligence Analysis

Matt Lewin and William Wright
Oculus Info, Inc.

May 20, 2008 at 13:30

ABSTRACT

Oculus designs and develops specialized visualization systems to support decision-making in complex, information-rich environments. Oculus software products include GeoTime and CPOF CommandSight. GeoTime is a unique capability for analyzing events, objects and activities within a combined temporal and geospatial display. Intelligence analysts can see the who and what in the where and when. CPOF CommandSight Visualizer is the 4D collaborative CPOF workspace component and the integrated visualizer for TAIS the Tactical Airspace Integration System. GeoTime and CPOF CommandSight are currently fielded systems with varying levels of integration with ESRI GIS systems. A brief demo will be provided followed by a discussion of issues, challenges and lessons learned.

BIO

Matthew Lewin is a Senior GIS Consultant with Oculus Info Inc. Since joining Oculus in 2004 he has led integration of the Commercial Joint Mapping Toolkit (CJMTK) with the Tactical Airspace Integration System (TAIS) and Command Post of the Future (CPOF). As a Senior Consultant, he is responsible for identifying and conceptualizing creative integration of geospatial technology and advanced 3D information visualization. His geospatial industry experience ranges from Defense and C4, to commercial financial services, to municipal land record management.

William Wright is a Senior Oculus Partner. His research interests include intelligent, mixed initiative, information visualization systems that enhance human understanding and decision making. Current responsibilities include being a Principal Investigator (PI) for the IARPA ASpace-X “nAble” project, and the DARPA COMPOEX program. For COMPOEX, he is contributing to the design of a system for commanders, ambassadors, and US AID leaders to visualize large complex social, political and economic behaviors, to explore “what-if” actions in those domains, and to understand effects. For ASpace-X, he is investigating adaptive visualization systems that guide novices through software capabilities. Wright is a past PI for DARPA on CPOF and for ARDA on GeoTime. Wright has been a regular member of the program committee of the IEEE InfoViz Conference, the Visual Analytics Science and Technology Conference as well as the NATO Expert Panel on Visualization. He is an international authority on information visualization and has written over 20 papers on the subject.
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Towards a Federated SOA Model in Achieving Data Interoperability in DoD

Nick Duan, Ph.D.
ManTech-MBI

May 20, 2008 at 15:30

ABSTRACT

The Department of Defense (DoD) is undergoing a progressive transformation towards a Net-Centric enterprise, and SOA has become a major enabling factor in driving the transformation. One of the major challenges facing many SOA-based programs in DoD is how to define a SOA model that is robust and scalable enough to meet mission-specific needs, while satisfying the Net-Centric requirements for data sharing across the multiple Services and Agencies in the Department. While there have been many SOA initiatives existed in DoD with various successes, data and service interoperability across multiple organizations are still limited due to lack of a coherent and overarching SOA model. In this paper, two different types of SOA models, a centralized and a fully distributed model, are discussed with respect to data interoperability and enterprise scalability. To achieve interoperability, a federated SOA model is introduced, along with a proposed strategy towards implementing a federated enterprise using the SOA principles. The identification and use of enterprise core services will be discussed, with respect to service discovery, security and support of disconnected operations. The benefits in data interoperability of the model and its applicability are demonstrated via a concrete case study on an existing Net-Centric program in DoD.

BIO

Dr. Nick Duan has over 20 years experience in applied research, enterprise software design and development. He has a wide range of knowledge and expertise in distributed enterprise computing, SOA, Web Services, J2EE, and enterprise security. He is currently a Sr. Software/SOA Architect with ManTech MBI, leading the SOA core competency effort of the company. A Sun Certified Enterprise Architect for the J2EE platform, Dr. Duan has worked with leading companies in the Hi-Tech industry, including Bell-Atlantic, webMethods, Northrop Grumman, SAIC, and McDonald Bradley. A graduate from The Penn State University and The Technical University of Aachen, he has published papers in various journals and conferences. He has taught computer language and software engineering courses as an adjunct faculty with local universities since mid 90s. He has been an adjunct faculty member with the Software Engineering Dept of GMU since 2003.
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DEVS Unified Process for Web-Centric Development and Testing of System of Systems

Saurabh Mittal and Bernard P. Zeigler
Arizona Center for Integrative Modeling and Simulation,

May 20, 2008 at 15:30

ABSTRACT

A critical aspect and differentiator of a System of Systems (SoS) versus a single monolithic system is interoperability among the constituent disparate systems. A major application of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) to SoS Engineering is to facilitate system integration in a manner that helps to cope with such interoperability problems. A case in point is the integration infrastructure offered by the DoD Global Information Grid (GIG) and its Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). In this paper, we discuss a process called DEVS Unified Process (DUNIP) that uses the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS) formalism as a basis for integrated system engineering and testing called the Bifurcated Model-Continuity lifecycle development methodology. DUNIP uses an XMLbased DEVS Modeling Language (DEVSML) framework that provides the capability to compose models that may be expressed in a variety of DEVS implementation languages. The models are deployable for remote and distributed real-time executing agents over the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) middleware. We also compare DUNIP with the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) paradigm and provide overview of various projects that led to the formulation of DUNIP.

BIO

Saurabh Mittal is an Assistant Research Professor at the ECE Department, University of Arizona. He received both MS and PhD in ECE from the University of Arizona in 2004 and 2007 respectively. His research interests include modeling and simulation, net-centric systems engineering, DoDAF-based executable architectures, interoperability and data engineering. He is a recipient of Joint Interoperability Test Command's highest civilian contractor 'Golden Eagle' award for the project GENETSCOPE and NTSA award for Best Crossplatform development in M&S area for the project ATC-Gen. He is currently working on projects at JITC and NGIT.

Bernard P. Zeigler is Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Arizona, Tucson and Director of the Arizona Center for Integrative Modeling and Simulation. He is internationally known for his 1976 foundational text Theory of Modeling and Simulation, recently revised for a second edition (Academic Press, 2000). He has published numerous books and research publications on the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS) formalism. In 1995, he was named Fellow of the IEEE in recognition of his contributions to the theory of discrete event simulation. In 2000 he received the McLeod Founders Award by the Society for Computer Simulation, its highest recognition, for his contributions to discrete event simulation. He was appointed Fellow of the Society for Modeling and Simulation, International (SCS), 2006.
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Grid Enabled Service Infrastructure

Isaac Christoffersen, Christopher Dale, Doug Johnson, and David Schillero
Booz Allen Hamilton

May 20, 2008 at 15:30

ABSTRACT

At the 2006 Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium Conference on Utility Computing, Grids and Virtualization, the Office of the Secretary of Defense for Networks & Information Integration (OSD NII) presented a roadmap for transformation of the Global Information Grid (GIG) to the Net-Centric Environment (NCE). The planned transformation includes a federation of distributed computing resources, available when and where they were needed, and would be built on such technologies as grid computing, server clustering and virtualization. The Grid Enabled Services Infrastructure (GESI) meets OSD NII roadmap requirements as it currently performs mission critical operations at a government client site.

BIO

Isaac Christoffersen has over 10 years experience in system integration and software solution development for commercial and government clients. Currently, he is supporting a Federal Government client in the architecture, design, development and implementation of Service Oriented Architectures utilizing Java Enterprise Edition (JEE), XML and other technologies. Isaac is a professional member of the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) and a recovering Microsoft Certified Solution Developer.

Christopher Dale has over 15 years experience in system architecture and design for large scale data processing systems for government and commercial clients. Currently, he is supporting a Federal overnment client in the architecture, design and implementation of an SOA enabled grid infrastructure. Christopher is an RHCE and a long time advocate of the open source philosophy.

Doug Johnson (BSCS, JPD, CPD) has over 23 years of experience developing numerous large-scale, multi-tiered client server and web based systems that support a variety of industries. Experience includes development of grid architectures for ultra large database systems, object oriented analysis and design, base class library development, distributed data access and abstraction design, as well as data base design, development and optimization.

