Author Topic: Natural Gas Hydrates - resource potential exceeds all other forms  (Read 5003 times)

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Online TahoeBlue

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So much for Peak Oil: Massive Oil Deposit Found In North Dakota?
- Gas Hydrates - North Slope Alaska - 32000TCF/24TCF = 1000+ years of Natural Gas
- Bakken Oil Estimates


Interesting article on Gas Hydrates:

"The resource potential of methane in gas hydrate exceeds the combined worldwide reserves of conventional oil and gas reservoirs, coal, and oil shale"


TAMU - Gas Hydrates
http://ocean.tamu.edu/Quarterdeck/QD5.3/sassen.html

Gas hydrates are ice-like minerals that form at the low temperatures and high pressures in the deep sea. Hydrates contain gases, such as hydrocarbons, that glue themselves inside symmetrical cages of water molecules to form hydrate crystals. Research submarines are the ideal tool to study hydrates under natural conditions. Submarines make a profound difference in our understanding of gas hydrate because they allow us to see hydrates forming mounds on the seafloor. The mounds are covered with white and orange bacterial mats as well as various filter-feeding bivalves and other strange organisms. Mounds are sometimes surrounded by rings of chemosynthetic organisms such as tube worms and mussels. Actually, the seafloor scene from a research submarine gives the strong visual impression of a silent, serene, and beautiful garden.
...
Almost all gas hydrates are found by drilling in sediments at 10s to 100s of meters depth, but the gulf is different. The Gulf of Mexico is the best natural laboratory in the world for studying gas hydrates because they outcrop on the seafloor as mounds and can be easily sampled in sediments.

Scientists aboard research vessels first found gas hydrates in the deep waters of the gulf in 1983 by taking core samples at sites where oil was naturally seeping out of the bottom. Hydrates have since been recovered in cores from water depths as shallow as 425 meters and at depths greater than 2000 meters

Methane hydrates
Hydrocarbons captured in gas hydrates come from various sources. Methane hydrates are the most abundant type in the earth's ocean. They occur in deep water and on land in polar areas. A methane molecule only contains one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms (CH4). It is a small molecule, and by itself can form one simple type of hydrate, which is known as structure I. Free methane gas appears to exist below hydrate in some areas, sealed in by the overlying impermeable hydrate layer.

In addition, bacteria in marine sediments naturally produce enormous volumes of methane when they feed on plant debris washed into the gulf from rivers and swamps. This "biogenic" methane is often trapped in layers of hydrate that simulate the contours of the seafloor, and can be detected by various seismic techniques commonly used in oil and gas exploration.

Although methane hydrates are most abundant, Texas A&M geochemists find them the least interesting because the methane molecule is so simple.

Surprises in the gulf
Natural oil and gas seeps in the deep Gulf of Mexico also deliver bigger hydrocarbon molecules to the seafloor. An exciting discovery is that larger crystal forms of hydrate exist in the gulf. One of these is structure II hydrate, which can contain methane and other hydrocarbons such as propane, a three-carbon hydrocarbon molecule normally found in petroleum of thermal origin. Structure II hydrate was first produced in laboratory experiments, then in 1983 we made the first discovery of structure II hydrate in the natural environment at a depth of 530 meters.

In 1993 we discovered the first evidence of structure H hydrate in nature at a similar water depth near Jolliet Field. This rare hydrate forms "cages" large enough to hold molecules much bigger than methane. For example, hydrates at Jolliet Field contained abundant iso-pentane, a big, branched-chain hydrocarbon molecule with five carbon atoms. We are excited by the real possibility of discovering other, previously unknown types of hydrate crystals in our natural laboratory, the Gulf of Mexico.

It is no accident that unusual gas hydrates were discovered near Jolliet Field, a site now occupied by a huge oil platform. Oil and gas continually migrate from great depths in the earth's crust toward the gulf floor. Some of the oil and gas is trapped below the sea bottom, but much migrates toward the seafloor where hydrates form. For this reason, natural oil and gas seeps and their associated hydrates are studied as a guide to the presence of subsurface fields.

A future energy source?
At the sea surface, decomposing hydrate feels like cold Alka Seltzer fizzing and popping on your skin. It's fun to light gas hydrates with a match and watch the hydrocarbons burn like a candle, leaving behind only slightly salty water. Watching gas hydrate burn and produce heat shows its value as an energy source. Right now there is worldwide interest in exploiting energy from hydrates.

