Author Topic: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History  (Read 191390 times)

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Offline trailhound

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #40 on: January 14, 2010, 12:15:18 pm »
I hate how the whole counter culture is lumped into this , at best, attempted conspiracy.  This is what I think of when I think about the counter culture and it still resonates very well with me.

Machine Gun




**I pick up my axe and fight like A FARMER now.....







I ain't gonna work on Maggie's farm no more
No, I aint gonna work on Maggie's farm no more
Well, I wake up in the morning
Fold my hands and pray for rain
I got a head full of ideas
That are drivin' me insane
It's a shame the way she makes me scrub the floor
I ain't gonna work on Maggie's farm no more.

I ain't gonna work for Maggie's brother no more
No, I aint gonna work for Maggie's brother no more
Well, he hands you a nickel
He hands you a dime
He asks you with a grin
If you're havin' a good time
Then he fines you every time you slam the door
I ain't gonna work for Maggie's brother more.

I ain't gonna work for Maggie's pa no more
No, I aint gonna work for Maggie's pa no more
Well, he puts his cigar
Out in your face just for kicks
His bedroom window
It is made out of bricks
The National Guard stands around his door
Ah, I ain't gonna work for Maggie's pa no more.

I ain't gonna work for Maggie's ma no more
No, I ain't gonna work for Maggie's ma no more
Well, when she talks to all the servants
About man and God and law
Everybody says
She's the brains behind pa
She's sixty-eight, but she says she's twenty-four
I ain't gonna work for Maggie's ma no more.

I ain't gonna work on Maggie's farm no more
I aint gonna work on Maggie's farm no more
Well, I try my best
To be just like I am
But everybody wants you
To be just like them
They say sing while you slave and I just get bored
I ain't gonna work on Maggie's farm no more.




Come on all of you big strong men
Uncle Sam needs your help again
he's got himself in a terrible jam
way down yonder in Viet Nam so
put down your books and pick up a gun we're
gonna have a whole lotta fun

And it's one, two, three, what are we fighting for
don't ask me I don't give a damn, next stop is Viet Nam
And it's five, six, seven, open up the pearly gates
ain't no time to wonder why, whoopee we're all gonna die

Come on wall street don't be slow
why man this war is a go-go
there's plenty good money to be made by
supplying the army with the tools of its trade
let's hope and pray that if they drop the bomb,
they drop it on the Viet Cong

Come on generals, let's move fast
your big chance has come at last
now you can go out and get those reds
cos the only good commie is the one that's dead and
you know that peace can only be won when we've
blown 'em all to kingdom come

Come on mothers throughout the land
pack your boys off to Viet Nam
come on fathers don't hesitate
send your sons off before it's too late
and you can be the first ones on your block
to have your boy come home in a box

"Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression." Qur'an 5:2
At the heart of that Western freedom and democracy is the belief that the individual man, the child of God, is the touchstone of value..." -RFK

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #41 on: January 15, 2010, 05:19:59 pm »
Degree's of Uma Thurman Separation

Famntaget Nena Birgitte Caroline von Schlebrugge
You're Nobody Till Somebody Loves You - 1964 - D A Pennebaker

This movie is something of a mystery. Timothy Leary was getting married to a model named Nena Von Schlebrugge up in Millbrook, New York at the Hitchcock house, where Leary had been carrying on his hallucinogenic revelries for the past year or so after leaving Harvard. It was rumored that this was going to be the wedding of the season, the wedding of Mr. And Mrs. Swing as Cab Calloway put it.  Blackwood took me downtown to meet Monte Rock III who was singing at Trudy Heller’s but who was also a very pricey and off-the-wall hairdresser and was in fact going to be doing the bride’s hair.  Nena’s brother, Bjorn, known as the “Baron” was a friend of the Hitchcock’s, as was I, and the idea of going along and filming the wedding seemed not unwarranted. I’ve always wanted to film someone getting married.  

So we drove up in Monte Rock’s ancient Buick, Diane Arbus, an editor from Vogue whose name I can no longer remember, and of course Monte Rock, his fingers covered in rings.  Close behind, Proferes and Desmond filmed us as we drove, up the Taconic and through the gates of the Hitchcock mansion.  

There were Hitchcocks and friends and relations of Hitchcocks, the Baron and his court, a score of models, and Charles Mingus playing a lonely piano. Even Susan Leary fresh out of jail.  It was indeed an amazing wedding, and for all I know, an amazing marriage, although someone later told me it was over before I’d even finished editing the film.  

After Nena divorced Leary she married a Tibetan scholar, Dr. Robert Thurman and her daughter Uma is Uma the actress.  Dick Alpert became his own guru, Baba Ram Dass and achieved a sainthood of his own.  Monte Rock III left Trudy Heller’s and went out to Hollywood and became famous for his line in the John Travolta movie, Saturday Night Fever, when as the disco DJ he exclaims, “I love that polyester look.” Charles Mingus got thrown out of his loft and sadly perished, and in time the Hitchcock house itself burned down, or so I’ve been told.  The mystery is that we never filmed anyone actually getting married.

D A Pennebaker

Edie at the Factory - 1964
l-r: John Palmer, Carol James, Gerard Malanga, Marisa Berenson and Edie. Jane Holzer: "It was getting very scary at the Factory. There were too many crazy people around who were stoned and using too many drugs. They had some laughing gas that everybody was sniffing. The whole thing freaked me out, and I figured it was becoming too faggy and sick and druggy. I couldn't take it.

Edie had arrived, but she was very happy to put up with that sort of ambience."; Danny Fields: "Edie fit wonderfully into all this. What was great about her was that she was attracted to the most brilliant and crazy people - Ondine, Chuck and Andy. She was really a poet's lady. Most of these people were probably gay, but they were seriously in love with her. She was very beautiful, which anyone can respond to. And she made them feel like men. She would come on helpless, which brought out their strengths." -
Photo courtesy of Stephen Shore from

Edie Sedgwick - The Ciao Manhattan Tapes
Edith Minturn Sedgwick Interview
edie sedgwick goes shopping . . .outtake from "Ciao! Manhattan"

There is much more to Edie Minturn Sedgewick ... please refer to these bio's that describe how she inspired many songs by Bob Dylan and others...

Bob Dylan and Bobby Neuwirth first met Edie in December of 1964 - approximately a month before she met Warhol.

Biography of Edith Minturn Sedgwick (April 20, 1943 - November 15 1971)
 She is rumoured to be one of the main inspirations behind Dylan's seminal 1966 opus Blonde on Blonde and songs as famous and diverse as the tender ballad Just Like a Woman and the raucous stomper Leopardskin Pillbox Hat. She also inspired Lay Lady Lay.

Ciao Manhattan

Edie Sedgwick ...  Susan Superstar
Nena von Schlebrügge Thurman ...  (scenes deleted)

In this hip,beat and drugged out portrait of famed underground glitter Queen and palsy walsy of Andy Warhol,we have a trippy docudrama of that time period and how one very cutesy and impressionable little rich girl didn't survive the wear and tear of a life dedicated to drugs and big city glitter.Edie Sedgewick was almost the perfect model,being very camera friendly and celluoid exposed.

Nena von Schlebrügge

Birgitte Caroline 'Nena' von Schlebrügge (born 1941) was a fashion model in the 1950s and 1960s and is now a psychotherapist. She is the mother of actress Uma Thurman.

She was born in Mexico City in 1941, the daughter of a Swedish mother, Birgit Holmquist, and a German father, Friedrich Karl Johannes, Baron von Schlebrügge.[1] Her mother served as the model for a 1930 statue of a nude woman that overlooks the harbor of Smygehuk in Sweden.[2]

She married LSD guru Timothy Leary in 1964. They were married in Millbrook, New York, at the Hitchcock house where Leary had been carrying on his hallucinogenic experiments. Present at the wedding was Monte Rock III (hairdresser & singer at Trudy Heller's), Nena's brother Bjorn (also known as the "Baron"), Nick Proferes, Jim Desmond, Charles Mingus, D.A. Pennebaker (who documented the event in his short film You're Nobody Til Somebody Loves You), scores of models, and more.

Von Schlebrügge divorced Leary in 1965. In 1967, she married Tibetan-Buddhist scholar, Dr. Robert Thurman. Uma Thurman, born in 1970, was the first of their four children.
Robert Alexander Farrar Thurman (born August 3, 1941)

He married Christophe de Ménil, an heiress to the Schlumberger Limited oil-equipment fortune, in 1959;
He converted to Buddhism and became an ordained Buddhist bhikshu in 1964, the first American Buddhist monk of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. He studied with Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, who became a close friend. In 1967, back in the United States, Thurman resigned his monks vows of celibacy and married his second wife, German-Swedish model, Nena von Schlebrügge, who had previously been briefly married to Timothy Leary. Thurman and Schlebrügge have four children, the oldest being actress Uma Thurman.
In 1987, Mr. Thurman and Richard Gere founded New York City's Tibet House, a nonprofit institution devoted to preserving the living culture of Tibet.
Meanwhile, Robert Thurman, son of New York stage actress Elizabeth Farrar, was on a pathway all his own. Coming from a well-to-do WASP family, he'd gone to Harvard to study the classics but, at 19, had married Houston oil heiress Christophe de Menil, 7 years his senior. It didn't last, and Robert took off with some mates to ride across India on motorbikes. It was here that his life would change radically, for he'd meet the Dalai Lama and, after a protracted period of study, would become the first American to be made a Tibetan monk. He would henceforth be known as Tenzin - even his children would call him that.

Back in the US, Thurman was invited to lecture at the Hitchcock estate in Millbrook, New York, where, at the time, Leary and his acolytes were enjoying a frenetic course of acid experimentation. It was here that Robert met Nena, already attempting to extricate herself from a poorly conceived marriage. In 1966, when her divorce came through, Robert would renounce his robes and the couple would wed. Children would come soon. First Ganden (later a computer whizz), then Uma, then Dechen (an actor and director) and finally Mipam. All the names were culled from Buddhist theology.

Anne Livet, Keith Sonnier, Christophe de Menil (right).
Dominique de Ménil (March 23, 1908 – December 31, 1997) was a French-American art collector and museum founder who was an heiress to the Schlumberger Limited oil-equipment fortune.

A daughter of French scientist Conrad Schlumberger, she married a French banker, Baron Jean de Ménil (a.k.a. John de Menil), in 1931; he died in 1973. They had five children, including daughters Christophe (who was married to Robert Thurman), Adélaïde (a photographer who is married to anthropologist Edmund Snow Carpenter), and Philippa (co-founder of the Dia Art Foundation). The artist Dash Snow was Dominique's great-grandson.

Fleeing Nazi-occupied France, the Ménils immigrated from Paris to New York and later Houston, where Schlumberger had significant operations. For over forty years the Ménils collected some 10,000 objects. Their namesake institution, The Menil Collection, is a private museum in Houston and is often cited as one of the most significant privately assembled art collections, alongside the Barnes Foundation and the J. Paul Getty Museum.
The Menil Under Masks by Daniel Cappello

Houston —It began in a storied architectural icon, and, last week, the story came full circle, in a modern architectural landmark all its own. Jean de Menil and Dominique Schlumberger met, in 1930, at a dance held at Versailles. He was an ambitious banker from a military family; and she, the daughter of Conrad Schlumberger, the entrepreneurial scientist who built the worldwide oil company Schlumberger, Ltd.

By 1931, the couple had married and settled together in the noble 7th arrondissement of Paris. During the Second World War, the family, including two daughters, Christophe and Adelaide, moved around France, escaping the advancing German troops. Jean left the country and eventually found himself in Houston, Texas, where Schlumberger’s American headquarters were located. He would take over American operations for the company, and his wife and their three children (Georges, the couple’s third, meanwhile was born in France) would join him by the early 1940s.

The family grew (another son, François, and daughter, Philippa, were born in America), and Houston became their new home. Jean anglicized his name to John, and the de Menils commissioned a young architect to build a new home for them. John and Dominique’s new residence in the River Oaks section of town was Phillip Johnson’s first commission, and the result was one of the first International Style residences in the state of Texas.

The house was filled with the art that John and Dominique had begun to pursue with a passion – their collection that would grow to include more than 15,000 paintings, sculptures, objets, prints, drawings, photographs, and rare books. European artists dominated the collection, from Surrealist artists such as Max Ernst, René Magritte, Man Ray, and Giorgio de Chirico, to Cubist and School of Paris painters like Léger, Matisse, and Picasso.

By the 1960s though, American, Pop Art, and Minimalist artists were being acquired, from Jasper Johns to Andy Warhol and the de Menil residence had become the salon of Houston, often filled with visiting artists, intellectuals, scientists, and civil-rights leaders. (John and Dominique were as dedicated to Houston’s art scene as they were to progressive politics.)

| ------
odd clues into who lead the JFK execution team
One Nexus that is rarely dicussed is  George ("Oswald's best friend") and Dimitri Von Mohrenschildt. George later commits suicide with a shotgun.
George is connected to everyone.  Auchincloss ( Bovier Jackies Family), Rockefeller, Bush, Paley, Luce, Dulles
from Richard Russell's book: "The Man Who Knew Too Much".
George Sergei de Mohrenschildt is another of those remarkablely enigmatic characters whom we find permeating the assassination's landscape. He was born in Czarist Russia in 1911, his father a "marshal of nobility" who served as director of Nobel oil interests--hence his own title of "baron." He was a world traveler who spoke six languages and boasted membership in both the exclusive Dallas Petroleum Club and the World Affairs Council....

..."He was traveling extensively ..." one of his friends Mrs. Igor Voshinin, would tell the Warren Commission.
The commission took notice that de Mohrenschildt was acquainted with several powerful people in Houston.....Lyndon Johnson: oil millionaire John Mecom...Another friend of de Mohrenschildt was Jean De Menil of Schlumberger Wells Services Company, who in 1961 permitted his New Orleans branch to be used as an ammunition conduit for the CIA.
De Mohrenschildt's personal telephone book, discovered after his alleged suicide in 1977, contained this entry: "Bush, George. H. W. (Poppy) 1412 W. Ohio also Zapata Petroleum Midland." (Footnote: "Bush name in de Mohrenschildt notebook: Mark Lane, Plausible Denial p. 332.) Lane also notes odd similarities among Bush's Zapata Offshore oil company, the "Operation Zapata" code name given to the Bay of Pigs invasion, and the names of the invasions ships "Barbara" (Bush's wife's name) and "Houston" (Bush's business abode).
May 1938-Emigrated to the United States with approximately $10,000 from his mother's estate and sports business . Worked for Chevalier Garde in New York selling perfumes. Worked as salesman for Shumaker & Co. Met Jackie Kennedy and her mother at Belport, Long Island, during the summer vacation.
 Jon Presco
My Friend Ed Parties With Schlumberger Art Nazis
(Images: De Menil Collection, Houston. Adel De Menil. Joy,Victoria,Benjamin DeMenil. Houston Burlesque)
"Mr. DE MOHRENSCHILDT. I think they should have---in my opinion, they shouldn't have let him come back to the United States--No. 1. And No. 2, the people like us should have been protected against even knowing people like Oswald. Maybe I am wrong in that respect."
My good friend Ed partied with the Schlumbergers back in 1964. Tom, Ed’s friend from Harvard, married a Schlumbreger. Ed was Best Man at the wedding. ...
The List - JFK Assassination Key People
Jean de Menil--CIA
Military-Industrial Complex
In many respects, Halliburton seems to be an "American" version of Schlumberger...

Schlumberger is an arm of one of Europe's most important banking and intelligence operations. Banque de Neuflize, Schlumberger, Mallet, Demachy, now a unit of ABN AMRO, is one of those small but important merchant banks which specializes in shaping world events. The families behind the bank have a long history of molding the Synarchist movement as an assault-force against the United States, from the spying of Major André in 1780 to the assassination of JFK. Today, as an indication of its continuing intelligence activities, Schlumberger's board includes former CIA Director John Deutch.

Schlumberger also helped bring Fidel Castro to power by helping overthrow the Batista regime. It was involved in the assassination of Kennedy through company president Jean de Menil, the White Russian husband of Schlumberger heiress Dominique Schlumberger de Menil, acting through the New Orleans office of the Swiss-based company Permindex. Permindex had also organized several attempts on the life of French President Charles de Gaulle.

There are indications that both Halliburton and Brown & Root were also involved in Permindex. According to the Nomenclature of an Assassination Cabal manuscript written under the nom de plume "William Torbitt," both Halliburton and George and Herman Brown were among the principal financiers of Permindex, along with Jean de Menil, mob lawyer Roy Cohn, Dallas oilman H.L. Hunt, and others.

...It would also confirm the Schlumberger link and suggest that, rather than being a rival, Halliburton is more of a clone and junior partner of Schlumberger.

July 14, 2009, 1:12 pm
Dash Snow, New York Artist, Dies at 27

Dash Snow, a promising young New York artist, died Monday night at Lafayette House, a hotel in Lower Manhattan. He was 27 and lived in Manhattan. His death was confirmed by his grandmother, the art collector and philanthropist Christophe de Menil, who said that Mr. Snow had died of a drug overdose.

Mr. Snow gained prominence after being featured in an article titled “Warhol’s Children” that appeared in New York magazine in 2007. He worked in video and photography and also developed a distinctive collage style that fused and contrasted found images in fresh and suggestive ways. He exhibited in galleries and museums in New York, Los Angeles and Europe.

Ms. de Menil said that he had been in rehabilitation in March and had been off drugs until very recently.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #42 on: January 20, 2010, 04:11:55 pm »
Copyright 1994 Osprey Productions/Grand Royal

Was Timothy Leary a CIA Agent?
Was JFK the "Manchurian Candidate"?

Was the Sixties Revolution Really a Government Plot?
Tinker, Tailor, Stoner, Spy
by Mark Riebling


Summer-bachelor Jack Kennedy stands on the Harry Truman balcony overlooking the rose-garden fountain, a soothing sight before him: prisms of lighted water shooting into darkness, the white spike of the Washington Monument, auto headlights flickering along Executive Avenue. He begins to feel a deep-seated goodness within, centered between his chest and throat. From the bedroom behind him, through white chiffon curtains in open french doors, float the chords of a Sinatra song -- "All I Need is the Girl." With strange clarity, JFK can suddenly make out every note....

Behind the curtains moves the shadow of a tall woman who is not his wife. She is deeply connected to CIA, and has just dispensed to the President of the United States a dose of LSD. In the next few hours she will be "brainwashing" him, and she will be doing so on the directions of a Harvard psychologist, Dr. Timothy Leary, whose colleagues are all taking CIA money, and who has himself designed a personality test used by CIA....

This, or something very much like this, actually happened. To understand how and why it happened requires cruising back a few years, digging through government documents, reading between the lines of Leary's autobiography, Flashbacks. It's a trip through the secret maze of the American pyschedelic underground, a journey that is its own destination, a mystery that must be solved by the reader's own detective work. What follows are the undisputed facts, the clues:

September 1942: The Office of Strategic Services (OSS), wartime precursor to CIA, begins searching for a drug that will force subjects of interrogation, such as captured Nazi U-boat crews, to reveal secrets.

As project director Dr. Stanley Lovell will recall, the idea of a "truth drug" is "considered fantastic by the realists, unethical by the moralists, and downright ludicrous by the physicians." But according to OSS records, Lovell goes ahead and tests "mescaline, various barbiturates, scopolamine, benzedrine, cannabis indica (marijuana), etc."

The best results are obtained with the marijuana: "A few minutes after administration, the subject gradually becomes relaxed, and experiences a sensation of well-being... thoughts flow with considerable freedom... conversation becomes animated and accelerated. Inhibitions fall away.... [the drug] makes manifest any strong characteristics of the individual.... Whatever the individual is trying to withhold will be forced to the top of his subconscious mind."

To "administer" the pot without a subject's knowing it, OSS scientists dissolve marijuana leaves in acetone, then heat the result into a clear, odorless, viscous liquid -- tetrahydrocannabional acetate -- which can be "injected into any type of food, such as mashed potatoes, butter, salad dressing, or in such things as candy."

May 25, 1943: THC acetate is tested on an unknowing subject, Lower East Side mafioso August "Little Augie" Del Gaizo, who has been helping OSS smuggle agents into Nazi-held Sicily. Little Augie is considered an ideal subject because he has secrets he is "most anxious to conceal, the revelation of which might result in his imprisonment"; in fact, he prides himself on having never informed, and has even "been instrumental in killing some persons who have been informants."

But after smoking two proffered cigarettes, laced with a total of .14 grams THC, Little Augie becomes "obviously 'high' and extremely garrulous" as he sits in the apartment of OSS officer George White, a former Treasury agent who had arrested him several times in the past.

When White turns the subject to law enforcement, Little Augie "with no further encouragement" divulges the identities of city officials on the take; details of the criminal empire run by Meyer Lansky and Bugsy Siegel; "and other information that subject would not give under ordinary circumstances. There is no question but that administration of the drug was responsible for loosening the subject's tongue." Henceforth, OSS refers to the THC acetate simply as "TD," a cryptonym for "Truth Drug."

1944: OSS uses "TD" in secret operations. Lovell reports that "Certain disclosures of the greatest value are in the possession of our military intelligence as a result of this treatment, which it is felt would otherwise not be known. Properly employed... it may be a national asset of incalculable importance." But OSS officials, fearing political backlash if use of the drug is revealed, shut the program down.

April-May 1945: Jack Kennedy, before entering politics, is working as a reporter for the Hearst newspaper chain. While covering the charter conference of the United Nations at San Francisco, he frequently sees an old flame from Choate, Mary Pinchot Meyer, and her husband, Cord Meyer, Jr., who is an assistant to the American delegation.

A young Yale graduate and award-winning literary talent, Cord Meyer was badly wounded by a Japanese hand-grenade on Guam and has a glass eye; when he smokes cigarettes, the smoke slowly drifts up and into his open, nerveless, unblinking left eye, curling around the glass orb. The sight so disconcerts JFK that he finds himself rubbing his own left eye in a kind of sympathetic agony.

September 1946: Timothy Leary begins doctoral studies in psychology at Berkeley.

1947: Dr. Werner Stoll, a researcher at Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, Switzerland, publishes the first scientific articles on LSD-25, an extract of rye mold, noting that it accelerates thinking and blunts suspicion in schizophrenics.

1947-48: As a graduate student in psychology, Leary attends the first two national conventions of the American Veterans Committee (AVC), a left-wing veterans group, as a California state delegation leader. At the second AVC convention, in Milwaukee, Leary meets Cord Meyer, who is then spearheading an anti-communist purge of the organization. Meyer lectures Leary about communism, and the importance of liberal resistance to it. Leary will later credit Meyer with "helping me understand my political-cultural role more clearly."

Late 1950: Cord Meyer joins CIA and begins working in its International Relations Division, of which he is soon put in charge. The express purpose of this division is to covertly finance, infiltrate, and encourage noncommunist liberal-left movements and institutions, such as labor unions, creative-academic societies, and student groups.

April 13, 1953: CIA launches Operation MK/ULTRA, a major drug and mind-control program.

Although THC acetate is studied as an interrogation aid, CIA is more concerned about reports of communist brainwashing experiments on American POWs in Korea, and focuses on stronger, hallucinogenic drugs. "Aside from the offensive potential, the development of a comprehensive capability in this field... gives a thorough knowledge of the enemy's theoretical potential, thus enabling us to defend ourselves against a foe who might not be as restrained in the use of these techniques as we are."

Some CIA employees, including perhaps Meyer, volunteer for experiments. Through a front organization called The Society For Human Ecology, CIA begins sponsoring $25 million in research into the effects of mind-altering drugs -- LSD, psilocybin and mescaline -- at Harvard University and at several cites in the San Francisco-Oakland area, including Stanford and Berkeley.

1954-59: Leary is director of clinical research and psychology at the Kaiser Foundation Hospital in Oakland. He devises a personality test, "The Leary," which is used by CIA to test prospective employees. He has also become a close friend to Frank Barron, a graduate school classmate who has ben working for CIA since at least 1953.

Barron works at the Berkeley Institute for Personality Assessment and Research, which Leary will later acknowledge is "funded and staffed by OSS-CIA psychologists."

1960-61: Barron founds the Harvard Pyschedelic Drug Research Center.

Leary follows Barron to Harvard and becomes a lecturer in psychology. After Barron administers to him some CIA-supplied psilocybin and LSD, Leary begins tripping regularly. He also studies the effects of psycheledics on others in controlled experiments.

He later admits to knowing, at the time, that "some powerful people in Washington have sponsored all this drug research." In addition to Barron, Leary's associates and assistants during this period include former OSS chief pyschologist Harry Murray, who had montiored military experiments on Truth-Drug brainwashing and interrogation, and Martin Orne, a researcher receiving funds from CIA. Leary also consults British philosopher Aldous Huxley, author of the psychedelic manifesto, The Doors of Perception (from which Jim Morrision would later take name his band).

Huxley, who is at Harvard on a visiting professorship, urges Leary to form a secret order of LSD-Illuminati, to launch and lead a psychedelic conspiracy to brainwash influential people for the purposes human betterment. "That's how everything of culture and beauty and philosophic freedom has been passed on," Huxley tells him. "Initiate artists, writers, poets, jazz musicians, elegant courtesans. And they'll educate the intelligent rich."

Spring 1962: Mary Meyer, recently divorced from her CIA husband, visits Leary at Harvard. She leans against the door post, hip tilted provocatively, studying him with green-blue eyes. Leary will later recall here as "amused, arrogant, aristocratic." She tells him she has a "friend who's a very important man, who wants to try LSD for himself."

At the time, though Leary does not know this, Mary is having an affair with President Kennedy, which will include more than thirty visits to the White House (later confirmed by Presidential Secretary Kenneth O'Donnell).

Mary tells Leary that the government is studying ways to "use drugs for warfare, for espionage, for brainwashing."

She asks him to "teach us how to run [LSD] sessions, use drugs to do good." Leary agrees. He provides her with drug samples and "session" reports, and is in touch with her every few weeks, advising her on how to be a "brainwasher." She swears him to secrecy.

Late July, 1962: While the First Lady is away at the Kennedy summer home in Hyannisport, Mary calls on JFK at the White House. She records the visit in her diary, and later describes it to her close friend James Truitt of the Washington Post. She and the President of the United States smoke two joints of marijuana, reportedly prompting the leader of the free world to say, "This isn't at all like cocaine. I'll get you some of that."

Once he is suitably "loosened up" -- Leary has emphasized the need to put subjects in a "benevolent state" before turning them on -- Mary dispenses to Jack a dose of LSD. As it starts to "kick in," he goes out and stands on Harry Truman's balcony overlooking the rose-garden fountain, a soothing sight before him....

Fall 1962: Leary meets Mary Meyer in a room at Boston's Ritz Hotel. She alludes to her "hush-hush love affair," and tells him that "top people in Washington are turning on." According to Leary's recounting, she also says: "Do you remember the American Veterans Committee, that liberal veterans group you belonged to after the war? The CIA started that."

She explains to him that "CIA creates the radical journals and student organizations and runs them with deep-cover agents.... dissident organizations in academia are also controlled." When Leary asks her how she knows all this, she explains: "I knocked you with those facts to get your attention. It's a standard intelligence trick."

She confides that CIA has not only been running left-wing groups as fronts, but has been sponsoring more psychedelic research than he will ever know. "You are doing exploratory work the CIA tried to do in the 1950s. So they're more than happy to have you do their research for them. Since drug research is of vital importance to the intelligence agencies of this country, you'll be allowed to go on with your experiments as long as you keep it quiet," she advises.

Spring 1963: Leary again meets Mary Meyer at the Ritz. She says that her love affair has been exposed, although no publicity has resulted. "I don't trust the phones or the mail," she warns. He is to make no contact with her until further notice.

May-June 1963: Mary warns Leary, who is conducting a psychedelic summer camp in Mexico, that their "sessions" are "in jeopardy" because he is attracting "too much publicity."

September 1963: Mary drives up to see Leary, now conducting experiments at a large private estate in Milbrook, New York. She gives him, for his experiments, a bottle of "the best LSD in the world," from the National Institute of Mental Health. She takes countersurveillance precautions, and says: "We had eight intelligent women turning on the most powerful men in Washington. And then we got found out.... I made a mistake in recruitment. A wife snitched on us... I've gotten mixed up in some dangerous matters."

December 1, 1963: Around this time Mary calls Leary, who had been "expecting a phone call from [her]... ever since the Kennedy assassination." According to Leary, she says: "They couldn't control him anymore. He was changing too fast. They've covered everything up.... I'm afraid. Be careful."

October 12, 1964: Mary Meyer is shot to death, execution-style, at 12:45 p.m., on a park towpath by the Georgetown Canal in Washington, D.C. Her body is identified by Ben Bradlee, Cord Meyer's brother-in-law, editor of the Washington Post.

CIA counterintelligence chief James Angleton confiscates and later burns the diary in which Mary has recorded her liaisons with JFK. A black laborer with a wife and five children, 26-year old Raymond Crump, Jr., is arrested on suspicion of murdering Mary in a robbery attempt, but she had not been carrying a purse, and there is no credible eyewitness testimony placing Crump at the site. On July 20, 1965, a jury deliberates only eleven hours before acquitting him. The murder weapon is never found; the crime is never solved.

1965-66: FBI agents openly surveil Leary's drug experimentation compound at Milbrook. Leary, intimidated, considers relocating to Mexico. For jurisdictional reasons, the Bureau turns the case over to former FBI agent G. Gordon Liddy, now a county prosecutor, who later says: "The word was that at Leary's lair the panties were dropping as fast as the acid." Liddy leads a raid by sheriffs in March 1966. Leary is charged with possession of illegal drugs, but the case is dropped on technicalities after the Supreme Court's Miranda decision in June. This series of events imprints on Leary a deep distrust of the FBI and of "cops" generally.

January-August 1967: Ramparts, a radical magazine, exposes CIA sponsorship of the National Student Association, a Cord Meyer project. Meyer's best friend, James Angleton, assigns CIA officer Richard Ober to begin a leak investigation into the Ramparts story. Ober's probe is soon expanded into a spy program on the countercultural and student-protests movements, code named CHAOS.

September 1967: Just as CHAOS is launched, Leary moves from the isolation of upstate New York, where he has been philosophically contemplating the Tibetan Book of the Dead, and becomes a gregarious, media-hounding fixture of the Southern California countercultural scene, telling young people to "Tune in, Turn On, Drop Out."

1968: While other New-Left leaders preach violent overthrow of the U.S. Government and creation of a Marxist dictatorship, Leary urges instead a nonviolent, drug-oriented "hippie capitalism," an artsy-craftsy, decentralized, libertarian sort of entrepeneurship that will also soon find its expression in the culture of the Grateful Dead.

While Leary's position does constitute a rejection of the corporate world, it also embraces private property and the profit motive. Because of this, the Marxist Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) denounces Leary and his noncommunist followers for "limiting the revolution." The Progressive Labor Party (PLP), a Maoist "Old Left" group, goes so far as to claim that Leary is a CIA agent. But the PLP is accusing everyone it disgarees with of being CIA.

1969: Leary critics will eventually point with suspicion to his close connections during this time to an international LSD-smuggling cartel, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love, which is rumored to be a CIA front.

The Brotherhood is controlled by Ronald Stark, whom an Italian High Court will later conclude has been a CIA agent since 1960, and the Brotherhood's funds are channeled through Castle Bank in the Bahamas, a known CIA "proprietary." For two years Leary lives at Brotherhood headquarters, located on a ranch in Laguna Beach.

During this period, the Brotherhood corners the U.S. market on LSD and begins distributing only one variety of the drug, "Orange Sunshine." Stark says he plans to distribute the product to CIA-backed guerillas fighting Chinese occupation; he reportedly knows a high-placed Tibetan close to the Dalai Lama, and wants to provide enough LSD to dose all Chinese troops in Tibet.

In the U.S., meanwhile, Stark provides enough Orange Sunshine to dose the hippie culture and radical left many times over. This is the "bad acid" on which Charles Manson's followers murder Sharon Tate, and on which Hell's Angels stab to death a black man during a concert by the Rolling Stones.

The Summer of Love has been supplanted by a Season of Hate. Because of this, many countercultural insiders -- including William S. Burroughs, White Panther leader John Sinclair, and Merry Prankster Ken Kesey -- will eventually entertain the theory that Stark, Leary, and Orange Sunshine are all part of CIA plot to discredit and neutralize the radical left.

According to former radicals Martin Lee and Bruce Shalin, widespread use of Orange Sunshine "contributed significantly to the demise of the New Left, for it heightened the metabolism of the body politic and accelerated all the changes going on... In its hyped-up condition, the New Left burned itself out."

Fall 1969: According to declassified government documents, CIA now has a CHAOS agent with "particularly good entree into the highest levels of the domestic radical community," who is providing "extremely personal data." It is decided to send this agent to infiltrate the overseas headquarters of the Black Panthers, but this will not be accomplished for many months.

In the meantime, CIA will debrief him for purely domestic information about his associates, in part because he does not "wish to deal with the FBI." This description perfectly fits Leary. No one has better "entree" than Leary, who has recently been helicoptered in as the guest of honor at Woodstock. Few have more "personal" data on radical figures than the man who is personally turning them on. The overall pattern of Leary's career, his continual links to people who are linked to CIA, is certainly suggestive. So is the fact that, like CIA's "star agent," his willingness to mix with CIA-types does not extend to the FBI, which Leary has disliked since Liddy's raid on Milbrook.

1970: In February, Leary is convicted of marijuana possession and jailed at Lompoc, California. This seems clear evidence that he is not, after all, a CIA asset or government informant. Yet CIA has at times employed agents or informants who are later prosecuted for activities unrelated to their government work.

For instance, Johnny Rosselli, and other Mafiosi hired by CIA to assassinate Fidel Castro in the early 1960s, are eventually taken down by the FBI, though over CIA protest. If then, Leary is working for CIA, this may complicate, but ultimately not preclude, his prosecution for other "crimes." In any case, Leary is not exactly chained to the wall in a dark cellar. Lompoc is a minimum-security, white-collar "joint," the plushest in the United States, and Leary is still able to get acid. His movements, moreoover, soon keep him in a position to provide valuable intelligence to the U.S. government.

On September 12, he is "liberated" from Lompoc by members of the Weather Underground, an SDS offshoot named after Bob Dylan's lyric, "You don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows." The Weathermen have launched a Marxist guerilla struggle in the United States, and Leary pledges his solidarity in a a "POW Statement." It reads, in part: "Listen Americans! Your government is an instrument of totally lethal evil. Resist actively, sabotage, jam the computer... hijack planes, trash every lethal machine in the land.... To shoot a genocidal robot policeman in the defense of life is a sacred act.... Total war is upon us.... WARNING: I am armed and should be considered dangerous!" This especially provocative and hyperbolic communique has two main effects. It re-establishes Leary's bona fides in the radical underground, and it turns American opinion farther against the New Left.

October 1970: According to Angleton's deputy, Scott Miler, CIA is at this time trying quite hard to the answer the question: "What was Eldridge Cleaver doing in Algeria?" As it happens, Leary now flies to Algiers and joins up with Black Panther Party leader Eldridge Cleaver. Leary's travels, and the operation to spring him from jail, have been financed by Stark and the Brotherhood.