David Schillero has over 20 years experience in system integration and software solution development for DoD and other government clients. Currently, he is supporting a Federal Government client in the design, development and implementation of Service Oriented Architectures utilizing Java Enterprise Edition (JEE), XML and other technologies.
_____________________

Human Terrain and Anthropology

Dr. Susan K. Numrich
Institute for Defense Analyses

May 20, 2008 at 15:30

ABSTRACT

The term "human terrain" was coined recently by the Army in response to critical needs for information about the individuals, groups and the workings of the society in general in Iraq. The call for help and the response to date has focused on tactical operations, but it is essential to consider the possibility that the tactical need points to a strategic issue for the C4ISR community. In this paper I will consider some of the similarities and differences between physical terrain and human terrain and how that has contributed to the rift between the military and some vocal members of the social science community - notably anthropologists. Having alluded to the possibility of a strategic issue, I will attempt to make that case using an analogy from more familiar topics. Finally, I will attempt to point out disconnects and problem areas where the perspectives and capabilities of the C4ISR community could provide a foundation for creating a bridge from the current tactical solution space to the development of a valuable strategic capability for the military now and in the future.

BIO

Dr. Susan K. Numrich is on the Research Staff at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) and has spent the last several years working for the OSD and the Joint Staff on problems that involve cultural factors, data extraction and modeling, but she has a long term interest in games. A physicist by education, Dr. Numrich received her doctorate from American University and did postgraduate research at Cambridge, UK. She spent most of her career in research at the Naval Research Laboratory where she worked in underwater acoustics, parallel processing, signal processing, decision support systems, and modeling and simulation. Prior to assuming her position at IDA, she served as the Deputy Director of the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office. She is a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America.
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Implementing the Cultural Dimension
into a Command and Control System

Rebecca A. Grier, Aptima
Bruce Skarin, Aptima
Alexander Lubyansky, University of Albany
Lawrence Wolpert, Aptima

May 20, 2008 at 15:30

ABSTRACT

Current command and control (C2) operations are centered on addressing the root causes of state failure and instability. For success, these C2 operations require the cooperation of local populations and governments. To win this cooperation, we need to be able to predict changes in the opinions of local populations. Cultural identity is a critical factor in this process. These cultural identities are multi-layered and dynamic. In order to predict the impact of events on a population's attitude, one must remember that each person has several different identities and that some of these identities may change. Further people's attitudes change based on their contact with other individuals. When people's attitudes change, then their participation in groups changes as well. SCIPR (Simulation of Cultural Identities for Prediction of Reactions) is an agent based computer simulation that forecasts the effects of actions on peoples' opinions and cultural identities to better model the underlying forces driving attitude based conflicts. In this paper, we will describe the development of the SCIPR model and its application for current C2 operations.

BIO

Rebecca Grier, Ph.D. is the Lead Scientist for the Human Automation Interaction and Interface Design Team at Aptima. She has experience in every stage of user centered design from requirements definition to workflow designation through information architecture, UI design and usability evaluation. Dr. Grier is primarily interested in developing tools to aid the US Military in understanding different cultures and including this understanding in their analyses. Dr. Grier has lived in Brazil and Italy. She has a M.A. & Ph.D in Human Factors Psychology from the University of Cincinnati and a B.S. Honors in Cross-Cultural Psychology with a minor in Anthropology from Loyola University of Chicago.

Bruce Skarin is a Simulation Scientist at Aptima, Inc. and is the Area Lead for Socio-Cultural Systems. His interests include modeling complex dynamic systems with a focus on socio-cultural behavior, networks, knowledge management, and organizational dynamics. At Aptima, Mr. Skarin works on models of cultural influence and social identity to forecast changes in local populations for the purpose of assisting strategic military planning. He is also working on the development of systems for automatically assigning metadata and for improving group collaboration. Mr. Skarin received a B.S. in System Dynamics from Worcester Polytechnic Institute, where he received the Provost's Award for his Major Qualifying Project, entitled "Understanding the Driving Factors of Terrorism." He is a member of the System Dynamics Society.

Alexander Lubyansky is an enterprise information management professional with over five years experience in the design of decision support systems, management flight simulators, and learning laboratories using both computer simulation and traditional modeling and decision analysis methods. His research interests include: The study of decision making from the perspectives of cognitive and social psychology; adaptive planning, management, and design methods for rapid prototyping; group facilitation, requirements gathering, and data elicitation from subject matter experts; and integration of system dynamics, agent-based, social network, and geographical modeling.

Dr. Lawrence Wolpert has over 23 years of experience leading human systems integration (HSI) research and development in applied, academic, and military environments. He has managed all aspects of HSI (manpower, personnel, training, ergonomics, human factors engineering, safety, habitability and survivability) on multiple federal programs and conducted research in visual perception and simulation. Dr. Wolpert provides cognitive systems engineering support as well as usability evaluation and assessment. Dr. Wolpert holds a M.A. and a Ph.D. in Psychology from Ohio State University, and a B.A. in Psychology from Tel Aviv University (Israel).
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Human Terrain Knowledge Advancing C4I Systems

Katya Drozdova and Robert Popp,
National Security Innovations

May 20, 2008 at 15:30

ABSTRACT

Warfighters have long recognized the importance of understanding and shaping the human elements of their operating environment. Now termed the 'human terrain', these elements include the psycho-social, ethnographic, cultural, economic, and political aspects of the people among whom a force operates. Modern war and peace-time operations require such actionable knowledge to inform commander's situational awareness and decision-making processes. This makes integrating actionable human-terrain knowledge into C4I systems increasingly critical. Developing such integrated capabilities, however, presents a formidable challenge. Useful human-terrain data is difficult to not only collect - often requiring physical presence in hostile areas - but also to effectively quantify and digitize for C4I use. We highlight some approaches - including potential scientific, technological, and operational challenges as well as solutions - towards enhancing C4I systems with actionable human-terrain knowledge. Specifically, we discuss some of the quantitative social science and computational modeling approaches for generating quantifiable insights into notoriously difficult-to-quantify social phenomena. This includes conceptual and analytical tools for systematically representing diverse sets of social phenomena - e.g., using a multi-scaled human-networks paradigm - as well as the development of operational metrics and indicators for establishing and maintaining high-fidelity links between real-world conditions and their computational representations within C4I systems. Potential R&D topics are also identified - all towards ultimately generating accurate and useful insights to support complex US operations in unfamiliar and hostile settings.

BIO

Dr. Katya Drozdova is NSI Senior Research Scientist. In this capacity, Dr. Drozdova focuses on the role of technology in US National Security issues, with emphasis on asymmetric threats in the post-9/11 environment. This includes problems of counter-terrorism, insurgency and WMD as well as strategic deterrence, cyber-security, intelligence, and critical infrastructure protection. Dr. Drozdova is also a Research Associate at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University. Katya has published articles on issues ranging from balancing national security with individual liberty to identifying, estimating and disrupting adversary networks. Katya is a member of the Command and Control Research Program (CCRP) at the Department of Defense's OASD for Networks & Information Integration and previously served as a member of the NSA-sponsored Consortium for Research on Information Security and Policy at Stanford University. Dr. Drozdova has also served as a Science Fellow as well as a MacArthur Affiliate at Stanford's Center for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC) and a Research Scholar at the Alexander Hamilton Center, New York University (NYU). She earned her Ph.D. in Information Systems from NYU's Stern School of Business, Department of Information, Operations and Management Sciences. The main focus of her dissertation is the impact of technology choices on organizational fault-tolerance in hostile and competitive environments, with emphasis on the questions of how and why organizations use technology to counter or cloak their human network vulnerabilities. She received a Bachelor's degree in International Relations and Master's degree in International Policy Studies from Stanford University.