Published estimates of the total energy reserves trapped in methane hydrate vary considerably, but all the numbers emphasize this single point-the resource potential of methane in gas hydrate exceeds the combined worldwide reserves of conventional oil and gas reservoirs, coal, and oil shale by a wide margin.

It is no secret that the world's production of conventional fossil fuels will begin to decline sometime during the next century. At that time, some oil companies may go extinct or we might start referring to them as hydrate companies. A great opportunity to develop new technology will occur, and ocean scientists will have the chance to contribute to the future of our energy supply during that time of change.

The first steps towards hydrate gas production will occur soon, with the goal to recover natural gas by decomposing hydrates from offshore deposits. A research team from India is getting ready to begin an applied research effort to drill wells in deep water, and to learn how to produce gas hydrates. Similar research is proceeding offshore near Japan. The hydrate race has already begun.

The hydrate experiment
Gas hydrates can be grown and carefully studied in the laboratory, but the problem is that laboratory experiments are only simple simulations. The experiments, being simple, are always outfoxed by nature. For example, laboratory hydrates grow only slowly and they are more like slush than ice.

We grew gas hydrates on the deep seafloor for the first time in 1995, using a research submarine in a natural setting (See "Voyage to the depths"). This pivotal experiment showed that hydrate can be rapidly produced from natural gas venting into the sea, emphasizing that economic exploitation of gas hydrates is actually closer than we thought.

Our experimental precipitation of gas hydrate on the gulf floor expands the horizon for energy production. Until now, most thinking centered on gathering hydrate known to be buried in sediments, and allowing it to decompose into fuel and water. Our experiment shows that there might be another way to use gas hydrates to produce energy.

It is possible to drill for conventional gas reservoirs in the sea at great water depths, but it is not always possible to produce that gas because of economic problems associated with long pipelines across unstable continental slopes. Furthermore, pipelines in deep, cold water tend to become plugged with hydrates. Energy companies actually support research to prevent hydrates from forming!

We have an open mind about hydrates as a future energy source. Enormous volumes of natural gas vent naturally to the deep waters of the gulf and at many locations on continental margins offshore. This natural gas supply currently goes unused, and eventually escapes to the atmosphere.

At the same time, conventional gas reserves in ultra-deep water will probably never be produced due to the high costs. Why not produce gas hydrates industrially at the seafloor from escaping gas? Manufacturing hydrates from gas currently being lost to the water column could help buffer future energy shocks.

There is a formidable obstacle to using hydrates as fuel.

When removed from its high pressure, low temperature environment hydrate decomposes and releases the hydrocarbon gas contained in it. We do not yet have a way to safely transport large amounts of hydrate to production facilities on land.

One new approach to the hydrate transportation problem is to pelletize hydrate or to inflate large bladder-like blimps with hydrate in the deep sea. Submarines could then tow the hydrates to shallower water near the continental shelf, where they could be slowly decomposed to yield fuel and water. Perhaps chemical engineers could design additives to make hydrates more stable at lower pressures and higher temperatures. If they can, hydrate might actually be safer to transport in conventional ships than liquefied natural gas.

Climate change

Producing hydrates from naturally venting gas has implications for global warming with respect to two greenhouse gases, methane and carbon dioxide. Methane is the main constituent of gas hydrates, and is also a fast acting, high-impact greenhouse gas. Methane is at least an order of magnitude more effective as a short-term greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Although it is a matter of controversy among scientists, gas hydrates could have impacted the atmosphere several times during the last two million years. Some believe that fluctuating sea levels of the ice ages could have rendered large volumes of gas hydrate unstable, releasing great volumes of methane to the atmosphere.

Producing gas hydrates would redirect methane away from the atmosphere. Using hydrate methane industrially would convert it to carbon dioxide, actually decreasing the short-term effect on atmospheric chemistry and global change. In addition, methane is an environmentally cleaner fuel than oil, coal, or oil shale which all have an immense environmental impact during production and combustion.

Carbon dioxide itself is a gas that forms hydrates. Much recent research focuses on understanding how to deliberately create carbon dioxide hydrates. Perhaps we can find a way to trap carbon dioxide at the seafloor where it would eventually be buried by sediment.

Some giant natural gas reservoirs in Southeast Asia contain more carbon dioxide than hydrocarbons. Normally the carbon dioxide would be separated from the hydrocarbon gas and released to the atmosphere. Separating carbon dioxide at the seafloor and burying it as hydrate would be more environmentally friendly.