October 21, 1970: A CIA memo records that its prized CHAOS source -- Leary? -- is now overseas.

November 1970 - May 1971: Cleaver grows suspicious of Leary, searches Leary's apartment "for documents proving that we [Leary and his wife] were CIA operatives," and imprisons him in the Panthers' Algerian compound as "white slaves."

On February 12, 1971, a CIA document reports that "Eldridge Cleaver and his Algiers contingent have apparently become disenchanted with the antics of Tim Leary.... Electing to call their action protective custody, Cleaver and company, on their own authority, have put Tim and Rosemary under house arrest." Since Leary's condition is not publicly known, this report can only have come from penetration of Cleaver's entourage. Unless CIA has recruited black militants -- a sociologically unlikely scenario -- the information has most probably come from electronic surveillance on the Panther compound, or from secret communications by Leary or his wife.

May 1971: Leary and his wife escape to Switzerland with the assistance, according to Leary, of an "Algerian bureaucrat named Ali," who "made no bones about his connection to the CIA." "Are you sure you can trust him?" Leary's wife asks him. "He's liberal CIA," Leary says, "and that's the best mafia you can deal with in the twentieth century." The escape operation is financed by the Brotherhood of Eternal Love, though checks drawn on CIA's Castle Bank.

June 18-19, 1972: G. Gordon Liddy, now working for Republicans' Campaign to Re-Elect the President (CREEP), oversees a break-in of the Democratic National Committe at Watergate. The burglars are caught and Liddy is arrested. The next day, top CIA officials meet secretly to discuss the burglary, in which Liddy has used some ex-CIA agents working for ex-CIA officer Howard Hunt at the White House. CIA director Richard Helms orders his deputies to carry out a "damage control" strategy, to deflect suspicion away from the Agency and toward the President's Men.

This is exactly what is accomplished by Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward's key "intelligence community" source in the case, Deep Throat, who begins providing tips to Woodward this very day, a few hours after CIA's damage control meeting. The coincidence of timing suggests that Throat is someone who is at the CIA conference and who has close connections to the Post.

Cord Meyer, now #2 man in CIA's Operations Directorate, is at the meeting, and is still close with his in-law Bradlee, the Post's editor. He also fits perfectly the many clues Woodward later drops as to Throat's identity, including chain smoking, a knowledge of literature (Meyer was an award-winning fiction writer before joining CIA) and a battle-scarred face (Meyer had a glass eye).

1973-78: After two years of "jet-setting" in Switzerland, Leary returns to the U.S. By his own account, this has occured through the machinations of CIA; Leary says they have "kidnapped" him.

He is convicted on drug charges, and begins doing hard time at Folsom Prison. This seems clear evidence, again, that suspicions about his ultimate loyalties are merely left-wing paranoia. But after a few months out of public view, Leary comes into the open as a government informant. Under the code-name CHARLIE THRUSH, he turns State's evidence against the Weather Underground. Freed from prison, he is taken into custody for fear that radical revolutionaries have marked him for execution. His former colleagues in the movement form a group calling itself People Investigating Leary's Lies (PILL). Abbie Hoffmann declares that "Timothy Leary is a name worse than Benedict Arnold." Allen Ginsburg says that Leary is "like Zabbath Zvi, false Messiah, accepted by millions of Jews centuries ago."

1978-93: After his last offical contacts with security agencies, in 1978, Leary distances himself both from the government and the "movement" that no longer really exists. Out in the cold, he becomes a sophist in the true sense, a wise-man for rent or hire. Early in the Reagan years he "debates" G. Gordon Liddy, the Watergate burglar who once busted him at Milbrook, on a nationwide tour. Former sixties radicals disgustedly describe the event as "bogus," and say it is proof that Leary is "in with the fuzz." At the very least, Leary seems to the Left a lightweight, a one-man Madison Avenue scam, a functional part of the Establishment he once swore to subvert. He hangs out at Helena's, the trendy restaurant in which Jack Nicholson has an interest, and he occasionally philosophizes for a fee at Carlos and Charlie's, a local restaurant that also headlines Joan Rivers. He defends his New Style by saying, quite earnestly: "If Aristotle were alive today, he'd have a talk show."

He also publishes Flashbacks: An Autobiography, recounting obliquely his dealings with Cord and Mary Meyer and his work as a government informant, touching only in passing on CIA's funding of LSD resarch.

In 1992 appears, as himself, in Roadside Prophets, a film starring Adam Horovitz. In 1993, he appears in an ad for the Gap. (Cf. "The Great Gap Conspiracy," by Hugh Gallagher, in the previous issue of Grand Royal.) He designs computer software and hails the coming of the Information Superhighway. Though lacking family wealth, or any gainful employment since 1962, he has nevertheless managed to become a rich man. He lives in Benedict Canyon, only a doors away from the house where Manson's followers, and Orange Sunshine, did their worst. From his yard he can survey the whole City of Light, and he likes the symbolism of that.

April 14, 1994: Leary, aged 73, visits Gainesville, Florida, where I live. He has come to present a multi-media lecture demonstration of electronic mind expansion, "How To Operate Your Brain."

Three thousand people sit down to see him. He wears white Adidas, black polyester pants, and a psychedelic vest with a '93 Lollapalooza Guest Pass stuck on it. In his warm-up remarks, he describes looking out the window of his plane on the way in, and comments that "the clouds in Gainseville have been constructed by George Lucas." He complains that it's hard to buy marijuana anymore, and says that pot causes short-term memory loss, but also "long-term memory gain." He says he will be trying to "brainwash" the audience, "not to resist or fight authority, but to engage it in a dialogue to force progressive change."

The lights go down, and some electronic funk comes on. Leary serves as narrator-guide while colors and words flicker and flash on a screen. He quotes Socrates and Ralph Waldo Emerson. People should think for themselves and question authority. Also, "Divinity resides within." After the lights come on, Leary opens the gig up for questions -- but only after warning us, "You're not supposed to believe anything I say." People start queueing up for questions at two microphones, and I'm about fifth in line at one of them. I'm planning to ask him about his rumored connections to CIA. Most of the "questions" before mine are pretty uncool.

A lot are from NORML activists: "If you wanna come over to my place afterward..." Then some crazy-eyed man says, "The state of Florida is shaped like a gun, and Gainesveille is the trigger -- look at a map. Anyway, I'm a schizophrenic and I think I'm Jesus Christ. So Dr. Leary, am I Jesus Christ?" He is serious. Leary dispenses with him by saying, "Just don't get yourself crucified."

Finally it's my turn. I step up to the mike. Leary looks at me, looks at his watch. "Sorry, no more time for questions." A fist-faced steroidal security guard gets between me and the mike. Leary disappears behind the curtain. As fans mill about afterward, I hear there's some kind of VIP reception for Leary in a side-room, guarded by more fat-necks in blue blazers. I scam my way in: My girlfriend is a professor at the Univeristy, and she talks to some guy who talks to some guy. The side room is one of those harshly lit holding tanks, like where a record company's PR girl puts you when she doesn't know you're "with the band." People nibble nervously on peanut-butter cookies until Leary enters. There's an initial crush forward, but then everyone sort of hestitates, afraid to get too close to "the man," unsure what to say. He sits down at the far side of the room. What the hell, I go for mine -- I sit down right next to him. He inscribes to me a copy of Flashbacks. I notice that his hands are weird in the way old people's hands are, with these corroding purple spots. He seems tired and distracted, so I try the standard espionage trick: Knock him with some facts to get his attention.

"You know, my stepmother used to work for Cord Meyer." Which is true; she was for some years a secretary at CIA. Leary's reaction is physical: He jerks, as if jolted by some alternating current for which he has no adapter. His eyes are bright with memory.

"Cord Meyer was a pretty intense guy," he says, smiling. I ask a couple other questions, tacking around. Then I put it to Leary like this. "You say in your book that a lot of the LSD experiments at Harvard and Berkeley were, like, paid for by CIA. So I was wondering -- I mean, what were your connections with the Agency?" Suddenly he seems tight and defensive, finds the adapter and plugs it in. "They never gave me a dime," he says. I look into his eyes, the way you do when you try to tell if someone is lying. I don't see deception, exactly; only pain.

He doesn't say anything to me after this, so I awkwardly say goodbye and leave. Driving home, in the dark, I feel some journalistic guilt for having bothered this good-hearted sage, whose views on life are mostly right. Maybe he has actually told me the truth. The pain in his eyes was probably injured innocence, the kind I'd feel if I'd done a great life's work and some punk kid asked me, at the end of it, if I'd been funded all along by the KGB.

On the other hand, if he did collaborate with CIA, he'd hardly be at liberty to say so, would he? Might he not also feel just a bit guilty; thus the pain? And if the Agency never gave him any money, how did they get the rights to use the personality test that bears his name? I come to a red light.

Flashing in my mind is a subliminal message from Leary's "brainwashing" session: "Think for yourself -- question authority." And then I remember his warning to us, before the question & answer period: "You're not supposed to believe anything I say."

An impossible transition is required here. Questions hang, uanswered, like bats on the ceiling of a cave. Was Timothy Leary CIA, or what? What was Mary Meyer trying to "brainwash" JFK to do, and why did both die such untimely, mysterious deaths? Was Orange Sunshine really part of a government-orchstrated plot? Is Leary's Online Tip a new way to free the mind, or merely the final phase of his one-man plot to hijack the history of the world?

Damn if I know. The secret world of intelligence and espionage has been called a "wilderness of mirrors," and rightly. You can spend a lot of time saying, "On the one hand.... On the other hand," especially if you are on Truth Drug.

For 20,000 dollars for The brotherhood of Love,  The Weathermen Underground bust Leary out of Jail:
In October 1969, hundreds of young people wielding lead pipes and clad in football helmets marched through an upscale Chicago shopping district, pummeling parked cars and smashing shop windows. Thus began the “Days of Rage,” the first demonstration of the Weathermen, later known as the Weather Underground. Outraged by the Vietnam War and racism in America, this group of former student radicals waged a low-level war against the United States government through much of the 1970s, bombing the Capitol building, breaking Timothy Leary out of prison and finally evading the FBI by going into hiding.

In this Link TV special presentation of THE WEATHER UNDERGROUND, former Weathermen including Bernardine Dohrn, Bill Ayers, Mark Rudd and David Gilbert speak frankly about the idealist passions and trajectories that transformed them from college activists into the FBI’s Most Wanted.
Discretely waiting until after the election, William Ayers and his wife, fellow former terrorist Bernardine Dohrn, will release their new book in 2009 entitled Race Course Against White Supremacy. Their book will be published by Third World Press which was established by close associates of Obama's Rev. Jeremiah Wright. Over the last decade, when it came to education issues, Barack Obama, Bill Ayers, and Jeremiah Wright shared the same anti-white, separatist, black liberationist plans.

Bernardine Dohrn, is the wife of William Ayers and former SDS Weatherman Underground bomb-throwing terrorist. Avowed anti-American seditionist. She is pictured here in a Chicago Police Department mug shot from 1969. Dohrn is living and working in Chicago
In 2007, Dorhn told a group that she continues to work to destroy the evil that is the US and "remove capitalism, that evil thing that it is... he is... she is".
William Ayers and Bernardine Dohrn, Weather Underground Domestic Terrorism, Fugitive Search, FBI Declassified Documents, Bombings, Plans for Violent Revolution (CD-ROM) [CD-ROM]

This up-to-date and comprehensive electronic book on CD-ROM presents a collection of important documents and formerly secret FBI files about the Weather Underground Organization (Weatherman), including William Charles Ayers and Bernardine Rae Dohrn. Katherine Ann Power, Karen Lynn Ashley, Kathie Boudin, Scott Braley, Peter Clapp, John Fuerst, Theodore Gold, and many others. The Chicago Office of the FBI prepared a summary in 1976 discussing the main activities of the Weather Underground Organization....
The Weather Underground  by Descrates

Having staged the "Flint War Council", the weathermen had finished with their last above ground stand. On February 9th, 1970 the national S.D.S (weatherman) office was quietly evacuated and closed down.  The vast quantity of S.D.S archives housed in the office were sold for $300 dollars to the State Historical Society of Wisconsin.  Over the next month weathermen began to sever ties with family and friends and disappear.  As Jeff Jones would later put it, "The best place to hide a leaf was in the forest."   The weathermen disappeared into the sea of humans that populated the country.  The Weather Underground had been born.

In January, just before going under, the Weathermen had developed a central command structure know as The Weather Bureau.  Members of the Bureau traveled to weathermen collectives across the country and engaged them in harsh self-criticism sessions where L.S.D usage was a prerequisite.  The L.S.D. served to weed out police infiltrators, as well as to reveal the hidden bourgeoisie tendencies that might prevent certain individuals from becoming effective guerilla fighters.

 After these sessions, the Weather Bureau made decisions about who would go under and who would be asked to leave the organization and serve as above ground support (It was practical usages of L.S.D., such as was just described, that many right winghistorians have used to discredit the weathermen as crazed druggies).  In February, after all members had severed above ground contacts, sold off their possessions, pooled their monies, and developed false identities, they were ready.  Small cells of 3-5 weathermen each, organized as Focos , were sent out across the country to set up bases and compile lists of targets.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline trailhound

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #43 on: January 20, 2010, 05:55:39 pm »
1968: While other New-Left leaders preach violent overthrow of the U.S. Government and creation of a Marxist dictatorship, Leary urges instead a nonviolent, drug-oriented "hippie capitalism," an artsy-craftsy, decentralized, libertarian sort of entrepeneurship that will also soon find its expression in the culture of the Grateful Dead.

 :o oh the horror  ::)

"Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression." Qur'an 5:2
At the heart of that Western freedom and democracy is the belief that the individual man, the child of God, is the touchstone of value..." -RFK

Offline phosphene

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #44 on: January 20, 2010, 06:05:49 pm »
1968: While other New-Left leaders preach violent overthrow of the U.S. Government and creation of a Marxist dictatorship, Leary urges instead a nonviolent, drug-oriented "hippie capitalism," an artsy-craftsy, decentralized, libertarian sort of entrepeneurship that will also soon find its expression in the culture of the Grateful Dead.

 :o oh the horror  ::)

yeah, who would build all the tanks and bombs if everybody was busy being artsy and crafty? We might actually have to spend time with friends and family in that scenario.

Although this is very important and interesting info. (I was unaware that so many rock stars were children of the military industrial complex)keeping LSD away from the people is the government plot...not the other way around.
"A strange game. The only winning move is not to play."--Joshua

Offline trailhound

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #45 on: January 20, 2010, 06:12:26 pm »
yeah, who would build all the tanks and bombs if everybody was busy being artsy and crafty? We might actually have to spend time with friends and family in that scenario.

Although this is very important and interesting info. (I was unaware that so many rock stars were children of the military industrial complex)keeping LSD away from the people is the government plot...not the other way around.

See how cointel works?

1968: While other New-Left leaders preach violent overthrow of the U.S. Government and creation of a Marxist dictatorship, Leary urges instead a nonviolent, drug-oriented "hippie capitalism," an artsy-craftsy, decentralized, libertarian sort of entrepeneurship that will also soon find its expression in the culture of the Grateful Dead.

"Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression." Qur'an 5:2
At the heart of that Western freedom and democracy is the belief that the individual man, the child of God, is the touchstone of value..." -RFK

Devotional Soul

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #46 on: January 20, 2010, 08:02:15 pm »
I went to Grateful Dead shows in the early 90's.  Many deadheads knew that the band members were working for the CIA.  This is where I first learned that fluoride is not good for the brain, and that there is a plan to get people micro-chipped, and other nwo info.  So, although there was a majority of brain-cell killing going on with all the drugs, there was still awareness for some.  People seriously walked around pouring liquid L onto my 13 year old hand!  :o

Most of the songs were written by Robert Hunter: 
"Around 1962, Hunter was an early volunteer test subject (along with Ken Kesey) for psychedelic chemicals at Stanford University's research covertly sponsored by the CIA in their MKULTRA program. [McNally 42] He was paid to take LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline and report on his experiences..."

A few of their songs were written by John Barlow, who were very political and anti-nwo.  Bob sang most of these songs, especially Throwing Stones, which had lyrics like:

"Commissars and pin-striped bosses role the dice
Any way they fall guess who gets to pay the price
Money green or proletarian gray
Selling guns instead of food today"

Offline trailhound

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #47 on: January 20, 2010, 08:12:00 pm »
I went to Grateful Dead shows in the early 90's.  Many deadheads knew that the band members were working for the CIA.  This is where I first learned that fluoride is not good for the brain, and that there is a plan to get people micro-chipped, and other nwo info.  So, although there was a majority of brain-cell killing going on with all the drugs, there was still awareness for some.  People seriously walked around pouring liquid L onto my 13 year old hand!  :o

Most of the songs were written by Robert Hunter: 
"Around 1962, Hunter was an early volunteer test subject (along with Ken Kesey) for psychedelic chemicals at Stanford University's research covertly sponsored by the CIA in their MKULTRA program. [McNally 42] He was paid to take LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline and report on his experiences..."

A few of their songs were written by John Barlow, who were very political and anti-nwo.  Bob sang most of these songs, especially Throwing Stones, which had lyrics like:

"Commissars and pin-striped bosses role the dice
Any way they fall guess who gets to pay the price
Money green or proletarian gray
Selling guns instead of food today"

hmmm you seem like an intelligent well adjusted person...

"Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression." Qur'an 5:2
At the heart of that Western freedom and democracy is the belief that the individual man, the child of God, is the touchstone of value..." -RFK

Devotional Soul

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #48 on: January 21, 2010, 12:20:06 am »
hmmm you seem like an intelligent well adjusted person...

Anything that seems good about me is God's blessing me with causeless mercy for a minuscule, mustard seed of faith. 

My brain was surely fried at one point in time, and my memory has greatly improved since then.    ;)

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #49 on: January 21, 2010, 02:01:50 pm »
One reason for this thread is the many questions I have about my experiences back in the late 1970's and early eighties. At that time I was freelancing  photographer/reporter/musician/hangers-on in the Bay Area music scene.

I personally had met and talked with many of the GD (Phil Lesh/Mickey Hart and roadies). I also had some peripheral exposure to the Hells Angels. Obviously I was not on this train of thought or brought up this subject with any of them at the time.  

One thing that got me was that there was a sense that they were "protected"  from police actions against them. I would be at these parties and thought what an opportunity for the cops if there was to be a bust right then.  Weren't they a target?  

I think that alot of people just went with the flow back then and the GD were no different. They made great music and weren’t purposely hurting anyone.  But they had to know all sorts of things were going on all around them at the very least.

Grateful Dead Timeline
GD Timeline 2

1947-48  Tim Leary meets Cord Meyer at the American Veterans Committee (AVC) conventions - possible CIA hookup
05/22 1949 - James Vincent Forrestal - first Secretary of Defense falls out of a Bethesda Naval Hospital window

1951 - France - Bread spiked with LSD in CIA experiment - August 16, 1951 - Pont-Saint-Esprit
1952 - George Hunter White did release a small amount of aerosol LSD in a New York subway car
1952 - Dr Humphrey Osmond and Dr Abram Hoffer begin LSD experiments at Regina General Hospital Saskatchewan with Sandoz Montreal LSD product
1953 - Sandoz patents on LSD formula expire allowing for Eli Lilly Production
1953 - Humphrey Osmond meets Al Hubbard thru mutual friend Aldous Huxley
12/00 1953 - L. Ron Hubbard characterized Scientology as a religion incorporates three churches
04/13 1953 - CIA launches Operation MK/ULTRA, a major drug and mind-control program
11/28 1953 - Frank Olson plunged to his death from room 1018A in New York’s Statler Hotel - opposite Penn Station

1954 - Willis Harman had attends study group led by Harry Rathbun begins attending Sequoia Seminars
1954 - Gerald Heard gives a lecture a Sequoia Seminar on mind expansion; describes effects of mind-altering drugs - Myron Stolaroff and Willis Harman attending
10/26 1954 - Large-Scale Availability of LSD through Newly-Discovered Synthesis by Eli Lilly

1955–1975 - Army tested LSD (termed EA-1729) and PCP on several of its enlisted men at what was then the headquarters of its Chemical Corps, Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland
1955 - Order of the Trapezoid begun by Anton LaVey

1956 - Dr. Ewen Cameron tests LSD in conjunction with "depatterning" experiments designed to reprogram personalities
1956 - Sequoia Seminars - Emilia Rathbun and Betty Eisner - LSD Therapy sessions begin - Willis Harman - Al Hubbard

1957 - Hollywood Hospital in New Westminster (Vancouver) Dr Ross MacLean. The suave hospital administrator gets  $1,000/dose fees from Hollywood's elite patients, who included members of the Canadian Parliament and the American film community
prior to this for years was the elites alcoholics's detox center - thousands of patients who were treated there with LSD between 1957 and 1975 (among them Robert Kennedy's wife Ethel Kennedy)
1957 - Al Hubbard meets Ross MacLean, medical superintendent of the Hollywood Hospital in New Westminster (Vancouver) -
Ross gives Hubbard an entire wing of the hospital to the study of psychedelic therapy for chronic alcoholics
1957 - Al Hubbard quits, after dispute with Ross MacLean, Frank Ogden takes his place

1958 - Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland, obtained sample of a "reject" called phenylbenzeneacetic acid (BZ) developed by pharmaceutical giant Hoffmann-LaRoche, later known by its street nickname as "brown acid."
1958 - Palo Alto Mental Research Institute begins conducting LSD Research studies
1959 - Sequoia Seminars LSD Therapy sessions  end
1959 - Willis Harman - Stolaroff - Al Hubbard LSD Therapy sessions begin
1959 - Theodore Kaczynski (future unabomber) becomes subject in MK-Ultra experiments at Harvard - Dr. Henry Murray

1960 - FDA approves Birth Control Pill - Syntex Enovid for use in the United States History of "The Pill"
11/03 1960 - Kennedy elected President over Nixon
03/00 1961 - International Foundation for Advanced Study LSD Therapy - Stolaroff - Willis Harman - Al Hubbard officially begins
10/00 1961 - Mary Meyer begins visiting John F. Kennedy in the White House

1962 - Esalen - Del Carlson is co-leader of the first formal seminar ever held when it was still called Slate's Hot Springs
1962 - Mary Meyer makes contact with Timothy Leary. Leary supplies LSD to Mary who used it with Kennedy

1963 - Sandoz patents for LSD production expire (there seems to be various patent dates)
03/01 1963 - Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert are fired from Harvard
11/02 1963 - president of South Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem arrested and killed in CIA backed coup
11/22 1963 - John F. Kennedy Assassinated

1964 - Project MKULTRA becomes Project MKSEARCH- a program to develop a capability to manipulate human behavior through the use of mind-altering drugs
1964  - STP developed as an incapacitating agent for the Army in 1964 at Dow Chemical
02/09 1964 - The Beatles appear on "The Ed Sullivan Show"
02/26 1964 - Cassius Clay becomes Muhammad Ali - converts to Islam - resists draft in June 1964

03/07 1964 - Sheraton-Palace Hotel San Francisco demonstration organized by the Ad Hoc Committee to End Discrimination
07/02 1964 - Civil Rights Act of 1964
08/02 1964 -  Gulf of Tonkin (FalseFlag) Incident  - Jim Morrison's (Doors) father in command - Johnson escalates Vietnam Conflict.
10/12 1964 - Mary Minturn Pinchot Meyer was shot dead - murder never solved
11/03 1964 - Johnson elected President over Goldwater

1965 - The Process Church of the Final Judgment splinter group from Scientology appears
1965 -  Queen's Birthday  MBE awarded to The Beatles
02/01 1965 - Owsley "Bear" Stanley first succeeded in synthesizing crystalline LSD. Distribution began March 1965
07/25 1965 - Bob Dylan goes Electric at Newport Folk Festival - Maggies Farm
10/03 1965 - Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
11/21 1965 - Vietnam Day march - 10,000 march through the streets of Oakland, California
12/01 1965 - The Beatles "Rubber Soul" album released - John: Rubber Soul was the pot album, and Revolver the acid.
12/01 1965 - Acid Tests organizer Ken Kesey enlists Warlocks as house band
12/04 1965 - San Jose Acid Test first Grateful Dead show

1966 - Owlsey builds Pt. Richmond, CA  LSD Lab
01/21 1966 - 8th Acid Test at the Trips Festival in Longshoremen's Hall - Kesey splits to Mexico
05/01 1966 - Anton LaVey begins the Church of Satan
07/29 1966 - Bob Dylan crashed his 500cc Triumph Tiger 100 motorcycle
08/05 1966 - The Beatles "Revolver" album released - John Lennon: Rubber Soul was the pot album, and Revolver the acid.
10/06 1966 - Love Pageant Rally protests illegalization of LSD in California
10/24 1966 - Possession of LSD is banned federally in the U.S.
10/-- 1966 - Owsley leaves soundman position with Grateful Dead  

01/01 1967 -CIA Operation Chaos begins
1967 - Owlsey and Scully build Denver LSD Lab
1967 - George Jung ("Blow") begins smuggling Pot into Calfornia and later the east coast
03/21 1967 - Charles Manson released from prison - goes to S.F. - Free Clinic -  Dr. David  Smith (NORML) - Roger Smith - the parole officer of the cultist mass murderer Charles Manson
04/00 1967 - Brian Wilson of Beach Boys begins mental breakdown
05/00 1967 - Syd Barrett of Pink Floyd has mental breakdown
06/08 1967 - USS Liberty attacked by Israeli jet fighter planes
06/18 1967 - Monterey Pop Festival
09/01 1967 - Timothy Leary - "Tune in, Turn On, Drop Out"

10/00 1967 - Stop the Draft Week - Oakland, CA
10/02 1967 Band members jailed for 6 hours after 710 Haight Street drug raid

1968 - Tim Scully builds Denver LSD lab
04/04 1968 - Martin Luther King, Jr assassinated
06/05 1968 - Robert Kennedy assassinated

07/-- 1968 - Owsley takes over sound again for Grateful Dead
08/26 1968 - Democratic Convention Chicago riots
10/00 1968 - Al Hubbard officially employed as a security officer for SRI
11/06 1968 - Nixon elected president over Humphrey

1969 - Tim Scully Builds Windsor, CA LSD lab - produces "Orange Sunshine",  ALD-52 ?, Nick Sand learns the process
1969 - John Lennon returns his MBE to the Queen - "Your Majesty, I am returning my MBE as a protest against Britain's involvement in the Nigeria-Biafra thing, against our support of America in Vietnam and against 'Cold Turkey' slipping down the charts. With Love, John Lennon."

1969 - Nixon ends BioWarfare development with Geneva Accord
1969 - Unification Church establishes recruitment headquarters on the south side of the UC Berkeley campus two-story stucco house at 2955 Ashby CARP (Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles), a church-linked nonprofit with outposts in college towns nationwide.

02/21 1969 - Kissinger's first secret meeting with Soviet Amb Dobrynin
05/14 1969 - Nixon secret meeting with Soviet Amb Dobrynin -  “prepared to accept any political system in South Vietnam - even if South Vietnam became a Communist regime, that would be acceptable
05/15 1969 - Berkeley Peoples Park Riot
06/00 1969 - Orange sunshine acid first appears
07/03 1969 - Brian Jones - Rolling Stones of Dies - Murder?
07/19 1969 - Ted Kennedy  Chappaquiddick car "accident" death of Mary Jo Kopechne - Bobby Baker scandal - JFK assassination connection
07/21 1969 - Apollo 11 lands two men on the moon - The Eagle has landed
08/09 1969 -  Charles Manson  - Tate Murders
08/15-18 1969 - Woodstock Festival (08/16 Grateful Dead)
10/09 1969 - Weather Underground - "Days of Rage"
10/27 1969 - Giant Lance - Nixon threatens the Soviet Union with a massive nuclear strike - episode remained secret for 35 years
12/06 1969 - Altamont Music Festival  Grateful Dead - Rolling Stones - Hells Angels - Orange Sunshine

01/-- 1970 - Bill Graham books Grateful Dead throughout the country

01/01 1970 - Weather Underground Organization issued a "Declaration of a State of War" against the United States government
1/31 1970 - Jerry Garcia & Bob Weir "busted down on Bourbon St." New Orleans  - Band members and Owsley Stanley arrested - the band did no long term jail time in New Orleans La. .... so were they protected?

02/-- 1970 - Owsley leaves soundman position after New Orleans bust
02/-- 1970 - Leary is convicted of marijuana possession 10 years - jailed at Lompoc, California
04/04 1970 - Kent state guardsmen fired 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing four students and wounding nine others

09/12 1970 - Leary escaped from the State Men’s Colony in San Luis Obispo  
09/-- 1970 - Leary flies to Algeria - joins Black Panther Eldridge Cleaver, later flees to Switzerland
09/18 1970 - Jimmi Hendrix dies - Murder?
10/04 1970 - Janis Joplin dies - Murder?

1971 - Nixon begins "War on Cancer"
1971 - Rev Moon moves to the United States, establishes Unification Church
06/00 1971 -  Nixon officially declares a "war on drugs," identifying drug abuse as "public enemy No. 1."
07/03 1971 - Jim Morrison Dies - Murder?
08/15 1971 - President Richard Nixon unilaterally devalued the United States dollar
10/29 1971 - Duane Allman killed in a motorcycle accident
10/00 1971 - Army's Fort Detrick, Maryland, biological warfare facility was converted to a cancer research center

1972: The first issue of Ms. magazine hits the stands.
1972: Eisenstadt v. Baird legalizes contraception for unmarried people
1972 - ERA passed the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives

02/21-28, 1972 - U.S. President Richard Nixon travels to Beijing, meets Chairman Mao - makes secret deals
05/15 1972 - The Attempted Assassination of George Wallace
06/28 1972 - first official San Francisco Gay Freedom Day on Polk Street (a street known for violence and drugs) becomes yearly event (not on Polk street)

08/22 1972 - Jane Fonda makes radio address from Hanoi Vietnam

11/03 1972 - Nixon re-elected President over George McGovern

1973 - CIA Director Richard Helms orders all MK-ULTRA files destroyed  - (a few survived)
1973 - Roe v. Wade, the U.S. Supreme Court - abortion bans were unconstitutional in every state, legalizing abortion throughout the United States.
1973 - Rev. Moon purchased second Berkeley property — this time just across from the north side of campus - 2717 Hearst Avenue - New Education Development Systems
1973 - Rev. Moon establishes the "Creative Community Project" -a communelike piece of property in Boonville in Mendocino County that served as the church's indoctrination facility .

01/-- 1973 - Leary was kidnapped at gun point in Afghanistan by American agents returned to California (Dates and place not clear Switzerland?)
01/14 1973 - Phil Lesh busted on drugs in California  
03/05 1973 - Michael Jeffery (Hendrix Manager) dies in Mid-Air collision - (possible Hendix killer)
03/08 1973 - Ron "Pigpen" McKernan dies stomach hemorrhage
03/27 1973 - Garcia busted outside Philadelphia for drugs during interstate traffic stop - stopped for speeding and LSD possession
03/29 1973 - Last U.S. troops leave South Vietnam when Hanoi freed the remaining American prisoners of war
07/00 1973 - Nixon creates the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to coordinate the efforts of all other agencies
09/00 1973 -  First article about disco was written by Vince Aletti for Rolling Stone Magazine
10/00 1973 - Jim Jones authorizes establishment of a branch church and agricultural mission in Guyana.
10/00 1973 -  03/00 1974 - Oil Embargo and gas rationing begins 73-74 stock market crash

1974 - Eric Clapton kicks Heroin
1974 - George Jung arrested in Chicago for smuggling 660 pounds of marijuana - prison 26 months
02/04 1974  19-year-old Patty Hearst was kidnapped from the Berkeley, California by SLA
08/09 1974 - Nixon Resigns
09/16 1974 - Ford signs Condition Amnesty to Vietnam Draft Evaders

04/30 1975 - At 8:35 a.m., the last Americans, ten Marines from the embassy, depart Saigon

1976 - Freebase cocaine first developed (probably in California).
01/30 1976 - George Bush  becomes Director of Central Intelligence til  January 20, 1977 (Carter begins as President)
04/21 1976 - Tim Leary released from prison by Governor Jerry Brown (in return for FBI work as a government informant
11/03 1976 - Jimmy Carter elected President over Ford

1977 - George Jung ("Blow") begins smuggling Cocaine for the Medellín cartel
04/26 1977 - Disco - Studio 54 opens owners Steve Rubell & Ian Schrager - Drugs were common
03-26-1977 - Operation Julie LSD Raid - Largest UK lsd bust - Richard Kemp - David Solomon

1978 - Gay Hepatitis-B  Vaccine experiments begin (1978-1981) - manufactured by Merck
11/18 1978 - JonesTown mass suicide/murder
11/27 1978 - Harvey Milk and George Moscone are shot and killed by Dan White

02/04 1980 - Disco - Studio 54 closes - Steve Rubell & Ian Schrager head to prison
07/02 1980 - Bob Weir & Mickey Hart jailed obstructing drug bust, San Diego
07/21 1980 - Keith Godchaux injured in car wreck (dies 7/23)
12/08 1980 - John Lennon is shot and murdered by unknown assailant
11/03 1980 - Reagan elected President over Carter - Vice President George Bush

1981 -  The Medellin cartel rises to power - Cocaine use sky rockets
1981 - Barry Seal works for the Ochoa family and the Medellin Cartel transporting cocaine shipments into Mena Arkansas
1981 - CDC reports AIDS
03/30 1981 - President Reagan and three others were shot and wounded by John Hinckley, Jr..
05/00 1981 - Volker's Fed Funds rate peaks at 20 percent  - recession begins July 1981 and ends in November 1982
09/12 1981 - Studio 54 reopens
1982 - the ERA was reintroduced
1982 - Willis Harman publishes SRI's "Changing Images of Man"

1983 - Cocaine use rose steadily (from 1965) to its 1983 peak (1.5 million new users).

1984 - Nancy Reagan launches her "Just Say No" anti-drug campaign
1984 - Roger Clinton pleads guilty to cocaine distribution and served one year of a two-year sentence
1984–1989 - "Miami Vice"  by Michael Mann TV show runs on NBC - primarily about Cocaine Smugglers and dealers - starred Don Johnson  who was once a "hustler" in L.A.

Mid 1980's - Freebase cocaine becomes popular
01/18 1985 - Jerry Garcia busted in Golden Gate Park for drugs

02/19 1986 - Barry Seal cocaine smuggler was shot to death in Baton Rouge
03/00 1986 - Studio 54 finally closes
07/10 1986 Jerry Garcia hospitalized 3 weeks after going into Diabetic coma, hospitalized 3 weeks.
1986 - Phil Lesh - Diagnosed with  Hepatitis non A Non B (HEP C)

10/25 1991 - Bill Graham's helicopter hit a power line returning from a Huey Lewis and the News concert on a windy Friday evening at the northern end of San Francisco Bay. With him were Melissa Gold and Steve Kahn, the pilot

07-20-1993 - Largest USA LSD Bust - Bolinas, California

08/09 1995 - Jerry Garcia died of a heart attack
05/31 1996 - Timothy Leary dies (prostate cancer)
12/18/98 - Phil Lesh underwent successful liver transplant surgery
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline trailhound

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #50 on: January 21, 2010, 02:44:09 pm »

Sittin' and starin' out of the hotel window.
Got a tip they're gonna kick the door in again
I'd like to get some sleep before I travel,
But if you got a warrant, I guess you're gonna come in.