Dr. Robert Popp is NSI Cofounder, Chair and CEO. Dr. Popp has over 25 years of experience developing leading edge technology solutions for DoD, intelligence community and other national security organizations. Prior to NSI, Dr. Popp served for five years as a senior government executive within the DoD: one year at OSD as Assistant Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Advanced Systems and Concepts where he oversaw a portfolio of Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) programs focused on information assurance, multi-level security, C4ISR and homeland security; and four years at DARPA as Deputy of the Information Exploitation Office (IXO) and Information Awareness Office (IAO). At DARPA/IAO, Dr. Popp oversaw a portfolio of R&D programs focused on information technology solutions for counter-terrorism and foreign intelligence, including serving as the Program Manager for the Total Information Awareness (TIA) program. At DARPA/IXO, Dr. Popp established a novel R&D thrust focused on quantitative and computational social science modeling for socio-cultural awareness and nation state instability analysis. Dr. Popp serves on the Defense Science Board, Army Science Board, and is a Senior Associate for the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). Dr. Popp has held senior positions with several defense primes, including Aptima, BBN and ALPHATECH - now BAE. Dr. Popp holds two patents, has published many scholarly papers, and is Editor of Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism published in 2006 by Wiley-IEEE Press. Dr. Popp holds a PhD in Electrical Engineering from the University of Connecticut, and a BA/MA in Computer Science from Boston University (summa cum laude, Phi Beta Kappa). Dr. Popp served on active duty in the U.S. Air Force in the 1980s as an Aircraft Maintenance Technician of F106 fighters and B52 bombers.
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Role of Human Terrain Teams
in Carrying Out the Commander's Intent

Dr. Tracy St. Benoit,
UCF/IST

May 20, 2008 at 15:30

ABSTRACT

BIO

_____________________

Anti_Illuminati

  • Guest
How to Implement National Information Sharing Strategy

Dr. Rick Hayes-Roth,
Naval Postgraduate School
Curt Blais,
Naval Postgraduate School
Dr. Mark Pullen,
George Mason University
Dr. Don Brutzman,
Naval Postgraduate School

May 21, 2008 at 10:30

ABSTRACT

Data sharing is today's principal Information Technology challenge. All sectors--commercial, government, academic, and military--seek improved information exchange to achieve operational benefits, whether in the form of greater profits, improved situational awareness, intellectual advancement, or ability to respond to threats endangering respective interests. Nations and organizations within and across nations have set forth policies to promote greater data sharing, but often without empowering or enabling change agents to introduce measurably better capabilities. While progress is being made in some quarters, in others there is almost a counter-reaction where organizations are closing in on themselves, perpetuating traditional closed pockets of valuable information, even if sometimes having the appearance of adhering to the new policies. The advances are coming in fits and starts, resembling chaotic selforganizing systems, but with no overriding pressure to bring about incremental adaptive improvements. This paper describes an evolutionary management approach that addresses this fundamental failure in many current programs to achieve greater efficiency in data sharing. We advocate adoption of corresponding policy guidelines by the DoD.

BIO

Dr. Frederick (Rick) A. Hayes-Roth is Professor of Information Sciences, Monterey Naval Postgraduate School, and Former Chief Technology Officer/Software, Hewlett-Packard Company. Professor Hayes-Roth's research interests focus on increasing the efficiency of organizational thinking, especially on the creation and use of community models that enable collaborators to understand, predict and control distributed operations in dynamic environments. Specifically, he's working on tools and methods that can be used to create machine interpretable world models and to optimize how information flows among collaborators to enable them to quickly and effectively revise plans in light of changing situations. The detailed technologies involved include ontologies, knowledge bases, plans, justifications, vulnerability analyses, condition monitors, and smart push. In his current research collaboration with multiple agencies and organizations throughout the DoD, he's helping develop a generic service that provides Valued Information at the Right Time (VIRT). VIRT services will increase individual and group information processing productivity by assuring that each person spends a higher proportion of time considering the consequences of high-value information, namely information that materially alters planned actions.

Rick is a co-founder and currently Chief Architect of Machine to Machine Intelligence Corp. (www.m2mi.com), located at NASA Ames Research Park. m2mi aims to provide software solutions that provide global system awareness and adaptive control of networks of tens of thousands of computers and communication devices.

Hayes-Roth's recent books: Hyper-Beings: How Intelligent Organizations Attain Supremacy through Information Superiority announces the arrival of a new era shaped by new dominant players. It provides a guidebook for readers who would like to anticipate and adapt. Radical Simplicity: Transforming Computers into Me-Centric Appliances This book shows how products can enable users to delegate tasks without learning technology, and this provides the only plausible future path to expanding consumption of advanced technology. A specific technical architecture guides product developers on this new path.

Curtis Blais is a Research Associate in the Modeling, Virtual Environments, and Simulation (MOVES) Institute at the Naval Postgraduate School. His research interests include investigation of Semantic Web technologies for achieving VIRT objectives in netcentric environments, application of web-based technologies for improving interoperability across C2 systems and modeling and simulation systems, and agent-based modeling of non-traditional warfare. Mr. Blais has 34 years of experience in design and development of models and simulation systems for analysis and training. He holds BS and MS degrees in Mathematics from the University of Notre Dame and is a Ph.D. candidate in MOVES at the Naval Postgraduate School.

Dr. J. Mark Pullen is Professor of Computer Science at George Mason University (GMU), where he serves as Director of the C4I Center and also of its Networking and Simulation Laboratory. He holds BSEE and MSEE degrees from West Virginia University, and the Doctor of Science in Computer Science from the George Washington University. A highlight of Dr. Pullen's career was the seven year period he served at the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). During this period he was responsible for transition of the Internet to commercial operation and also for an early, major project in distributed simulation for education and training that earned him the IEEE Harry Diamond Memorial award. Dr. Pullen is a licensed Professional Engineer, Fellow of the IEEE, and Fellow of the ACM. He teaches courses in computer networking and has active research in networking for distributed virtual simulation and networked multimedia tools for distance education. He also leads the Battle Management Language project which is providing a generic, SOA-enabled interoperation capability among command and control systems and simulation systems.

Dr. Don Brutzman is an Associate Professor of Applied Science at the Naval Postgraduate School. He is Technical Director of the 3D Visual Simulation and Networked Virtual Environments research group in the NPS Modeling, Simulation, and Virtual Environments (MOVES) Institute. He has served as the Undersea Warfare Academic Committee Chair. He is a retired submarine officer who has conducted testing of advanced capability underwater equipment. Dr. Brutzman is a founding member of the non-profit Web3D Consortium and serves on the Board of Directors. He represents Web3D as the Advisory Committee Representative to the W3C. Together with Leonard Daly, he authored X3D: Extensible 3D Graphics for Web Authors. Teaching and research interests include interactive 3D graphics, highperformance networking, artificial intelligence and underwater robotics. He earned a BSEE in Electrical Engineering from the US Naval Academy, MS in Computer Science from the Naval Postgraduate School, and Ph.D. in Computer Science from the Naval Postgraduate School.
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Enabling Adaptive C2 via Semantic Communication
and Smart Push

LtCol Carl Oros, USMC
Naval Postgraduate School

May 21, 2008 at 10:30

ABSTRACT

Fundamental to the concept of Network Centric Warfare lies the precept that shared awareness, collaboration, and self-synchronization can be attained through the networking of knowledgeable, geographically and hierarchically dispersed entities. The DoD GIG Architecture Vision is the prime policy directive chosen to realize this goal. Consistent with the tenets of NCW, the GIG architecture framework envisions highly responsive, agile, adaptable, and information-centric operations. These desirable netcentric attributes are prescribed to be implemented via a Pull methodology. However, a pull architecture not only must contend with the demands of disseminating diverse, timely information to numerous entities, but more importantly it must address the cognitive bandwidth limitations inherent to users searching for, discovering, and pulling contextually relevant, mission critical information. This paper provides an alternative operationalized Model-based C2 network approach where entities share a dynamic model of the environment and information is smartly Pushed via VIRT services to relevant entities when user defined Conditions of Interest occur. Mission thread semantics are used to generate an ontology that supports a contextually rich data structure capable of supporting the information requirements of diverse actors and entities united in the endeavor.