Clearly, there is a bright future for gas hydrate research to ensure future supplies of clean-burning energy, to potentially dispose of greenhouse methane, and to understand the role of hydrates as an agent of climate change over geologic time. The question of hydrates as a niche habitat for life also deserves special study (See "Lair of the 'Ice Worm'"). We look forward to addressing these questions in future research projects.




Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline PEOA

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Re: Natural Gas Hydrates - resource potential exceeds all other forms
« Reply #1 on: February 15, 2010, 02:57:47 pm »
what is awesome is...........it keeps replensihing itself.......
When the garden flowers baby are dead yes
and your mind is full of BREAD
your eyes, I say your eyes may look like his
but in your head baby I'm afraid you don't know where it is

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Natural Gas Hydrates - resource potential exceeds all other forms
« Reply #2 on: February 15, 2010, 03:32:17 pm »
In relation to this is the Alaska Natural gas pipeline which would begin at the North slope where just offshore is 1000 plus years worth of NatGas in Hydrates:

Interesting how Palin left as governor as this project was being "developed"... XOM or BP ?

http://www.usnews.com/news/campaign-2008/articles/2008/09/03/a-look-at-palins-role-in-alaskas-big-natural-gas-pipeline-project.html
A Look at Palin's Role in Alaska's Big Natural Gas Pipeline Project
She signed the deal into law, but it was pushed along by high energy prices and bipartisan support
By Kent Garber
Posted September 3, 2008

Two days before she was picked as John McCain's running mate last week, Gov. Sarah Palin of Alaska presided over what she called "one of the most historic and exciting events" in Alaska since statehood when she signed a bill that could clear the way for a massive natural gas pipeline. Standing in a hotel ballroom in Anchorage, flanked by labor leaders, nurses, electricians, and other union members, Palin inked legislation to spur what analysts say could be the largest private capital project in U.S. history—the construction of a new pipeline to carry natural gas from Alaska's resource-rich North Slope to the rest of the country.

It's an ambitious project. The price tag for the planned 1,715-mile pipeline is an estimated $26 billion—and it's been a long time in the making. Alaskans have been eyeing their vast natural gas resources and attempting to sell them to buyers for decades.

McCain's campaign team, along with Alaskan Republicans, has been quick to credit Palin for overcoming past obstacles and pushing the project through. But with support for the proposed pipeline cutting across party lines, she was in part the beneficiary of lucky timing, with high energy prices driving demand for some kind of a deal. Indeed, the pipeline's promise has even been trumpeted by Democratic presidential nominee Barack Obama, who, in a speech this summer (given well in advance of Palin's selection), praised the project's potential for "delivering clean natural gas and creating good jobs in the process."

The pipeline will take at least a decade to build, so it will be years before the project can be judged a success or failure. But by almost any measure, its potential energy contribution is large.

Alaska's North Slope contains about 35 trillion cubic feet of recoverable natural gas reserves, most of it in Prudhoe Bay. The pipeline, which is scheduled to be completed by 2018, is expected to carry about 4.5 billion cubic feet a day—the equivalent of about 8 percent of the country's current natural gas production. (Today, in fact, the eight largest natural gas-producing shale fields in the U.S. yield a combined 6.6 billion cubic feet a day, according to a recent private report.)

On top of that, Alaska officials say an additional 220 trillion to 230 trillion cubic feet may be recoverable with further exploration. "Alaska has tremendous reserves and resources," says Marty Rutherford, Palin's chief adviser for the pipeline. "We've always wanted to move this gas to market." At least one oil exploration company, Anadarko, was exploring for untapped natural gas in Alaska last winter.

The timing couldn't be better. As gas prices have climbed and energy independence has become a chief concern, natural gas is being billed as a promising domestic alternative, both for electricity and for fuel. Today, it already provides about 23 percent of the country's energy (mainly as electricity), and recent technological advances have led to a production boom of a scale not seen in several decades. Though natural gas is still a fossil fuel, it burns much cleaner than coal or oil, and everyone from Democratic House Speaker Nancy Pelosi to Texas oilman T. Boone Picken's has suggested it as a transition fuel to allow other technologies, like wind and solar, to come up to scale.

Alaska, officials there say, has been pushing to sell its natural gas since the 1970s, but it's taken a number of complementary factors—Palin being just one of them—to ignite the necessary effort to build a pipeline. Three well-known oil and natural gas companies—BP, ConocoPhillips, and ExxonMobilcontrol most of the North Slope's natural gas, and they've long used it [NatGas] to boost their own oil production, reinjecting it down into oil-and-gas wells to force out any remaining oil. Without the gas, their oil recovery would have been abysmal, says Cathy Foerster, the engineering commissioner at the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission.