Busted, down on Bourbon Street, Set up, like a bowlin' pin.
Knocked down, it get's to wearin' thin. They just won't let you be, oh no.
-Truckin by GD

"Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression." Qur'an 5:2
At the heart of that Western freedom and democracy is the belief that the individual man, the child of God, is the touchstone of value..." -RFK

Devotional Soul

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #51 on: January 21, 2010, 04:10:26 pm »
I think that's why they did songs about Biblical stories, and Jerry Band got pretty religious.  They were just musicians having fun and enjoying. Donna said they're going to hell in a bucket, and they said, well at least we're enjoying the ride.

Offline trailhound

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #52 on: January 21, 2010, 07:58:15 pm »
I think that's why they did songs about Biblical stories, and Jerry Band got pretty religious.  They were just musicians having fun and enjoying. Donna said they're going to hell in a bucket, and they said, well at least we're enjoying the ride.

 There were alot of golden hearted people around them too.

 Granted drugs took their toll on Jerry for reasons I dont feel is anybodys business, he did what he did. That being said those drugs dont have any business in the same category as psychedelics.



Saw a bird with a tear in his eye
Walking to New Orleans---my, my, my
Hey, now, Bird, wouldn't you rather die
than walk this world when you're born to fly?
If I was the sun, I'd look for shade
If I was a bed, I would stay unmade
If I was a river I'd run uphill
If you call me you know I will
If you call me you know I will
Ooo, Freedom
Ooo, Liberty
O... Leave me alone
to find my own way home
to find my own way home
Say what I mean and I don't give a damn
I do believe and I am who I am
Hey now Mama come take my hand
Whole lotta shakin' all over this land
If I was an eagle I'd dress like a duck
Crawl like a lizard and honk like a truck
If I get a notion I'll climb this tree
or chop it down and you can't stop me
Chop it down and you can't stop me
Ooo, Freedom
Ooo, Liberty
O ... leave me alone
to find my own way home
to find my own way home
Went to the well but the water was dry
Dipped my bucket in the clear blue sky
Looked in the bottom and what did I see?
The whole damned world looking back at me
If I was a bottle I'd spill for love
Sake of mercy I'd kill for love
If I was a liar I'd lie for love
Sake of my baby I'd die for love
Sake of my baby I'd die for love
Ooo Freedom
Ooo Liberty
O... Leave me alone
to find my own way home
to find my own way home
I'm gonna find my own way home


Red and white, blue suede shoes, I'm Uncle Sam, how do you do?

Gimme five, I'm still alive, ain't no luck, I learned to duck.

Check my pulse, it don't change. Stay seventy-two come shine or rain.

Wave the flag, pop the bag, rock the boat, skin the goat.

Wave that flag, wave it wide and high.

Summertime done, come and gone, my, oh, my.

I'm Uncle Sam, that's who I am; Been hidin' out in a rock and roll band.

Shake the hand that shook the hand of P.T. Barnum and Charlie Chan.

Shine your shoes, light your fuse. Can you use them ol' U.S. Blues?

I'll drink your health, share your wealth, run your life, steal your wife.

Wave that flag, wave it wide and high.

Summertime done, come and gone, my, oh, my.

Back to back chicken shack. Son of a gun, better change your act.

We're all confused, what's to lose?

Wave that flag, wave it wide and high.

Summertime done, come and gone, my, oh, my


"Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression." Qur'an 5:2
At the heart of that Western freedom and democracy is the belief that the individual man, the child of God, is the touchstone of value..." -RFK

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #53 on: January 22, 2010, 11:58:45 am »
I'd like to dedicate this one to the nwo global elite:

Ship Of Fools

Went to see the captain, strangest I could find,
Laid my proposition down, laid it on the line.
I won't slave for beggar's pay, likewise gold and jewels,
But I would slave to learn the way to sink your ship of fools.

Ship of fools on a cruel sea, ship of fools sail away from me.
It was later than I thought when I first believed you,
Now I cannot share your laughter, ship of fools.

Saw your first ship sink and drown, from rockin' of the boat,
And all that could not sink or swim was just left there to float.
I won't leave you drifting down, but woh it makes me wild,
With thirty years upon my head to have you call me child.

Ship of fools on a cruel sea, ship of fools sail away from me.
It was later than I thought when I first believed you,
Now I cannot share your laughter, ship of fools.

The bottles stand as empty, as they were filled before.
Time there was and plenty, but from that cup no more.
Though I could not caution all, I still might warn a few:
Don't lend your hand to raise no flag atop no ship of fools.

Ship of fools on a cruel sea, ship of fools sail away from me.
It was later than I thought, when I first believed you,
Now I cannot share your laughter, ship of fools.

It was later than I thought when I first believed you,
Now I cannot share your laughter, ship of fools.

Offline Edgar

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #54 on: January 22, 2010, 08:34:53 pm »
How does the Jefferson Airplane fit in???
The King James Bible is not a version. It is the Bible.
Psalms 119:140  Thy word is very pure: therefore thy servant loveth it.

Offline trailhound

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #55 on: January 22, 2010, 08:43:02 pm »
How does the Jefferson Airplane fit in???

 I think the reptilians were behind them  :D

"Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression." Qur'an 5:2
At the heart of that Western freedom and democracy is the belief that the individual man, the child of God, is the touchstone of value..." -RFK

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #56 on: January 23, 2010, 01:59:02 pm »
How does the Jefferson Airplane fit in???

[edit - I always mixed up Paul Krassner (very much the Berkeley intellectual Hippie/Yippie writer with Paul KANTNER the S.F intellectual Hippie/Yippie  SCIFI/writer/musician  - so here are both bio's  this also connects us to David Crosby and Laurel Canyon...

Now what ARE the chances of the then nowhere Paul Kantner traveling down from San Jose to meet up and live with future superstar David Crosby? ]
David Crosby definitely was there at the very beginning of the LA / Laurel Canyon music scene in 1963.
Note that Kantner in 1963-1964 lives in a "proto commune" in "L.A." ( Venice Ca. ) with David Freiberg and David Crosby who was even then completely on the inside track of what was to come. I am having trouble finding material on the Nexus point.
David Freiberg [ joins Airplane later in 1972]
David [Freiberg] taught himself the guitar and began performing in folk clubs. In 1962, he began singing in a duo called David and Michaela, who played their last show on February 9, 1964, the night the Beatles debuted on the Ed Sullivan Show. David also joined a trio called the Folksingers of Peace, who reportedly were deported from Mexico for being subversive.  
During 1963-64, David [Freiberg] lived in a "proto-hippie commune" in Los Angeles with Paul Kantner and David Crosby.  According to San Francisco Chronicle reporter Joel Selvin, David found himself busted for drugs on two separate occasions in 1965. During the first stretch in jail, he was visited by Paul, who announced the formation of his new band, Jefferson Airplane. On the night before he began his second sentence, he heard his other friend, Crosby, singing with the Byrds on the radio. In an LSD-induced epiphany, David decided that rock 'n' roll was the way to go. Upon his release, he learned to play bass and soon co-founded Quicksilver Messenger Service.
Freiberg began his career as a coffee house folk musician. For a while he shared a house in Venice, California, with other future folk-rockers David Crosby and Paul Kantner. Janis Joplin was also one of his roommates.


Also the SciFi connection also connects with Manson - Heinlein’s Stranger in a Strange Land:
Laurel Canyon - David McGowan - Birth of the Hippie Generation - Abstract
David Crosby was a big Heinlein fan as well. In his autobiography, he references Heinlein on more than one occasion, and proclaims that, “In a society where people can go armed, it makes everybody a little more polite, as Robert A. Heinlein says in his books.

Frank Zappa was also a member of the Robert Heinlein fan club. Barry Miles notes in his biography of the rock icon that his home contained “a copy of Saint-Exupery’s The Little Prince and other essential sixties reading, including Robert Heinlein’s sci-fi classic, Stranger in a Strange Land, from which Zappa borrowed the word ‘discorporate’ for [the song] ‘Absolutely Free.’”
Michael Clarke had been born Michael Dick in Spokane, Washington......
The year was 1963. According to rock history as told by David Crosby, [Michael] Clarke and Crosby met in Big Sur, which coincidentally happens to be the location of the notorious Esalen Institute (where CSNY would play some years later). A year later, the vagrant teenager with no drumming experience would find himself cast to play the role of the drummer in the band designed to be America’s answer to the Beatles. According to Crosby, Clarke’s first LA address was the home of Terry Melcher.


"Kantner and Freiberg go all the way back to when David Crosby and Janis Joplin were their roomies in Venice"

Although he never wrote or sang lead on a hit single, Paul Kantner had the greatest impact on Jefferson Airplane/Starship of any member. He holds the record for the longest, unbroken membership (19 years), and he has been at times the only original member of the band present. His interest in science fiction helped transform Jefferson Airplane into Jefferson Starship, and, throughout it all, he presided over the band's loose and sometimes messy democracy. If Marty Balin was the soul of the band, and Grace Slick its public persona, then Paul Kantner could be considered its brain.

The only native San Franciscan among the Airplane/Starship principles, Paul Lorin Kantner was born March 17, 1941, to Paul S. and Cora Lee (Fortier) Kantner. Paul had a much older half brother and half sister. When Paul was about six, his mother died; he later recalled that instead of being allowed to attend the funeral, he was sent to the circus. Paul's father, a traveling salesman, could not raise the boy on his own and sent him to live in a Jesuit military boarding school. It was there, in the second or third grade, that he discovered science fiction while being left alone in the school library. The Jesuits apparently also taught Paul the military-like discipline and determination that would serve him well through his career's ups and downs.

Nevertheless, Paul was once described as a troublemaker while in his teens. Around 1960, he was involved in a motorcycle accident that left a permanent hole in the left side of his skull. (Ironically, this hole is credited with saving Paul from brain damage when he later suffered a cerebral hemorrhage, by allowing the pressure to escape.)

Paul completed three years of college at the University of Santa Clara (1959-61) and San Jose State College (1961-63), before dropping out when someone reportedly introduced him to the electric guitar and LSD in the same week. He decided to become a musician and hit the folk club circuit as an acoustic guitarist and five-string banjoist. Before leaving San Jose, however, he lived in a "proto-hippie commune" with future Byrd David Crosby and future Jefferson Starship member David Freiberg. Also in San Jose, in 1962, he met another guitarist who would play a prominent role in his future, Jorma Kaukonen.

[Jorma's DAD:  An FBI, and later a State Department, man, Jorma Sr. spent much of his son's childhood moving the family from exotic location to exotic location. Though their home base was Washington, D.C., where the junior Jorma attended Woodrow Wilson High School, they spent much of Jorma's childhood in places such as the Philippines and Pakistan.]

By March 1965, Paul had returned to San Francisco. While working in a cannery by day, he was playing by night in a folk club called the Drinking Gourd. One night a young singer introduced himself and suggested they form a band together. The singer's name was Marty Balin, and the group they formed was Jefferson Airplane.

Although Marty was clearly the leader, Paul took an active role in how the band developed. He recalled his earlier acquaintance with Jorma Kaukonen, and campaigned to get Jorma in the band. According to some sources, Paul also recommended female vocalist Signe Toly Anderson, also a Drinking Gourd regular, for the group. Ironically, Paul, according to bassist Bob Harvey, initially dismissed "Jefferson Airplane" as the band's name; Paul felt the public wouldn't accept it, and that the band should keep it as it's "secret" name. But despite Paul's reservations, the name stuck.

Paul originally adopted a subdued role within the band, playing rhythm guitar and singing backup and the occasional lead. His early compositions included Come Up the Years (with Marty) and Go to Her (later released on Early Flight). But if Paul took his time in finding his voice as a songwriter, his natural competitiveness wouldn't be held in check for long.

The Airplane became friendly with members of another band, the Great Society, and Paul, as he later admitted, fell instantly in love with its singer, Grace Slick. Grace, of course, was married [to Jerry Slick an artist], but Paul would bide his time. In September 1966, Paul suggested Grace as a replacement for Signe Anderson; within a month, Grace had joined the Airplane.

After the Airplane's rise to success the following year, the band began to pair off in factions, with Grace and drummer Spencer Dryden allied in one camp, and Jorma and bassist Jack Casady in another. Marty, lost in the shuffle, withdrew from the band, and Paul, by default, emerged as de facto leader. He began to assert himself, writing the majority of the band's third album, After Bathing at Baxter's (1967). That album contained Paul's loopy ode to A.A. Milne, The Ballad of You & Me & Pooneil.

As the '60s wore on, the Airplane became a symbol of the burgeoning counterculture, and Paul reflected this in songs such as Crown of Creation (1968) and We Can Be Together (1969). To Paul, the "Establishment" included everything from cops who unplugged the band during curfew to the band's own record company, RCA. In We Can Be Together, he included the line, "Up against the wall, motherf**ker," which launched a bitter contest of wills between the band and RCA over its inclusion; the company finally backed down.

On the same album (Volunteers), Paul combined music and science fiction for the first time on Wooden Ships (co-written by David Crosby and Stephen Stills and simultaneously recorded by Crosby Stills & Nash), a song about a group of people who escape from a totalitarian society to start a free colony elsewhere. This concept would become a major theme of much of Paul's subsequent efforts.

Paul reportedly had numerous girlfriends during the Airplane's first few years, and, circa 1968, he fathered a son named Gareth. But in 1970, his unrequited love for Grace was finally requited. They began a casual affair and soon started living together. Grace wanted to have his child; in January 1971, their daughter, China, was born.

By now the Airplane was moving in different directions. With Grace housebound for the duration of her pregnancy, Paul began recording a solo album in conjunction with David Crosby, Jerry Garcia, and others. The album, Blows Against the Empire, contained a mini science fiction epic on one side. As an afterthought, the album was co-credited to "Jefferson Starship," marking the first use of that name. Blows was not only a commercial success, but was also nominated for science fiction's prestigious Hugo Award.

From this point on, Paul and Grace tried to balance Airplane albums with solo projects, but were never fully able to pull it off. Although their joint solo efforts -- Sunfighter (1971) and Baron Von Tollboth & the Chrome Nun (1973) -- are regarded by some fans as better than concurrent Airplane releases, they sold poorly. Meanwhile, Paul's contributions to the Airplane continued to be in the form of science fiction epics (When the Earth Moves Again, War Movie, both 1971), or overt attempts to be controversial (Son of Jesus, 1972). Grace later recalled that Paul would spend hours on the phone with the president of RCA, discussing whether Son of Jesus should be included on Long John Silver; such polemics might have attracted notice, but didn't always translate into record sales. Long John Silver did earn a gold record, but it could hardly sustain the weight of other failed projects on the band-owned Grunt Records.

By 1973, the Airplane was no more, though neither Paul nor Grace wanted to admit it. Paul continued to work relentlessly in the studio -- his workaholic habits earned him the nickname "Mr. Rock and Roll, 24 hours a day." But, in early 1974, he and Grace were faced with the prospect of moving on and forming a new band. Not wanting to completely break with the past, they hired musicians from the latter-day Airplane as well as their solo projects, and dubbed the band Jefferson Starship.

SOURCE: Got a Revolution! The Turbulent Flight of Jefferson Airplane by Jeff Tamarkin, 2003 Atria Books

Jefferson Airplane cofounder Paul Kantner, a San Francisco native who'd been raised in Catholic and military schools, was introduced to marijuana around 1959 by future Jefferson Airplane lead guitarist Jorma Kaukonen (YOR-ma COW-ka-nen) when they were students at Santa Clara University (a Catholic college). A year older than Kantner, Kaukonen was an accomplished guitarist, "well-traveled, intelligent and steeped in the blues." Kantner picked up the guitar at the same time and began performing in folk clubs while still in college. "Despite the warnings it would lead to harder stuff, the folk crowd on the Peninsula made pot a staple of its diet."

After the Folk Music Theatre in San Jose was transformed into the Offstage,
Kantner and some of the other folkies set up the Folklore Center in a corner of the club, "selling guitar picks, strings and marijuana." Kantner also started booking acts for the club, including Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions (with future members of the Grateful Dead) and David Crosby. JFK's assassination in 1963 "proved the linchpin point of our generation," said Kantner, and "almost switched the universe--What R. Crumb calls the Space-Time Motherf**king Continuum -- over 180 degrees. Everything that was before was not after that." Soon Kantner was introduced to LSD by someone who brought it to the Offstage along with a Fender guitar and amplifier, with reverb and vibrato. "Went off into the cosmos," Kantner recalls.

In the Spring of 1965 Bob Dylan's new album added electricity to folk and Kantner met Marty Balin at Balin's club the Drinking Gourd on Union Street in San Francisco, where Balin asked him if he wanted to start a band.

Grace Wing was raised in an upper middle class family in San Francisco and various Peninsula suburbs. Feeling like an oddball, she supressed her interests in classical music and art and took up comic books and R&B, drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes (by the age of 16). She enrolled in Finch College in New York in 1957 and transferred to the University of Miami in her Sophomore year to study art. There she discovered Lenny Bruce and marijuana. In 1961 she married Jerry Slick, a film student at San Francisco State College. The two rented a house in Potrero Hill where "we'd grow dope in the backyard, for our own entertainment," said Grace.

In 1964 the couple met a British chemist named Baxter who introduced them to peyote, and they soon tried LSD as well. According to Tamarkin, psychedelics "showed her that there were many levels of consciousness, and that there was no finality. Acid allowed her to see that there was much more than meets the eye, and it showed her how to apply those lessons to a personality that already operated under the assumption that life was ludicrous."

Grace found the Beatles early songs childish and prefered Bartok, Prokofiev, the musical South Pacific, and jazz, in particular Miles Davis's Sketches of Spain. She played guitar and provided soundtrack music for one of Jerry's films and soon began spending time smoking pot and making music with Jerry's guitarist brother, Darby. The three Slicks formed a band in the Summer of 1965 called The Great Society, after LBJ's disdained social program. Sly Stone was their producer for a short time (calling himself then Sylvester Stewart, he was a R&B disc jockey at the time) and they worked on material to record. One morning, while coming down from an acid trip, alone and depressed because his girlfriend had spend the night with another man, Darby wrote,

When the truth is found to be lies
And all the joy within you dies
Don't you want somebody to love?

Drawing on her love of Spanish songs, Grace fashioned a bolero rhythm for a new song of her own. Then, thinking back on her childhood fantasies, she suggested a correlation between the mystical worlds of those timeless tales and the quests that she and her fellow seekers were undertaking as young adults:

One pill makes you larger and one pill makes you small
And the ones that Mother gives you don't do anything at all
Go ask Alice, when she's ten feet tall.

It was Lewis Carroll meets Ravel meets Sketches of Spain. Slick said, "What I was trying to say was that between the ages of zero and five the information and the input you get is almost indelible. In other words, once a Catholic, always a Catholic. And the parents read us these books, like Alice in Wonderland, where she gets high, tall, and she takes mushrooms, a hookah, pills, alcohol. And then there's the Wizard of Oz, where they fall into field of poppies and when they wake up they see Oz. And then there's Peter Pan, where if you sprinkle white dust on you, you could fly. And then you wonder why we do it? Well, what did you read to me?"

The Great Society recorded "Somebody to Love" and "Go Ask Alice" with Grace on vocals in November 1965, a year before the Jefferson Airplane version hit the charts bigtime. After The Great Society broke up and Slick joined the Jefferson Airplane, the band recorded Surrealistic Pillow. Marty Balin contributed his composition "Comin' Back to Me" written in one sitting after smoking some potent marijuana.

The summer had inhaled and held its breath too long
The winter looked the same as if it had never gone
And through an open window where no curtain hung I saw you,
I saw you Comin' back to me.

Another song on the Album, DCBA-25 refers to the tune's chord progression and to LSD-25. A year later, in 1967, the band graced the cover of the first issue of Rolling Stone and recorded After Bathing at Baxter's, a reference to taking LSD, for which the band's nickname was Baxter.

Paul Krassner's introduction to LSD was very much in the Huxley vein of getting LSD to as many artists and influential people as possible....
An interesting article: My Acid Trip with Squeaky Fromme - Paul Krassner - 1971
LSD as gateway drug When I told my mother about taking LSD, she was quite concerned
Tuesday August 18, 2009

I took my first acid trip in 1965 at Tim Leary's LSD research center in Millbrook, N.Y. He was supposed to be my guide, but he had gone off to India. Ram Dass (then Richard Alpert) was supposed to take his place, but he was involved in preparing to open at the Village Vanguard as a psychedelic comedian-philosopher. So my guide was Michael Hollingshead, the British rascal who had originally turned Leary on.

When I told my mother about taking LSD, she was quite concerned.

"It could lead to marijuana," she warned.

Meanwhile, a whole new generation of pioneers was traveling westward, without killing a single Indian along the way. San Francisco became the focus of this pilgrimage. On Haight Street, runaway youngsters — refugees from their own families — stood outside a special tour bus — guided by a driver "trained in sociological significance."

On the day that LSD became illegal — Oct. 6, 1966 — at precisely two o'clock in the afternoon, a cross-fertilization of mass protest and tribal celebration took place, as several hundred explorers of inner space simultaneously swallowed tabs of acid while the police stood by helplessly.

Internal possession wasn't against the law.

On another occasion, folks from all over the Bay Area were ingesting LSD in preparation for the Acid Test at Longshoreman's Hall, organized by Ken Kesey and his Band of Merry Pranksters. The ballroom was seething with celebration, thousands of bodies stoned out of their minds, undulating to rock bands amid balloons and streamers and beads, with a thunder machine and strobe lights flashing, so that even the Pinkerton guards were high by contact. Kesey asked me to take the microphone and contribute a running commentary on the scene.

"All I know," I began, "is that if I were a cop and I came in here, I wouldn't know where to begin...."

My next stop was determined by a press release from the campaign headquarters of Robert Scheer, a Democrat who was running for Congress in Oakland: "Usually informed sources reported today that an outlawed left-wing psychedelic splinter within the Scheer campaign will caucus with Paul Krassner at 2 a.m. Saturday night, at the Jabberwock. These authoritative sources reported that Krassner, who has just returned from Washington, will deliver a preview of the State of the Union Message for 1966."

Although decriminalization of marijuana was one of Scheer's platform planks, he admitted to the audience that he wouldn't smoke pot himself as long as it was illegal. I in turn announced that I wouldn't stop smoking pot until it was legal. The previous year, before I emceed a teach-in at the Berkeley campus, Stew Albert of the Vietnam Day Committee had introduced me to Thai stick, and I became a dedicated toker.

"Now I know why there's a war going on in Southeast Asia," I observed. "To protect the crops."

That simple quote was enough to land my picture on the cover of the Berkeley Barb, smoking a joint. But my mother was right. LSD did lead to marijuana. *

Paul Krassner was the founder of The Realist (an alternative press prototype), is the author of Who's to Say What's Obscene: Politics, Culture and Comedy in America Today and In Praise of Indecency: Dispatches From the Valley of Porn, and is a monthly columnist for SF Carnal Nation ( )
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5


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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #57 on: January 23, 2010, 02:54:52 pm »

When I told my mother about taking LSD, she was quite concerned.

"It could lead to marijuana," she warned.

Wow, that's insane. A mother worried about a dangerous, relatively-new hallucinogen that leads to murders and suicides because it "might lead to" a non-hallucinogenic plant that's been used for thousands of years and leads only to :
1. a desire to eat all the chips and pretzels in the house
2. everyone around you wondering what the hell is so funny

Go figure. ::)

Offline trailhound

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #58 on: January 23, 2010, 03:00:55 pm »
Wow, that's insane. A mother worried about a dangerous, relatively-new hallucinogen that leads to murders and suicides  

Thats not a fair statement at all. Thats like saying drinking water leads to murder because every murderer drinks water.

The facts are 99.999999% of lsd users do not murder anyone or kill themselves.

"Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression." Qur'an 5:2
At the heart of that Western freedom and democracy is the belief that the individual man, the child of God, is the touchstone of value..." -RFK

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #59 on: January 23, 2010, 04:12:42 pm »

From Monterey Pop to Altamont.
OPERATION CHAOS: The CIA's War Against the Sixties Counter-Culture
by Mae Brussell, November 1976


American and British pop/rock music during the 60's created an art form that has been described as one of the most important cultural revolutions in history.

Within a few years, between 1968 and 1976, many of the most famous names associated with this early movement were dead. Mama Cass Elliott (earlier with the Mamas and Papas), Jimi Hendrix, Otis Redding, Brian Jones (helped form the Rolling Stones with Mick Jagger and Keith Richards), Janis Joplin were all at the Monterey Pop celebration, summer 1967.

Duane Allman Berry Oakley (helped form Allman group with Duane and Gregg Allman), Tim Buckley, Jim Croce, Richard Farina, Donald Rex Jackson (road manager for Grateful Dead) Michael Jeffery (Jimi Hendrix' personal manager), Brian Epstein (Beatles manager), Al Jackson (drummer for Wilson Pickett, back-up drummer for Otis Redding), Vinnie Taylor (Sha-Na-Na) Paul T. Williams (choreographer for the Temptations, and one of the original Temptations), Clarence White (Byrds), Robbie McIntosh (drummer Average White Band), Jim Morrison (Doors), Pamela Morrison (Jim's wife), Rod McKernan "Pig Pen" (Grateful Dead), Phil Ochs, Gram Parsons (Byrds, Flying Burritos, International Submarine Band, singing with Emmylou Harris), Sal Mineo, Meredith Hunter (victim of ritual killing at Altamont Festival), Steve Perron (lead singer of Children, wrote hit songs for ZZ TOP), and Jimmy Reed (influenced many groups, combined harmonica with guitar) were a few possible victims.

Family and friends accepted the musicians depressions or accidents as having to do with alcohol, drug usage, or both. Was anything added to their beverages or drugs to cause personality changes and eventual suicides?

Almost every death was shrouded with unanswered questions and mystery.

Persons around the musicians had strange backgrounds and were often suspect.

All of these musicians were at the peak of a creative period and success at the time they were offered LSD. Their personalities altered drastically. Optimism and gratification were replaced with doubt and misery.

Why would young people with so much talent and influence as Phil Ochs, Janis Joplin, Gram Parsons, or Brian Jones wallow in suffering, self doubt, and despondency? They were all loved, doing important contributions to their concerts and compositions, cutting new records, recognized for their talent. It just doesn't make sense.

Jimi Hendrix, Mama Cass Elliott, Steve Perron choking from their vomit? I doubt it!!

Phil Ochs just happened to be touring Africa when a native "robber" jumped after him and cut his throat so that it affected his singing? The most political symbol of protest against the war in Vietnam, songwriter for Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, and many others, is selected from millions of U.S. tourists for assault to his vocal chords. Incredible!!

Way back in 1966 the American Broadcasting Co. was planning to merger with International Telephone and Telegraph Co.(ITT). ABC had put aside $100,000 advance for the first television special by writer-poet Bob Dylan. The production was to climax the season.

On Saturday, July 30, 1966, Bob Dylan had a motorcycle accident. Dylan never got on the air, and ABC never merged with ITT. The merger required a lack of protest from the Antitrust Division of the Justice Department. No comment. By now you know what I am thinking!!!

In addition to Dylan, Stevie Wonder, Eric Clapton, and the Dave Mason band, many others suffered near fatal accidents.

The nine years in which the musicians allegedly overdosed, drank themselves to death, drove over cliffs, hung themselves, choked, crashed their motorcycles, went insane, or freaked out without any reasonable explanation, were the same years that the FBI and CIA waged a domestic war against any kind of dissent.

Was Lennie Bruce the first victim? How about Jack Kerouac? Did Bruce pay his dues for comparing United States police to Hitler's Gestapo. Was all the fuss about dirty words only a cover story?

An important part of neutralizing any group is to kill or discredit the leaders.

Monterey Pop set the combined Government agencies in motion.

"Never again was there a festival such as the one that took place that weekend of 1967. Never was there another event where over thirty rock groups were inflated by no more that the joy of an enraptured audience and the gorgeous pleasure of performance itself. There were eight, nine, ten times as many people running rock festivals taking place only two years later. There was never another Monterey! The weekend was too intoxicating, too radiant, too pure."
"Janis Joplin, Buried Alive" Myra Friedman

By 1968, the FBI's Counterintelligence Program, and the CIA's Operation Chaos, had included among their long list of domestic enemies "Advocates of New Lifestyles," "New Left," "Apostles of Non-Violence and Racial Harmony" and "Restless Youth."

Justification for indexing 300,000 law abiding citizens into files, and wiretapping, bugging, or burglarizing offices was rationalized on the basis that violence was prevalent, the cities were burning.

Now we find out that being "non-violent" and wanting "racial harmony," according to recent Congressional investigations, was also a crime.

The meeting place for this social, economic, and soon to become political, revolution was at the folk festival, rock concerts, free park love-ins, at the FM radio stations, or home with favorite records.

In the music there were many messages.

American youth were provided with a wide variety of radio stations to manage, alternative news sources, and new ways to learn what was going on in the world.

For the first time, young Americans found themselves with enough space and time to communicate.

The space was the entire continent, then the globe. They wandered. Many left homes in large numbers, seeking contacts from strangers in distant communities.

The time was often twenty four hours each day. They dropped out from established institutions. Clocks disappeared.

Musicians were bringing these young people together from far away places.

"I see a great deal of danger in the air. Teenagers are not screaming over pop music anymore, they're screaming for much deeper reasons. We're only serving as a means of giving them an outlet. Pop music is just the superficial tissue. When I'm on the stage I sense that the teenagers are trying to communicate to me, like by telepathy, a message of some urgency. Not about me or my music, but about the world and the way they live. I interpret it as their demonstration against society and it's sick attitudes. Teenagers the world over are weary of being pushed around by half-witted politicians who attempt to dominate their way of thinking and set a code for their living. This is a protest against the system. And I see a lot of trouble coming in the dawn."
Mick Jagger 1967

Everything was beautiful until the insanity began.

The CIA got into the business of altering human behavior in 1947.

 "Project Paperclip," an arrangement made by CIA Director Allen Dulles and Richard Helms, brought one thousand Nazi specialists and their families to the United States. They were employed for military and civilian institutions.

Some Nazi doctors were brought to our hospitals and colleges to continue further experimentations on the brain.

American and German scientists, working with the CIA, then the military, started developing every possible method of controlling the mind.

Lysergic Acid Diethylmide, LSD,, was discovered at the Sandoz Laboratories, Basel, Switzerland, in 1939 by Albert Hoffman. This LSD was pure. No other ingredients were added.

The U.S. Army got interested in LSD for interrogation purposes in 1950. After May, 1956, until 1975, the U.S. Army Intelligence and the U.S. Chemical Corps "experimented with hallucinogenic drugs."

The CIA and Army spent $26,501,446 "testing" LSD, code name EA 1729, and other chemical agents. Contracts went out to forty-eight different institutions for testing. The CIA was part of these projects. They concealed their participation by contracting to various colleges, hospitals, prisons, mental hospitals, and private foundations.

The LSD I will refer to is the same type of LSD that the CIA used because of the similarity of symptoms between their reports and what happened to musicians or hippies after 1967. We shall be speaking of CIA-LSD, not pure LSD.

Government agents and the ability to cause permanent insanity, identical to schizophrenia, without physician or family knowing what happened to the victim.

"No physical examination of the subject is required prior to the administration of LSD. A physician need not be present. Physicians might be called for the hope they would make a diagnosis of mental-breakdown which would be useful in discrediting the individual who was the subject of CIA interest. Richard Helms, CIA Director, argued that administering drugs, including poisonous LSD, might be on individuals who are unwitting as this is the only realistic method of maintaining the capability considering the intended operational use to influence human behavior as the operational targets will certainly be unwitting."

"Senate Report to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities"
Book I, page 401, April 1976.

When the first reports came out that the CIA could administer a tasteless substance into the beverage of one of their most responsible co-workers, and drive that man into a mental institution, or cause him to jump out of a window to his death, all existing CIA records were destroyed.

Hippies and musicians, previously normal and creative, with families and loved ones identical to Dr. Frank Olson, responded in the same manner as Dr. Olson after their introduction to the same drugs.

Valuable documentation of LSD experiments should not have been in the hands of CIA Director Richard Helms. January 31, 1973, one day before he retired from the CIA, he removed some possible answers as to the fate of persons minds the past ten years.

Helms had been behind all the types of experimentations since 1947.

Mind altering projects went under the code names of Operation Chatter, Operation Bluebird/Artichoke, Operation Mknaomi, Mkultra, and Mkdelta.

By 1963, four years before Monterey Pop, the combined efforts of the CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology, Department of U.S. Army Intelligence, and U.S. Chemical Corps were ready for any covert operations that seemed necessary.

U.S. agents were able to destroy any persons reputation cause by inducing hysteria or excessive emotional responses, temporary or permanent insanity, suggest or encourage suicide, erase memory, invent double or triple personalities inside one mind, prolong lapses of memory, teach and induce racism and hatred against specific groups, cause subjects to obey instructions on the telephone or in person, hypnotically assure no memory remains of the assignments.

The CIA has poison dart guns to kill from far away, tranquilizers for pets so the household or neighborhood is not alerted by entry or exit.

While pure LSD is usually 160 micrograms, the CIA was issuing 1600 micrograms. Some of their LSD was administered to patients at Tulane University who already had wired electrodes in their brain.

Was being crazy an occupational disease of being a musician? Or does this LSD, tested and described in Army documents, explain how a cultural happening that was taking place in 1967-68 could be halted and altered radically?

Janis used to say that her speed experience was induced by a man. He had been the cause of it. He had brought her lower than she had ever been in her life. Her involvement with the young man started in the spring of '65.    He was a very sharp brain and questionable character, engaged in some rather odd activities. Neither his history or his name was his own. He set up a fraudulent international pharmaceutical company in Canada to obtain drugs. He was also a methadrine addict. Janis was an exceptionally vulnerable girl. It had taken Janis about seven months from the time she returned from New York to degenerate into a vegetable, an eighty pound spastic speed-freak.

"Buried Alive, Janis Joplin" - Myra Friedman

Chrissie Shrimpton described how Mick Jagger's mind was affected after he started taking acid. Jagger had a nervous breakdown in the United States, June 1966, some months after he started taking acid. His collapse came just weeks before the start of a new concert tour.

Several friends from America visited Jagger and Chrissie and surreptitiously slipped acid into her drink. She was literally out of her mind. A short while later, Chrissie attempted to kill herself.

"Henry Schneiderman, a sinister American, or Canadian...he had so many passports no one was certain of his origin, brought to Keith Richards home a suitcase...which contained several pounds of heroin, cannabis, pills acid, DMT, every herb and chemical to stab or stroke the mind...along with choice LSD from San Francisco.

    Schneiderman had let believe he was really bending the law all over the world. He was on a James Bond thing, the CIA or something."

"Mick Jagger"
Tony Scaduto

Brian Jones had a complete personality change after taking LSD.

Janis Joplin's first LSD was administered surreptitiously. When she discovered what happened, she ran to spit it out.