BIO

LtCol Carl Oros is a Marine Corps CH-53E helicopter pilot currently serving on the faculty of the Information Sciences Department of the Graduate School of Operational and Informational Sciences at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. LtCol Oros teaches graduate courses in wireless networking and information operations and is also assigned as the NPS Marine Corps Representative. Additionally, he is a member of the NPS Center for Network Innovation and Experimentation (CENNETIX) and has been involved in extensive field experimentation of emergent tactical wireless technologies. Appointed as director for Marine Corps Research, under the Dean of Research, LtCol Oros has been actively involved in the USSOCOM-NPS Tactical Network Topology (TNT) field experiments and has served as Principal Investigator for HQMC C4 and the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory sponsored tactical C2 research. In addition to the networking aspects of C2, LtCol Oros' research has focused on developing a push C2 architecture in support of Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) operations at the company level and below.

LtCol Oros has a wealth of operational experience spanning several contingency, Marine Expeditionary Unit, and Unity Deployment Program deployments. In addition to his our rotary wing squadron assignments, he has served on the Group, Wing, and Division staffs.

LtCol Oros holds a MS in Information Technology Management from the Naval Postgraduate School, an MMS from the USMC Command and Staff College, and a BA in Geophysics from the University of Chicago. In addition to his graduate degrees, he is currently pursuing PhD studies in Information Sciences. His professional certifications include the NSA Committee of National Security Systems (CNSS) information assurance certificates 4011-4015 and he is a Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA).
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The Cross-domain Information Exchange Framework (CIEF)

Paul Shaw,
SPAWARSYSCOM
and
Dr. David J. Roberts,
iBASEt, Inc.

May 21, 2008 at 10:30

ABSTRACT

The Cross-domain Information Exchange Framework (CIEF) is an architectural framework designed to support critical information exchange to assist or automate DoD (Department of Defense) mission oriented tasks. It is also an operational design for the publication, location, and subscription to information in the correct mission context and monitor the operational use of information in that context.

BIO

Paul Shaw is currently the Navy Functional Data Manager (FDM) for Command and Control (C2) and is based in San Diego at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command. Mr. Shaw has spoken widely at conferences and seminars on semantic technologies and innovative approaches to data management within the DoD.

Dr. David J. Roberts is the Chief Scientist on the Cross-domain Information Exchange Framework (CIEF) project and also supports the SPAWARSYSCOM, San Diego. Dr. Roberts has presented CIEF and other semantic based Information Management systems at numerous conferences and technical workshops
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Paving the Bare Spots
Towards an Enterprise-wide Defense Service Bus

Brad J. Cox, Ph.D.
Gestalt LLC, Now part of Accenture

May 21, 2008 at 13:30

ABSTRACT

This paper describes how Department of Defense (DOD) policy groups responsible for net-centricity, interoperability, and transformation can facilitate the creation of a service bus that works for the whole enterprise instead of just within project stovepipes. Modeled after standards bodies like OASIS and open source development groups like The Apache Foundation, the approach defines an enterprise space in which cross-project, enterprise-wide infrastructure can be owned, managed, designed, developed and deployed separately from the project that use the infrastructure. Enterprise space is owned and managed by a foundation whose technical staff is contributed by projects instead of building infrastructures within projects.

BIO

Dr. Cox is Chief Architect for Accenture's Mission Services Group. His recent work focuses on using Agile Development practices and Component Based Engineering for building secure/interoperable SOA services for the U.S. Department of Defense.
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Essence of Net-Centricity and
Implications for C4I Services Interoperability

Hans W. Polzer
Lockheed Martin

May 21, 2008 at 13:30

ABSTRACT

Many people have the somewhat mistaken idea that net-centricity is about using network technology, and that service oriented architectures are semi-magical enablers of interoperability and information sharing among systems, most notably C4I systems. This paper explores the concepts of net-centricity and service orientation from a system implementer's perspective, and relates them to each other. It articulates some principles that make a service oriented architecture more or less net-centric. It also examines the issue of information representation in data and service interfaces, and discusses the impact of operational and organizational context and scope on data representation and system interoperability. These issues are illustrated with a "thought experiment" related to C4I situational awareness in a joint or multi-national operational context.

BIO

Hans W. Polzer is a Lockheed Martin Fellow, working for the Advanced Concepts organization within Lockheed Martin's Corporate Engineering and Technology. In that capacity, Hans is responsible for developing, implementing, and evolving a net centric assessment framework to apply to major Lockheed Martin programs. Hans is also the lead Lockheed Martin technical representative to the Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium (NCOIC), acting as vice-chair for the NCOIC SCOPE Working Group.

Hans previously was manager of the Horizontal Integration Technology Team at Lockheed Martin Mission Systems, responsible for a number of joint ACTD programs and joint interoperability initiatives. Hans was director of engineering on the Global Transportation Network (GTN) program, responsible for all engineering staff and processes and managing the development of the initial delivered system. Prior to GTN, Hans was the Program Director for the Lockheed Martin team on DARPA's Software Technology for Adaptable Reusable Systems (STARS) Program, focused on enabling software reuse, process automation, and interoperable software engineering tools across DoD. He joined Lockheed Martin in 1985 as Chief Engineer on the Integrated Automated Intelligence Processing System (IAIPS), a large scale operational intelligence system for the US Navy.

A 1969 graduate of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Hans has a BS degree in physics. He received an MS degree in physics from Rutgers University in 1971. He joined the US Army that year, and reached the rank of captain before leaving the Service in 1976.
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Service Oriented Acquisition: Harmonizing Horizontal Requirements with a Traditionally Vertical Process

Chris Gunderson,
Joint Interoperability Test Command

May 21, 2008 at 13:30

ABSTRACT

The Department of Defense has adopted the concept of Netcentric Operations and Warfare, i.e. .effective, distributed, collaboration over a network to gain asymmetric advantage, especially with respect to information superiority. To enable NCO/W, the DoD has issued transformational policy mandating change from a vertical (stovepiped), serial, system-centric requirement model to a horizontal, capability-based, adaptive, requirement model. This policy specifically calls for using the service oriented architecture (SOA) paradigm as a change agent, and a means to accelerate delivery of information processing capability. However, the intent of this SOA-enabled netcentric requirements policy is at odds with the implementation detail mandated by Acquisition policy. That is, Acquisition policy does not offer tools to enable, let alone encourage, cross program development of enterprise capability or to de-couple software development from the rigid, serial, time-lines associated with developing sensors, weapons, and platforms. This paper suggests a way to subtly nudge two aspects of the existing policy regime to provide those tools. In particular, the Net-Ready Key Performance Parameter (NR-KPP) should be based on a minimal matrix of measurable and testable criteria that can be observed on the ground, written into enforceable contract language, and rolled up into executive dashboards. The Tailored Information Support Plan (T-ISP) concept should be expanded to include the notion of a network service stack (NSS) to address enterprise-level information processing capability.. The intent of a NSS T-ISP would be to provide a plan, enforceable through contract language, that will maintain NR-KPP service level objectives throughout a capability lifecycle.

BIO

Chris Gunderson is Naval Postgraduate School Associate Research Professor of Information Science. His research interest is effective information exchange across a network of experts. He is detailed to the National Capital Region to support Joint Interoperability Command efforts to create a government/ industry partnership for adaptive collaborative development and validation and verification of netcentric capability modules.