But in recent years, production in Alaska's aging oil fields has dropped off. The value of natural gas, meanwhile, has increased, and state officials have been increasingly eager to find a way to sell it to the lower 48 states.

Politics, however, has frequently gotten in the way. Palin's predecessor, Gov. Frank Murkowski, tried to get the legislature to sign off on a gas pipeline plan that he had hammered out with the big oil companies, but the deal quickly unraveled. "The gives [to oil companies] were way in excess of what the economics required," says Alaska's Department of Natural Resources Commissioner Tom Irwin. (Irwin, who held the natural resources post under Murkowski as well, was fired at the time for opposing the deal, and six other top state officials resigned in protest.)

Under Palin, supporters say, the state has taken a much different—and ultimately more fruitful—approach. In 2007, she pushed the legislature to pass a law laying the groundwork for a new pipeline. This summer, after a long, open bidding process, the state awarded a license to TransCanada, a Canadian pipeline company, to build it. The company will spend the next year and a half doing field work and environmental assessments.

Then, in 2010, it will try to line up gas suppliers (BP, ConcoPhillips, and ExxonMobil, mainly) before applying for the final nod from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The next eight years would be spent building the line, which would cut from the North Slope down to Fairbanks and over toward Alberta, and then into the U.S., probably terminating near Chicago. As part of the agreement, the state has pledged $500 million to help move the project forward.

But the state's project could still run into trouble. Earlier this year, BP and ConocoPhillips got together and formed their own pipeline company, Denali, to build a competing Alaska natural gas pipeline. "It is clearly in our interest as gas lease holders and prospective shippers to make sure this line is done right and managed efficiently," says a BP spokesperson.

The upshot is that there are now two natural gas pipeline projects in Alaska, and analysts say that only one of them will get built. Some critics see the Palin-TransCanada plan as a gamble, because, to succeed, it will need the cooperation of the big oil companies that have the gas—in other words, their competitors.

There are also other concerns, such as whether TransCanada, even though it has laid some 36,000 miles of pipeline elsewhere, is up to the challenge, or whether the people of Alaska will benefit from the gas sales. Perhaps the biggest question is whether the state is forfeiting half a billion dollars by betting on a pipeline that may not get built. The plan's backers remain unfazed. "None of those parties have committed their gas to any pipeline at the moment," says TransCanada Vice President Tony Palmer. "We will be doing all we can to attract potential customers."

Palin's backers say her support for the TransCanada project underscores her effort to limit oil companies' influence over the state's affairs—a common refrain from the McCain campaign.

Many Alaskans, they say, remember all too clearly the oil spill in the North Slope in March 2006, the largest such spill in that region's history. More than 200,000 gallons of oil were released from BP-operated pipelines, which investigators later said were corroded because of lack of cleaning and inspection.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Natural Gas Hydrates - resource potential exceeds all other forms
« Reply #3 on: June 16, 2011, 10:31:26 pm »
India:

http://www.indianexpress.com/news/first-gas-hydrates-production-test-by-2010/270102/
First gas hydrates production test by 2010
NEW DELHI, FEBRUARY 6 2008:

India is likely to do its first gas hydrates production test by 2010. Official sources revealed that commercial production for exploiting huge gas hydrates reserves in the country would be possible only after the test by Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) is set for the purpose. So far US, Japan and India have joined the league for exploration and production of gas hydrates. The estimated gas hydrate reserves across the globe are about twice the known oil and gas reserves.
...

The report of first advanced gas hydrate exploration programme conducted on the offshore of India by NGHP under the name of Expedition 01, reveals the availability of reserves in India.

One of the richest marine gas hydrates accumulation ever discovered has been delineated and sampled in the Krishna-Godavari basin.

One of the thickest and deepest gas hydrate occurrences yet known has been discovered off the shores of Andaman Islands and has revealed gas hydrate bearing volcanic ash layers as deep as 600 meters below the sea floor.
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Natural Gas Hydrates - resource potential exceeds all other forms
« Reply #4 on: June 16, 2011, 10:38:59 pm »
www.rigzone.com/news/article.asp?a_id=77157
Jun 12, 2009 ... In fact, this winter, the DOE and Alaska North Slope operators are planning to conduct gas hydrate production tests in the Arctic. ...