Before Watergate, long before our understanding of Government agents interfering with our privacy or right to assemble, many autopsies and descriptions of mental conditions were never challenged. Today there is healthy suspicion.

When Tim Buckley died, following a successful concert in Dallas, Texas, his death was first attributed to a heart attack. Ten days later, Buckley's cause of death was discovered to be brought on by a drug overdose.

UCLA graduate student Richard Keeling was finally charged with murder after it was discovered that Buckley had sniffed heroin-morphine-ethanol. A police eyewitness actually saw Buckley ingest the powder.

Robbie McIntosh sniffed cocaine at a party.

The cocaine was laced with heroine and strychnine. Host Kenneth Moss was charged with murder.

In the cases of rock musicians becoming ill or passing away, there were so many variations of possibilities that could have been narrowed down to the facts if the doctors had been aware of all the circumstances. Jimi Hendrix was given a tab of acid just before his show at Madison Square Garden where he was playing with Buddy Miles and Bill Cox. The audience, as well as Hendrix, were completely freaked out by his irrational behavior. The result was that Hendrix was discredited.

The effect of one LSD dose could cause permanent brain injury. Anything Hendrix did after this experience, up to and including the time of his death, could be attributed to that earlier event.

Government manufactured LSD included countless combinations of chemicals.

New York State Psychiatric Institute was granted the first known contract for research into psychochemical drugs. The purpose was to determine the psychological effect of psychological chemical agents on human subjects. These subjects were given derivatives of LSD and mescaline. Other chemicals that were tested, which could be distributed at a later date included morphine, demerol, seconal, scopolamine, ditan, atrophine, psilocybin, BZ (benzilate), glycolate, atrophine substitutes, dimethyl, tryptamine, chlorpromazine, LSD with Dibenzyline (blocking agents), LSM (Lysergic acid morpholide), LSD like compounds, psilocybin, and various chemical glycolate agents.

It is no easy feat to alter society's consciousness. An arsenal of weapons was available.

Included among the chemicals were also choking agents, nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, vomiting agents, incapacitating agents and toxins.

"The glycolates cause incapacitation by interfering with muscle, gland functions and the central nervous system, they depress or inhibit nervous activity. In addition to delirium there is physical incoordination, blurred vision inhibition of sweating and salivation, rapid heart rate, elevated blood pressure, increased body temperature and , at high doses, vomiting, prostration, and stupor or coma. The onset may be minutes, hours, or days."

U.S. Army "Use of Volunteers in Chemical Agent Research"
Released from the Pentagon March 1976


"How does it feel
to be
One of the
Beautiful people?"

The Beatles "Baby, You're Rich Man" - Magical Mystery Tour Album

Robert Hall, a private detective in Hollywood, was killed by a single bullet on July 22, 1976.

So far, there has been a wire service news blackout on the implications of Hall's murder for obvious reasons. The facts in this case should expose more than the tip of Watergate. What was going on is Los Angeles is part and parcel of the Washington, D.C. scandals.

If one Army report alone exposes that millions of dollars were spent using and testing chemical combinations for operational purposes, then somebody has to be around to distribute the poison.

Managers of seven rock groups, seven different groups, had hired private eye Hall to find out how their stars were getting "stoned."

Turning on or feeling "high" doesn't warrant hiring the professional assistance of a detective. That they were obviously complaining about was that the stars were being altered in such a way that it hampered with their public appearances, credibility, personal lives, and recordings.

Hall's inquiry revealed the drugs were coming from two pharmacies with which he had been employed.

Hall used to own a drug store in Hollywood with co-partner Jack Ginsburg, an admitted pornographer, who was charged with Hall's murder.

Gene LeBell, 44, the other man arrested along with Ginsburg, refereed the Muhammed Ali bout with a Japanese wrestler in July, '76. LeBell, a professional wrestler, is the son of Aileen Eaton, a well known boxing promoter who owns and operates the Olympic Auditorium in Los Angeles.

The reports that Hall concluded for the managers of the rock musicians included the names of two physicians and one dentist as having supplied false prescriptions. The cause of apparent freaking out was centered in a small area of operation.

This information was turned over to the proper authorities for arrests before Hass was murdered. No actions were taken by the police. No arrests have been made.

The same frustrations plagued Robert Hall that bothered Phoenix, Arizona reporter Don Bolles. The higher-ups get police and law protection. The investigators get killed.

Don Bolles and Robert Hall were investigating some of the same people, an actual who's who of the cold war.

Hall's contacts were important because they touched the prime movers of our politics, movies, electoral processes, entertainment, and also our tastes in music and in sounds.

Within moments of Hall's murder, his name was linked with possible murder for hire, kidnapping plans for millionaire financier Robert Vesco's son, gun running to Vesco in Costa Rica, the unsolved stabbing of actor Sal Mineo, blackmail, the lost safe deposit box of Howard Hughes that could contain his original will, Beverly Hills financier Thomas P. Richardson (recently convicted of a $25 million stock fraud), Hollywood's most famous celebrities in drug and sex scandals, exposures of televisions stars and high Washington officials, drug traffic from Los Angeles to the Malibu community, international sports events, the Los Angeles Police Department (one of their former agents is now retired, heads the Police Science Department at L.A. Valley College and supplied the fatal weapon used to kill Hall), Los Angeles Police Department Chief Ed Davis (because of his links to the FBI and CIA) a possible plot to kidnap Bernard Cornfeld (associate of Robert Vesco), past contacts with Mickey Cohen, the long drug addiction of singer Eddie Fisher, contract employment of Hall by Howard Hughes Summa Corp., the two burglaries of Hughes headquarters in Van Nuys and on Romaine Street. The burglary on Romaine Street set off the Glomar Explorer scandal of Hughes fronting the contract for the CIA.

Hall sent his pals to New York. Dr. Max Jacobson, titled Dr. Feelgood, the source of John F. Kennedy's happy time vitamins. Roy B. Loftin, contractor for NASA, Texan, with a long association and friendship for Bobby Baker, Lyndon Johnson's protege, knew Hall.

Investigations into the slain Burbank private detective caused Beverly Hills Police Captain Jack Eggers, on the force seventeen years, to resign.

Hall worked as a double agent for the Beverly Hills Police and the Los Angeles Police.

The relationship between law enforcement, drug traffic, and personalities as varied as politicians and musicians makes it sometimes impossible to get an impartial investigation of certain deaths. What appears as suicide can be murder.

At the time of Hall's murder, his possessions included tranquilizer guns, drug loaded darts that fire gas canisters, electronic bugging equipment of all kinds, and a wide variety of chemical formulas.
    The chemicals were possibly a combination from the many tested by the U.S. Government from 1953 to 1963.


Why were Hippies such a threat, from the President on down to local levels, objects for surveillance and disruptions?

Many of the musicians had the potential to become political. There were racial overtones to the black-white sounds, the harmony between people like Janis Joplin, Otis Redding, and Jimi Hendrix. Black music was the impetus that got the Rolling Stones into composing and performing.

The war in Vietnam was escalating. What if they stopped protesting the war in Southeast Asia and turned to expose domestic policies at home with the same energy? One of the Byrds stopped singing at Monterey Pop to question the official Warren Report conclusion that Lee Harvey Oswald was a "lone assassin."
Bob Dylan's "Bringing it All Back Home" album has a picture of Lyndon Johnson on the cover of Time.

By 1966, LBJ had ordered all writers and critics of his Commission Report on the JFK murder to be under surveillance.

That research was hurting him. Rock concerts and Oswald. What next?

While preacher preach of evil fates
teachers teach that knowledge waits
Can lead to hundred dollar plates
Goodness hides behind its gates
But even the president of the United States
Sometimes must have
to stand naked.

Bob Dylan - "It's Alright Ma"  - Bringing it All Back Home album

John and Yoko Lennon were protesting the Vietnam war. The State Department wrote documents describing them as "highly political and unfavorable to the administration." It was recommended their citizenship be denied, and they be put under surveillance.

Mick Jagger, before he was offered Hollywood's choicest women and heavy drugs, was concerned about the youth protests in Paris, 1968, and the anti-war demonstrations at the London Embassy.

"War stems from power-mad politicians and patriots. Some new master plan would end all these mindless men from seats of power and replace them with real people, people of compassion."----Mick Jagger

Woodstock, summer of 1969, was the turning point of rock festivals. Time magazine [Bilderburg]described this happening as "one of the most significant political and sociological events of the age."

One half million American youth assembled for a three day rock concert. They were non-violent, fun-loving hippies, who resembled the large followings of Mahatma Gandhi in India and Rev. Martin Luther King in the USA, both strong advocates of non-violence. And both assassinated.

It is important to understand the kinds of drugs and agents available to stifle dissent, the mentality of people hell-bent on changing the course of history, in order to comprehend that cultures and tastes can be moved in directions according to game plans in the hands of a few people.

Adolf Hitler's first targets in Nazi Germany were the Gypsies and the students. LSD was a youth oriented drug; that was perfected in the laboratory. When it was combined with other chemicals, and given the wide distribution necessary all that remained were the marching orders to go to war.

July, 1968, the FBI's counterintelligence operations attacked law abiding American individual's and groups.

The stated purpose of these assaults was to disrupt large gatherings, expose and discredit the enemy, and neutralize their selected targets.

Neutralization included killing the leaders, if necessary. Preferably, turn two opposing segments of society against each other to do the dirty work for them.

Remember that among these dangers to the security of the United States were persons with "different lifestyles" and also "apostles of non-violence and racial harmony."

CIA Director Richard Helms warned National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger, Feb. 18, 1969, that their study on "Restless youth" was "extremely sensitive" and "would prove most embarrassing for all concerned if word got out the CIA was involved in domestic matters."

The FBI sent out a list of suggestions on how to achieve their goals. They can all be applied to what happened to musicians, youngsters at folk rock festivals, and hippies along the highway.

Gather information on their immorality. Show them as scurrilous and depraved. Call attention to their habits and living conditions. Explore every possible embarrassment. Send in women and sex, break up marriages. Have members arrested on marijuana charges. Investigate personal conflicts or animosities between them. Send articles to the newspapers showing their depravity. Use narcotics and free sex to entrap. Use misinformation to confuse and disrupt. Get records of their bank accounts. Obtain specimens of handwriting. Provoke target groups into rivalries that may result in death."------Intelligence Activities and Rights of Americans. Book II, April 26, 1976, Senate Committee Study with Respect to Intelligence

The IRS admitted that "people who attend rock concert festivals" were listed among targets for investigation by its special staff. Agent Leon Levine said that "ideological groups such as rock festival patrons were to be watched."

A San Diego police officer was penalized for throwing rocks at a concert that injured a 17 year-old girl. She was treated for a fractured nose and facial lacerations.

John and Yoko's legal problems began when marijuana was planted in some binoculars while moving. After Mr. Schneiderman showed the British police his full suitcase of drugs during the bust with Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, and Robert Frazier, Schneiderman left town. He was never arrested. The Stones went to jail. Mick Jagger was then put on the International Red List as a possible narcotics smuggler every time he went through customs.

Cable Splicer III, martial law plans, set to control civil disturbances, May 1970, described as dangerous "love-in type gatherings in the parks where in large numbers freak out, peace marches, rock festivals where violence is commonplace and sex is unrestrained."

Chicago Police Chief Rockford, overall commander during the police clashes at 1968 demonstrations, was also in charge of the police who fired a volley of shots, wounding one youth in a riot at the 1970 rock festival in Grant Park.

Louis Tackwood, agent provocateur with the Los Angeles Police Department, exposed CREEP and the Republicans who were going to turn San Diego into a scene of violence during the conventions in 1972. Part of the plans were to seal off and them bomb a hundred thousand demonstrators attending a rock concert on Fiesta Island in Mission Bay, San Diego.

Employees at the CIA's Langley, Virginia, headquarters don't have to stand in line to get tickets to these events. They have a top-secret ticketron outlet for rock concert appearances.

A similar top-secret ticketron outlet is administered by the National Security Agency at For George Meade, Md.

 Howard Hughes organization ordered "all rock concerts prohibited in Las Vegas."

Fortune [Bilderburg], January 1969, described the Movement as encompassing "hippies and doctrinaire Leninists, anarchists and populists, revolutionaries, whose domain is the human mind, rock bands and cultural guerrillas."

 During the 1968 riots in Washington, D.C. group singing was outlawed by the police department. They were aware that people "get high" singing together.

 Records of Led Zeppelin, Cat Stevens, Alice Cooper, Simon and Garfunkel, Jethro Tull and others were burned at the Hollywood Christian Academy in Hollywood, Fla. Rock music was described as being "of the devil, having no place in a Christian life."

 The rock group Black Cat won a $570,000 slander suit against a minister in Arkansas. Their concert had been prevented, claiming they were a "mongrel group of Satanic origins."

 Following the slaying of two Americans in South Korea in August, the government issued tighter controls on long hair and "decadent music." Korea has a list of 260 decadent rock-folk and protest songs. Among them is "I Shot the Sheriff" and "We Shall Overcome." A survey of Quebec policemen showed that more of them were hostile to hippies or beatniks than they are toward criminals.

    Art Linkletter, a television personality, told a Congressional committee investigating drug abuse that the "Beatles were the leading advocates of an acid society." This is an example of turning one hostile group against another. There is every reason to believe that the LSD that caused Dr. Frank Olson and Diane Linkletter to leap from buildings to their death could be manufactured from the same laboratories. With justified anger, Linkletter became a mouthpiece. Meanwhile, the so-called straight society Linkletter was defending, spent sixteen years and millions of dollars perfecting LSD into an operational weapon.

Los Angeles Police arrested 511 persons attending the Pink Floyd concert. There were no mass arrests at Elton John's performance in the same city, around the same time.

 Somebody is selecting their targets, because there is plenty of grass at Elton's concert.

"Peace Pills" were distributed at the Santa Clara Fairgrounds for a folk-rock festival. Youngsters were hospitalized. A strange drug was handed out freely and poured into drinks.

All of those who took the drug were treated, but sent home without any knowledge of the psychological damage.

 This pill was blamed for the death of Mrs. Loid Dodd de Lattre, wife of a beatnik priest. Mrs. de Lattre's heart burst under the stimulation of the drug. Under its influence, she tore out her hair and threw herself on the floor.

A man had jumped on the musician's platform and announced they had 4,000 pills to hand out. The pills caused "marked disorientation as to time and space, inability to sustain directed thought, presence of a trance-like state."

 This kind of scene was so common that large groups were discouraged from performing in the manner they had before these assaults took place.

 The irreplaceable loss of lives and talent has been noticed by persons sensitive to the rock-folk music.

We can't bring them back to life. We might take time to examine their deaths, if only to stop the still going attack upon certain artists and musicians.

Some of my information on the details of these deaths is incomplete. The circumstances surrounding them caused me to ask some hard questions.

JOHN CARPENTER, 45 yrs, Sept. 18, 1976, killed by hit and run driver, Ben Lomand, Calif. Part of the earliest rock scene, once managed Grace Slick, wrote for Rolling Stone from issue one through eight, disc jockey at KPFK, music critic for L.A Free Press. Got "totally crazed" and committed himself to a mental institution for a while.

TIM BUCKLEY, 28 yrs, June 29, 1975, Los Angeles. Just returned from a concert in Dallas, Texas, about to make a movie of Woodie Guthrie's "Bound for Glory." Death caused by heroin-morphine-pentathol. Police eyewitness to his taking the drug. Joe Falsia, Buckely's manager "never knew Tim used drugs." Richard Keeling charged with his murder.

THE CHASE, August 11, 1974, Four in rock group killed, airplane crash. Bill Chase, Jazz trumpeter with Woody Herman, Walt Clark, drummer, John Emma, guitarist, and Wallace Wouhne, organist. Three years ago the Chase had a single, "Get It On," that became a hit. Popular with radio stations. Played often in Las Vegas, Japan, Africa, released three albums.

JIM CROCE, 30 yrs. old, Sept. 20, 1973. Airplane crash, Louisiana. Recorded hit albums, including "Bad, Bad LeRoy Brown." Degree in psychology from Villanova U., sang at small colleges. Croce's widow filed a $2.5 million suit against Federal Aviation Administration. Allegations that preparation of maps on the airport runway were faulty, leaving a tree unmarked which the fatal plane struck.

BRIAN JONES, July, 1969, London. One of the original members of the Rolling Stones. Unique musician, helped the group get started, under control of drugs by 1966, took LSD that caused personality changes and depression. Seemed to have brain damage and disintegrated. Compared his arrests and planted grass to the treatment Lennie Bruce had received, forced to drop from the group. Keith Richards, of the Stones, said,

"Some very weird things happened the night Brian died. We had these chauffeurs working for us, and we tried to find out. Some of them had a weird hold over Brian. I got straight into it and wanted to know who was there and couldn't find out. The only cat I could ask was the one I think who got rid of everybody, and did a whole disappearing thing so that when the cops arrived, it was just an accident. Maybe it was. I don't know. I don't even know who was there that night, and finding out is impossible. It's the same feeling with who killed Kennedy. You can't get to the bottom of it."
"Mick Jagger"
Tony Scaduto

MAMA CASS ELLIOT, 33, former member of Mamas and Papas, London. Found dead in her apartment. "Probably choked to death on a ham sandwich," or "possibly of heart attack. The coroner said it "appears the singer had not died of natural causes." She was propped up in bed, and had been dead for a considerable time before her body was found. Had just completed two weeks at the London Palladium, was ready to tour Britain, was in excellent mental spirits. Performed at the Monterey Pop.

JANIS JOPLIN, 27 yrs., Oct. 3, 1970, Los Angeles. Cause of death listed as "drug overdose, accidental." Lawsuit in 1974 claimed "it was possible that something unknown triggered a fatal reaction." Fought alcohol and drug usage most of her adult life. Body at autopsy didn't show large amounts of morphine. The night she died, Janis was with a mysterious character who accompanied her to the Landmark Hotel, L.A. She made three calls to her drug "connection" on the hotel switchboard. No arrests or effort to locate this party. Went to the lobby, bought cigarettes, talked, walked back to her room, and fell on the floor inside the door. Was taking pills to stop drug habit? Engaged to be married, slim, tan, recording what was to be a tremendous success, Pearl, happy with her band, climbing out of darker days when she dropped dead. Sang at Monterey Pop with Big Brother and the Holding Company. One of the top blues-acid rock stars.

DONALD REX JACKSON, 31, Sept. 28, 1976. Automobile accident. Manager for the Grateful Dead, just set group up for a national tour. Car swerved off the road, killed instantly.

AL JACKSON, 39 yrs., October, 1975. Former drummer with Booker T. and the MG's. Back up drummer for Otis Redding. Shot to death five times, Memphis, Tenn. Cause of death "apparent robbery." Produced Stax Records.

JIMI HENDRIX, 27 yrs., Sept. 18, 1970. Cause of death clouded. Suggestions of drug plants, mafia connections, murder. Kidnapped shortly before he died. Surrounded by groupie females, one of whom boasted giving him his first acid trip. Affected by acid, depression, interfered with performances. One of top stars at Monterey Pop. Into rock-blues, jazz. Media assumption of "suicide" or "drug overdose" like Joplin. Earned millions. Freaked out and couldn't do his serious music.

JIM MORRISON, 27 yrs., July 3, 1971. Paris, France. Lead singer for the Doors. Cause of death "heart attack," or "pneumonia" or "died peacefully of natural causes." Best known hit "Light My Fire." Author "The Lords," "The New Creatures." Poet, UCLA graduate, writer, musician, politically controversial. Completed tour of Europe, South Africa, writing a movie script in Paris. Sometime irrational behavior on stage. Harassed by police, some false arrests, some charges later dropped. Described as "appearing to be in a hypnotic trance." Found guilty of using "lewd and lascivious conduct" in Miami, Florida, March, 1969. His arrest the excuse for "rally for decency" by singers, TV personalities. Deeply affected by the death of Brian Jones. (Janis Joplin died a month after Jimi Hendrix. Jim Croce died a day after Gram Parsons.) Group broke up after Morrison's death.

PAMELA MORRISON, April 27, 1974, Hollywood, Calif. Wife of Jim Morrison. Cause "an apparent drug overdose." A hypodermic syringe discovered in the apartment. No mention of drugs in her system or if there were needle marks.

RICHARD FARINA, Carmel Valley, Calif. Motorcycle crash. Author, musician, just completed a book, attended autographing party, drove down the road, met fatal crash. Brother-in-law of Joan Baez, married to Mimi. Recorded a new album "The Falcon." "Celebrations for a Gray Day," as described on the jacket, "Goldwater was about to win the California primary and the skies were somewhat uneasy."

ROBBIE McINTOSH, 28 yrs., Sept. 23, 1974, Los Angeles, died from heroin and strychnine that he believed was cocaine. Host Kenneth Moss, Freelandia Airlines, might have been singled as the target. Moss formed new charter, low cost airline. Cher Bono at the party, saved the life of Alan Gorrie. Gregg Allman working for Jimmy Carter's nomination at the time. Allman's drug arrests just before elections, Cher's attending a party where drugs with poison administered, might have caught McIntosh as innocent victim. Moss was charged with murder. (Janis Joplin's known drug connection was not held for her death.)

SAL MINEO, 1975, Los Angeles. Stabbed in back. One time singer, actor, whose next role was to play Sirhan Sirhan. Controversial movie about the hypnotic state of Sirhan, and LAPD suppression of evidence on the Robert Kennedy assassination. Robert Hall was allegedly following Mineo the night he was killed.

ROD McKERNAN, "PIG PEN" 27 yrs. old, March 1973, Corte Madera, Calif. Member of Grateful Dead, organist, singer. Body found in an apartment by neighbor who hadn't seen him for a few days. Coroner's office reports, first accounts probably natural causes, probably liver disease. Had been suffering from cirrhosis of the liver, swelling of blood vessels in his throat. No explanation for his sudden death, or why not at the hospital, or gone for help. Hadn't touched alcohol for two years.

PHIL OAKS, 35 yrs. old, April 1976, New Jersey. "Death by hanging." No suicide notes, nobody sure why Oaks died. Active during Vietnam war, got depressed 1971, using alcohol. Sang at Madison Square Garden, with Bob Dylan, "An evening with Salvadore Allende" in 1974, obsessed with JFK assassination. Developed two personalities, John Train and Phil Oaks. Talked of death, had erratic behavior. "Band of robbers" in Africa one of the reasons for his depression. Oaks was attacked Hendrix was kidnapped just before his death. Known as the troubadour of the "New Left," one of the FBI's target groups.

STEVE PERRON, 28 yrs., Aug. 8, 1973. San Antonio, Texas. Died from inhaling vomit fumes during sleep. Composer, writer, lead singer for Children. Was off drugs, preparing to cut new album for Ode Records. Wrote "Francine" for ZZ TOP, hit records. Composed over 100 songs. Married, child, happy, productive composing when died.

GRAM PARSONS, 26 yrs., Sept. 19, 1974, Calif. Cause of death shrouded in mystery. Autopsy report "inconclusive." Body taken off airplane on way to Louisiana, cremated 200 miles away from L.A. Composer, singer, musician. Former theology student from Harvard who went into country-western music, sang with the Byrds, Flying Burritos, Submarine Blues, and Emmylou Harris. Made some informal recordings with actor Brandon DeWilde, child star of "Shane" and "Member Of The Wedding", who died in July 1972 in a car accident in Denver, Colorado. DeWilde was driving to a stage play performance of "Butterflies Are Free", in which he was starring.

Once happy family life, conventional, turned on to LSD, drugs, alcohol, became depressed, left mysteries about what happened to him. Phil Kaufman, ex-convict charged with drug smuggling, lived with Charles Manson two months, managed Parsons. Kaufman took Gram to Joshua Tree Inn, where he died, and removed the coffin to the desert, where the body was assured of never having another autopsy.

OTIS REDDING, 26 yrs., December 1967. Airplane crash over Wisconsin. First star of Monterey Pop to die. Brought soul to every American city. Best known hit record "By the Dock of the Bay." A poll before his death claimed Redding the most popular musical star in Europe.

JIMMY REED, 50 yrs., Aug. 29, 1976. Natural causes, "died the night before he was set for a California tour." Blues writer, harmonica player, influenced Dylan, Steve Miller, Grateful Dead.

VINNIE TAYLOR (CHRIS DONALD), 25 yrs., April 1974, Virginia. Lead guitarist for Sha-Na-Na. Played at Woodstock. Found by National Guard in motel room following a concert in Va. On way to appear in Pittsburgh, Pa. for a sell-out performance.

CLARENCE WHITE, Car crash. Los Angeles, Calif. One of the Byrds. Close friend of Gram Parsons.

PAUL WILLIAMS, 34 yrs., Aug. 23, 1973, Detroit, Michigan. Found dead in the car, gun on his lap. One of the original Temptations. Did the choreography for Temptations. Had solved drinking problems, emotional crisis. Dead only a few blocks from Motown, where first records made.


Helter Skelter and Gimme Shelter

War, Children
It's just a shot a-way,
It's just a shot a-way
See the fire sweeping our very street today,
Barns like a red coal carpet, ma
Mad bull lost its way
Rape! Murder! It's just a shot away
Gimme Gimme Shelter
or I'm gonna fade away
Love sister,
It's just a kiss away.

Mick Jagger Keith Richards "Gimme Shelter" Let it Bleed Album

    By the end of 1969, the folk-music festival was killed in spirit and was over as a cultural happening. It never was the same again. There are musical performances, but it just isn't the same feeling.

The two most popular groups, The Beatles and the Rolling Stones, would be identified, through media and factual distortions, with cold blooded murder and violence.

Helter Skelter, the name of a Beatles song, would become the title of Manson Family prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi's book.

 What a strange twist of fate!!

Gimme Shelter, the name of a movie depicting the ritualistic murder of a black man attending the Rolling Stones concert in Altamont Racetracks, California, is from a song by the Rolling Stones.

How did this all happen?

 Coincidence or conspiracy?

  There are so many published Government documents today, and Congressional Hearings exposing illegal CIA and FBI domestic activities, that it is almost impossible to ride the coincidence coat tails much longer.

  Just as pocket calculators add numbers faster, history's dates also put pieces of the puzzle into better perspective.

 FACT   1    Social structures are rearranged by architects. Politica, the game plan for overthrowing Salvador Allende's elected government in Chile was arranged by Abt. Associates, Cambridge, Mass., in 1965.

 Abt. was a front for the Pentagon and CIA. They had another plan titled Camelot.

 Was Camelot the military answer to future dissent in America that would follow other necessary assassinations? The war in Vietnam escalated Nov. 24, 1963, with no known provocation from North Vietnam. It was only a matter of time before the natives at home would find out what was happening, before Norman Mailer would be writing "Why are We in Vietnam?"

FACT   2    In 1972, at time the Watergate, E. Howard Hunt was employed by the White House to forge secret State Department papers. The sole purposes of this procedure was to distort history and make the late President Kennedy responsible for the assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem, president of South Vietnam. There would be attempts to blame Kennedy for the assassination plot against Fidel Castro, in spite of massive evidence to the contrary.

For all who remembered Kennedy kindly, who complained about his assassination, history was being arranged with a scissors and scotch tape.

Kennedy would come out a scummy killer himself.

This wasn't taking place in some strange office, or dark cellar, but in the same White House offices where Nixon was screaming "Manson did it."

 If President Nixon went to so much trouble to identify murder with an innocent man like Kennedy, there is every reason to believe his hatred of anti-war hippies and their folk-rock musicians could also be identified with murder. Make them all look violent. Bring it all down.

 FACT   3    In 1969, the combined agencies of the CIA, Army, and FBI, were put into full operational use. The Sharon Tate-La Bianca murders happened August, 1969.

  The Altamont violence and filmed movie was Dec. 6, 1969.

  CIA    The CIA prepared for defense against American youth unrest in 1965, the same year as Camelot and Politica.

  With full knowledge of their illegal activities, they joined forces with the CIA and the Army.

 By August 1967, Special Operations group went after the youth. By July, 1968, Operation Chaos, identical to Chilean "Chaos," went after the "Restless Youth." This wasn't a study. It was an attack.

 Mid-summer of 1969, one month before the Manson Family massacres, Operation Chaos went into the most tight security of any assignment ever accomplished inside the CIA.

 From 1956-63, they had perfected enough LSD to cause every violent act or symptom associated with the violence in Los Angeles or at Altamont.

 It was identical to giving poison candy at Halloween. LSD was the moving force, the cause for the Sharon Tate-La Bianca slaughters. It was fed at the Spahn ranch for a steady diet.

LSD was the moving force behind Altamont killing and violence Dec. 6, 1969. Thousands of tablets were distributed to the Hell's Angels, who then went totally berserk and started cracking skulls.

FBI    May, 1964, after the JFK assassination, the FBI formed their COINTELPRO, counterintelligence program.

    July, 1968, explicit orders went out to proceed, accompanied with instructions, to neutralize segments of our society, including those restless youth.

    By 1969, the SSS, Special Services Staff of the FBI, combined with the Justice Department, and with CIA's Operation Chaos.

    August, 1969, was the Sharon Tate-La Bianca slaughter.

    December 6, 1969, was the Altamont concert of the Rolling Stones.

 ARMY    The Army began their chemical testing of LSD, the youth drug, in 1956, the same year they were planning Politica and Camelot in Cambridge, Mass.

 Contracts for testing LSD and chemical agents continued through 1975.

 January 21, 1969, the army reported "the LSD tests are rewarding. It is recommended that the actual application of LSD be utilized in real situations on an experimental basis."

 Acid was distributed, surreptitiously, to large masses of the population. It was the chemical that was to link Helter Skelter and Gimme Shelter with blood and gore.

FACT  4    There is more to the creation of the Manson Family, and their direction than has yet been exposed.

 There is more to the making of the movie Gimme Shelter than has been explained.

 This saga has inter-connecting links to all the beautiful people Robert Hall was associated with.

 The Manson Family and the Hell's Angels were instruments by which enemy forces could attack and discredit hippies and critical American youth who had dropped out of the establishment.

  The violence came down from Neo-Nazi racists, adorned with Swastikas both in L.A. and in the Bay Area at Altamont.

 The blame was placed on persons not even associated with the causes of death at all.

  When it was all over, the Beatles and the Rolling Stones were the icing on this cake, this presentation, to rub musicians into a racist, neo-nazi plot.

  By rearranging the facts, cutting here and there, distorting evidence, neighbors and family feared their own youth wandering through the communities.

 Charles Manson made the cover of Life, with those wide eyes, like Rasputin.

 Charles Watson didn't make the cover. Why not? He participated in all the killings. Manson wasn't inside the house. Because Manson played a guitar and made records. Watson didn't.

 Charles Watson was too busy taking care of matters, at the lawyer's office prior to the killings, or with officials of the Young Republicans.

  What were Watson's protections in Texas, where he remained until his separate trial prevented him from being psychologically linked to all the deaths he actually committed?

  "Pigs" was written in Sharon Tate's house in blood. Was this to make blacks become targets and suspects for stalking white territory?

  Credit cards of the La Bianca family were purposely deposited in the black ghetto after their massacre. The intention was to stir racial fears and hatred.

    Who wrote the first article, "Did Hate Kill Tate?", blaming the Black Panthers for the murders? Army intelligence agent Ed Butler, Lee Harvey Oswald's old pal from New Orleans. They made a record together so that Oswald could pass himself off as a Marxist. Another deception.

  Glasses were left on the floor of Sharon Tate's home the day of the murder. They were never identified.

  Who moved all the bodies after the killers left and before the police arrived?

 The Spahn ranch wasn't a hippie commune. It bordered the Krupp ranch, and has now been combined and incorporated to make a German Bavarian beer garden. Howard Hughes knew George Spahn. He went to this ranch daily while making The Outlaw.

 Howard Hughes bought the 516 acres of Krupp property in Nevada after he moved into that territory. What about Altamont? What distortions and untruths forced that movie?

  Why did Mick Jagger order "the concert must go on"?

 There was a demand the filmmakers be allowed to catch this concert. It couldn't have happened the same in any other state.

The Hell's Angels had a long working relationship with some of the law enforcement, particularly in the Oakland area.

They became heroes of the S. F. Chronicle and other papers when they physically assaulted the dirty anti-war hippies protesting the shipment of arms to Vietnam.

The laboratory for choice LSD, the kind brought to England for the Stones, came from the Bay Area and could be consumed easily by this crowd attending their free love-in.

Persons at the concert said there was "a compulsiveness to the event." It had to take place.

Melvin Belli, Jack Ruby's lawyer, made the legal arrangements. Ruby had complained that Belli had prohibited him from telling the full story on why he killed Lee Harvey Oswald. (another media event) There are so many layers of cover-up, and there are just so many persons whose names reappear, only in different scripts.

Sen. Philip Hart, a member of the Senate Committee investigating illegal intelligence operations inside the USA, claimed that his children were telling him all these things were happening. He had refused to believe them. The Senator felt it was his obligation to defend his country rather than look at the evidence.

November 18, 1975, Sen. Hart realized matters were not only out of hand, but that the past has to be made believable in order to prevent the same things happening over and over again.

The trick now is for this committee to be able to figure out how to persuade the people of this country that indeed it will go on. And how shall we insure that it will never happen again? But it will happen repeatedly, unless we can bring ourselves to understand and accept that it did go on.
Senate Hearings, Vol. 6, p. 41

Meanwhile, it still does go on. Flo and Eddie, the musical group formed after the Turtles, had to cancel their fully booked one year tour of the U.S. and Britain.

Their lead guitarist either fell or was pushed from a ninth-floor hotel room of the Salt Lake City Hilton.

First notice of this murder appeared November 9, 1976, in a small column from the S.F. Chronicle.

 John Austin wrote "the accident has not yet been reported, as the gendarmes are trying to keep the lid on it."

  A few days before, their manager, Jim Taylor, was threatened.
  There were hints the syndicate might be taking over the pop music business.
  Was that the next process, once the counter-culture was removed?


1. Department of the Army, Office of the Inspector General, Washington, D.C. Declassified March, 1976.

  U.S. "Use of Volunteers in Chemical Agent Research" Chapter IX Intelligence Corps Experimentation with Hallucinogenic Drugs, pages 135-147.
  Chapter X, Contracts with Civilian Institutions, pages 152-166. "Use of Volunteers in Chemical Agent Research."
  Attachment "C" U.S. Army pages 212-247 Contracts for testing Chemical Agent Research. Section III, Contract Costs 1950-1975.

2. Intelligence Activities. Book I, April 26, 1976 Foreign and Military Intelligence.
3. Senate Committee to Study Government Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Book II, April 26, 1976 Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans.
4. Report to the President by the Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States. June 1975. Rockefeller Report.
  Scaduto, Tony, Mick Jagger, David McKay, New York, 1974.
  Friedman, Myra, Janis Joplin, Buried Alive, Bantam, New York, 1973.