Gunderson retired from the US Navy as a Captain in October 2004 following 27 years' service as a Navy Oceanographer. His last assignment in the Navy was Commanding Officer of Fleet Numerical Oceanographic & Meteorological Center, a high-performance computing center in Monterey, Calif.
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Towards a Formal Standard for Interoperability
in M&S/SOS Integration

Bernard Zeigler and Saurabh Mittal
Arizona Center for Integrative Modeling and Simulation
University of Arizona

May 21, 2008 at 13:30

ABSTRACT

Modeling and Simulation (M&S) is finding increasing application in development and testing of command and control systems comprised of information-intensive component systems. In this paper, we apply a System of Systems (SoS) perspective on the integration of M&S with such systems. We employ recently developed interoperability concepts based on linguistic categories along with the Discrete Event System Specification formalism to propose a standard for interoperability. We will show how the developed standard is implemented in DEVS/SOA net-centric modeling and simulation framework.

BIO

Bernard P. Zeigler is Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Arizona, Tucson and Director of the Arizona Center for Integrative Modeling and Simulation. He is internationally known for his 1976 foundational text Theory of Modeling and Simulation, recently revised for a second edition (Academic Press, 2000), He has published numerous books and research publications on the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS) formalism. In 1995, he was named Fellow of the IEEE in recognition of his contributions to the theory of discrete event simulation. In 2000 he received the McLeod Founder's Award by the Society for Computer Simulation, its highest recognition, for his contributions to discrete event simulation. He was appointed Fellow of the Society for Modeling and Simulation, International (SCS), 2006.

Saurabh Mittal is an Assistant Research Professor at the ECE Department, University of Arizona. He received both MS and PhD in ECE from the University of Arizona in 2004 and 2007 respectively. His research interests include modeling and simulation, net-centric systems engineering, DoDAF-based executable architectures, interoperability and data engineering. He is a recipient of Joint Interoperability Test Command's highest civilian contractor 'Golden Eagle' award for the project GENETSCOPE and NTSA award for Best Cross-platform development in M&S area for the project ATC-Gen. He is currently working on projects at JITC and NGIT. He can be reached at [email protected]

Xiaolin Hu is an Assistant Professor in the Computer Science Department at Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia. He received his Ph.D. degree from the University of Arizona, M.S. degree from Chinese Academy of Sciences, and B.S. degree from Beijing Institute of Technology in 2004, 1999, and 1996 respectively. His research interests include modeling and simulation, and their applications to complex system design, multi-agent/multi-robot systems, and ecological and biological problems. He has served as program chairs for four international conferences/ symposiums in the field of modeling and simulation, and guest editor for Simulation: Transaction of The Society for Modeling and Simulation International.
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Building Composable Bridges Between
the Conceptual Space and the Implementation Space

Paul Gustavson, Tram Chase, and Matt Wilson
SimVentions, Inc

May 21, 2008 at 13:30

ABSTRACT

Often the process and effort in building interoperable Command and Control (C2) systems and simulations can be arduous. Invariably the difficulty is in understanding what is intended. This paper introduces the notion of composable bridges as a means to help transition abstract ideas or concepts into concrete implementations. We examine the key elements to achieve composability, which include the direction provided by a process, the importance of a conceptual model, the use of patterns to help characterize reusable aspects of a design, the importance of having good discovery metadata and well-defined interfaces that can be implemented, the use of components, and the practical use of libraries and tools. We suggest that, of all these elements, a properly documented conceptual model provides the basis for formulating a composable bridge, and that things like patterns, discovery metadata, and interfaces play a key role. We take a look at a specific standard known as the Base Object Model (BOM) and examine how it provides a means to define a composable bridge. We explore how BOMs, in this capacity, can be aggregated and used (and reused) to support the creation of concrete implementations. We also explore how such composability helps to achieve various levels of interoperability for C2 systems and Simulation applications.

BIO

Paul Gustavson is a co-founder and Chief Technology Officer of SimVentions, Inc. (http://www.simventions.com) and is focused on the development and integration of technology for creating innovative and engaging experiences and solutions. Paul is a graduate of Old Dominion University, with a B.S. in Computer Engineering (1989), and has supported a wide variety of modeling and simulation, system engineering, web technology, and mobile computing efforts within the DoD and software development communities. He is a principal author of "C++ Builder 6 Developer's Guide"; and contributor to other books and articles; and, has presented at numerous conferences. He is also a long-time advocate and pioneer of the Base Object Model (BOM) concept for enabling simulation composability, interoperability, and reuse. Paul lives in Virginia with his wife and two boys.

Tram Chase is a senior software engineer at SimVentions,Inc. (http://www.simventions.com) and is focused on the development and integration of technology for creating innovative and engaging experiences and solutions. In support of BOMs, Tram has been the lead developer of BOMworksTM, a tool used to build, edit and compose BOMs. Tram is a graduate of Virginia Tech, with a B.S. in Mathematics (1994), and has supported a wide variety of modeling and simulation and system engineering efforts within the DoD. Tram lives in Virginia with his wife and two children.

Matt Wilson is a senior software developer and architect at SimVentions. He has over 16 years experience as a project manager and as a software and systems engineer. He has participated on a variety of projects and standards committees including the Object Management Group (OMG) C4I Domain Task Force since 2004. He designs and implements software system architecture for high performance, user interface intensive, distributed, web-based, n-tier, and desktop software applications. Mr. Wilson currently supports various DoD customers in the area of software development, systems engineering, and analysis. His current efforts involve Human Systems Integration (HSI), technical leadership, SBIR project development for advanced visualization, and processes for implementing Open Architecture (OA) combat systems into the US Navy fleet.
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Applying a Formal Language of Command and Control for Interoperability with Simulations

Dr. Michael R. Hieb
Center of Excellence in C4I
George Mason University
and
Dr. Ulrich Schade
FGAN-FKIE

May 21, 2008 at 13:30

ABSTRACT

Battle Management Language (BML) is being developed as an open standard that unambiguously specifies Command and Control information, including orders and reports built upon precise representations of tasks. BML is both a methodology and a language specification, based on doctrine and consistent with Coalition standards. Recent work has concentrated on leveraging standard data model semantics (particularly the Joint Consultation, Command and Control Information Exchange Data Model - JC3IDM) for a Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) Coalition BML (C-BML) specification. While current BML work has organized task representations around the Command and Control Information Exchange Data Model and the 5 Ws (WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN and WHY), the grammar is implicit rather than explicit.

Development of a formal grammar is necessary for the specification of a complete language. Formalizing BML by defining its grammar follows the conventions determined by the theory of Linguistics. Initially, it must be determined which type of grammar is to be used. The Chomsky hierarchy specifies that grammars can be Type 0 (unrestricted grammars), Type 1 (context-sensitive grammars), Type 2 (context-free grammars) or Type 3 (regular grammars). While humans sometimes use constructions that may best be described by a context-sensitive grammar (type 1), automated processing is best supported by a more constrained one (Type 2 or Type 3). Our analysis indicates that a Type 2 grammar best fits the requirements for a BML.

To specify a BML grammar (our implementation is the C2 Lexical Functional Grammar - C2LG), rules are developed to determine how to create valid BML sentences that describe military tasks, requests and reports. An analysis of US and German Army 5-paragraph orders shows that a pure 5W based grammar can neither cope with all of the expressions needed, nor exclude all sentences that violate our intuition of "correctness". Therefore, rules for C2LG sentences require additional and more detailed semantics such that a verb (the 5W's WHAT) determines a structure (expressed as a "frame") for the sentence. This verb frame then references the other Ws and additional terms. Rules for the concatenation of C2LG sentences in our grammar are guided by NATO STANAG 2014 - "Formats for Orders and Designations of Timings, Locations and Boundaries".