US Gas Hydrates Find Has Worldwide Implications
Friday, June 12, 2009

In a 21-day expedition led by Chevron, DOE's National Energy Technology Lab (NETL), the US Geological Survey, the Minerals Management Service, in addition to a host of other industry experts, the most prospective gas hydrates reservoirs yet found have been located and drilled.
...
The goal of the DOE program is to determine the scale at which gas hydrates exist in potentially recoverable reservoirs in the Gulf," said Ray Boswell, the project leader from NETL. "This expedition is a major success in that effort."

"In the pursuit for gas hydrates, which has been put on by Japan, India, Korea and China, it was thought for a while that the US had lagged in its efforts," said McConnell. "But we have in this one expedition found the most promising hydrates that can actually be produced -- the thickest, most saturated hydrates that have yet been encountered. So, it really is a landmark expedition."

...
Processing the gas hydrates is a difficult challenge because of the thermodynamics involved in melting the energy crystals to bring them to the surface.

"You've got three different ways that you can get it out," said Digby. "You've got to increase the temperature, decrease the pressure or use some sort of solvent which would decrease the temperature of the gas hydrates in the water in which they are locked up."
...
International Implications
There are a number of countries collaborating in the gas hydrates research. Although the Gulf of Mexico has just pulled out in front, other regions have been earnestly developing ways to locate and process this new frozen resource, including the Asian countries of Japan, India, Korea and China.

Gas hydrates have been produced or tested in Siberia and Alaska. There are major efforts under way to test and produce gas hydrates in Siberia, Japan and India, but the process for finding them was coincidental. An additional focus of the American program included establishing a genuine methodology for locating the resource that can be used worldwide, and that has been accomplished.

Comments:

Capt. Jody Atterton | Jun. 17, 2009
I was first astounded when I saw the possibilities of running the world for 3,000 years on gas hydrates and applaud the effort that has gone into alternative fuel sources; now you have the solution and i think it should be announced loud and clear.
All we need to do now is to invent the wheel on how we use it to lower cfcs to best benefit the world's future for generations to come.

Well done and i look forward to your progress with ever increasing interest and even a little excitement.



Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline WarChest

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Re: Natural Gas Hydrates - resource potential exceeds all other forms
« Reply #5 on: June 16, 2011, 10:53:59 pm »
This info is truly too good to be true.

We’ll have abundant reserves, cheaper at the pump, more jobs, and more prosperity but still under the thumb of a few.

I say that water in the form of hydrogen as a energy source is the way to go. Only mother nature controls it.

If a man were to know at the end of this days business there would come. But, it suffices to know that that the day will end and the end  be known.
If we meet again well then we’ll smile and if not, well then this parting was well made.
Col. Jason Rhodes USMC

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Natural Gas Hydrates - resource potential exceeds all other forms
« Reply #6 on: June 16, 2011, 11:07:56 pm »
This info is truly too good to be true.
We’ll have abundant reserves, cheaper at the pump, more jobs, and more prosperity but still under the thumb of a few. 
I say that water in the form of hydrogen as a energy source is the way to go. Only mother nature controls it.

We've been living in the Soviet Union all our lives.
They've created an economy of scarcity, of winners and losers instead of an economy of all winners.
You've been lied too. you've been starved of knowledge and everything else.

There are NO LIMITS.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Natural Gas Hydrates - resource potential exceeds all other forms
« Reply #7 on: January 15, 2012, 04:33:29 pm »
more research reports:

http://txspace.di.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/86049/Grover.pdf?sequence=1

NATURAL GAS HYDRATES – ISSUES FOR GAS PRODUCTION AND GEOMECHANICAL STABILITY A Dissertation by TARUN GROVER

http://web.mit.edu/mitei/research/studies/documents/natural-gas-2011/Supplementary_Paper_SP_2_4_Hydrates.pdf
Supplementary Paper 4
Methane Hydrates and the Future of Natural Gas
Carolyn Ruppel ([email protected])
Gas Hydrates Project
U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA

Introduction
For decades, gas hydrates have been discussed as a potential resource, particularly for countries
with limited access to conventional hydrocarbons or a strategic interest in establishing alternative,
unconventional gas reserves. Methane has never been produced from gas hydrates at a
commercial scale
and, barring major changes in the economics of natural gas supply and demand,
commercial production at a large scale is considered unlikely to commence within the next 15
years.
Given the overall uncertainty still associated with gas hydrates as a potential resource,
they have not been included in the EPPA model in MITEI’s Future of Natural Gas report. Still,
gas hydrates remain a potentially large methane resource and must necessarily be included in any
consideration of the natural gas supply beyond two decades from now.