Dept. of the Army, Office of the Inspector General and Auditor General, Released March     1976.
Chronology of U.S. Army Intelligence, U.S. Chemical Corps Experiments on LSD, Code name EA 1729.
 LSD considered by Army as method for interrogation, and also for defense against enemy interrogation
May 1956
 Page 136, Army Report. "All beverages served to volunteers had included sufficient LSD, EA 1729, for effective dosage, or additional dosage administering before volunteering."
 Tests included many other chemicals. Also included LSD on electrode implants. Doses as high as 1600 micrograms, normal LSD, street level, 160 micrograms.
March 1958
 Used on memory impairment, motor reactions, affects upon isolation, stress under LSD.
Jan. 21, 1959
Jan. 8, 1960
Dec. 1960
April 28, 1961
 Overseas "testing," LSD. Causing mental diseases, not recognized by physicians, to get diagnosis to discredit.
July 1961
Feb. 1962
  Hawaii military bases, LSD experiments
April 19, 1963
 No records of "volunteers"
Existing records "incomplete"
Most records "totally inadequate"
Foreign and Military Intelligence
Book I. April 26, 1976
Senate Committee to Study Governmental Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities.
 1947, same year Nazi doctors brought to USA, continued their tests and experiments.
 For the purpose of interrogation.
 Sodium Pentathol Injections, hypnosis Purpose; erase memory, create double, triple personalities, resist torture, conduct covert operations without memory later.
 Death of Dr. Harold Blauer
 Injections of Synthetic Mescaline Derivative. U.S. Chemical Corp. NY State Psychiatric Inst.
 To be used by Technical Services Division. Make sure complete predictability of results. Toxins, shellfish, poison darts, pills, Biological weapons. Drugs to silence animals. Worked with the Army from 1952.
 Electroshock   electrode implants 
 Psychology   LSD + electrodes  psychiatry
 "10 years of tests," then operational. Tested all social levels of society. Native Americans, wide variety of persons used. Army Hospitals. Vacaville Prison, Calif. Lexington, Ky. National Institute of Mental Health.
 Allen Dulles 100,000,000 LSD 
 Millions of Dollars 
 Universities, pharmaceutical houses, hospitals. State, Federal institutions. 
 Special and unique items for dissemination. Combined MKULTRA with Army, Projects Derby Hat, Project Third Chance. 
 Dec. 1963
Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans
Book II, April 26, 1976
Senate Committee to Study Governmental Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities
1964, May
July 1968
 ORDERS FROM FBI HEADQUARTERS: INSTRUCTIONS FOR OPERATIONS Selected "enemy" were to be 1) exposed 2) disrupted
3) neutralized.
 Gather information on their immorality.
 Show them as scurrilous and depraved.
 Call attention to their habits and living conditions.
 Explore every possible emb
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #60 on: January 23, 2010, 04:25:05 pm »
Was John Lennon Killed for his Pot Activism?
By David Malmo-Levine - Thursday, June 15 2006

The mystery behind his life and death is thoroughly explored

John Lennon in `How I Won the War,` 1967

"You'd just have to be as strong as they are and show - make them prove they are experts, and don't let it lie once the thing's out. Get on and push and push on every TV, radio, everything you've got and keep the questions going. Don't let it hang in a report and leave it."
- John Lennon, December 22nd 1969, testifying in favor of cannabis legalization at Canada's Royal (LeDain) Commission(1)

"Yoko Ono and John Lennon spent a weekend at my house in Watsonville... In the evening we smoked a combination of marijuana and opium, sitting on pillows in front of the fireplace, sipping tea, munching cookies. We talked about Mae Brussell's theory that the deaths of musicians like Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, and Jim Morrison had actually been political assassinations because they were role models on the crest of the youth rebellion. 'No, no,' Lennon argued, 'they were already headed in a self-destructive direction.' A few months later, he would remind me of that conversation and add, 'Listen, if anything happens to Yoko and me, it was not an accident.'"

- Paul Krassner, writing about a 1972 visit with John and Yoko(2)

Although there is no absolute proof that John Lennon was killed because he was an outspoken proponent of the legalization of cannabis, there is ? to borrow a term from law enforcement officials ? a "constellation of evidence" pointing to that conclusion. In order to convince any rational person that there is a probability (or even possibility) that John Lennon was killed by the powers-that-be for being a pot activist, one would have to present compelling evidence:

1) That the powers-that-be are in the habit of monitoring, persecuting and assassinating people like Lennon ? writers and musicians ? for their outspokenness on drug-war related issues;

2) That Lennon was a lover of cannabis and a vocal proponent of legalization;

3) That the powers-that-be targeted and harassed Lennon; and

4) That Mark David Chapman was a programmed assassin, a "Manchurian Candidate" who had help from outside sources. Admittedly, Lennon may have been assassinated for other reasons; however I'm certain that, by the end of this article, more than a few readers will begin to doubt the official story that a crazed fan simply wanted to "kill the phony".

Everybody's Got Something to Hide

"I don't smoke pot, and I'm glad because then I can champion it without any special pleading. The reason I don't smoke pot is because it facilitates ideas and heightens sensations. And I got enough shit flying through my head without smoking pot."

 Lenny Bruce(3)

Many famous drug peace writers and artists had Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) files established. Early psychonaut and drug peace proponent Aldous Huxley, author of The Doors Of Perception, was one of them. His file had 130 pages.(4) Lenny Bruce, whose cannabis activist credentials have been firmly established (see Cannabis Culture #53), was busted numerous times for obscenity and possession of narcotics. One of his charges was for a prescribed drug, and a later bust was rumored to have been a set up by the police.(5) As with Lennon, Bruce's drug crime record was how Hoover justified his FBI file.(6) Bruce's official cause of death in 1966 was an overdose of morphine. The often-repeated general consensus first articulated by Phil Spector shortly after Bruce's death was, however, that he really died of "an overdose of police."

Allen Ginsberg also was subject to FBI observation and harassment. Ginsberg had been involved with some of the first cannabis protests in the USA. The FBI made sure his poems were kept off the radio, and labeled him as "potentially dangerous".(7) The Federal Narcotics Bureau attempted to frame Ginsberg on a marijuana charge, and put pressure on recently arrested musician Jack Martin for that purpose. Even the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) kept tabs on Ginsberg.(8) The CIA was watching Tim Leary, an early pioneer of drug peace and drug freedom, as early as 1960.(9) In 1964 Leary co-authored, with Ralph Metzner, The Psychedelic Experience. John Lennon took inspiration from that book, and words from the introduction, for his psychedelic song Tomorrow Never Knows.(10)

Leary helped to start an organization called IFIF (International Federation for Internal Freedom). He was later busted for cannabis, which resulted in the Marijuana Tax Act to be ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court for violating the Fifth Amendment (against self-incrimination). Leary decided to run for governor of California against Ronald Reagan in 1970, but was busted for hashish and LSD, and sentenced to 30 years in jail.(11) Leary, a former Harvard professor, had a killer smile and personable manner that made him difficult to demonize. Leary was arrested by Nixon's "dirty tricks" goto guy, G. Gordon Liddy, during a 1966 raid on his Millbrook estate. Nixon would say to his advisors that Leary was "the most dangerous man in America."

Dana Beal ? Yippie leader, ibogaine proponent, originator of the "smoke-in", organizer of today's Global Marijuana March and pot activist since the 1960's ? was the target of FBI informants and agents of harassment. As a result of his activism, Beal was repeatedly arrested on cannabis-related charges. Activist Jerry Rubin suggested that Beal "was such an important symbol that local and Federal law enforcement agencies specifically sought to catch him dealing in drugs."(12) High Times' founding publisher Tom Forcade was harassed by FBI informant, Julie Maynard, and falsely accused of dealing heroin in a poster that fellow activists were encouraged to distribute.(13) According to Dana Beal's website, Forcade was "hounded by the DEA" up to the end of his life, when he apparently shot himself in October of 1978.(14)

Happiness is a Warm Gun

"You know, we are humorous. We are Laurel and Hardy. That's John and Yoko. We stand a better chance under that guise, because all the serious people, like Martin Luther King, and Kennedy, and Gandhi, got shot."

? John Lennon(15)

For those of you who doubt John Lennon's belief that "serious people" get shot by the establishment, there's plenty of proof available. In 1960, the CIA derived its authority to conduct assassinations from President Eisenhower, using the euphemism "executive action" when referring to such activities. The assassination team was hidden within a larger program of burglaries, kidnapping and code-breaking codenamed ?ZR/RIFLE'.(16) In the book The Great Heroin Coup, journalist Henrik Kruger writes: "Assassination, it can be argued, became a modus operandi under Richard Nixon... The White House appears to have sponsored a secret assassination program under cover of drug enforcement. It was continued by the DEA, which seemingly overlapped with the CIA in political, rather than drug, enforcement."(17)

In a deposition to the court in Hunt vs. Weberman, on September 30th 1980, G. Gordon Liddy described the plan to kill syndicated columnist Jack Anderson: "I suggested the only way to stop Mr. Anderson was to kill him. Mr. Hunt and Dr. Gunn agreed. The remainder of the conversation consisted of how we ought to do it best. The conclusion was that the Cuban assets were to stage a mugging in Washington which would be fatal to Anderson."(18)

One recently declassified CIA document, a letter from an Agency consultant to a CIA officer, states: "You will recall that I mentioned that the local circumstances under which a given means might be used, might suggest the technique to be used in that case. I think the gross divisions in presenting this subject might be: 1) bodies left with no hope of the cause of death being determined by the most complete autopsy and chemical examinations; 2) bodies left in such circumstances as to simulate accidental death; 3) bodies left in such circumstances as to simulate suicidal death; 4) bodies left with residue that simulate those caused by natural diseases."(19)

Even though some surface reforms were instituted in the mid-seventies, George Bush Sr. (head of the CIA in 1976) and William Webster (who ran the CIA from mid-1987 to mid-1991) had both claimed a need to again target political enemies of the U.S. for assassination.(20)

Have You Seen The Little Piggies "If it was up to me, there wouldn't be no such thing as the establishment."

? Jimi Hendrix(21)

"COINTELPRO was out to obliterate its opposition and ruin the reputations of the people involved in the antiwar movement, the civil rights movement, and the rock revolution. Whenever Jimi Hendrix's death is blamed on drugs, it accomplishes the goals of the FBI's program. It not only slanders Jimi's personal and professional reputation, but the entire rock revolution in the 60's."

? John Holmstrom, Who Killed Jimi?, Lions Gate Media Works(22)

Jimi Hendrix was a rebel who had a reputation for enjoying LSD and cannabis on a regular basis, and singing about it in his extremely popular songs. Are you experienced? and Purple Haze could easily be viewed as passionate endorsements of psychedelics and marijuana. On tour in Liesburg, Sweden, Hendrix was quoted as saying "In the USA, you have to decide which side you're on... you are either a rebel or like Frank Sinatra."(23) Hendrix was suspicious of his manager Mike Jeffrey, an "ex" intelligence agent with underworld connections. Hendrix's girlfriend Monika Dannemann, a nurse who was with him when he died, made this comment regarding Hendrix's famous ?heroin bust': "In May 1969 Jimi was arrested at Toronto for possession of drugs. He later told me he believed Jeffrey had used a third person to plant the drugs on him ? as a warning, to teach him a lesson."(24)

In 1979, college students filed for release of FBI files on Hendrix. The file revealed that Hendrix had been placed on the federal "Security Index", a list of "subversives" to be rounded up and placed in detainment camps in the event of a national emergency.(25) Many of Hendrix's friends, lovers and associates suspect foul play surrounding his death. Many researchers feel that Jimi died from being forced to drink red wine until he drowned, citing (the surgical registrar) Dr. Bannister's report that "masses of red wine were coming out of his nose and out of his mouth."(26) There is no evidence to support the much-repeated rumor that he died of a heroin overdose.

The more people smoke herb, the more Babylon fall."
? Bob Marley

Bob Marley was no doubt a cannabis proponent, as are all Rastafarians. He sang the tune "Kaya" (a Jamaican term for herb), talked openly about cannabis use on many occasions, and was even buried with a bud of marijuana.(27)

He was also shot at by assassins. In November of 1976, a death squad armed with immense firepower sprayed Marley's home with bullets. Marley, his wife Rita and his manager Don Taylor were all hit and seriously wounded.(28) On December 5th of that year, during the "Smile Jamaica" festival concert, Bob was visited by Carl Colby, son of CIA director (1973-76) William Colby. Carl Colby brought a gift: a pair of boots. Marley put his foot in and was poked in the big toe by a length of copper wire. He later got cancer of the toe, which spread to the rest of his body and eventually killed him.(29) Just in case anybody out there doesn't believe that cancer can be used as a weapon like that, just type in "Special Cancer Virus Program" into Google and begin your education into US domestic biological war.(30)

At first, Marley said he would use cannabis as his medicine to combat the cancer, rejecting Western medicine and the option of amputating his toe. Later on, he was treated by Dr. Josef Issels in Bavaria... up to his death. Dr. Issels was a member of the Nazi Party in Germany in the Hitler regime and was a Nazi Party doctor assigned to the eastern front. It appears that Dr. Issels did nothing but torture Marley in his dying days, cutting off his dreadlocks, denying him food and giving him painful injections (a treatment similar to experiments done at Auschwitz). Devon Evans, who played with the Wailers, visited Marley often and said "they're killing him". It's rumored that Dr. Issels he greeted Marley by saying "I hear that you're one of the most dangerous black men in the world."(31)

"I see everything that is deadly upon creation invented, arranged to assassinate those that speak the truth."

? Peter Tosh, from the film Stepping Razor: Red X

"And when Tosh went, there was nothing random about it. Witnesses and friends insist that he was a political hit. They are convinced that Tosh was killed for his statements on human rights, black liberation and the legalization of marijuana."

? Alex Constantine, The Covert War Against Rock(32)

Peter Tosh was perhaps the most vocal and militant of all pot activists. His 1975 song Legalize It became the pot activist's #1 anthem, and he was rumored to smoke two pounds of bud per week! Police beat up Tosh on many occasions, once for grabbing a roach back and blowing the contents out into the wind.(33) He was shot dead by three supposed "thieves" at his house on September 19th 1987. According to one eyewitness, nothing was stolen from the house. According to another, one of the gunmen said "Peter... You go dead tonight. Me come to kill you."(34) Wayne Johnson, producer of the biographical Red X Tapes, cites an unnamed official of the Jamaican government who told him that one of the gunmen was a police officer. There was a hurried investigation that ignored critical leads, and the two gunmen ? who looked "clean-cut", "professional" and "not local" ? were never found.(35)

If I Ain't Dead Already

When Hunter S. Thompson, famous gonzo journalist, killed himself on February 20th 2005, he was apparently working on a story about the World Trade Center attacks as he felt there was hard evidence showing the towers had been brought down not by the airplanes, but by explosive charges set off in their foundations. At the time of his death, he was talking calmly to his wife on the phone about his next column for

There is an impressive list of drugpeace writers and songwriters who died of suspicious or abnormal suicide. Phil Ochs (who wrote the pot activist anthem A Small Circle of Friends), Hunter S. Thompson (who ran for sheriff of Pitkin County, Colorado in 1970 and used his platform to speak out against the marijuana laws), Gary Webb (who exposed CIA drug running in his book Dark Alliance), Daniel "Danny" Casolaro (who investigated the BCCI [Bank of Credit and Commerce International] and Iran Contra scandals)... even the great Abbie Hoffman (author of Steal This Urine Test) left debate over whether he was "suicided" or not (his brother Jack, and Paul Krassner think not, but son Andrew suspects foul play). There's no room to go into the specifics of their strange suicides, but the information is out there.(37)

The Lennon`s New York arrival disturbed Nixon, the FBI and the INS

I'd Love To Turn You On

"If people can't face up to the fact of other people being naked or smoking pot, then we're never going to get anywhere" ? John Lennon, Penthouse, Oct. 1969(38)

"...We had an answer to Britain's problem. It was to legalize pot and let homosexuals marry and Britain would be the richest nation on earth. It's as simple as that."

? John Lennon, speaking to the Canadian Royal (LeDain) Commission, December 22nd 1969(39)

Most sources claim John Lennon was introduced to cannabis by journalist Al Aronowitz and Bob Dylan on August 28th 1964.(40) One account of the last days of Lennon's life has him smoking pot as late as August of 1980.(41) Lennon considered cannabis to be a tool of inspiration and a gift from the gods right up until the last
year of his life. In 1980, he commented on his inspiration for the backward sound effects in the song Rain: "That one was the gift of God ? of Jah, actually, the god of marijuana. Jah gave me that one. The first backwards tape on my record anywhere. Before Hendrix, before The Who, before any f**ker."(42)

In the article To Smoke or Not to Smoke: A Cannabis Odyssey by Dr. Lester Grinspoon, a similar endorsement of cannabis's inspirational powers was related to the famous pot-activist doctor by John: "I told John... how cannabis appeared to make it possible for me to ?hear' his music for the first time in much the same way that Allen Ginsberg reported that he had ?seen' Cezanne for the first time when he purposely smoked cannabis before setting out for the Museum of Modern Art. John was quick to reply that I had experienced only one facet of what marijuana could do for music, that he thought it could be very helpful for composing and making music as well as listening to it."(43)

But John Lennon's activism was more than just saying nice things about pot. In April of 1967, Rolling Stone Keith Richards had been found guilty of permitting his house to be used for the smoking of marijuana and sentenced to one year in jail and a fine of ?500. Mick Jagger, found guilty of the illegal possession of amphetamine on the same occasion, was sentenced to three months in jail and a ?200 fine. They both spent one night in jail, and once free on bail, they decided to record a song about their experience. John Lennon and Paul McCartney decided to sing in the chorus, providing a little help for their friends. The song was called We Love You, and opened with the sound of footsteps and a prison door slamming.(44)

On July 24th 1967, the Beatles took out a full-page ad in the Sunday Times with "THE LAW AGAINST MARIJUANA IS IMMORAL IN PRINCIPLE AND UNWORK ABLE IN PRACTICE" in bold, large-font letters at the top of the page. Beneath that, the wise words of the rationalist Baruch Spinoza from his 1677 Political Treatise followed: "All laws which can be violated without doing anyone any injury are laughed at. Nay, so far are they from doing anything to control the desires and passions of many that, on the contrary, they direct and incite men's thoughts towards those very objects; for we always strive toward what is forbidden and desire the things we are not allowed to have. And men of leisure are never deficient in the ingenuity needed to enable them to outwit laws framed to regulate things which cannot be entirely forbidden... He who tries to determine everything by law will foment crime rather than lessen it."

Some other quotes were included in the ad: "(It is) worth considering... giving cannabis the same status as alcohol by legalizing its import and consumption... Besides the undoubted attraction of reducing, for once, the number of crimes a member of our society can commit, and of allowing the wider spread of something that can give pleasure, a greater revenue would certainly come to the State from taxation than from fines... Additional gains might be the reduction of inter-racial tension, as well as that between generations." ? The Lancet, November 9th 1963

"There are no long lasting ill-effects from the acute use of marijuana and no fatalities have ever been recorded. There seems to be growing agreement within the medical community, at least, that marijuana does not directly cause criminal behavior, juvenile delinquency, sexual excitement, or addiction." ? Dr. J. H. Jaffe, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, L. Goodman and A Gillman, eds. 3rd edn. 1965

"The available evidence shows that marijuana is not a drug of addiction and has no harmful effects... [the problem of marijuana] has been created by an illinformed society rather than the drug itself." ? Guy's Hospital Gazette, 1967

The ad also contained a petition, which read: "The signatories to this petition suggest to the Home Secretary that he implement a five-point programme of cannabis law reform: 1) The government should permit and encourage research into all aspects of cannabis use, including its medical applications; 2) Allowing the smoking of cannabis on private premises should no longer constitute an offense; 3) Cannabis should be taken off the dangerous drugs list and controlled, rather than prohibited, by a new ad hoc instrument; 4) Possession of cannabis should either be legally permitted or at most be considered a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not more than 10 pounds for a first offense and not more than 25 pounds for any subsequent offense; and 5) All persons now imprisoned for possession of cannabis or for allowing cannabis to be smoked on private premises should have their sentences commuted."

The petition was signed by the Beatles as well as sixty-one of the leading names in British society, including Nobel laureate Francis Crick (co-discoverer of the DNA molecule), novelist Graham Greene, scientist Francis Huxley, and various Members of Parliament.(45) The advertisement was debated in the British House of Commons. Minister of State Alice Bacon in Parliament claimed 97 per cent of heroin addicts ?started on cannabis' (statistics which she appeared to have made up) and blamed the use of cannabis and LSD on the importation of negro music and Indian spirituality.(45A)

Nonetheless, the full-page ad kickstarted a three-year process that ultimately saw penalties for marijuana possession reduced in the UK. Lennon's pot activism wasn't limited to England. Drug-peace activist Tim Leary's 1970 campaign for governor of California had a campaign slogan: ?Come Together, Join The Party'. Lennon's White Album song Come Together was his donation to the campaign, arising from Leary's slogan.(46) Lennon also came to Canada in December of 1969 to speak on behalf of the legalization of cannabis at the Royal (LeDain) Commission on Cannabis & Non- Medicinal Drugs. He spoke for nearly two hours. Lennon's testimony is fascinating, and is available online for those who are curious.(47)

On Friday, December 10th 1971, John and Yoko hosted the "Free John Sinclair" concert in the Chrysler Arena in Ann Arbor, Michigan, with 15,000 people in attendance. John Sinclair was a ?White Panther' and cannabis activist facing ten years in prison for two joints. Chicago 7 lawyer William Kunstler sent a tape recording of his voice to be played at the concert. Kunstler spoke about John Sinclair, saying, "His harsh sentence dramatizes the absurdity of our marijuana laws which are irrational, unjust and indefensible. Recently the National Institute of Mental Health submitted to the Congress its 176 page report ?Marijuana and Health', which comes to the conclusion that, quote, ?For the bulk of smokers, marijuana does not seem to be harmful', end quote. Yet it is made a crime in every state with penalties ranging in severity from life to six months in jail. On the other hand, conventional cigarettes can be legally sold as long as they bear a legend on the package that they can cause serious illness or death..."(48) Then, after a few speakers, it was Lennon's turn. "This song, I wrote for John Sinclair," he said. "Okay, ?John Sinclair', nice and easy now. Sneaky.

One, two
One, two, three, four
It ain't fair, John Sinclair
In the stir for breathing air
Won't you care for John Sinclair
In the stir for breathing air
Let him be, set him free
Let him be like you and me
They gave him ten for two...
What else can Judge Columba do?
We gotta, gotta ... gotta set him free
If he was a soldier man
Shooting gooks in Vietnam
If he was the CIA
Selling dope and making hay
He'd be free, they'd let him be
Free the man like you and me
They gave him ten for two...
What else can Judge Columba do?
We gotta, gotta ... gotta set him free
They gave him ten for two
And they got [inaudible], too
We gotta, gotta ... gotta set him free
Was he jailed for what he'd done?
Or representing everyone?
Free John now, if we can
From the clutches of the man
Let him be. Lift the lid.
Bring him to his wife and kid..."(49)

`The Pope Smokes Dope,` by David Peel

Notice the lyric about the "CIA, selling dope and making hay"? Interestingly enough, that line was missing from the written version in Lennon's FBI file ? "CIA" was replaced by "flying man", but in their written version Lennon also mentions Nixon, Rockefeller and Agnew.(50)

Lennon's actions on behalf of Sinclair had tangible results ? Sinclair was released three days after the concert.(51) The results weren't all positive, though. President Nixon had deportation proceedings against Lennon initiated the moment he heard about the concert.(52) A few months after the concert, Nixon's assassination expert Gordon Liddy and "ex" CIA agent E. Howard Hunt suggested to Nixon's Attorney General John Mitchell that peace demonstrators at the upcoming Republican National Convention (which Lennon at one time planned to attend) should be mugged, kidnapped and deported. Mitchell decided to ignore this advice, instead going with their second plan ? to bug the Democratic Party Headquarters at the Watergate Hotel.(53)

Does It Worry You To Be Alone?

"...And there's this banging on the window, I thought, oh, they've got me, you know, not the police, but whoever it is that's trying to get me."

? John Lennon, speaking about the pot bust seven months earlier, during the British Television interview ?How Late It Is', BBC1, May 2nd 1969(54)

John Lennon's nearly 300-page FBI file and almost entirely unreleased CIA file were probably started in August of 1966, right after he began speaking out against the Vietnam War.(55) On October 18th 1968 in Britain, John and his new girlfriend, Yoko Ono, had been arrested and charged with possession of 1.5 ounces of marijuana. Two weeks before the bust, Lennon had been warned that the police were out to get him because he was a "loudmouth". As a precaution, he had (as he put it) "cleaned the house out [of drugs]."

Nevertheless, marijuana was found by the police. According to Lennon, he had been set up. His opinion is backed up by the fact that the arresting officer was later sentenced to two years in prison for planting evidence in other cases. In order that Ono would not be charged, Lennon copped a plea. Charges against Ono were dropped and Lennon was fined and found guilty of "an offense of moral turpitude." (56)

Money For People With Minds That Hate

In 1968, the FBI's COINTELPRO (counterintelligence program) project merged with the CIA to form ?Operation Chaos', an operation ag ainst "prominent persons"(57), "political dissidents"(58), and "restless youth"(59), which involved monitoring, subterfuge, and sometimes "selective assassinations".(60)

One of the tactics of Operation Chaos was to "Provoke target groups into rivalries that resulted in deaths."(61) It had connections with the ?Plumbers', a band of "rogue" Republicans (including assassination expert Gordon Liddy) that would later get busted at Watergate.(62) Operation Chaos was J. Edgar Hoover's aggressive plan to destabilize the Black Panthers, Weathermen, anti-war groups, activist groups, cannabis activists, and hundreds of other organizations through assassination, drug planting, harassment, wiretapping, surveillance. The Black Panthers lost over 200 leaders, almost all killed under questionable circumstances, in seven years of Operation Chaos.

According to researcher Mae Brussell, the Manson murders were par t of Operation Chaos. Operation Chaos had gone into super-secret "no-paper-trail" mode by the middle of 1969, exactly when the Manson Family murders were to have begun.(63) Another source claims Charles Manson "served as a police informant for years".(64) It was well known that Manson was introduced to both guitar and Scientology (mind control) during his last stay in prison.(65) It was less well known that right before being let out into the summer of love, he met with (RFK assassin/ patsy) Sirhan Sirhan's lawyer(66) and was given a black Volkswagon bus and a credit card (perhaps even some CIA-made LSD) in what looks like an exchange for a promise to associate the Black Panthers and/or the Beatles with murder and terror.(67)

Manson began to take up all the headline space in early December of 1969, within days of the FBI murder of Black Panther Fred Hampton. Thanks to lawyer/ author Vincent Bugliosi and his book Helter Skelter (which ignored establishment connections and focused on connections with the Beatle's White Album), everyone now associates Manson with the Beatles. Bugliosi's next book, due in May of 2007, will feature a defense of the "Oswald acted alone" theory of the JFK assassination.(68) In December 1975, George H. W. Bush faced the Senate Committee on Armed Services in hearings to determine if he was ethical enough to run the CIA. Bush told the Committee "This Agency must stay in the foreign intelligence business and not harass American citizens, like in Operation Chaos."(69) Coincidentally, it was in October 1975 that the New York Supreme Court decided that Lennon shouldn't be deported ? a decision which allowed him to become an American citizen.(70) One of the documents in Lennon's FBI file, half of which was blacked out, had the heading "CHAOS".(71)

Lennon and Chapman, his killer, Dec 8, 1980

When You Can't Really Function - You're So Full Of Fear

"I think it's wise to remember that for six years, he was hounded, not just because of some pot possession charge." ? Abbie Hoffman, speaking about John Lennon(72)

On April 23rd 1970, the FBI wrote, "While Lennon and the Harrisons have shown no propensity to become involved in violent antiwar demonstrations, each recipient (i.e. informant) remains alert for any information of such activity on their part or for information indicating they are using narcotics." The names of the informants mentioned in the notice are to this day blanked out.(73)

In December 1970, Elvis Presley met President Nixon at the White House. The meeting was about Presley wanting to "reach" the kids that were drifting into drugs. Presley had requested to be made a "Federal Agent-at-Large" in the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs.(74) Presley explained that part of the problem was the Beatles, who "had been a real force for anti-American spirit".(75)

In January 1972, an FBI document was created mentioning Lennon had appeared with Jerry Rubin at a press conference. Written in huge, underlined capital letters were the words ALL EXTREMISTS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED DANGEROUS.(76) On April 21st 1972, another FBI document mentioned that the "New York City Police Department [is] currently attempting to develop enough information to arrest both Lennons for narcotic use."(77) At this time, Lennon was involved in radical music projects involving pot. In May of 1972 the John Lennon-produced album The Pope Smokes Dope, by anarchist NYC minstrel David Peel, was released. The album's lyrics were considered profane and controversial in many places, most certainly in the FBI and White House.

Cannabis Culture magazine asked David Peel about the existence of any photographs of Lennon smoking pot. Peel said, "I've never seen a photograph of John with a joint. John was definitely afraid of ever being photographed smoking pot. He felt that would give the FBI and Nixon and immigration all the evidence they needed to deport him. So he was actually nervous about being photographed with well-known pot activists of the day, and smoking pot in any public place. More than nervous, he avoided it. I have hundreds of Lennon photographs, and he certainly smoked pot, but to have a photograph of him pot smoking that could possibly be entered in court would have had dire consequences for John."

An FBI memo dated July 27th 1972 from the New York FBI office to acting FBI Director Gray suggested that it be "emphasized" to "local Law Enforcement Agencies" in Miami that Lennon should be "arrested if at all possible on possession of narcotics charge." The New York office provided a helpful explanation: "Local INS [Immigration and Naturalization Service] has very loose case in New York for deporting subject... if LENNON were to be arrested... he would become more likely to be immediately deportable." This memo sounds like a proposal to set Lennon up for a drug bust. The American Civil Liberties Union cited this passage as evidence that the FBI was engaged in an "abuse of its authority in order to neutralize dissent."(78)

The Way Things Are Going - They're Going To Crucify Me

"These pacifist revolutionaries are historically killed by the government... Anybody who thinks that Mark Chapman was just some crazy guy who killed my dad for his personal interests is insane, I think, or very naive"

? Sean Lennon(79)

Who was Mark David Chapman? The first and most outstanding fact is that Mark David Chapman wasn't a fan of Lennon or the Beatles. He owned no Beatles albums at the time of the shooting. He had only owned one album, 1964's Meet The Beatles, in his entire life!(80) So if not a "deranged fan", what was he?

Mark David Chapman was from Georgia and began working for the YMCA in 1969, when he was 14. In Philip Agee's book Inside the Company: CIA Diary, the YMCA is cited as a CIA front. Curiously, Chapman's employment record is missing from the headquarters of the organization.( 81) Seven years after being jailed for Lennon's murder, Chapman was still writing to YMCA directors.(82) In March of 1975, Chapman applied to go to the Soviet Union through a YMCA International Camp Counselor Program but he was turned down because he couldn't speak Russian. So he decided to go to Beirut ? a strange choice for a right-wing Christian, especially when one considers that the country had been experiencing shootings and massacres for months.(83) It was also known to have an "assassination school" and an experimental mind-control army unit allegedly involving Frank Terpil, Edwin Wilson, George Korkola, and Exorcist author William Peter Blatty.(84) Assassin George Habash and CIA assassination teams also operated from there(85) and on March 31st 1981, United Press International exposed "military training in a guerrilla camp" in Beirut with "worldwide Nazities".(86)

Returning from Beirut, Chapman worked at a YMCA camp for Vietnamese refugees in Fort Chaffee, Arkansas. Here, his lifelong friend Dana Reeves (AKA "Gene Scott"), the man who would later become a police officer and provide the bullets used to kill Lennon, would let Chapman play with his gun.(87) One Researcher argues that the Fort Chaffee camp was run by World Vision, a group notorious for involvement in mind control and assassination, and run by John Hinkley Sr., the father of the man who shot Ronald Reagan. World Vision is currently in charge of repopulating Jonestown, Guyana ? the location of another mindcontrol program that ended in the death of innocent people.(88)

In 1976 Chapman reportedly ended his employment with the YMCA and took a job as a security guard on the recommendation of Dana Reeves.(89) Chapman moved to Hawaii in 1977, staying at the YMCA hostel in Honolulu. Sources conflict, but some say he felt suicidal. One source says Chapman checked himself into the Waikiki Mental Health Clinic(90) but most accounts state Chapman checked into Castle Memorial Hospital.(91) After he finished his therapy, he continued to work at the hospital under the supervision of psychologist Leilani Siegfried.(92) Some say Castle Memorial was a site for CIA mind-control experiments.(93) According to more than one source, Hawaii, like Beirut, is home to a US intelligence top-secret assassination training camp.(94)

In 1978, with "a modest loan from the hospital credit union,"(95) Chapman embarked on a six-week world tour including some of the most expensive cities and exotic locations: Tokyo, London, Geneva ? to meet with his old YMCA boss David Moore(96) ? India, Nepal, Bangkok, Hong Kong, Korea, China, Vietnam, Iran, then Atlanta to visit his cop friend Dana Reeves before returning to Honolulu... to marry his travel agent.(97) Chapman's tour would dovetail with John Lennon's own world tour in three places: Tokyo, London and Honolulu.(98)

On October 23rd 1980, Chapman signed out from work as a security guard for the last time ? writing "John Lennon" and then crossing it out. He sent a postcard to an Italian friend, giving Lennon's Dakota Hotel as a return address and mentioning a "mission" in New York.(99) The postcard was undeliverable to the friend in Italy, and was sent ?back' to Lennon's address. The postcard was later altered to be dated 1981 and with the "mission" mention removed.(100) It could have been altered by Lennon and Ono's personal assistant Fred Seaman ? who stole Lennon's diaries for raw material for his and Albert Goldman's character assassination books about him. Seaman's assistant, Robert Rosen, wrote "Dead Lennons = $$$$$" in his own diary.(101)

On October 27th, Chapman bought a gun: a Charter Arms .38-caliber Special. On the 30th he flew to New York, where he first stayed at the Waldorf Astoria, and later at the YMCA, then the Olcott Hotel a half-block from the Lennons' Dakota Hotel apartment. During this time Chapman discovered that he could not buy bullets without a gun permit.(102) The day after Reagan's electoral victory, Chapman flew off to Georgia for another visit with his friend police officer Reeves... to pick up five hollow-point bullets. On November 9th, Chapman took another plane (money was strangely no problem for the unemployed former security guard) to New York to hang around the Dakota for three days before flying back to Hawaii with the gun and the bullets.(103)

Chapman boarded yet another plane on December 2nd ? this time to Chicago, and with the gun and the bullets (airport security, like money, never seemed to be a problem). He arrived in New York on the 5th. His ticket was later altered to look like he flew straight to New York.(104) On the 8th of December, Chapman, according to most accounts, shot John Lennon. "I acted alone, I'm the only one," he said in answer to a question nobody had yet asked.(105) Coincidently, Ronald Reagan was meeting his new Chief of the CIA William Casey that night in New York City.(106)

One researcher, Salvador Astucia, makes an interesting argument that Chapman was standing to the right of Lennon when Lennon was shot, but the bullets seem to all enter from the left according to the autopsy report.(107) The researcher accuses the doorman Jose Jose Perdomo (Bay of Pigs veteran and friend of CIA assassin Frank Sturgis) of shooting Lennon, and Chapman being a mind-controlled patsy brainwashed into thinking he did it. But Astucia then goes on to blame an international Zionist conspiracy for the whole affair.(108) Strangely, this isn't the first time an "international Jewish conspiracy" was used to discredit research into John Lennon's death.(109)

Chapman pled "not guilty" and his court-appointed attorney Jonathan Marks added "by reason of insanity". By law, the defendant decides the plea.(110) The judge went ahead with Mark's attempt to verify Chapman's "insanity", hearing testimony from three psychiatrists: Dr. Milton Kline, Dr. Bernard Diamond, and Dr. Daniel Schwartz. Kline was a CIA consultant who once boasted that he was capable of creating a hypnosis-driven patsy in three months ? a mind controlled assassin in six.(111) Diamond, from the University of California in Berkeley (yet another mind control hotbed), also testified to the insanity of Sirhan Sirhan. And Schwartz also examined David ?Son of Sam' Berkowitz. As in Chapman's case, Schwartz stated that Berkowitz believed he had been commanded by ?demons' to kill.(112) Chapman was found to be sane by the courts.