In this paper we describe the grammar that formalizes the construction of valid C2LG sentences as well as their concatenation to form military orders and reports. This is illustrated by an example from an Army Order from a Multinational Interoperability Program (MIP) Exercise. We also address the use of this BML grammar in automated systems and describe how the grammar aids C2 to Simulation Interoperability.

BIO

Michael Hieb is a Research Associate Professor with the Center of Excellence in C4I at George Mason University. Dr. Hieb was the Co-Chair of the SISO CBML Study Group and also was on the team that developed the initial BML concept for the US Army. He received his PhD in Information Technology at George Mason University in 1996, developing an instructable Modular Semi-Automated Forces agent. He has published over 90 papers in the areas of Formal Languages for Command and Control, Simulation Interoperability, and Multistrategy Learning.

Ulrich Schade is a Senior Scientist at the Research Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics that is part of FGAN financed by the German MoD and is a Lecturer at the Institute for Communication Research and Phonetics, Bonn University. Dr. Schade received his MA in Mathematics in 1986 and his PhD in Linguistics in 1990 at Bielefeld University (Germany), developing a connectionist model for language production processes. He has written many papers and book articles in the areas of Language Production, Ontology Development, and Cognitive Models.
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Toward an Interopability Reference Model

Rex Buddenberg,
Naval Postgraduate School

May 21, 2008 at 13:30

ABSTRACT

Abstract. Every discussion of interoperability tends to require an enormous preamble having to do with finding the right layer of a nonexistent reference model. Are we talking about cognitive, doctrinal, data element standardization, networking ...? Or are we talking about elements of information technology that, at best, handle interoperability as a side effect(software portability is an example)? And when we get to prescriptive issues (architecture) are we talking about interoperability between systems or requirements analysis within a single system? The ISO Reference Model is universally used within the Internet community as a means of organizing the discourse. The Reference Model is properly described as a taxonomy. A means for organizing the discussion. This paper proposes an Interoperability Reference Model that is intended to perform the same function for interoperable information systems as the ISO Reference Model does for interoperable networks -- organize the discussion.

BIO

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Orchestrating BMD Control in Extended BPEL

Thomas S. Cook
Computer Science Department
Naval Postgraduate School

Duminda Wijesekera
Computer Science Department
George Mason University

Bret Michael
Computer Science Department
Naval Postgraduate School

Man-Tak Shing
Computer Science Department
Naval Postgraduate School

May 21, 2008 at 15:30

ABSTRACT

We specify duty cycles of a Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) command and control application by decorating the Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) with Quality of Service (QoS), Measures of Performance (MoP), Measures of Effectiveness (MoE) and Measures of Merit (MoM) metrics.

BIO

Thomas S. Cook is a Lieutenant Colonel in the US Army and a PhD candidate at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey California.

Duminda Wijesekera is an associate professor in the Department of Information and Software Engineering at George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia. During various times, he has contributed to research in security, multimedia, networks, systems, avionics and theoretical computer science. These span topics such as applying logical methods to access and dissemination control, securing circuit switched (SS7) and IP based telecommunication (VoIP) systems, multimedia, security requirements processing during the early phases of the software life cycle, WWW security, railroad signaling security, SCADA security, communicating honeynet farms, and engineering Ballistic Missiles. His pre-GMU work has been in quality of service issues in multimedia, avionics control and specifying and verifying concurrent systems using logical methods.

James Bret Michael is a professor of computer science and electrical & computer engineering at the Naval Postgraduate School. His primary areas of research areas are engineering distributed and trustworthy systems. Prior to joining NPS, he conducted research at the University of California at Berkeley. He is the chair of the IEEE Technical Committee on Safety of Systems, a member of the Advisory Board for IEEE Software, an associate editor-in-chief of IEEE Security & Privacy, and an associate editor of the IEEE Systems Journal. He received his PhD in information technology from George Mason University. He is a senior member of the IEEE.

Man-Tak Shing is an associate professor of computer science at the Naval Postgraduate School. His research interests include software engineering, modeling and design of real-time and distributed systems, and the specification, validation, and runtime monitoring of temporal assertions. He is on the program committees of several conferences dedicated to software engineering and is a member of the Steering Committee of the IEEE International Rapid System Symposium. He was the program co-chair for the IEEE Rapid System Prototyping Workshop in 2004 prior to being the general co-chair for the symposium in 2008. He received his PhD in computer science from the University of California, San Diego. He is a senior member of the IEEE.
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New Application: What is the Network Impact

Robert L. Godfrey, Jr
NDIC Fellow

May 21, 2008 at 15:30

ABSTRACT

Do you know what the impact of your Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) deployment is to the operational network? During deployment, the network requirements for the application are discovered. Deploying functions directly to the operational network forces the network technicians to quickly adapt the network to these requirements. Since this is not optimal, we need an improved process. A way of improving this process is to use a test network that simulates the operational network although a better solution would be to extract network requirements and verify the requirements using the test network. The test network reduces operational impact by removing the development of the requirement from the operational network. To enhance this process farther would require that the network requirements be extracted during development. This process would use a common language between the developers and network technicians that capture the network requirement. The test network would then be used to verify the requirement of the new function before it is deployed to the operational network and reduce the impact to operations.

BIO

MAJ Robert Godfrey, Jr. earned his commission at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio in 1994. He was assigned to AFPC, Randolph AFB as a field system computer engineer developing advance oracle application for AF and Civilian personnel systems. In 1998, Major Godfrey went to the Air Force Pentagon Communications Agency to support the Office of the Assistant Secretary Defense/Reserve Affairs. In 2000, Major Godfrey was assigned to the 831st Munitions Support Squadron, Ghedi Air Base, Italy as a flight commander and Emergency Action Officer. He received the USAFE C2 Distinguished Graduate and 831st MUNSS 2002 CP Officer of the Year. In 2002, Major Godfrey was assigned to the 29th Intelligence Squadron, Ft Meade as a Signal Intelligence Directorate project manager. He directly led the GALE-Lite and Information Management and Storage Programs while earning his PM Level 1. In 2005, Major Godfrey was assigned to the 55th Communication Squadron, Offutt AFB as the deputy commander. He deployed in December 2005 to Baghdad, Iraq as the NATO Training Mission - Iraq. During his deployment, he upgraded all in-theatre communications from rapid deployment kits to a robust fixed system between training facilities. Major Godfrey came to the National Defense Intelligence College in July 2007.
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Realizing Organizational Collaboration Through Semantic Mediation

Sri Gopalan, Sandeep Maripuri, Brad Medairy
Booz Allen Hamilton

May 21, 2008 at 15:30

ABSTRACT

Realizing organizational collaboration requires a greater level of information sharing between knowledge agents - both the people within an organization and the information systems that support them. Achieving this level of information transparency relies on fundamental improvements in today's systems and data mediation architectures. This paper describes how Semantic Web technologies can be leveraged within the context of Service Oriented Architectures to support dynamic, meaningful exchange of information both within and across organization boundaries.

BIO

Sri Gopalan is an Associate with Booz Allen Hamilton's Global IT Team, leading SOA design, governance, and interoperability efforts for Defense and Intelligence Community clients. He has over 7 years of professional experience developing and architecting enterprise-class applications and services for both the commercial and government sectors. He is currently serving as a development lead, researching and implementing various Semantic Web and SOA-based prototypes focused on promoting collaboration and information sharing for a classified project within the government. He holds a MS and BS in Electrical and Computer Engineering from Carnegie Mellon University.