Despite the relative immaturity of gas hydrates R&D compared to that for other unconventional
gas resources, the accomplishments of the past decade, summarized in detail by Collett et al.
(2009), have advanced gas hydrates along the path towards eventual commercial production.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as directed by the Methane Hydrates R&D Act of 2000
and the subsequent Energy Act of 2005, has partnered with other government agencies, academe,
and industry in field, modeling, and laboratory programs that have produced numerous successes
(Doyle et al., 2004; Paull et al., 2010). These accomplishments have included the refinement of
methods for pre-drill estimation of hydrate saturations and safe completion of logging and coring
programs in gas hydrate-bearing sediments in both deepwater marine and permafrost
environments.

Within the next 4 years, US federal-industry partnerships are scheduled to oversee
advanced logging and direct sampling of resource-grade (high saturation) gas hydrates in sand
deposits in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico and completion of a long-term test of production
methods on the Alaskan North Slope.

 In Japan, the government-supported methane hydrates program (now called MH21; Tsuji et al., 2009) has also relied on cooperation among the private, public, and academic sectors over past decade and plans to conduct an initial production testing of resource-grade gas hydrates in the deepwater Nankai Trough in 2012. The current MH21
effort has grown out of earlier advanced borehole logging and deep coring in 1999-2000 (MITI)
and in 2004 (METI), as described by Tsuji et al. (2004, 2009) and Fujii et al. (2009).

Canada has also worked with a consortium of partners to complete three major drilling programs in the
permafrost of the Mackenzie Delta (e.g., Dallimore et al., 1999; Dallimore and Collett, 2005;
Dallimore et al., 2008). Canada was the first country to ever produce small volumes of gas from
hydrates during short duration (up to a few days) production tests at these wells.

...
An estimated 99% of worldwide gas hydrate occurs in ocean sediments, and the appropriate
temperature and pressure conditions predominate within the upper tens to hundreds of meters of
seafloor sediments at water depths ranging from 300 to 500 m on the shallow end to greater than
4000 m. In theory, methane hydrates are also stable on the seafloor and in the water column in
large swaths of the world’s oceans. Gas hydrates do not persist long in the water column, and
seafloor gas hydrates are not significant as a resource. Neither type of gas hydrate will be
discussed in detail here.
...
100,000 TCF Global estimate
...
Arctic sand reservoirs
At the top of the pyramid lie high permeability sediments in permafrost areas. Despite the
relatively small amount of gas hydrate in these settings globally, permafrost-associated gas
hydrates will probably be the first to be commercialized, particularly in areas with welldeveloped
infrastructure for conventional hydrocarbon extraction (e.g., Alaskan North Slope).
...
Production
It is widely agreed that existing technology can be used to produce gas hydrates. The production
methods being evaluated now have changed little since the early 1980s, when Holder et al.
(1984) discussed the technical merit and economic feasibility of thermal stimulation,
depressurization, and chemical inhibition for the production of gas from hydrates. This section
reviews production methods, discusses some production scenarios, and briefly mentions potential
hazards associated with gas production from methane hydrates.
...
Timeline
The timeline for commercialization of gas hydrate deposits depends most critically on two
factors:
(1) research and development advances to prove the resource and to surmount some of
the other key obstacles and
(2) an economic, political, or natural gas supply climate in which
there is urgency to develop the resource potential of gas hydrates
.

Gas hydrates, despite the amount of methane they sequester, are probably the least likely of unconventional resources to
be tapped for natural gas within the next few decades, even if the economics or supply model
changes dramatically
.

 Still, there are strong arguments to be made for a continuing R&D effort
to address the remaining challenges in advancing gas hydrates along a trajectory towards
viability as a resource.

 Activities undertaken now will be critical for ensuring the availability of this gas twenty or more years in the future and for improving the energy security of nations currently lacking access to a domestic gas supply.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline Femacamper

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Re: Natural Gas Hydrates - resource potential exceeds all other forms
« Reply #8 on: January 15, 2012, 06:13:33 pm »
We've been living in the Soviet Union all our lives.
They've created an economy of scarcity, of winners and losers instead of an economy of all winners.
You've been lied too. you've been starved of knowledge and everything else.

There are NO LIMITS.

BUT GLOBAL WARMING...BLATHER BLATHER...(MUST STOP ENSLAVED/CITIZENS FROM HAVING ENERGY INDEPENDENCE) - Al Gore, who has big stakes in big oil.