To recap: He wasn't a fan. He wasn't an attention-seeker because he changed his plea to "guilty" (thus avoiding attention). No motive. No trial. No real investigation by the authorities.(113) In January of 1981, right-wing activist Lyndon LaRouche began collecting signatures supporting clemency and hero status of Chapman, because Lennon almost single-handedly "turned on" the planet to "illicit drugs". (114) Beginning the day after the assassination, there were numerous threats on Yoko Ono's life. Son Sean Lennon told Newsweek in 1996 "I grew up afraid someone was going to shoot my mom or me."(115)

Gimme Some Truth

"God, dammit, if you're gonna kill somebody have some f**king taste. I'll drive you to Kenny Roger's house, alright?"

? Bill Hicks, 1990, on John Lennon's untimely death(116)

John Lennon was more than just a rock star. He was called a revolutionist by Fidel Castro, when he unveiled a statue of Lennon in 2000, the 20th anniversary of his murder. In March 2002, his native city Liverpool honored his memory by renaming their airport "Liverpool John Lennon Airport". In the same year, the British public voted him 8th of the "100 Greatest Britons" poll run by the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation). BBC History Magazine commented that his "generational influence is immense," and to coincide with Human Rights Day 2005, Amnesty International released four Lennon songs covered by contemporary musicians.(117) According to the Oxford Illustrated History of Britain: "The musical breakthrough effected in the early 1960s by the Beatles, a group of Liverpudlian youths, made Britain the harbinger of the supposedly ?permissive' society, in which drink and drugs were freely available, skirts spectacularly shorter, sexual restraint much less in evidence."(118)

Of course, the FBI tried to downplay Lennon's influence after his death, stating in a press release that John was "too stoned" to be any threat.(119) However, in December of 2005 the FBI announced it would appeal a federal court decision to release the last ten pages of Lennon's FBI file. Obviously, someone at the FBI still thinks the truth about Lennon is a threat, even 25 years after he was killed.(120) The CIA still won't release any of the possibly hundreds of pages in their Lennon file.(121)

The truth is, it was most certainly Lennon's endless legal hassles ? over the baggie of cannabis planted at his house in England ? and his desire to focus on his son Sean (born in 1975) that kept him from being a full-time revolutionary in the 70's.(122) Nobody knows what he would have really done in the 80's, but some argue he was about to begin his next round of activism.( 123) Considering he continued to puff what he called a "gift from Jah", thought legalization would solve many social problems, and advised Canadians to push for legalization, it's fair to say Lennon would have continued pot activism.

I believe Lennon was shot for his pot activism and not his peace, workers-rights, or any other activism. Cannabis prohibition is an enormous industry. Trillions of dollars are spent on synthetic drugs, synthetic fuels, synthetic fibers, synthetic plastics, synthetic foods, the building of prisons, the bloating of police budgets, etcetera... all would be threatened by cannabis re-legalization, and the "powers that be" know it. If you stop a war (like the Vietnam War or Iraq War) you just cut into the establishment's profits. But if you stop the Drug War, you threaten their entire existence.

The CIA and FBI will probably try to keep their documents hidden from public view forever, withholding the truth behind why Lennon was watched ? and perhaps even the truth behind why he was killed. But those files were paid for with public money; they belong to the American people. The release of those CIA and FBI files pose no threat to "National Security", only to the criminals who hounded a great spirit and wonderful musician and would like to continue hounding activists today.

We all owe it to John Lennon to refuse the word of "neurotic psychotic pig-headed politicians" and we owe it to ourselves, and our current and future activists, to do something. Americans should work hard to reform their political system into one in which it is impossible to spy on or assassinate harmless activists.

? This fall, a new documentary The United States vs. John Lennon will be released by Lions Gate Films. The movie, which has the support and cooperation of Yoko Ono and features many of the people quoted in this article, covers 1966 to 1976 and tells the story of John Lennon's transformation from beloved musical artist to anti-war, pro-pot activist and iconic inspiration for peace. It recounts the story of the US Government's efforts to silence him, and shows this was not just an isolated episode in American history ? the issues and struggles of that era remain relevant today. Be sure to see this documentary later this year!


2. Paul Krassner, Confessions of a Raving, Unconfined Nut, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993, p. 214
4. Herbert Mitgang, Dangerous Dossiers, New York: Donald I. Fine, 1988, pp. 192, 194
7. Dangerous Dossiers, pp. 267-269
8. M.A. Lee & B. Shlain, Acid Dreams, New York: Grove Press, 1985, p. 226
9. Ibid, p. 80
11. Acid Dreams, p. 239
12. ?A Major Yippie Theorist Seized on Drug Charges?, NY Times, July 26, 1971, taken from: Yippie Book Collective, Blacklisted News, New York: Bleecker Publishing, 1983, p. 17. See also:
13. Blacklisted News, pp. 18-24
16. Douglas Valentine,The Strength of the Wolf ? The secret history of America?s War on Drugs, London: Verso, 2004, pp. 225-226 See also Joseph Trento, The Secret History of the CIA, Carroll & Graf, 2005, p. 193 17. Henrik Kruger, The Great Heroin Coup, Montreal: Black Rose, 1980, p.164 18. Alex Constantine, The Covert War Against Rock, Venice, California: Feral House, 2000, p.3
19. Jim Marrs, Crossfire, The Plot That Killed Kennedy, New York: Carroll & Graf, 1989, p. 557
20. See also Johnathan Vankin, Conspiracies, Cover-ups & Crimes, Lilburn, Georgia: Illuminet Press, 1996, pp. 181-184 John Ranelagh, The Agency, London: Cambridge Publishing, 1986, p. 533
21. and Notes/Covert War Against Rock.html
22. Ibid
23. Tony Brown, Hendrix: The Final Days, London: Rogan House, 1997, p. 43
24. Monika Dannemann, The Inner World of Jimi Hendrix, New York: St. Martin?s Press, 1995, pp. 76-78
25. and Notes/Covert War Against Rock.html
26. David Henderson, ?Scuse Me While I Kiss the Sky, New York: Bantam, 1996, pp. 392-393
28. Timothy White, Catch A Fire: The Life of Bob Marley, New York: Henry Holt, 1992, pp. 288-289
29. The Covert War Against Rock, pp. 135-136
31. The Covert War Against Rock, pp. 140-143
32. Ibid, pp. 143-144
33. Ibid, pp. 138-139
34. From the film ?Stepping Razor Red X?, Nicholas Campbell, 1992
35. The Covert War Against Rock, pp. 143-144
36. Globe and Mail, Saturday, February 26, 2005
37. The Covert War Against Rock, pp. 93-98
38. Cited in David Noebel, The Legacy of John Lennon, Nelson, 1982, p. 66
40. Barry Miles, Paul McCartney ? Many Years From Now, New York: Henry Holt, 1997, pp. 185-190 The Beatles, The Beatles Anthology, San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2000, 158
41. Frederic Seaman, The Last Days of John Lennon, New York: Citadel Press, 1991, p. 201
42. The Beatles Anthology, p. 212
44. Barry Miles, Ginsberg - A biography, New York: Harper Perennial, 1989, p. 397-398
45. Paul McCartney - Many Years From Now, pp. 386-387
45A. Barry Miles, Many years From Now, Extract from Chapter Nine - The Walrus Was Paul pg. 385-395
46. Acid Dreams, p. 239 See Also Playboy magazine, April 1981, interview with John Lennon by David Sheff; Come Together description on p 182 &
48. Phil Strongman & Alan Parker, John Lennon and the
FBI Files, London, Sanctuary Publishing LTD, 2003, p. 102
49. pl?sid=05/12/08/1421215
51. ?Uncut Legends : Lennon? Magazine, 2005, p. 13
53. John Lennon and the FBI Files, pp. 106-107
55. John Lennon and the FBI Files, pp. 84-85
57. Halperin, Berman, Borosage, Marwick, The Lawless State – The Crimes of the US Intelligence Agencies, New York: Penguin, 1976, p. 153
58. Angus Mackenzie, Secrets - The CIA’s War at Home, University of California Press, 1997, p. 49
59. Acid Dreams, p. 224
60. Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’s Greatest Hits, Tucson, Arizona: Odonian Press, 1994, p. 47
62. Secrets - The CIA’s War at Home, pp. 44-45
63. Brussell Articles/Operation Chaos.html
64. Nikolas Schreck, “Charles Manson Superstar”, DVD liner notes, 2002
65. Vincent Bugliosi, Helter Skelter, New York: Bantam, 1974, pp. 196, 635
66. Family/Manson Wants to Make Record.html
69. Secrets - The CIA’s War at Home, p. 63 See also:
70. “Uncut Legends : Lennon” Magazine, 2005, p. 105
71. Jon Wiener, Gimme Some Truth: The John Lennon FBI Files, University of California Press, Berkeley and L.A., CA, 1999, pp. 23-26
73. John Lennon and the FBI Files, pp. 96-98
75. John Lennon and the FBI Files, p. 100
76. Ibid, p. 108
77. Ibid, p. 110
80. John Lennon and the FBI files, p. 138
81. Jim Keith, Mind Control, World Control, Kempton, Illinois: Adventure’s Unlimited, 1997, p. 159
82. John Lennon and the FBI files, p. 163
83. Ibid, p. 124
84. Fenton Bresler, Who Killed John Lennon, New York: St. Martin’s, 1989, pp. 104-105 See also Mind Control, World Control, p. 159 John Lennon and the FBI files, p. 125
85. From the Watson testimony before the House Select Committee on Assassinations in 1977-78
See also
87. Mind Control, World Control, pp. 159-160
88. The Covert War Against Rock, p. 119-120
89. Albert Goldman, The Lives of John Lennon, New York: William Morrow and Co. Inc, 1988, p. 671
90. Mind Control, World Control, p. 160
91. John Lennon and the FBI files, p. 129 The Covert War Against Rock, p. 120 The Lives of John Lennon p. 672
94. John Lennon and the FBI files, p. 129 The Covert War Against Rock, p. 119
95. The Covert War Against Rock, p. 121 Mind Control, World Control, p. 160
97. John Lennon and the FBI files, pp. 129-130
98. The Lives of John Lennon, p. 672
99. The Lives of John Lennon, p. 673
100. “The Betrayal of John Lennon”, David and Victoria Sheff, Playboy, March 1984, p.188
101. The Covert War Against Rock pp. 121-129 Robert Rosen, Nowhere Man, Oakland: Quick American Archives, 2002, p. 4 See also The Lives of John Lennon - sources, and Fred Seaman, The Last Days of John Lennon, New York: Carol Publishing, 1991 - acknowledgments.
102. The Lives of John Lennon, p. 674
103. John Lennon and the FBI files, p. 139
104. Ibid, p. 141
105. Ibid, p. 146
106. Youth International Party Information Service, Blacklisted News, New York: Bleeker Publishing, 1983, p. 195
109. The Covert War Against Rock, pp. 128-129
110. Ibid, p. 117
111. John Marks, The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, New York: Times Books, 1979, pp. 187, 191
112. The Covert War Against Rock, pp. 117-118
113. John Lennon and the FBI files, p. 149
114. Jack Herer, The Emperor Wears No Clothes, Van Nuys, California, AH HA Publishing, 11th edition, 2000, p. 98
115. The Covert War Against Rock, pp. 123-124
See also Bill Hicks’s on-line video on the JFK assassination:
118. The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain, 1984, p. 577
124. John Lennon and the FBI files, pp. 75, 85, 119
125. Ibid, p. 116
126. Ibid, pp. 171-172, See also Mind Control, World Control, p. 159
45A. Barry Miles, Many years From Now, Extract from Chapter Nine - The Walrus Was Paul pg. 385-395

For more about John Lennon and cannabis, check out these shows on Pot TV:
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #61 on: January 26, 2010, 02:43:54 pm »
Since we've covered - Operation Chaos  and touched lightly on some of the Manson connections, let's look at some of the aftermath. This also brings us back to the Sequoia Seminar's "Jesus as Teacher"  theme with the rise of the "Jesus Freaks" and other "religous cults" ...
The Summer of Love Breeds a Season of Hate: The Effects of the Manson Murders on Public Perceptions of the Hippie Lifestyle
by Curt Rowlett

At the time of this writing, interesting recent press coverage hearkens back to two of 1969s most notorious events.

The first story concerns the new search for possible Manson family murder victims long rumored to have been buried in the desert near Manson’s old hideout at Barker Ranch in California’s Death Valley. This theory of unknown murder victims stems from a statement attributed to Manson family member Susan Atkins, who allegedly told a fellow inmate she was incarcerated with that there were "three people out in the desert that they done in," referring to other possible victims during the Manson family’s spree of killings during the summer of 1969. As reported by the press, a team of forensic scientists have traveled recently to Barker Ranch and used cadaver dogs, ground penetrating radar and other equipment in an attempt to locate these possible victims. According to the report, the scientists located “three large areas of interest.”

The story second concerns a BBC News report that details the revelation from the FBI’s own files that the Hell’s Angels may have actually tried to assassinate Mick Jagger at his rented home in Long Island, New York in retaliation for Jagger’s comments following the disastrous concert at Altamont in late 1969. The murder attempt supposedly failed after the boat carrying the would-be assassins foundered during a storm, almost drowning them.

That these two stories continue to resonate in modern times in not such a surprise. The article below discusses the detrimental effects that the Manson murders, the ill-fated concert at Altamont, and numerous other crimes that the press of the day dubbed “hippie murders,” had on the hippie image.

--Curt Rowlett

Note: Curt Rowlett is a researcher and writer with a penchant for the mystical, mysterious, and macabre. He is also: a serious student of the paranormal and unexplained, a former merchant marine who has traveled all over the world, an ex-rock musician, and an old-fashioned, southern gentleman.

His work has appeared in the books Popular Paranoia, Labyrinth13: True Tales of the Occult, Crime & Conspiracy, and the magazines Fortean Times, Paranoia Magazine, Steamshovel Press and Strange Magazine.
Labyrinth13: True Tales of the Occult, Crime & Conspiracy is available at: - and at -
Curt’s website can be reached at:

“You play the game of money. As long as you can sell a newspaper, some sensationalism, and you can laugh at someone and joke at someone and look down at someone, you know. You just sell those newspapers for public opinion, just like you are all hung on public opinion, and none of you have any idea what you are doing. You are just doing what you are doing for the money, for a little bit of attention from someone.”

Statement made by Charles Manson, while testifying at the Tate-LaBianca murder trial


“This will be remembered as the first of the acid murders . . . we’re on the brink of a whole new concept of violence . . . perpetrated against society by people who have reached a different plateau of reality through LSD.”

Statement made by Manson family attorney Paul Fitzgerald, while discussing the Tate-LaBianca murders with the press


“Acid is groovy, kill the pigs.”

Words allegedly chanted by hippie thrill killers during the 1970 bludgeoning and stabbing murders of the Jeffrey MacDonald family

In much the same way as the “satanic panic” hit in the 1980’s, a wave of “hippie cult hysteria” flourished in the wake of the 1969 Manson murders. Subsequently, public perceptions of the hippies as a non-violent, peace-loving subculture began to shift dramatically.

Many hippies who were involved in the original “counterculture” during that time period had stories to tell about negative fallout from a public who had begun to associate the hippie lifestyle with a series of horrifyingly violent, drug-induced crimes that occurred across America toward the end of the 1960’s.

As a result, the Manson murders, being only the first to be so publicized, later became linked to a greater cultural fear aided by numerous shocking and widely reported similar crimes. (Along with the Manson case, there were many other grisly and highly publicized murders and other crimes that had either been committed by or linked in the public mind to “hippie” elements or to so-called “drug crazed cultists” living in communal settings).

These events, played for full sensational effect in the media, would occur within such short time frames from each other that for awhile, the public was literally bombarded with a shocking portrait of the hippie community, one that shifted from the old view of hippies as the epitome of passive gentleness into a new, frighteningly savage image.

The fallout was swift and all-encompassing. And in much the same vein, this media-constructed image of the drug-crazed, murderous hippie was no different than the way veterans returning from the Vietnam War would also be stereotyped in the mid-1970’s, both by the press and Hollywood. That exploitation included fostering the image of Vietnam vets as war-traumatized, unstable individuals, likely to snap and go on a violent rampage at any given moment. (I can recall only too well how many television programs and B-movies of that era exploited not only the image of Vietnam vets, but also by catering to public fears about such things as roving bands of \“psychopathic” biker gangs, angry black power “militants” with guns, and of course, exploitation films about sex-crazed, blood-thirsty hippies living in spaced-out drug communes).

In the book Helter Skelter, prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi tells of this backlash against hippie-types in the aftermath of the Manson case where sensational press coverage laid the murders out in all their gory detail. Bugliosi writes:

If the press and TV reports were correct, a majority of young people whom the media had lumped together under the label “hippies” disavowed Manson. Many stated that the things he espoused , such as violence, were directly contrary to their beliefs. And more than a few were bitter about the guilt by association. It was almost impossible to hitchhike anymore; one youth told a New York Times reporter, “If you’re young, have a beard, or even long hair, motorists look at you as if you’re a ‘kill-crazy cultist’ and jam the gas.” (1)

Immediately after the story of Susan Atkins’ confession to the bloody Tate-LaBianca murders was splashed across the front page of the Los Angeles Times, the public perceptions of the flower children began to change. Author Jess Bravin wrote:

The reaction came down hard on hippies. On page one, the San Francisco Chronicle summed it up in a story from Topanga, a place the Family loved: Manson Arrest Reaction: ‘The War On The Longhairs.’ ‘A housewife sees a long-haired hitchhiker, hesitates, and drives by,’ the story began. ‘A bearded man walks into a store and the clerk asks, half in jest, ‘Did you have anything to do with the murders.’

Esquire later devoted an entire issue to what it called the ‘New Evil,’ sending writer Gay Talese to the Spahn Ranch and filling out the magazine with articles on witches in Hollywood, satanic-themed artwork, and musings on the future of California’s latest trend. And Life, describing what it called Manson’s ‘blithe and gory crimes,’ reported that the prime suspect had ‘attuned his concepts of villainy to the childish yearnings of these hippie converts, to their weaknesses and catchwords, their fragmentary sense of religion and enchantment with drugs and idleness, and immersed them in his own ego and idiotic visions of the Apocalypse.’ (2)

The use of LSD, a drug that was firmly rooted in the public consciousness as being one of the prime motivating forces behind the hippie movement, had never been viewed as anything but dangerous. But following the Manson murders, LSD developed an even more ominous association. Bravin recounts the following comment from Manson family attorney Paul Fitzgerald:

“This will be remembered as the first of the acid murders. [W]e’re on the brink of a whole new concept of violence [p]erpetrated against society by people who have reached a different plateau of reality through LSD.” (3)

However, one of the many ironies of the Manson trial was that the prosecution was put into the position of actually having to defend LSD use in order to combat defense assertions that LSD made people crazy and/or could turn ordinary people into killers. ( The defense hoped to be able to show that the Manson defendants’ use of LSD had affected their minds and as such, they were not responsible for their actions). The prosecution was forced to call expert witnesses who testified that people under the influence of LSD were not normally violent. (4)

The Manson trial lasted for ten months and was a virtual media feeding frenzy almost from day one. That the press focused on the fact that the Manson family was comprised of mostly young hippie flower children who had turned to bloody murder fed the public’s general fear of drugged-out hippie “thrill killers” high on LSD. (And as I noted in Chapter 10 of this book, Susan Atkins would later claim that the Manson murders had been committed in order to “instill fear into the establishment.” It can now be argued that their strategy actually succeeded quite well).

The December 12, 1969 issue of Life Magazine (titled “The Love and Terror Cult” and including the sub-headings, “The man who was their leader; the charge of multiple murder; the dark edge of hippie life”) featured a full front cover photo of what was to become the most widely distributed photograph of Manson and his “hypnotic stare.” At the time, Life Magazine had a huge distribution, a fact that ensured that the fear Manson inspired could gain entry into virtually every home in America. (5)

Hippies on their way to the Woodstock music festival in August of 1969 recalled passing newsstands with blaring headlines about the bloody Tate murders that had occurred only days before. Later, when the killers were caught and identified as young hippies, the Woodstock generation faced a more hostile than usual public whose fear had been stoked by lurid stories of violence committed by wild-eyed, drugged-out longhairs. Karlene Faith, author of a book about former Manson follower Leslie Van Houten, would write how:

[T]he Manson murders dominated the California media for over a year. When the accused were found to have come out of a hippie commune, the attention intensified. The media latched on to people’s worst fears about hippies and the antiwar movement. By the end of the trial, Manson’s murders were touted as a singular milestone in the annals of homicide. (6)

Author Katherine Ramsland, commenting about a series of “hippie murders” that occurred during the 1969-1970 time period, noted how:

There was already plenty of tension between ordinary people making a living and those who had “dropped out” to get high and find a more communal type of life by rebelling against established traditions. Each group eyed the other with suspicion. Now, people believed, some of those hippies were showing their stripes, their peace-loving slogans notwithstanding. (7)

On December 6, 1969, a mere four months after the Manson murders, four people lost their lives at the Rolling Stones free concert held at the Altamont Speedway near San Francisco. Two of those people died after they were run over and crushed by vehicles while asleep in their sleeping bags and another person drowned; most shockingly of all, Meredith Hunter, an eighteen year old black man, was brutally beaten and stabbed to death by a group of Hell’s Angels.

The Hell’s Angels, hired by the Rolling Stones to act as concert security in exchange for $500 worth of beer, had also allegedly been given access to multiple tabs of orange sunshine LSD. (As noted in Project Mind Kontrol, Chapter 12 of the book, Labyrinth13: True Tales of the Occult, Crime & Conspiracy, also appearing in Steamshovel #16, many of the Altamont concert attendants said later that this orange sunshine LSD seemed to be “contaminated” and produced a very negative vibe of violence and death).

Medical reports from the show indicate that Altamont was dominated by numerous incidents of violence. Chief among these were altercations between concert goers and the Hell’s Angels that occurred throughout the day. (Marty Balin, Jefferson Airplane’s lead singer, was knocked unconscious by a Hell’s Angel during a scuffle near the stage. Balin had tried to intervene while the Angels were beating a man with pool sticks. When band mate Paul Kantner told the audience what had happened, another Hell’s Angel grabbed the microphone and began threatening him).

Almost immediately after the Rolling Stones took the stage, another fight broke out, perhaps due to some sort of strange energy, as the band began playing their fist song “Sympathy for the Devil.” (The band halted the song when they became aware that some sort of violence was happening and Mick Jagger could be heard saying into the microphone, “Something very funny always happens when we start that number.” It was near the end of the band’s second song that the murder occurred).

In the aftermath, the view held by many was that while the word “Woodstock” stood for all that was positive and good about the hippie subculture, “Altamont” was seen as all that could go wrong. In a very real sense, the event spelled the death knell for the innocence of “flower power,” and for many people, Altamont was seen as a sort of “apocalyptic” ending to all of the 60’s peace and love vibrations.

As noted, the Manson case was not the only blow to the image of hippies as a peace-loving community as other murders, often dubbed by the press as “hippie cult murders,” took place very close to the same time period:

On February 17, 1970 in North Carolina, just six months after the Manson murders, Army officer Jeffrey MacDonald claimed to have been attacked in his home at the Fort Bragg military base by a group of four hippies who were high on LSD. MacDonald would later tell investigators that after being awakened by his wife’s screams to find intruders in his house, he was stabbed and knocked unconscious and that three male members of a hippie cult then viscously murdered his pregnant wife and two young daughters. All of this allegedly occurred while a lone female hippie with long blond hair and carrying a lighted candle, stood by chanting, “Acid is groovy, kill the pigs.” (The case had many striking parallels to the Manson murders, including alleged “crazed hippie” perpetrators; the savage amount of “overkill” inflicted on the victims; the writing of the word “pig” on the walls of the MacDonald home in the victim’s own blood; and the fact that Colette MacDonald, like Manson murder victim Sharon Tate, was pregnant at the time she was murdered). Although years later MacDonald would be tried and convicted for the murders himself, in the mind of the public, these crimes remained linked to “drug-crazed hippie cult killers.” (8)

On July 13, 1970, a hippie hitchhiker named Stanley Dean Baker was arrested in California for the murder of a Montana man who had stopped to give him a ride. According to police, Baker admitted that he had shot the man to death and then cannibalized the body. (In fact, Baker admitted to cutting out and eating the victim’s heart and also had bones from the man’s fingers in his pocket when apprehended). Baker was branded a “hippie satanist” by the popular press because he had both a recipe for LSD and a copy of The Satanic Bible in his possession when he was arrested. While Baker would later tell both law enforcement officials and fellow inmates that he had participated in a “blood drinking cult” in Wyoming, he later confessed that his crimes were actually the result of his drug use and had nothing to do with any involvement with satanism. (9)

Three months later, on October 19, 1970, firemen in Santa Cruz, California, responding to a fire at an upscale home in the Soquel area of the city, found five bodies floating in the home’s swimming pool, all dead from gunshot wounds to the back of the head. The victims included Dr. Victor Ohta, his wife and two sons, and Dr. Ohta’s secretary.

A note left by the killer on Dr. Ohta’s car threatened death to any “persons who misuses the natural environment or destroys same” by the “People of the Free Universe.” The note ended with a reference to the four knight cards of the tarot deck.

Within days, police investigators began targeting suspects in the Santa Cruz hippie community and a major rift between the hippies and police developed. In a newspaper article, a relative of one of the victims suggested that the murders could only have been committed by a “Manson-type cult.” Soon after that statement, a local hippie hangout received several bomb threats. A reporter for the Santa Cruz Sentinel wrote that:

The Soquel massacre, steeped in mysticism and stamped with a clear warning that other similar attacks might follow, has chilled the marrow of the established community . . . hippie-types, for their part, fear indiscriminate vigilante retaliation against innocent members of their culture. (10)

What may not be as well known is the fact that members of the local hippie community actually led the police to John Linley Frazier, a paranoid hippie loner who used LSD and mescaline and who was apparently obsessed with both ecology and aspects of the occult. Frazier had been kicked out of several Santa Cruz area hippie communes for his bizarre behavior and was living alone in a small cabin near the Ohta home at the time of the murders. (He was tried and convicted of the murders and given the death penalty, a sentence that was later commuted to life in prison after the death penalty was ruled unconstitutional).

Almost simultaneously (beginning on October 13, 1972, in Felton, California), hippie-type Herbert Williams Mullin committed the first of thirteen murders, carried out in the belief that in doing so, he would save California from a cataclysmic earthquake. Mullin was a paranoid schizophrenic who had been in and out of mental hospitals all of his life, but who would later be judged legally sane at his murder trial. His history of mental illness notwithstanding, Mullin was depicted in the press as just another burned-out hippie whose mind had been fried by drug use, as Mullin was a known LSD user. (One hippie later recalled that while in his presence, Mullin had ingested a whopping ten hits of LSD all at once). The District Attorney assigned to prosecuting the case was quoted as saying, “This is the result of people flipping out, and people taking drugs, and people doing their own thing.”

Mullin’s series of murders took place near Santa Cruz where many hippie communes flourished. The aftermath of the murders served to add more paranoia and mistrust towards hippies in the public mind, even though Mullin had actually killed several “hippie types” himself and would later claim to hate hippies. (11)

Other lesser know horror stories about so-called “LSD murders” also began to take their toll on the image of the hippie movement. Tales of alleged LSD-fueled violence were sensationalized in virtually every newspaper and television screen in America, both directly and indirectly blaming psychedelic drugs and the hippie lifestyle for violence: sponsors of a New York state bill to increase the penalties for possession of LSD cited one newspaper story as an example of the LSD-fueled hippie menace.

In this story, it was reported that Stephen Kessler, a thirty-two year old Harvard graduate student and ex-mental patient who had committed a brutal murder, claimed to have been “flying on LSD for three days” and that he could not remember anything about the homicide. Law enforcement officers promptly labeled this case an “LSD murder.” (The newspaper headlines declared Kessler to be a “Mad LSD Slayer” and “LSD Killer”). At Kessler’s trial, psychiatrists testified that he actually suffered from chronic paranoid schizophrenia. He was found not guilty by reason of insanity with the issue of his use of LSD never being raised or corrected in the public mind. (In fact, it was later disclosed that Kessler had not used LSD for a whole month prior to the murder). (12)

Several urban legends have been spawned that further illustrate the fear that the public has of the drug-crazed hippie killer, one of which is the tale of the “Hippie Babysitter.” According to the Snopes Urban Legend Reference Pages, the basic story goes like this:

A couple leaves their infant in the charge of a teenage, hippie-type girl while they go out on the town for the evening. When the mother phones home a few hours later to check up on things, the babysitter informs her that everything is fine and that she has put the turkey in the oven. A few moments later the couple recalls that they left no turkey at home; they rush home and find that the babysitter, high on LSD, has cooked their baby in the oven. (13)  

Other urban legends depicting the alleged sinister motives of hippies and the dangers of LSD use include the tales of “Blue Star Acid,” where paper rub-on “tattoos” featuring cartoon characters laced with LSD were supposedly being handed out to school children by evil hippie drug dealers; (the drug is allegedly absorbed through the skin simply by handling the paper or pressing it onto wet skin). And then there is the infamous tale of two hippie youths who, after ingesting LSD, stare at the sun until they go blind. (The latter story actually appeared as serious reporting in a several national newspapers).

From almost the beginning, Hollywood also got in on the action and produced a number of extremely lurid hippie exploitation films masquerading as cautionary public service announcements, but which were in fact aimed directly at feeding a morbid public appetite while pretending to take a moral stance. Often depicting drug-crazed hippies living and freaking out in “Manson family” style communes, such films as The Hallucination Generation (1967) and Riot on Sunset Strip (1967) depicted “hippie” youths running wild in an orgy of group sex, drugs, crime and even murder.

The Manson murders were also the subject of several ultra-low budget movies that were quickly churned out in the wake of the murders in order to cash in on the “killer hippie cult” hysteria. A short list of those films would include: The Other Side of Madness (also known as The Helter Skelter Murders), a sleazy 1970 film produced in record time, appearing almost immediately after the arrest of the Manson family. The Helter Skelter Murders was a blatant attempt to cash in on all the lurid publicity while claiming to depict the “true story” of the Manson murders. (The movie was shot on several authentic locations and features a dramatization of Manson’s “Helter Skelter” race war. Also includes one of Manson’s own songs, “Mechanical Man” in the score); the 1971 film Snuff (later renamed Slaughter) in which a bearded and very creepy Manson-like cult leader uses hypnosis on young girls in order to orchestrate a series of murders; I Drink Your Blood, a 1971 film about a cult of homicidal, acid-dropping, devil-worshipping hippies whose Manson-esque leader utters the classic line, “Let it be known, sons and daughters, that Satan was an acid head.” (From the press-book accompanying the release of I Drink Your Blood, we find the warning “Did you ever imagine what would happen if your community were invaded by hippies? You can now see what can happen to a town when hippies go wild!” This film has been humorously described by one reviewer as “the quintessential tale of a group of Satan-worshipping hippies who ingest meat pies contaminated by the blood of a rabid dog and go on a murder spree”). Finally, we have The Love Thrill Murders (1971), a soft-core porn film that features actor Troy Donahue as “Moon,” a violence-obsessed, Manson-clone who is the leader of a murderous Jesus freak hippie cult in New York City’s Greenwich Village. High marks for negative public influence would also have to go to both the 1972 documentary film Manson by Laurence Merrick and Robert Hendrickson and the 1976 made-for-television movie, Helter Skelter. While Merrick and Hendrickson’s Manson was less exploitative than its fictional Hollywood counterpart, Helter Skelter, both managed to scare the hell out of the general public. (For a list of other notable hippie exploitation films and/or movies that contain themes directly inspired by the Manson murders, see Labyrinth13: True Tales of the Occult, Crime & Conspiracy, Appendix 6, List of Hippie Exploitation and Manson-Inspired Films).

In addition to the film exploitation of the Manson murders, many magazine articles and books about the case followed quickly on the heels of the actual events and would also fuel the general public fear. Most notable of these was the true crime novel Helter Skelter (first published in 1974) in which the murders were not only graphically detailed, but also where prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi seldom missed a chance to strongly moralize against the hippie lifestyle in general, to a large extent, blaming the excesses of the counter culture for producing the likes of Charles Manson and his family. Bugliosi’s book (and the two television miniseries it would later spawn) would not only exploit the hippie image, but would also commercialize the fear that the Manson murders and similar crimes had spread. But the truth be known, many of the more gruesome “facts” presented by Bugliosi -- much of it drawn from the confessions and testimony of the killers themselves -- would later prove to have been based on embellishments made by Manson family members who wanted to shock the general public as much as possible. (A few examples of this would include the supposed death list of Hollywood celebrities that members of the Manson family claimed they had plans to kill; the false assertion made by family member Steve Grogan that he had cut murder victim Donald “Shorty” Shea into nine pieces or the highly suspect claim made by a prison informer that Susan A tkins said she had actually tasted Sharon Tate’s blood which later proved to be just another example of Atkins’ propensity for braggadocio). Author Karlene Faith noted that:

After successfully prosecuting four of the accused, Los Angeles District Attorney Vincent Bugliosi wrote a mass-market novel-like book (Helter Skelter) about the murders. At the time, its cover made the promise, “No matter how much you think you know about the Manson case, this incredible book will shock you.” It was a best-seller, and is still in print today, replete with inaccuracies due to the defendants’ false testimony in court and their own propagation of sensationalized myths. One reviewer describes this book as “a morality play of the highest order, with the crusading prosecutor battling a demonic Manson on one hand and the bumbling of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) on the other. One of Manson’s messages, like St. Augustine’s, was the he (and everyone) represented the perfect dialectic of God and Devil, life and death, good and evil, sacred and profane. The symbolism was perfectly geared to a Hollywood sensibility. Through the lenses of the prosecutor, a woefully tragic set of murders became mythic owing to their perversely formulaic entertainment value. Bugliosi went on to oversee the 1976 CBS-TV version of his story, and to make $2500 per speech (a large sum at the time) on the lecture circuit. (14)

In part, public hysteria about the hippie movement had as much to do with the explosion of huge numbers of hippie youth communes as did films and books with their garish tales about sex orgies and rampant drug use. Although communal living has a long history in other countries, such living arrangements were a relatively new phenomenon in America and in the mid to late 60’s, were to be found almost exclusively in the hippie subculture.