Sandeep Maripuri is a Senior Associate with Booz Allen Hamilton's Global IT Team, leading Applied Research & Development efforts for Defense and Intelligence Community clients. His focus areas include applying advanced concepts (e.g. Semantic Web, Grid Computing) to operational needs and Net-Centric architectures. These efforts target methods for improving the efficiency and dynamic composability of large, distributed systems. He is currently overseeing the implementation of several Semantic Web and SOA-based prototypes focused on promoting collaboration, data interoperabiltiy, and information sharing for research-oriented clients. Prior to joining Booz Allen, Sandeep had provided consulting services in addition to working in the COTS marketplace, where he helped architect and build a semantics-based, dynamic data integration product. Sandeep holds a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering, minor Computer Science, from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Brad Medairy is a Principal with Booz Allen Hamilton's Global IT Team, headquartered in Mclean, VA. As a leader in the firm's Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) Solutions area, he leads a team focused on the strategy, design, and implementation of SOA and integration solutions. He has a proven track record in the application of emerging technologies (e.g. Semantic Web, Social Computing, Grid Computing, and Web Services) to address the business and missions needs of customers across all areas of Government. He holds an MS in Information Systems and Technology from Johns Hopkins University and a BS in Information Systems from University of Maryland, Baltimore County.
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Probabilistic Ontologies for Multi-INT Fusion

Dr. Kathryn Blackmond Laskey,
George Mason University

Dr. Paulo Costa,
Brazilian Air Force

Dr. Terry Janssen,
Lockheed Martin

May 21, 2008 at 15:30

ABSTRACT

Systems are increasingly required to fuse data from geographically dispersed, heterogeneous information sources to produce up-to-date, mission-relevant results. These products focus not only on traditional military forces and systems, but to an increasing degree also on non-traditional combatants and their social networks. Successful multi-INT fusion requires that the constituent systems interoperate not just at the level of syntax and formats, but also at the level of semantics. Ontologies are vital enablers for semantic interoperability. Because uncertainty is a fundamental aspect of multi-INT fusion, lack of support for uncertainty is a major limitation of current-generation ontology formalisms. Probabilistic OWL (PR-OWL) extends the OWL Web Ontology Language to enable the construction of probabilistic ontologies. Ontologies constructed in PR-OWL can represent complex patterns of evidential relationships among uncertain hypotheses. Recently, a system for specifying and reasoning with PR-OWL ontologies has been released in alpha version. This paper describes the PR-OWL ontology language, the probabilistic logic on which it is based, and the reasoning system implementation. A case study in the counterterrorism domain is illustrates the capabilities of PR-OWL.

BIO

Kathryn B. Laskey, Ph.D. is Associate Professor of Systems Engineering and Operations Research and Associate Director of the C4I Center at George Mason University, where she teaches and performs research on computational decision theory and evidential reasoning. Professor Laskey's research involves working with human experts to put their knowledge into a form that can be processed by computers, and applying probability theory to draw conclusions from evidence that comes from many different sources. She has applied her research to problems such as modeling the emplacement of improvised explosive devices, predicting aircraft delays, managing terrorist risk at public facilities, judicial reasoning, and planning military engagements. Dr. Laskey developed multi-entity Bayesian networks (MEBN), a language and logic that extends classical first-order logic to support Bayesian probability. She was a key contributor to the development of PR-OWL, an upper ontology that allows MEBN theories to be represented in OWL ontologies. Dr. Laskey served on a National Academy of Sciences committee to assess the statistical validity of the polygraph and is a member of the Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Laskey received the BS degree in mathematics from the University of Pittsburgh, the MS degree in mathematics from the University of Michigan, and the PhD degree in statistics and public policy from Carnegie Mellon University.

Dr. Paulo C. G. da Costa received his PhD in Information Technology from GMU in 2005. He is an affiliate faculty with the GMU C4I Center and a LT COL in the Brazilian Air Force, planning to retire in Summer 2008. Dr. Costa is a world-class expert in integrating semantic technology and uncertainty management. He developed PR-OWL, a probabilistic extension of the OWL ontology language. He supervised the development of an open-source reasoning engine for PR-OWL ontologies, developed by the UnBBayes group at the University of Brasilia.

Dr. Terry Janssen has over 30 years of experience in information technologies including system architecture, database, data mining, text mining, natural language processing, evidential reasoning, decision analysis/theory, operations research, expert systems/AI, semantic technology and ontology, collaboration, and systems engineering. Currently he is a Principle System Engineer and a Chief Technologist at Lockheed Martin.

Prior to Lockheed he owned his own consulting company, EXDS, Inc., that provided research and development, and consulting focused on advanced information technology. During this period his clients included MITRE, NASA, North Carolina State University, Purdue University, Raytheon, Sonex, RMF, TRW, Unisys, University of Chicago, University of Florida, USDA, George Mason University, DoD and intelligence community. He provided over $200K in grants to GMU faculty and students.

From 1992 until June of 1998 he was a Decision and Information Scientist and Program Manager for the Decision and Information Sciences Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a national laboratory managed by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy. During this period, he was responsible for the application of advanced technologies including artificial intelligence, decision theory, linear and non-linear programming, modeling, simulation, relational and object-oriented database, graphic user interface, and collaborative work environments. He managed problem definition, technology assessment, and system engineering for the application of these advanced technologies to difficult problems faced by Government and Industry. He was granted a U.S. Patent that is held by Argonne and the U.S. Department of Energy.

Prior to Argonne he was a Program Manager and Senior Computer Scientist at Computer Sciences Corporation (1/85 through 12/91), where he was responsible for research, development and application of advanced information technologies. CSC awarded him the CSC Honorarium award.

He has a Ph.D in Information Technology from GMU, and he has taught classes as an Adjunct Professor at George Mason University's School of Information Technology and Engineering. He has given many technical talks and authored over 30 publications.
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The Many Faces of Collaboration Interoperability

Diane Boettcher
Director of Knowledge Management
SRA International

May 21, 2008 at 15:30

ABSTRACT

Collaboration interoperability has many technical challenges, but these are only one aspect of true interoperability. If we are to reach the goals of Network Centric Warfare, we must address all of the various faces of interoperability. The people, processes and technology offer a diverse, interdependent set of challenges, all of which impact our ability to successfully collaborate in a robust online environment. The challenges range from a diverse user group, to major cultural barriers and from security procedures to simple data interoperability. The technical challenges should not be minimized, with areas of standards compliance and cross-domain solutions having the greatest potential. Many of these problems are not new, but simply look new. These challenges will require training in the new processes. Other challenges will require a change in attitude and culture to properly address.

BIO

Diane Boettcher attended Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Graduating from NROTC, she was winged a Naval Flight Officer the following year. She flew in the EP-3 Aries reconnaissance aircraft. She was then assigned to Pacific Command. While in Hawaii, she became a SCUBA diving instructor, creating a web site for her business in 1993.

Next, in Rota, Spain, Ms. Boettcher established the base's presence on the Internet. Following this assignment, she was the Security Officer for a telecommunications station in Washington DC, where she took additional webmaster duties.

In 2000, Ms. Boettcher became the Web/Marketing Manager at a healthcare IT consulting firm in Maryland. In 2001, she supported Commander, Task Force Navy Marine Corps Intranet as a Knowledge Management Engineer. Later, Ms. Boettcher became the Internet Technologies Advisor with Naval Network Warfare Command. In 2004, she joined SRA and supported the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) Chief Technical Officer and Collaboration Management Office. She was mobilized into the Navy in December of 2006 and served at U.S. Joint Forces Command in Virginia and Afghanistan. Upon her return from mobilization, she became the Director of Knowledge Management at SRA's Advanced Programs and Business Technology Operations group
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Normative Interaction Specifications for C2

Francisco Loaiza, Ph.D., J.D. and Steve Wartik, Ph.D.
Institute for Defense Analyses

May 21, 2008 at 15:30

ABSTRACT

Modeling languages such as UML and IDEF1-X provide only partial coverage for the relations and constraints that apply to information within a given domain of interest. In most cases additional textual narratives are required to capture the full set of pertinent business rules. The "Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules Specification" (SBVR), an OMG adopted specification, offers an alternative to traditional information modeling with vastly more powerful capabilities and the potential for use within the context of the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) framework. This paper presents our recent work done within the Multilateral Interoperability Programme (MIP) where an initial formalization of the model usage and data integrity rules for the Joint Consultation Command and Control Information Exchange Model (JC3IEDM) using the Object Constraint Language (OCL) has been completed. We discuss next the possibility of extending the OCL formalization to FOL-type of rules following the SBVR specifications, and hypothesize how this in turn could be the basis for an all-inclusive NIS, a normative specification of all the relevant rules that control how information interacts within an enterprise. We conclude the paper with a brief discussion on the potential uses of NIS in the context of MDA, as well as the possibility of applying automated theorem proving methods to enhance the quality of the rule models.