During that time, the common public perception (again, due to media exploitation) was basically a belief that the hippie communes were all dens of rampant drug use, free love, and general immorality, but history shows a far more diverse picture than what the stereotype suggests. Many communes were founded on a religious basis or with an emphasis on spirituality and very disciplined lifestyles. Others were simply created in the search for a Utopian society.

In 1970, the Manson family’s own communal lifestyle was the subject of a detailed study conducted by Dr. David E. Smith, M.D. and Alan J. Rose of the Haight Asbury Free Clinic; members of the Manson group often visited the clinic in order to receive medical treatment for sexually transmitted diseases. (15)   [ Right The Operation Choas men write a study about their project! ]

In this paper, the authors write that:

[T]hrough the national media, the dominant culture in the United States has been made aware of a new style of commune which has evolved primarily in America’s “hippie subculture.” . . . These “hippie” communes can be categorized into six general types Crash Pad Type, Drug and Non-Drug Family Type, Drug and Non-Drug Marriage Type, and Self-Contained Rural Type . . . The common denominators in this type of commune are polygamous sexual practices involving all members of [the] group and cooperative child rearing. Following the preparation of this manuscript, the central figure in this report, Charles Manson, was arrested in connection with the Sharon Tate murders. However, it would be impudent to comment on the murders until Manson’s trial has been completed. The “group marriage” is not new, of course, and has been practiced by various societies throughout history. Middle class white American youth participating in a group marriage is relatively new, however, particularly in that it represents a direct affront to the dominant culture’s expressed moral code.

The authors also described Manson as “a “father figure” and “a 35-year-old white male with a past history of involvement with the law.” They further noted that:

Manson was thirty-five years of age, and had no college education. He was an extroverted, persuasive individual who served as absolute ruler of the group marriage commune. What he sanctioned was approved by the rest of the group, but what he disapproved was forbidden. (16)  

The media made much out of the fact that a group of hippie youths and flower children, mostly comprised of young women, had allowed themselves to became involved with such a “Mephistophelean guru,” as prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi was to later label Manson, and that those same followers so fiercely defended Manson after his arrest, a fact that seemed to call into question all that everyone knew about the counterculture. A full study of the psychology behind such thinking on both sides of the issue is beyond the scope of this article, but my point is that, in the public mind, the Manson case (and others similar to it) was and still is, touted by detractors of the hippie movement as the ultimate “I told you so” moral to the story for those who had embraced the hippie lifestyle.

However, such a perception is not quite the knockout punch it may appear to be as many residents of the Haight during that time period will tell you that Manson was only one of hundreds of such anti-establishment, LSD and mysticism philosophizers who frequented that scene. Many of these self-styled gurus were a welcomed part of the landscape and for the greater part, never betrayed any of the sometimes naïve trust placed in them by idealistic young hippies, most who thirsted for the same intense spiritual awareness and truth experienced while under the influence of psychedelics. (My research has turned up no other example of hippie “street gurus” from that era whom exploited others in such a horrendous manner and the Manson case appears to be completely unique in that sense).

The fact that Manson turned out to be a person who ultimately involved his followers in violence is the real tragedy. And it is important to note that Manson did not show up on that scene handing out tabs of acid and knives while preaching violence to young hippies; his philosophical rap pretty much matched that of other street gurus at the time and the descent into an Apocalyptic vision of death and war only came along much later on.

Many of the communes formed in the 60’s were often lead by a charismatic leader, a fact that seemed to determine whether or not a particular commune would survive the tests of time. And you might be surprised to learn, as I eventually did, that quite a few communes from the 60’s not only survived, but are still thriving today. And while many (perhaps most) of them did indeed e ventually fall apart -- often due to the drug excesses of their members -- quite a few (numbering in the hundreds) were and still are highly successful, among them the Morningstar Ranch, The Hog Farm, the Twin Oaks Intentional Community, and one group known simply as “The Farm.”

The Farm, one of the most successful of the hippie communes, was started in the rugged wilds of Summertown, Tennessee. Founded in 1971, The Farm went on to become the largest hippie commune in North America, peaking out at around 1500 people in 1980. (As of this writing, its current population stood at about 200 folks). This group pioneered many aspects of the vegetarian diet, techniques for modern midwifery and home birth, and were very active in working towards methods for alternative energy.

However, public perceptions about hippie communes during the 1960’s (and even today) was that of groups of lazy, dirty hippies l ying around smoking marijuana while collecting their welfare checks. I’m in my late 40’s now and when I was a teenager, I spent the summer of 1972 living on a small hippie commune in the mountains of North Carolina and the rule of law there was that if you didn’t work, you didn’t eat.

There were no welfare checks or Manson family-style “garbage runs” in that group, but there was plenty of hard work caring for a large vegetable garden (which naturally, included a substantial crop of marijuana) and splitting loads of firewood to sell. And members of the commune often pitched in to help other “non-hippie” farmers and neighbors when they were short-handed, eventually earning the sometimes-begrudging respect from those people.

But to be completely honest, not all communes lived up to such noble standards and there were actually quite a few groups that were little more than blights on the communities that they inhabited. Or worse yet, communes that were weird beyond belief. A perfect example of the latter case was part of the subject of an article written by R. Stuart for a 2002 Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies newsletter. In an article titled Entheogenic Sects and Psychedelic Religions, Stuart discusses various psychedelic religions founded in the United States, including those that involved communal living arrangements and writes that:

In the late 1960s near Los Angeles, a group had the LSD-inspired belief that all life had equal value. They became fruitarians who ate only fruit that had fallen to the ground. Later, LSD visions revealed that God existed on Earth incarnate in dogs, and that all of humanity’s problems were caused by the mistreatment of “man’s best friend.” Members of the Dog Commune herded dogs, raided animal shelters to liberate their canine deities, and were among the first animal rights groups in the United States to try to stop exploitation of dogs in scientific experiments. (17)

One really needs no additional evidence that not all LSD-inspired visions are as profound as they may at first seem, especially if we assume that the “Dog Commune” was awed by the fact that “god” spelled backward is “dog” when reaching the spiritual conclusions that they did. And while the intentions of a hippie group such as the Dog Commune seems to have been mostly benign and benevolent enough, I can’t help but try to imagine what it would have been like to be the up-tight, straight-laced, average-Joe citizens who were probably living next door to them.

Another controversial hippie group was the “Lyman Family” which operated a successful commune in Boston, Massachusetts known as the Fort Hill community. This group was led by folk musician Mel Lyman, who supposedly, in a Manson-like fashion, had declared himself to be God. (In his book The Autobiography of a World Savior, Lyman claimed that he came from another planet and had been sent to Earth to restore humanity to its original balance). (18)

In 1971, the Lyman Family would come under attack by one of the counter culture’s very own voices: the fledgling music magazine Rolling Stone, usually a staid bastion of support for all things relating to hippie culture. Rolling Stone printed a scathing and highly critical two-part cover story written by David Felton about the Lyman Family commune. In that article, Felton charged that Mel Lyman was a Charles Manson-like leader who controlled his followers though psychedelic drugs, mind control and fear. (It has been observed that LSD can make the person under its influence vulnerable to the influence of a second party. In Felton’s story -- and later in a full-length book -- he used the expression “acid fascism” to describe how psychedelic users were often so open to suggestion that they could be exploited by unprincipled persons, the Charles Manson case being the most classic example of this). (19)

Another article about the Lyman Family that appeared in the Boston Phoenix newspaper also raised the specter of the Manson family, noting that:

Despite the obvious material gains of the communards -- or perhaps because of them -- they came under increasing attack. Only a couple of years earlier, the nation had been horrified by the ritual murders committed on the West Coast by communal disciples of Charles Manson. By 1971, a grim skepticism about alternative lifestyles had permeated America. Critics of Fort Hill life began to suggest that Lyman was the Manson-like center of a dangerous personality cult. (20)  

Members of the Lyman commune, like the Process Church before them, did little at the time to quash the sordid speculation: it was reported by several people that the group paid homage to Charles Manson by keeping a poster of him hung on the wall under which they placed a vase full of fresh flowers daily. And according to another source, Manson family member Lynnette “Squeaky” Fromme used to visit and occasionally stay with Lyman in a home he owned in Los Angeles and that Manson and Lyman corresponded with each other for a brief period. Jim Kweskin, a member of the Lyman family, who, upon learning that his group had been compared to Manson’s, jokingly quipped that:

“The Manson family preached peace and love and went around killing people. We don’t preach peace and love.” (21)  

And while most of the charges leveled at the Lyman Family would eventually prove to have been just so much hype -- even Rolling Stone would later admit later that Felton’s story had been mostly an exaggeration -- the negative association with the Manson family would continue to haunt them for many years.

As of 1997, the Lyman group was still together, having amassed quite a sizeable fortune through real estate holdings and a home remodeling business. (Mel Lyman died in 1978 under circumstances that still remain a mystery). (22)

Another hippie phenomenon that arose out of the counterculture and which would also suffer from associations to “drug crazed cultists” was the so-called “Jesus freak” movement of the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. (The Jesus freak phenomenon was a cultural happening that I was able to observe up close and personal as I watched several of my own relatives and siblings, former hippies all, get sucked into the whole “hippies turned-on to Jesus” movement. The Jesus freak trend was at the forefront of what would later blossom into yet a nother major cultural icon of fear, that being the phalanx of insidious “brainwashing religious cults” that flourished from their beginnings in the early 1970’s all the way into present times. Many hippies and other idealistic young people seeking a new spirituality were lured into these groups, many of which were -- or later became -- genuinely dangerous).

Known originally as “The Jesus Movement” or “The Jesus People,” Jesus freaks described themselves as a “counter-counter-cultural movement.” Jesus freaks were primarily hippies who had become disenchanted with certain aspects of the hippie value system and who sought to combine the peace and love of the hippie movement with old-time Christian evangelism. (While the name “Jesus freak” was originally coined as a derogatory label by other hippies -- the term “freak” being a common hippie description of anyone obsessed with a certain type of mind trip -- the moniker was soon proudly adopted by the Jesus People themselves). (23)

Like a great many things related to the hippies, the roots of the Jesus freak movement had its genesis in San Francisco’s Haight Ashbury district where in 1967 Christian evangelical missions such as “The Living Room” were opened in small storefronts in the hippie business districts. Many of these “psychedelic evangelical” groups served as temporary shelters for the multitude of young hippies who had come to San Francisco and other major cities to join in the flower power vibe, only to find themselves homeless and living on the streets. (24)

As noted, the Jesus freaks kept the same style, dress, and language of the hippies, but changed such hippie ideas as “free love” to “free love of God” and brotherly love of other people. (A famous Jesus freak motto was “One Way,” a term that sought to remove focus away from the individual, as the original hippie movement tended to focus on, and instead shifted one’s consciousness towards a love of Jesus). (25)

Additionally, the birth of so-called “Christian rock,” the combination of rock music and Christian gospel, was an original product of the Jesus freak movement. Major examples of this were those films and Broadway plays that featured Jesus freak soundtracks and themes, such as Jesus Christ Superstar and Godspell. (The music created within the Jesus freak movement has now morphed into what is the contemporary Christian music of today). (26)

Many hippies who became Jesus freaks had sought out the Jesus movement after experiencing either bad drug freak-outs or in some cases, because they were seeking the same sort of positive mystical and religious experience that they had encountered under the influence of psychedelic drugs, such as LSD. In many cases, what they sought was to substitute their personal drug experiences for “getting high on Jesus.” (It should be noted that while most of the Jesus freak groups chose to eschew the use of drugs, many did not and/or its members just continued to use drugs on the sly. Hippies who gravitated toward the Jesus freak movement also tended to remain somewhat anti-establishment to some degree).

The Jesus freak phenomenon began to receive major publicity in America beginning around 1970 with the press reporting such events as hippies being baptized in rivers or in the ocean, Jesus freaks acting as tuned-in counterculture street preachers, and the publishing of hippie Christian newsletters. (Those newsletters were laid out in the style of the counterculture’s own “underground” newspapers, complete with psychedelic graphics and language. The use of elements of psychedelia to attract hippie followers and converts became a popular tactic practiced by many of the so-called “cults” that sprang up in the late 60’s and early 70’s, most notably, by the Hare Krishnas and to a lesser extent, Sun Myung Moon’s Unification Church). (27)

But the Jesus freak movement was not without controversy. Many of these groups would later become identified with Manson-like beliefs about a coming Apocalyptic doomsday, with a few of these groups espousing concepts that even rivaled the Process’ belief in a “Final Judgment” and Manson’s “Helter Skelter” for out-and-out unadulterated weirdness.

One major strange influence on both the Jesus freak movement and fundamentalist Christianity was author Hal Lindsey’s series of books about a coming Apocalypse and the rise of the Antichrist as prophesized in the Christian Bible. This series began with the 1970 book The Late Great Planet Earth, a tale that sought to meld “end of the world” Biblical prophecy with world political events current at the time the book was written.

Lindsey, a conservative Christian fundamentalist, published The Late Great Planet Earth at the height of the Cold War, warning that Biblical prophecy pointed toward an invasion of Israel by the former Soviet Union, an act that he believed would trigger the Battle of Armageddon in the form of World War III, the last war on the face of the earth.

The Late Great Planet Earth, written in a style that used common language and which read almost like an action novel, became the best selling book of the decade, with over 15 million copies sold. It also launched an intense modern interest and belief among both Jesus freaks and fundamentalist Christians about a violent Apocalyptic end to the world, an event that Lindsey’s book suggested was actually quite imminent. (In the book, Lindsey prophesizes that there will be a period of great tribulation with plagues, wars, and famines and that Jesus Christ will then appear for the promised “Rapture,” lifting up to heaven all those who believe in him, leaving the rest of humanity to suffer through seven more years of tribulation under the rule of the Antichrist). (28)

Lindsey next published Satan Is Alive and Well on Planet Earth, a book that warned against “occult influences” present in the world. Lindsey (much like Ed Sanders before him) alleges that there were active satanic hippie communes afoot practicing such things as the ritual sacrifice of animals where the blood was drained and mixed with LSD in a cauldron to be used as a drink during occult rituals that involved “sexual deviation, pagan ceremonies, and rites which defy imagination.” Lindsey also hinted that the practices of these alleged satanic hippie cults might have also crossed into the realm of human sacrifice by trotting out the cases of Stanley Dean Baker and the Manson Family. That book also strongly implied that the Antichrist might be living among us now and that the triggering of Armageddon (perhaps in the form of a thermonuclear war with the former Soviet Union) was only awaiting the right series of events to be set into motion. (29)

Lindsey found the basis for most of the information for his prophecies in the Christian Bible’s book of Matthew and the book of Revelation. (And yes, if you are noticing the similarities between all of this and the philosophies espoused in both the Process Church’s belief in a “Final Judgment” and the Manson family’s assertion that Helter Skelter was only awaiting the right spark to ignite a final, bloody war, you are definitely paying attention).

The subsequent formation of Jesus freak communes in some rural communities, many of them who embraced Apocalyptic beliefs similar to Hal Lindsey’s, were not always as well received as one might imagine a group of young Christians might have been! The negative fallout from media images and stories of a bible-obsessed Manson family and a scripture-quoting “satanist” Process Church had led to much public mistrust and fear. And that fear was in turn transferred straight to the Jesus freak communes by way of a generalized suspicion and mistrust of those in the Jesus freak movement who were, for the most part, very sincere in their Christian beliefs, but who also had the same outward appearances as any of the other “long haired drug cultists” that were being reported in the press. (30)

Adding fuel to this general fear and suspicion were such notorious Jesus freak groups as The Children of God, a weird group of hippie Christians who very closely fit the stereotyped image of a brainwashing cult (and who were also at times mistakenly believed to be comprised of remnants of the original Manson family, both by other hippies and by the general public).

Formed in 1968 and led by a charismatic leader named David Berg (a.k.a. “Moses”) the Children of God -- sometimes known as “The Family of Love” or simply as “The Family”-- in many ways epitomized the stereotypical image of hippie Jesus freaks, espousing a combination of Christian evangelism, the counterculture revolutionary ideal and sexual freedom. They also preached a doom-and-gloom Apocalyptic theology that included the belief that California would be devastated by a major earthquake, with the entire state sliding into the sea and later, that all of the United States would be destroyed by the comet Kohoutek in 1974.

The Children of God were often to be encountered during the early 1970’s -- even by this author as a young hippie teenager -- encamped by their psychedelic school buses at outdoor rock concerts where they would hand out free food while seeking to recruit new members. Their reputation for being a “cult” was well established, even in the hippie communities I was associated with. (And I can recall quite vividly how I was strenuously warned by several hippie “elders” to stay away from them as they were considered to be a “Manson-type” group).

By 1974, the Children of God were in trouble with the law and faced charges that included tax evasion, kidnapping and assault. They were also eventually embroiled in even more scandal when female members were accused of using sex to entice men who were not part of the movement in order to convert them into cult members (a form of religious recruitment that Berg called “flirty fishing”). (31)

But this general attitude of mistrust by rural locals was by no means exclusive to hippie Jesus freak communes, but rather was extended to all communes in general, which in many cases, the local populace had been led to believe were nothing less than dens of iniquity and general wickedness, populated by dirty, crazy hippies on drugs.

In the introduction to his book on the hippie communes of the 1960’s, author Timothy Miller comments on the “out-of-this-world” publicity that seemed to dominate most of the media attention given to communal living in general during the 60’s, writing that:

Both scholars and reporters embodied in their work a great range of points of view, from favorable to severely hostile, with a great many somewhere in the bemused middle (“I can’t quite believe all this!”). A good many of these works were sensationalistic, often focusing breathlessly on the casual nudity that frequently prevailed at the counter-cultural communities or on the use of psychedelics and other controlled substances that was so popular among communal and non-communal hippies alike. (32)

And regarding the effects of the media hype on public perceptions of what actually went on inside a typical hippie commune, Miller also states that:

Sensationalism, then as now, was the order of the day for any self-respecting news outlet; so much of the coverage focused on nudity and drug use, real or rumored, and thus helped to feed the local hostility toward communes that broke out so often. (33)

It is important to understand that the true spirit that drove the counterculture to break free from the establishment’s old ideas of how to live was based firmly in the desire among hippies to form their own societies with their own standards of living that more closely reflected the hippie value system. Communes were the most logical next step toward breaking free of an establishment that was viewed by many as having proved that it was corrupt, broken-down, and past its prime.

And it is not surprising that to most of middle class, homogenized America of that period, the idea of hippies participating in such “exotic” experiments as communal living and group marriage was very much seen as a direct threat to their way of life, and as noted in the Haight Ashbury Free Clinic study cited earlier, this was primarily because such activity represented (and to a large degree, still represents) a form of “deviancy” that directly threatens middle class notions of “normalcy” and “morality.” That certain aspects of the hippie lifestyle were so misunderstood and that the media sought to engage in such blatant fear-mongering at the hippies’ expense can, to some degree, be seen almost as a normal reaction on the part of “straight” society.

Author Rosemary Baer, whose husband was a juror during the Manson murder trial, would later write that:

The Tate-LaBianca case, it has been said, is not so much a trial of four defendants accused of seven and a half murders, as [much as it is] a trial of the long-haired, loose-living, group-sex, drug-oriented, hippie subculture by the established culture of our society. (34)  

And to further illustrate just how much the image of the “crazed hippie cultist” had colored the minds of “normal” society, consider the following from a 1996 interview with a former communard at Black Bear Ranch:

Simple rumors and stereotypes greeted the communal pioneers in a great many places. At Black Bear Ranch the original settlers had little contact with the scattered local residents, but years later, when tensions had eased, an early communard asked a neighbor, “What did people think about us when we first came up there?” The two-word answer: “Charles Manson.” (35)  

To be sure, the neighbors living near many of America’s hippie communes were (at first) often less than happy to have them there, an attitude that stemmed from the obvious lifestyle differences as much as anything. And for the greater part, the hostility encountered by longhaired communards came in the form of dirty looks, unkind words, and police harassment with some businesses actually posting “Hippies Not Welcome” signs. But occasionally, situations did erupt into outright violence.

One of the worst examples of this sort of aggression happened to various inhabitants of the many hippie communes established in Taos, New Mexico (the place where Manson girl Linda Kasabian would flee to three days after the murders occurred). Beginning in the late 1960’s, a huge hippie invasion of Taos had begun, much to the resentment of the entrenched locals. Author Timothy Miller writes:

The following are just a few of the many instances of violence that occurred over a short span of time in 1969 and 1970: The Volkswagen van of a commune was dynamited by night; later a building on the property was burned to the ground. Hippies were brutally beaten up on the street on many occasions. A hitchhiking longhair was sentenced to jail for possession of a “concealed weapon” -- a tiny pocketknife. Vehicles were shot up in various situations. Anonymous phone calls threatened arson and murder. A hippie woman was gang-raped. A macrobiotic restaurant was destroyed. A sign appeared on a Taos building: “The only good hippie is a dead hippie. Kill.” . . . The nadir of the conflict was the murder of Michael Press, a hip resident of the Kingdom of Heaven commune at Guadalupita, New Mexico on August 5, 1970, and, on that day and the next, the beating of three other members and [the] triple rape of yet another. (36)  

In the case of the murder noted above, the killers were only given light sentences on a reduced charge, further illustrating just how deep the negative emotions against the hippies living there ran.

But the backlash against hippies in the wake of the Manson murders and the similar crimes and incidents noted above was by no means confined to such hippie bastions as California and New Mexico. Media sensationalism injected the new image of hippies as drugged-out murderers into the public consciousness with a powerful intensity. And the use of that image as a propaganda tool seemed to be in full force and effect all across America. Author Karlene Faith writes:

[R]everbarations from the Manson murders affected the lives of counterculture people throughout California and beyond. Since Manson and his followers were reasonably perceived to be hippies, all hippies became suspect and ready targets for disdain and harassment. After the crime, anyone with long hair driving a Volkswagen bus, the hippie vehicle of choice, stood a good chance of being pulled over by the police . . . The “dirty hippie” stigma was radically intensified, as was adult contempt for youthful idealism . . . The fear and harassment of hippies that occurred after the crimes was as destructive to healthy communes as it was to those already dysfunctional. It was as if the dominant culture, in cahoots with the media, had been waiting for the Manson “family” to happen so that they would have “proof” that the hippie movement was no good. The antagonism between hippies and “straight” society was based on their antithetical values. In the context of social disruptions the Manson murders were a convenient excuse for a backlash. Parents were warning their hippie kids, “See what could happen to you?” (37)  

In a 1969 Time Magazine article about the Manson murders, a Dr. Lewis Yablonsky was quoted as saying that he “believes that there has been far more violence among the hippies than most people realize,” stating further that:

There has always been a potential for murder . . . [M]any hippies are socially almost dead inside. Some require massive emotions to feel anything at all. They need bizarre, intensive acts to feel alive -- sexual acts, acts of violence, nudity, every kind of Dionysian thrill. (38)  

The hippie movement today has mostly recovered from the liability left behind by groups like the Manson family and from once having been associated with such drug violence and other negative stereotypes. And the repeat of a similar “hippie” crime like the Manson murders, occurring during such a pivotal point in “hippie history,” seems an unlikely event.

But you can be assured that there are probably still a few people around who simply refuse to let go of the idea that experimenting with strange drugs, practicing free love and living freaky lifestyles were somehow to blame for such horrors. Hopefully, similar hysteria will be recognized for what it is the next time around.


(1) Helter Skelter: The True Story of the Manson Murders by Vincent Bugliosi with Curt Gentry, Bantam Books, first edition, 1974, page 297.

(2) Squeaky: The Life and Times of Lynette Alice Fromme by Jess Bravin, St. Martin’s Press; (June 1997), page 107.

(3) Squeaky: The Life and Times of Lynette Alice Fromme by Jess Bravin, St. Martin’s Press; (June 1997), page 112.

(4) Helter Skelter: The True Story of the Manson Murders by Vincent Bugliosi with Curt Gentry, Bantam Books, first edition, 1974, pp. 591-597.

(5) See Life Magazine, December 12, 1969; The Love and Terror Cult.

(6) The Long Prison Journey of Leslie Van Houten: Life Beyond the Cult, by Karlene Faith; Northeastern University Press; Chapter One; Getting Acquainted, p. 9.; see also My Acid Trip with Groucho, by Paul Krassner, High Times magazine, Feb 1981.

(7) See John Linley Frazier, the Killer Prophet and Hippie Murderer, Chapter 1, The Year of the Hippie Murders, by Katherine Ramsland archived at

(8) See Fatal Vision, by Joe McGinniss, New American Library; Reissue edition (March 1999). See also, Fatal Justice: Reinvestigating the MacDonald Murders, by Jerry Allen Potter and Fred Bost, W.W. Norton & Company; Reprint edition (April 1997) in which the authors, after conducting a nine year investigation into MacDonald’s claims of a hippie cult being responsible for the murders of his family, come to the conclusion that vital findings supporting MacDonald’s version of events were never presented at his trial and that his story about a group of hippie murderers may have in fact, been true.

(9) See Crimes and Punishment: The Illustrated Crime Encyclopedia; H S Stuttman Co; September 1994; see also Cannibalism: The Last Taboo by Brian Marriner; Arrow Books 1992; see also Minority Religions, Social Change, and Freedom of Conscience; The Satanic Bible: Quasi-Scripture/Counter-Scripture; James R. Lewis (Department of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point); from the 2002 CESNUR International Conference; Salt Lake City and Provo (Utah), June 20-23, 2002.

(10) See Santa Cruz Sentinel article titled, The1970s; “Murder Capital of the World.”

(11) The Die Song: A Journey into the Mind of a Mass Murderer by Donald T. Lunde, Jefferson Morgan, W.W. Norton & Company; March 1980.

(12) The Consumers Union Report on Licit and Illicit Drugs, by Edward M. Brecher and the editors of Consumer Reports magazine, 1972.

(13) See Snopes Urban Legend Reference Pages at While doing research for this article, I discovered that there are a great many other myths associated with taking LSD, among them the belief that taking LSD seven times makes you legally insane (the estimated number of times varied depended on who was telling the tale, but it is usually some figure under ten; another variant on this same myth is that if you take LSD a certain number of times, you can’t testify in court. Those particular rumors seem to have begun somewhere between 1967 and 1975). In the book Storming Heaven, author Jay Stevens noted several LSD rumors that fed the general hysteria that began to crop up in the mid-60’s, noting that: “Police departments around the country opened their own files to reporters eager to get a local angle on a breaking national story [regarding the abuse of LSD] . . . [T]here was the heavy user who, believing LSD had trans-mutated him into an orange, refused all human contact for fear of being turned into orange juice [Author’s note: possible urban legend] . . . [There were many reports of LSD use] which verged on the weird rather than the horrible . . . like the time the LAPD found two guys sitting on a suburban lawn eating the grass and nibbling on tree bark. Or the time they received a complaint that a young man was standing beside the Coast Highway making obscene gestures at the traffic. When the police arrived, the guy dashed into the ocean, fell to his knees and began to pray, all the while yelling “I love you! I love you!” Then there was the time someone reported scre
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline Edgar

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #62 on: January 26, 2010, 09:54:18 pm »
The reverberations from all this info is numbing, and requires a lot of reflecting to analysis any conclusion. Your access to this information is astonishing. It is like the space shuttle no one knows how to build it but is still can fly.
What do you have as current conclusion?
What are the ongoing repercussions?
How can it help and harm?
And where is this going?
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Offline trailhound

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #63 on: January 27, 2010, 12:02:29 am »
 I always thought the Manson family was an op.

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Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #64 on: January 29, 2010, 07:25:42 pm »
One of the original questions (first post) was what was Willis Harman so excited about at the Sequoia Seminars in 1954? What was Stolaroff so excited about?  Well it turns out that they were excited about Gerald Heard.
1954 Gerald Heard gives a lecture to the Sequoia Seminar about mind expansion and describes the effects of certain mind-altering drugs - Myron Stolaroff and Willis Harman attending

Then in 1956 that Heard tells Stolaroff about LSD and directs him to Al Hubbard for a visit to Hollywood Hospital in Vancouver...

So now we devote the rest of the post to Gerald Heard... who has connections to  H. G. Wells, Julian Huxley, and Aldous Huxley. This also gets us back to the Society for Psychical Research.

Gerald Heard,  Christopher Isherwood, Sir Julian Huxley
Auldous Huxley and Linus Pauling L.A. 1960

With Henry Luce and Claire Booth Luce

Gerald Heard, born in London on October 6, 1889, of Irish ancestry, was educated in England, taking honors in history and studying theology at the University of Cambridge. Following Cambridge, he worked for Lord Robson of Jesmond and later for Sir Horace Plunkett, founder of the Irish Agriculture Cooperative movement. Heard began lecturing from 1926 to 1929 at Oxford University's Board of Extra Mural Studies.

In 1927 he began lecturing for South Place Ethical Society.
From 1929 to 1930 he edited "The Realist"; a monthly journal of scientific humanism whose sponsors included H. G. Wells, Julian Huxley, and Aldous Huxley.

In 1929 he published The Ascent of Humanity, an essay on the philosophy of history that received the prestigious Hertz Prize by the British Academy.

From 1930 to 1934 he served as the BBC's first science commentator, and from 1932 to 1942 he was a council member of the Society for Psychical Research.

In 1937 Gerald Heard came to the United States, accompanied by Aldous Huxley, after having been offered the chair of historical anthropology at Duke University. After delivering some lectures at Duke, Heard gave up the post and soon settled in California where from 1941 to 1942 he founded and oversaw the building of Trabuco College, a large facility where comparative-religion studies and practices flourished under Heard's visionary direction. Trabuco College, 30 years ahead of its time, was discontinued in 1947, and the vast properties were subsequently donated to the Vedanta Society of Southern California.

During the 1950s, Heard's main activities were writing and lecturing, along with an occasional television and radio
appearance. His broad philosophical themes and scintillating oratorical style  influenced many people and attracted a legion of interested persons. But chiefly  he maintained a regular discipline of meditation for many years, as the core of
his mature beliefs centered around the intentional evolution of consciousness.

Following five years of illness, Gerald Heard peacefully passed away at  his home in Santa Monica, California, on August 14, 1971.

Gerald was a genius and far more artistically uninhibited in his creative imaginative than was Huxley, etc. He believed that the psychedelics potentially could be employed as sacramental "medicaments" to could be used in traversing all the major life-cycle transitions. He envisioned them as catalystic agents in a life-long theraphy of growth through the major life-stages, not only as a tool for liberation from the fear of death, etc.

Gerald and Aldous were close collaborators in exploring the human and transpersonal potentials of the psychedelics, and of course, Aldous knew of Gerald's recording of 'Rebirth', so it is likely that Aldous's decision to take LSD as a sacrament in his last hours of dying of cancer (while his wife, Laura, intoned parts of the Tibetan Book of the Dead) was directly inspired from Gerald's extensive research into proper psychophysical rituals to enhance such life-cycle transitions."


Henry Fitzgerald Heard commonly called Gerald Heard (October 6, 1889 - August 14, 1971) was a historian, science writer, educator, and philosopher. He wrote many articles and over 35 books.

Heard was a guide and mentor to numerous well-known Americans, including Clare Boothe Luce and Bill Wilson, co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous, in the 1950s and 1960s. His work was a forerunner of, and influence on, the consciousness development movement that has spread in the Western world since the 1960s.
In the 1950s, Heard tried LSD and felt that, used properly, it had strong potential to 'enlarge Man's mind' by allowing a person to see beyond his ego.

In late August 1956, Alcoholics Anonymous founder Bill Wilson first took LSD — under Heard's guidance and with the officiating presence of Dr. Sidney Cohen, a psychiatrist then with the California Veterans Administration Hospital. According to Wilson, the session allowed him to re-experience a spontaneous spiritual experience he had had years before, which had enabled him to overcome his own alcoholism.

[Interesting since it seems "Bill Wilson" also went to the Sequoia Seminar LSD sessions in 1956...]

Heard is also responsible for introducing the then unknown Huston Smith to Huxley. Smith became one of the preeminent religious studies scholars in the United States. His book The World's Religions is a classic in the field, sold over two million copies and is considered a particularly useful introduction to comparative religion. The meeting with Huxley led eventually to Smith's connection to Timothy Leary.

In 1963, what some consider to be Heard's magnum opus, a book titled The Five Ages of Man, was published. According to Heard, the prevalent developmental stage among humans in today’s well-industrialized societies (especially in the West) should be regarded as the fourth: the "humanic stage" of the “total individual,” who is mentally dominated, feeling him- or herself to be autonomous, separate from other persons. Heard writes (p. 226) this stage is characterized by "the basic humanic concept of a mankind that is completely self-seeking because it is completely individualized into separate physiques that can have direct knowledge of only their own private pain and pleasure, inferring but faintly the feelings of others. Such a race of ingenious animals, each able to see and to seek his own advantage, must be kept in combination with each other by appealing to their separate interests."

In modern industrial societies, a person, especially if educated, has the opportunity to begin entering the “first maturity” of the humanic “total individual” in his or her mid teens. However, according to Heard — based on his decades of studies, his intuition, and his many years of reflection — a fifth stage is in the process of emerging: a post-individual psychological phase of persons and therefore of culture. According to Heard, the second maturity can be one that lies beyond "personal success, economic mastery, and the psychophysical capacity to enjoy life" (p. 240)

Heard termed this phase 'Leptoid Man' (from the Greek word lepsis: "to leap") because humans increasingly face the opportunity to 'take a leap' into a considerably expanded consciousness, in which the various aspects of the psyche will be integrated, without any aspects being repressed or seeming foreign. A society that recognizes this stage of development will honor and support individuals in a "second maturity" who wish to resolve their inner conflicts and dissolve their inner blockages and become the sages of the modern world.

Further, instead of simply enjoying biological and psychological health, as Freud and other important psychiatric or psychological philosophers of the “total-individual” phase conceived, Leptoid man will not only have entered a meaningful “second maturity” recognized by his or her society, but can then become a human of developed spirituality, similar to the mystics of the past; and a person of wisdom. [1]

But collectively and culturally we are still in the transitional phase, not really recognizing an identity beyond the super-individualistic fourth, "humanic" phase. Heard's views were cautionary about developments in society that were not balanced, about inappropriate aims of our use of technological power. He wrote: "we are aware of our precarious imbalance: of our persistent and ever-increasing production of power and our inadequacy of purpose; of our critical analytic ability and our creative paucity; of our triumphantly efficient technical education and our ineffective, irrelevant education for values, for meaning, for the training of the will, the lifting of the heart, and the illumination of the mind." [2]

Heard died on 14 August 1971 at his home in Santa Monica, California of the effects of several earlier strokes he had, beginning in 1966.

The closing "Re-birth" part of this spoken word 3-LP box set is a bit of a revelation, as the legendary Mr Heard (read "Storming heaven" for clues) invokes the Tibetan Book of the Dead and goes into a full trip-death-rebirth guide mode, preceding the Leary/Alpert/Metzner project by a full 3 years. Psychedelic history must be rewritten!