BIO

Francisco Loaiza joined the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) in 1987 as a research analyst where he has worked and published extensively on a variety of issues related to information modeling and data interoperability for both Command and Control and DoD Enterprise Architectures. He is also interested in the use of open source software for DoD solutions development. He completed his law studies with a J.D. from George Mason School of Law in 1995. Prior to that, he received his M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemistry from Princeton University in 1988 and 1984 respectively. He obtained a B.S. in Chemistry from the University of Hamburg, Germany, in 1981, and a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the Fachhochschule Kiel, Germany, in 1977.

Steven Wartik is a research analyst at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA). His primary area of focus is modeling C2 information to promote interoperability, especially with respect to its use in network-centric environments. He is also interested in the interoperability of C4I and M&S systems. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of California at Santa Barbara in 1980 and 1984, and his B.S. in Computer Science from Pennsylvania State University in 1977. He has published over 20 papers in software reuse, software configuration management, software engineering education, information retrieval, interoperability, and net-centricity.
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An Ontology Based
Information Exchange Management System
Enabling Secure Collaboration Interoperability

Russell Leighton, Joshua Undesser
CDM Technologies, Inc., San Luis Obispo, California

May 21, 2008 at 15:30

ABSTRACT

Military and humanitarian missions increasingly involve not only the participation of one nation but of forces allied in a coalition. Real-time information exchange is indisputably a critical aspect required for the success of these missions. The requirement for interoperability between deployed information management systems is not restricted to overcoming the low level obstacles in data exchange resulting from diverse information systems. The rising challenge is the selection and control of the content shared with coalition partners. Which coalition partner needs to be included in operational information? How is it assured that in a changing situation all affected partners are alerted? Currently, this management of information exchange is accomplished by Information Management Officers (IMO), who manually sift through all incoming operational data and piece by piece discern what information needs to be shared and with whom. The information base, however, has increased over time to the point that the IMO is being overloaded.

The Coalition Secure Management and Operations System (COSMOS) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) was designed to help assist in the process of managing coalition information exchange and interoperability. Through the use of an ontology driven architecture, COSMOS is able to represent operational data with meaningful relationships and thus allows intelligent, autonomous software agents to reason about the needs of information exchange and assist the IMO in the decision making process. This information sharing is accomplished through the use of role-based Information Exchange Requirements (IER) which are individually assigned by the IMO and are specific to the roles played by each coalition member within the context of the overall mission. Agents, intelligent expert system software modules, are utilized to assist in the process of managing IER assignment and the assessment of information against the criteria which formalize the IER definition. It is through this process that information exchange is targeted to the coalition force components that have a specific requirement for information pertaining to their assigned roles.

BIO

Russell Leighton Educational Background: M.S., Engineering Mechanics, The University of Texas at Austin, 1993 B.S., Aeronautical Engineering, 1984
Professional Background: CDM Technologies, Inc., San Luis Obispo, CA
May 1997 - Present: Mr. Leighton is the lead for a technical development team focused on providing support for a number of projects targeting development of knowledge management and decision support capabilities in the area of military command and control. Mr. Leighton is currently serving in the capacity of lead software engineer responsible for development of the Coalition Secure Operations and Management System (COSMOS) Information Management Tool (IMT). Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory / Phillips Laboratory, Edwards AFB, CA
June 1981 - May 1997: Mr. Leighton's work responsibilities included structural analysis of the propellant, case and bond systems for various solid propellant rocket motors. Additionally, Mr. Leighton was responsible for in-house and management of contractor development of software supporting solid rocket structural analysis.

Joshua Undesser Educational Background: B.S., Electrical Engineering, Iowa State University , Ames, 2000
Professional Background: CDM Technologies Inc, San Luis Obispo, CA
July 2000 - Present: Mr. Undesser is a Software Engineer whose main focus has been in the design and development of autonomous agent-based decision-support systems. Two more notable projects that he has been involved in are IMMACCS (Integrated Marine Multi-Agent Command and Control System), which helps Marine commanders make time-critical decisions, and COSMOS (Coalition Secure Management and Operations System) which helps facilitate intelligent information sharing between coalition partners.
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Cognitive Collapse: Recognizing and Addressing
the Hidden Threat in Collaborative Technologies

H.V. Parunak, T.C. Belding, R. Hilscher, S. Brueckner
NewVectors division of TTGSI

May 21, 2008 at 15:30

ABSTRACT

The growing application of collaborative technologies to C4ISR greatly increases communication and coordination, but poses a hidden threat. When the same set of people interact frequently with one another, they grow to think more and more along the same lines, a phenomenon we call "collective cognitive convergence" (C3). The higher the collaborative bandwidth, the faster this convergence, and the greater the danger that the group will collapse prematurely to a single perspective, becoming blind to strategic alternatives. We review previous work in sociology, computational social science, and evolutionary biology that sheds light on C3; define a computational model for the convergence process and quantitative metrics that can be used to study it; report on experiments with this model and metric; and suggest how the insights from this model can inspire techniques for managing C3 in C4ISR.

BIO

Dr. H. Van Dyke Parunak holds a BA in Physics from Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (1969), an MS in Computer and Communications Sciences from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (1982), and a PhD in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations from Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (1978).

He is Chief Scientist at the NewVectors division of TTGSI in Ann Arbor, MI, and a Corporate Analyst in the Emerging Markets Group. Previously, he was employed at Comshare, the University of Michigan, and Harvard University. He is the author or co-author of more than 75 technical articles and reports, and holds nine patents and four patents pending in the area of agent technology. His research focuses in applications of agent-based and complex systems to distributed decentralized information processing. Dr. Parunak is a member of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence and the Association for Computing Machinery, and serves on numerous editorial and conference boards.

Theodore C. Belding is a Senior Systems Engineer in NewVectors' Emerging Markets Group. Prior to joining NewVectors in 2005, he had ten years of academic research experience in complex adaptive systems, agent-based modeling, and evolutionary computation under Prof. John Holland at the University of Michigan. He has authored or coauthored technical papers in the areas of genetic algorithms, swarm intelligence, distributed hierarchical clustering, cognitive architectures, and the simulation of social systems.

Mr. Belding is a member of the Program Committee for the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), the flagship conference in evolutionary computation, and has served as a reviewer for the journals Evolutionary Computation and IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation.

Dr. Rainer Hilscher received a BA in English Literature from Miami University, Ohio (1996), an MA in Cultural Sciences from the European University Viadrina, Germany (2000), and a PhD in Computer Science from the University of Sussex, UK (2005). Dr. Hilscher is a Systems Engineer in the Emerging Markets Group (EMG) where he is currently involved in projects ranging from applying distributed decision making AI research to the EMG Polyagent swarming technology to developing a multi-agent collaborative knowledge generation system for the Intelligence community. Prior to New Vectors, Dr. Hilscher worked as a senior software engineer for Whitestein Technologies. At Whitestein Technologies he was lead developer for a market-based manufacturing multiagent scheduling system. During his PhD Dr. Hilscher developed and implemented the business logic of a web-based bacterial nomenclature database. His research interests include engineering cutting-edge multi-agent systems and simulations of evolutionary systems, in particular biological and cultural speciation.