The occasional music consists of crudely recorded church organ chords upon which classically trained vocalists spell out advise to the "nobly born" limbo traveller. Heard doesn't explicitly mention psychedelic drugs on the LP, but the unexpected psychout in the third part only makes sense if the listener would drop acid between LP #2 & 3. Those who weren't in on this secret must have thought it one weird LP back then. "Re-birth" was the last recording he ever made, written during 3 months in Hawaii.

The first two discs - Survival & Growth - are more lecture-oriented and fairly entertaining, with Heard's voice sounding like an uptight professor, but the contents and purpose of his lectures are pretty far out. Like any acidhead he enjoys wordplay and long etymological parables that show how wrongheaded modern society is. Some of it is obviously influenced by the Bomb and the cold war. There is also a preoccupation with the process of ageing and the fate of senior citizens. Great testament to a brilliant man - they don't make'em like that anymore.

I've received some commentary from Heard scholar John V Cody. Apart from the general interest of Cody's comments, the status of the "Re-birth" LP as one of the very first psychedelic LPs is made clear.

"Gerald was a genius and far more artistically uninhibited in his creative imaginative than was Huxley, etc. He believed that the psychedelics potentially could be employed as sacramental "medicaments" to could be used in traversing all the major life-cycle transitions.  He envisioned them as catalystic agents in a life-long theraphy of growth through the major life-stages, not only as a tool for liberation from the fear of death, etc. Gerald and Aldous were close collaborators in exploring the human and transpersonal potentials of the psychedelics, and of course, Aldous knew of Gerald's recording of 'Rebirth', so it is likely that Aldous's decision to take LSD as a sacrament in his last hours of dying of cancer (while his wife, Laura, intoned parts of the Tibetan Book of the Dead) was directly inspired from Gerald's extensive research into proper psychophysical rituals to enhance such life-cycle transitions."

The 'Re-Birth' LP:

"Gerald's brilliantly creative imagination envisioned a wonderfully theatrical high-tech ritual (complex lighting, sound effects, music, choral performance, etc.) to form a soul-stirring liturgy for those making an "intentional" conscious, aware transition to the next dimension of Reality."

Regarding the connection to the similar Leary-Alpert-Metzner project, Cody points out that Gerald Heard did in fact review their 1964 "Psychedelic Experience" book, which is based on the very same ideas as his 1961 album. The review can be found in the Psychedelic Review, issue #5, pp 110-118. Heard uses "Re-Birth" in the heading for this review, probably a deliberate pointer to his own, earlier work.

"Re-birth' was later published and distributed as a cassette recording around 1976. The World-Pacific record producer and jazz aficionados who produced about 6 of Gerald's various 33 rpm recordings at WP are part of this story. There is an important LSD connection here since one of the record producers was initiated into LSD through Gerald Heard, who personally "invigilated" (watched over) this producer during his first session."

An excellent introduction to Gerald Heard, written by John Cody, can be found in Gnosis magazine, Winter 1993 issue.

The Ramakrishna Monastery in Trabuco Canyon had its beginning in 1942 when Gerald Heard < >, a British writer and a disciple of Swami Prabhavananda, founded the Trabuco College of Prayer on 300 acres in what was then a remote area of the Santa Ana mountains, about sixty miles south of Los Angeles. The property was rugged, consisting mainly of rolling hills and ravines covered with native grasses, chaparral and live oak trees.

Assisting him in the planning were Aldous Huxley and Eugene Exman, religious editor of Harper & Brothers, along with others of his friends and students. Heard had the buildings beautifully designed in the style of an Italian monastery, complete with oversized bricks for the walls, tile roofs, bell tower and heavy beams. The purpose of the college was to provide a place for prayer and the study of Eastern and Western mysticism.

When Gerald realized, however, that his experiment was impractical, he persuaded the college board members to deed the property over to the Vedanta Society. [Money means nothing]

The Trabuco College of Prayer was thus formally rededicated as the Ramakrishna Monastery in 1949. A number of young postulants were assigned by Swami Prabhavananda <../prabhavananda.html> to reside at the new monastery. Swami Aseshananda, who had come to assist Swami Prabhavananda, also lived there most of the time. Besides doing the daily chores of the monastery, the young monks also conducted a noon ritualistic worship and an evening arati service in the chapel.,%20Sex%20&%20Time-Reviews.htm
Reviews for Pain, Sex and Time: A New Outlook on Evolution and the Future of Man
From Traditional Yoga Studies Interactive

Heard's technique was that of the old-fashioned evangelist. His catalogue of mankind's narrow escapes, from prehistory to the present day, was meant to scare you our of your wits. Doomsday was at hand, and then at the last moment you'd be offered the alternative—salvation through meditation, the practice of the presence, prayer. The juxtaposition of fear and hope was startling and compelling then, and it remains so today.

Pain, Sex and Time was originally published in 1939. It was an important book at the time. The cover of the 2005 rerelease notes that this was actor James Dean’s favorite book. And the Foreword by religion scholar Huston Smith reveals that it was this book that set Smith on his path of studying the world’s mystics.

Gerald Heard (1889-1971) was a well-known social commentator in Great Britain in the first half of the 20th Century. He was a BBC announcer with a marvelous voice who captivated many, including, notably, H.G.Wells, with his reports on science. He was author of 38 books. He came to America in 1937 with his friend Aldous Huxley; he taught briefly at Duke University then moved to Los Angeles. Always interested in religion, he there met Swami Prabhavananda, founder of the Vedanta Society of Southern California. It was he who brought Huxley, Christopher Isherwood, John Van Druten and others to the Vedanta Circle.

In the early 40s, he created Trabuco College, a kind of experiment in modern monasticism and academia, a college of comparative religion and research into meditation techniques. He was an openly gay man, though in the modulated style of pre-liberation days, and wrote about homosexuality as an evolutionary, spiritual phenomenon.

Pain, Sex and Time was one of his cardinal books. In it, he argues that evolution in human beings has ceased to be physical and become psychological and partly voluntary. Human beings can intentionally expand their consciousness by use of meditative, ascetical, and intellectual techniques. Heard used the term “consciousness-dilation.” (It was Heard who introduced Aldous Huxley to mescaline.)

Gerald Heard is then one of the central figures in the development of contemporary ideas about the evolution of consciousness and about the nature of gay spirituality. His writings are certainly of interest to historians of ideas. Though now largely forgotten, he was one of those pivotal homosexuals who changed the world by his presence and by the force of his mind and personality.

Pain, Sex and Time is an interesting book. It’s quite instructive to discover that ideas about the nature of the mind and spirituality and religion that seem so very modern in fact were current in the 1930s. It’s also—unfortunately, but maybe not surprisingly—a difficult book to read. And this in itself is quite instructive. The style comes across as dated and a little quaint; there are too many references to current events and themes of intellectual scholarship that are just incomprehensible today; the sentence structure is too complex; and the tone of voice wordy and old-fashioned. There’s a reminder here to contemporary writers to avoid dating their material by transitory references and trendy styles (though, perhaps the lesson is also that such datedness is unavoidable).

Most of the book is an explication of history and religion, showing how the goals, especially of a secret order of initiates, has always been the dilation of consciousness in the service of all humankind. The discussions of Egyptian, Essene, Yogic, Fakiristic, Sufi, and Gnostic traditions are interesting and insightful. Heard was especially concerned with how intentional techniques, like meditation, asceticism and even tantric sex (mentioned tangentially) work to heighten consciousness. In this, he saw the practical direction that religion and spirituality should be taking to further evolution of mind.

Heard hypothesized the evolutionary development of a type of person he calls the Neo-Brahmin, “the new prophetic type and forerunner of the succeeding world order,” who is characterized by 1) height of integrity, 2) clear understanding of the meaning of life and the direction of evolution (toward greater consciousness), and 3) a power of appeal and charisma. Though Heard does not seem to say so explicitly, the descriptions sound like the ideal of our contemporary gay spirituality movement. (I wonder if I failed to recognize semi-veiled clues in the text to homosexuality.)

This book is a little bit of a challenge, the tone occasionally annoying or just befuddling. But its scope and brilliance is also entrancing, and its argument appealing. Especially for fans of Isherwood, Auden, Huxley, and that influential circle of 20th century thinkers, this book is a must-read. And, even if you can’t devote the time and concentration to a thorough reading, just picking it up and reading a page at random is a delightful and mind-dilating experience. I invite you to join in the enjoyment. Actually studying the book is an exercise in the consciousness-expansion that is its subject matter.

[1]. Ed. note: The introductory piece to Pain, Sex and Time states that Heard, “was celibate by choice for the latter decades of his life.”

[2]. Ed. note: According to Aldous Huxley: A Biography by Sybille Bedford (1974), it was Huxley who first took mescaline in May 1953 (p. 527) through Dr. Humphrey Osmond, not Heard. Heard did not take the drug until November 1953 (p. 562).

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline trailhound

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #65 on: January 30, 2010, 09:33:23 am »
Sex and the Mind-Expanding Drugs

Hallucinogens – the authorities notwithstanding – will be used from now on

 by some of the people to escalate their sexual ecstasies.


by Robert Anton Wilson, author of Sex, Drugs, & Magick

Cavalier magazine, April 1966


Several years ago, Paul Krassner started a rumor that the government possesses a super-super-weapon known as the O-Bomb-O for Orgasm – which would defeat an enemy by rendering him into such ecstatic transports of delight that he would have no energy left to fight, Naturally, various hipsters, lunatics, philosophers and other social deviates began wearing buttons demanding lewdly:


Like many another wistful and mordant satire on our times, this O-Bomb joke has shown a recent tendency to come true. The O-Bomb, otherwise known as the psychedelic chemical, has been dropped right in the middle of Whitest America. The initials LSD are now better known than LBJ. Marijuana is growing in 97 per cent of the nation's window boxes. Peyote is the only Indian word, aside from tomahawk, that every freshman could spell correctly on a recent examination at a well-known university. In short, we are living in the early Zonked epoch of the Orgiastic Age. While authorities have been wondering how to head oft the Hallucinogenic Revolution, the revolution has already occurred.

A dozen consciousness-expanding and sensation-magnifying drugs are available, at reasonable prices, anywhere in the country, and there are no specific laws yet against most of them.  And the word is out that – in addition to creating hallucinations, visions of God, instant psychoanalysis, telepathy, and various creepy and/or ecstatic sensations nobody has yet been able to verbalize – these potent potions also can lead one into sexual fulfillment beyond anything imaginable to those who haven't had it themselves.

It is this last aspect of the psychedelics that accounts chiefly for their sudden popularity. "Americans," as Tallulah Bankhead said long ago, "have sex-in-the-head, and that's a hell of a place to have it," All of us are hipsters in the special meaning that Norman the Mailer gave to the word hipster in his White Negro: “The hipster's search is . . . a religious quest . . . for the perfect orgasm." No matter what his sex life is like, every American harbors the Promethean dream that it can be bigger, better, more cosmic, more earth-shaking. God is not dead; His name has been changed to Simultaneous Climax.

The psychedelics are the answers to our dreams (and, as Goethe remarked with typically Teutonic gloom: Beware of what you dream of – you night be so unlucky as to get it). There can be no doubt, in spite of the attempts of the au­thorities to cover this up by emphasizing the occasionally nightmarish side effects of these chemicals, that every psychedelic is also a magnifying glass which expands orgasm into three or four new dimensions,

A Harvard research project, to quote just one bit of "scientific" evidence, gave LSD or psilocybin to twenty-five married couples in their own homes, and all reported a remarkable intensification of the sexual experience. Such terms as "cellular orgasm," "pulsating energy patterns," "internal fireglow" and "melting and flowing of the entire body" were used by the lucky participants. The report states that the drugs created "profound feelings of interpersonal communion and unity which endowed every action with beauty and significance."

Cannabis sativa, also known as grass, pot, marijuana, reefers, boo, etc., is the safest, most erotic, mildest and most pop­ular of the perception-boosting drugs-but it is also the most heavily sanctioned, legally. For possession of more than one ounce of cannabis, you can be sentenced in New York State, to ten years' imprison­ment and penalties are about equally severe elsewhere. There isn't a college in America today where cannabis isn't known, and used, by a minority; in several col­leges known to the author, the majority is zonked on canabis every weekend.

Last January New York University or­dered a number of students (variously reported as from six to twenty) out of a dormitory in its Washington Square com­plex because of reported use of mari­juana. At press time no other discipli­nary action had been taken against the students who included some girls living in a separate wing of the dormitory.

Show biz people use it continually. A professional marijuana "dealer" told me recently that his clientele included, along with bohemians and musicians, many young office workers, professional people and one lawyer.

The effect of pot, initially, is intensifi­cation of sound and color awareness, together with an erotic tingling of the whole body. Some psychologists regard this tingling as the re-establishment of "polymorphous perversity" (non-genital sexuality), which Freud thought was born into all infants and destroyed by social repression. Sex with pot is not goatish and brutal, as it often is with booze: it is a slow, loving, very gentle, exquisitely intense experience. Before trying it, brethren, remember: If the state catches you having this kind of unauthorized orgasm, your rump will land in The Joint for ten years.

The effects of cannabis last from about twenty minutes to about one hour, but often seem much longer due to distortion of the time sense. Habitual users say that sex can be had, ecstatically, at any time after the pot has begun to take effect. With prolonged use, the drug tends to create a feeling of religious brotherhood with other pot-heads and a paranoid dis­trust of non-users; the pot-head never knows when somebody will turn out to be an FL (fuzz-lover) and turn him in.

Not a psychedelic, and not illegal, is a drug similar in some ways to cannabis as an orgasm-booster: amyl nitrate. A cousin of ordinary smelling salts, amyl nitrate, when inhaled, creates an intense, cocaine-like exhilaration for something less than a minute. Faggots have used it for years, and the word began spreading to the rest of us only recently: If you and your girl sniff this stuff just before orgasm, you will have an experience unlike anything you can imagine in advance. Amyl nitrate is known as "poppers" and is used, both sexually and non-sexually, on many col­lege campuses. Medical authorities re­gard it, like pot, as harmless.  These are grade school level in the psychedelic hierarchy, however. High school is peyote, psilocybin and mescaline. (Reform school, to follow the meta­phor until it staggers, is Jimson weed, yage and belladonna.) Peyote, a cactus, and psilocybin, a derivative from a mushroom, have been used in Mexico for more than 2,000 years. Peyote spread to the Indians of the United States about 70 years ago and is now used in religious rites by the Native American Church. Both peyote and psilocybin have been traditionally connected with telepathy, clairvoyance and "projection of the astral body." Mescaline is one of the four active ingredients of peyote and is available in most metropolitan areas.

The effects are approximately the same whether one uses peyote, mescaline or psilocybin, although there is some ten­dency toward side effects of nausea with peyote. The experience lasts from six to twelve hours, and, typically, includes anx­iety, bolts of quick terror, beautiful hallu­cinations, telepathy, sudden self-insights, moments when "time stops" and you dwell in Eternity, space-disorientations, and a growing sense of tranquility and love for all living creatures. The body-tingle, or general eroticism, of cannabis also appears and much stronger and with more benevolence in a peyote or psilocybin high.

The pot-head feels sexy; the peyote user, more likely, will become loving, and sex will only be part of the feeling. Ex­perienced voyagers say that peyote sex is superb, much better than pot-sex, but should not be started until late in the "trip" – earlier hallucinations are apt to destroy one's ability to focus on the loved person. By the fifth or sixth hour, when the hallucinations have passed and typi­cally benevolent tranquility has begun, sex – with a truly compatible partner – is an unspeakably sacred and ecstatic ex­perience. Sex with an incompatible part­ner can send you spiraling back into hallucinations or anxiety.

Psilocybin and mescaline are illegal, but they are not under the control of the Harrison Act and hence do not concern the U.S. Narcotics Bureau. The dangers of getting busted are small unless you make a lot of noise and the neighbors call the gendarmes. Peyote is legal every-where, except in New York, Massachu­setts and Pennsylvania.

Jimson weed, belladonna and yage (pronounced yah-hay) are the Vietcong of the psychedelic world. Three kids were arrested in California recently running down the street howling at passersby to get the red, white and blue alligators off them; it turned out that they had been eating Jimson weed. Belladonna is simi­lar. A friend who tried it told me of seeing giant gorillas, Nazi storm troopers, naked witches, and polar bears wearing black turtleneck sweaters. Yage, typically, transports you to Yage City, which is said to be a cross between Easter Island and ancient Egypt, and telepathy is very common, (yage is called telepathine, in some medical books). Temporary blindness, unconsciousness, psychoses and acute vomiting are recorded side effects of all three of these.

A dose of belladonna that's safe for one person can be fatal for another, which is one more reason for avoiding this kick. It is noteworthy, however, that bella­donna was used in the medieval period as a sex-booster by the so-called "witches."

Morning-glory seeds, which are coming into wide use, are the college-level in the psychedelic hierarchy. The varieties that cause sensation-magnification and mind-expansion are Heavenly Blue, Pearly Gates, Flying Saucers and Wed-ding Bells. A hundred seeds are said to be perfect for a sexual "trip" (200 take you into hallucinatory and religious experi­ence; 250-500 will bring you all the way to ego-loss and the heights of mysticism; above 500 is dangerous).

On 100 Heavenly Blue seeds, erotic sensitivity becomes acute all over the body, color and form take on new beauty and "depth," and everything appears pro­foundly meaningful, in a definitely re­ligious sense. This is a surprisingly "cool" experience – cool as heroin and other ad­dictive drugs are cool – and lacks the nervous, rapidly "flowing" emotional tone of peyote, psilocybin and LSD. It is an experience "of the mountains," of clarity and calm and clear air, with profoundly pantheistic tranquility at the heart of it. Orgasm becomes more an act of giving than of taking – an act of giving in, of surrender in the widest sense, of happen­ing rather than doing. The seeds are legal everywhere.

Lysergic acid diethylamide tartrate-25, or LSD, is post-graduate work. It is the best, and most dangerous, of all psy­chedelics. It is the joker in the pack, acting sometimes like the seeds, some-times like belladonna or Jimson weed, sometimes like peyote, and frequently acting like nothing ever recorded before even in its own weird history. It has cured schizophrenia, alcoholism, criminal psychopathy, frigidity, and, it has been said, even cancer, in some cases and has been ineffective against them all in others; it has created the most mystical and God-centered of all psychedelic experiences; it has often led to temporary psychotic breakdowns; a few people have been driven to suicide by it. Nobody should ever try it without professional supervision.  LSD is illegal throughout the nation, but easily available in cubes retailing for $3 to $7 in most big cities through extra-legal sources. The morning-glory seeds can be purchased legally anywhere, and $1 will buy enough for a hundred-seed sex-jaunt, or you can grow your own. Belladonna can be purchased, in various medicines, at drugstores, and $1.50 can buy ten "trips." Jimson weed you have to find growing wild. Yage, imported from South America, costs about the same as LSD; so do mescaline and psilocybin. Prices on cannabis vary widely, but $1 for a "roach" (cigarette) is typical; three roaches, passed around a circle one by one, will get a group of six to eight peo­ple quite happy.

These prices are especially remarkable when you remember that an alcohol-head, not necessarily an alcoholic but a "heavy drinker," can spend $15 to $25 a week on his habit, and an addict of heroin call quickly reach the stage of enslavement where his need costs him $65, or more, per day.

Psychedelic prices are misleading, be-cause hardly anybody, except pot-heads, ever wants to take more than one or two "trips" per month. The afterglow and the intellectual stimulation always take a few weeks to wear off, and you just are not interested in another "trip" for a while.

Such a cheap Instant Transcendence, obviously, is not going to be effected by laws or persecutions anymore than booze was affected by the Volstead Act. The Psychedelic Revolution has occurred; society is going to have to learn to live with the fact that a certain not-very-small minority is hereinafter going to insist on, and practice, the right to make them-selves more sensitive than the majority, both erotically and otherwise. The O-Bomb has fallen, right in our midst.

"Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression." Qur'an 5:2
At the heart of that Western freedom and democracy is the belief that the individual man, the child of God, is the touchstone of value..." -RFK

Offline PEOA

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #66 on: February 08, 2010, 11:02:37 am »
Now that is some interesting stuff, Kenndy especially, what a read 8)..............

Let me ask you something, did this backfire and blowup in there face, kind of like Kenndy waking up, is like it force their hand,'s funny how much can be realized when you think about it :-X meditate.......
When the garden flowers baby are dead yes
and your mind is full of BREAD
your eyes, I say your eyes may look like his
but in your head baby I'm afraid you don't know where it is

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #67 on: February 08, 2010, 02:17:07 pm »
Now that is some interesting stuff, Kenndy especially, what a read 8)..............

Let me ask you something, did this backfire and blowup in there face, kind of like Kenndy waking up, is like it force their hand,'s funny how much can be realized when you think about it :-X meditate.......

Looking at the material so far in total, some basic facts are exposed.

This was composed of multilpe projects (purposes) directed by multiple groups: Tavistock SRI RAND CIA FBI NSA Army Navy and other groups in multiple countries (USA - multiple states/Canada/U.K./Austrailia/New Zealand).
Projects were conducted over multiple decades.
Purposes were the whole spectrum of uses (anything they could think of): individual, groups, societal, political, Global

Did this backfire and blowup in their face?

Absolutely not. By the time they started flooding in Cocaine the societal makeup of the U.S. had been changed to the point of being controllable. The assassinations were used to maximum advantage to demoralize the country and make it more controllable. Order out of Chaos.  

We can honestly say that the U.S. is more fair to a majority of citizens today then before 1960, but there was a great price to pay and today we are also much LESS free in many ways.  

One primarily not discussed much in this thread is thought control.

What thoughts do you NOT have?
What thoughts do you NEVER NOT have?

These programs are not over!

for reference See: Yuri Bezmenov (ex-KGB, tells all)

Notice that the "kgb - soviets" can get the "blame" - but thats not the real source of the problem
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline PEOA

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #68 on: February 08, 2010, 03:22:09 pm »
Looking at the material so far in total, some basic facts are exposed.
for reference See: Yuri Bezmenov (ex-KGB, tells all)

In other words [for] these people the process of demoralization is complete and irreversible. To rid society of these people you need another 15 or 20 years to educate a new generation of patriotically minded and common sense people who would be acting in favor and in the interests of United States society.

.....that is not good news.......I have seen these interviews about those unintentionally awaken...... ??? Kenndy… I don’t think they want him many are there out there ???.....
When the garden flowers baby are dead yes
and your mind is full of BREAD
your eyes, I say your eyes may look like his
but in your head baby I'm afraid you don't know where it is

Offline trailhound

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #69 on: February 08, 2010, 06:55:54 pm »


The Making of the Counterculture



In the winter of 1954-55 America was in an economic, social, and cultural interregnum. One style of life, one mood — like Victorianism or Edwardianism — was giving way to another. The industrial age based on the mechanical exploitation of coal and iron was giving way to electronics, computers, automation — with all the social and intellectual results such a basic revolution implies — but as yet few indeed understood what was happening.

The country was in a minor economic depression following the end of the Korean War. The Korean War represented a qualitative leap forward in technology and a lag in all other factors. However, morale broke down for a more simple reason. You can fight only one such war every twenty-five years. The Korean War took place within the effective memory of the Second World War. The academic and intellectual establishment, Left, Right, and Center, was shattered, demoralized, and discredited by the years of McCarthyism. Young men by the thousands were returning from the Korean War to the colleges disillusioned and contemptuous of their elders. They said to each other, “Keep your nose clean and don’t volunteer.” “Don’t believe anybody over thirty.” Communication between groups broke down. Only those of the older generation who had remained defiant were respected, listened to, questioned. Just as the Army took years to discover the almost total breakdown of morale in Korea, so the older intellectuals were unaware that a volcano was building up under them.

McCarthyism itself was an expression of breakdown of an older American synthesis. It has often been pointed out that McCarthy came from a small Wisconsin city, from a state which was once the home of the radical Progressive LaFollette, the most intransigent spokesman for the old agrarian Populism with its distrust of Wall Street, the New York and New England political and cultural establishment, isolationist, defiantly middle class. The doors were closed and locked forever for any escape into economic power of the Midwestern debtor society of small farmers, small-town independent merchants, and country bankers. McCarthyism is the last expression of what in central Europe was called the Green Revolution, devouring itself in impotence.

Most of the slogans of McCarthyism, like those of the John Birch Society today, had once possessed an entirely different meaning and had been formative ideas in the shaping of an older America. This content had been emptied out and replaced by truculent suspicion of any and all enlightened ideas which were forming the new, succeeding society. At the top America was in the hands of a sort of regency. The ship of state was steering itself. A generation was growing up which had known World War II only as children. Not one of the hopes or the promises of that war had been realized. Russia and the United States both had the Bomb and were striving to divide the world between them, to turn whole nations into aircraft carriers and army bases.

The Korean War had ended in a bloody stalemate and a wholesale breakdown of morale. While McCarthy was at the height of his power, with few exceptions the intellectual and moral leaders of America feared to challenge, if they did not actually support him. The entire academic community was shattered and terrorized both by McCarthy and dozens of local witch hunts and state-sponsored investigating committees. McCarthyism more than any other thing revealed to the young the moral bankruptcy of their elders. College professors complained that they were facing a silent generation who received their lectures with the response “no comment.” Nihilism in public life was reflected in nihilism amongst young intellectuals. The intellectual establishment, in fact, many of whom were ex-Communists, largely supported McCarthy. Nihilism in authority breeds nihilism in response, as it did in nineteenth-century Russia.

Although all the literary editors and the academicians were busy telling the world in the early fifties that the age of experiment and revolt was over, a very few critics, myself amongst them, had begun to point out that this slogan alone showed how complete was the breakdown of communications between the generations. Under the very eyes of the pre-war generation a new age of experiment and revolt far more drastic in its departures, far more absolute in its rejections, was already coming into being. The Beat writers were not at first part of this movement. Kerouac had published a very conventional novel, Ginsberg was writing dry whimsical little imitations of William Carlos Williams, Burroughs’s intoxicated lucubrations were not considered publishable even by himself. Gregory Corso, a naïve writer, a kind of natural-born Dadaist, was tolerated as an amusing mascot by the boys on The Harvard Advocate as a convenient practical joke.

San Francisco was the one community in the United States which had a regional literature and art at variance with the prevailing pattern. During the thirties it had become a strong trade-union town with a politically powerful Left, yet this radical activity was remarkably independent of the doctrinaire dictates of the American Communist Party. Perhaps the main reason for this was that most of the leadership had come from the IWW, the anarcho-syndicalist “One Big Union” movement which had been so strong on the Pacific Coast a generation before. During the war, work camps for conscientious objectors were established throughout the mountains and forests of California. These boys came down to San Francisco on their leaves. They met with San Francisco writers and artists who had been active in the Red Thirties but who had become, not professional anti-Bolsheviks, but anarchists and pacifists. During the war, meetings of pacifist and anarchist organizations continued to be well attended. Immediately on the war’s end a group of San Francisco writers and artists began an Anarchist Circle with public meetings which for five years were better attended than those of all the Socialist and Communist organizations put together. From this group and from the artists’ C.O. camp at Waldport, Oregon, came a large percentage of cultured activities in San Francisco which have lasted to the present time — a radio station, three little theaters, a succession of magazines, and a number of people who are considered the leading writers and artists of the community today. And it was this sympathetic environment that the so-called Beat writers discovered around the early fifties.

There is probably more misunderstanding and misinformation current about the Beat Generation than any other phenomenon in contemporary culture. This is due to the fact that the sensational press were quick to seize on the Beat writers and to reconstruct them in their own image. The public personality which had been grafted onto Allen Ginsberg is the kind of person the editors of Time magazine would be if they only had the nerve. The Beat writer is what the French call a hallucination publicitaire, Madison Avenue’s idea of a Revolutionary Bohemian Artist. It bears almost no relation to actuality although the delusion, the false image, is a continuous temptation to the real writers. They can always find applause and profit by living up to the delusions of their enemies.

The factual historical misinformation about the Beat Movement is immense. In the first place, there never really was a Beat Movement, with the exception of four writers — Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, William Burroughs, and Gregory Corso. Second, these writers have had little connection with San Francisco down the years and they were all fairly well known amongst bohemian intellectuals before they ever saw the city. William Burroughs, several years older than the rest, had first brought them together in New York shortly after 1950. Kerouac and Ginsberg were at that time students at Columbia and Gregory Corso a non-student at Harvard University. For several years a group of very hip young men had been running a magazine in St. Louis called Neurotica. About 1952 two of the editors, Jay and Fred Landesman, moved to New York and opened a large loft studio a block away from the San Remo Café, then the most in or the most far out of the Greenwich Village bohemian hangouts. It was at the Landesmans’ studio that Kerouac, Ginsberg, Corso, and Burroughs first made contact with the literary bohemian society of New York. There are several novels about this phase of the movement. With the exception of Clellan Holmes’s Go, they very significantly do not concentrate on the specific behavior patterns peculiar to the four Beats but describe the general scene in the first postwar generation of disaffiliation, revolt, disgust.

The trouble with the New York scene around the San Remo Café was its total mindlessness. There was nothing there but disgust. When Ginsberg and Kerouac began visiting San Francisco in the course of their student wanderings around the country during vacation the effect on them was explosive. In 1956 I asked the proprietors of the Six Gallery, one of the launching pads of abstract expressionism, if they would sponsor a reading by Walter Lowenfels, who could not get a hall anywhere in San Francisco because he was under indictment for violation of the Smith Act. He was an editor of the Philadelphia edition of The Daily Worker and had been a well-known modernist poet in the Paris America of the late twenties and early thirties. (He is the Jabberwohl Kronstadt in Henry Miller’s Black Spring.) The proprietors of the gallery were delighted at the chance to defy authority. Nobody under 40 had ever heard of Lowenfels as a poet but to everyone’s amazement the large gallery was jam-packed with young people who came to hear him read. The proprietors were so delighted that they asked me to arrange other readings. The next one made history. It was a parade of the city’s leading avant-garde poets — Robert Duncan, Brother Antoninus, Philip Lamantia, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Michael McClure, and four young men who had just come to town — Gary Snyder, Philip Whalen, Gregory Corso, Allen Ginsberg. Here Ginsberg first read Howl, which he had been working on in a state of excited entrancement for the past two weeks. The effect beggars description. A new folklore and a new folkloristic relationship between audience and poet had been created.

The Six Gallery reading is usually said to have launched the Beat movement. In fact the only connection is Allen Ginsberg himself. Kerouac was present but did not participate except to create periodic disturbances. Public reading of poetry had become a regular institution in San Francisco as early as 1928 and was a principal attraction in the John Reed Club, the Communist artist and writers’ organization, and in the Jack London Club, the competing Socialist group. Poetry readings were given by the united pacifist Randolph Bourne Council and later by the San Francisco Anarchist Circle all through the war and the decade after, mostly in the Arbeiter Ring, the largely Jewish workingmen’s fraternal organization. The San Francisco Poetry Center had been in existence for some years and had already moved to San Francisco State College. The annual Poetry Festivals had begun shortly after the war and the satirical musical review, The Poets’ Follies, under the direction of Weldon Kees and Michael Grieg, with acts like the beautiful stripper Lili St. Cyr reading T.S. Eliot’s Ash Wednesday (dressed), had already shown three consecutive years. Kenneth Patchen, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, and myself had already started reading poetry to jazz in local jazz clubs. (The great bassist and composer Charles Mingus was closely associated with many of the artists and writers of San Francisco during the war years.)

The older poets had all been active in the anarchist and pacifist movement for many years, had been conscientious objectors during the war, and worked in C.O. camps or in hospitals. Of the younger, Philip Whalen and Gary Snyder had grown up in IWW circles in Oregon and Washington.

It was from this background that the very superficial and largely factitious interest in Zen Buddhism shared by Kerouac and Ginsberg comes, not, as is often imagined, from contact with G.I.’s returning from China, Japan, and Korea. The influence of Oriental religion on San Francisco is partly indigenous. There are many large, flourishing Buddhist churches in the Bay Area with mostly Japanese congregations, but with Caucasians as well, and with many contacts with the general community. I know of only one returned G.I. who came back with an interest in Buddhism. He had no contact with the San Francisco intellectual community except myself and became an academic Buddhologist. On the other hand, Alan Watts, Gerald Heard, Christopher Isherwood, Aldous Huxley, and myself in California and the painters Mark Tobey and Morris Graves in Seattle were centers of interest in Oriental religion, but more especially in the revival of the contemplative life, all through the war years. Most of us conducted seminars, discussion groups, and retreats teaching younger people the elements and the techniques of nonviolence and meditation. These activities of course still go on in different forms and on a much larger scale. Gary Snyder is an ordained Zen monk and learned in the poetry and religious literature of India, China, and Japan. I will always remember the night Jack Kerouac appeared uninvited at my home, sat down with a jug of cheap port wine beside him on the floor, announced that he was a Zen Buddhist, and discovered that everybody in the room read at least one Oriental language.

Kerouac’s portrayal of this aspect of San Francisco culture, in The Dharma Bums, would be a malevolent libel if it were deliberate. It is only an expression of his own baffled ignorance in the face of human motivations and beliefs, which he was intrinsically incapable of understanding. It is this ignorant confabulation presenting itself as reality which accounts for the almost complete eclipse of Kerouac’s reputation. Young people no longer read him and consider him absurd, the apotheosis of uptight. It is not just the misrepresentation of fact but the misunderstanding of motivation, the distortion of character and the ignorance of the ideas involved which has caused him to be no longer read by people who really understand what he is talking about. The worldview of post-modern culture and of the San Francisco version of it especially has now become the common possession of millions of young people and it is backed up with a whole literature and way of life which bears no real resemblance to the disorderly conduct for its own sake of Kerouac’s characters.

Another influence on the San Francisco scene was Henry Miller, who had lived in Big Sur since 1941 and who was known to most of the San Francisco writers. I doubt if either Ginsberg or Kerouac ever read much of what he has written. They once hitchhiked down the coast 130 miles to visit him and were not admitted. Miller’s very positive and powerful religious convictions and love of life have little to do with the nihilism of the beatnik.

I should mention by the way that the word “beatnik” was invented by the San Francisco columnist, Herb Caen. The term “beat” was a common slang phrase amongst bop musicians and often, like “funky,” and other bop slang, was used in a reverse sense, but usually to mean emotionally exhausted. The term “Beat Generation” was first used simultaneously by Clellan Holmes, in an article in the New York Times Magazine, and by myself in New World Writing. This article and others like it which I wrote at the time about the then youngest generation of poets — the new age of experiment and revolt — included along with Ginsberg and Corso, Charles Olson, Robert Creeley, Denise Levertov, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Robert Duncan, Brother Antoninus, and many others. This was an unfortunate linkage which has endured to this day. None of these people has anything to do with any imagined Beat movement. Their writing is of the widest variety and they share only a rejection of the morals of a commercial civilization and a return to the international idiom of modern verse which had been stifled in America by the Reactionary Generation of the forties and the Proletarians of the thirties.

William Carlos Williams and Ezra Pound, but Williams especially, were strong influences on this entire group, as were the unreconstructed modernists surviving from the interbellum years — Louis Zukofsky, Walter Lowenfels, Sam Beckett, Kenneth Patchen, and myself. Another factor in San Francisco culture that is very important is its closer connection with London and Paris than with New York. San Francisco intellectuals first made contact with London anarchists during the Spanish War and all during the Second World War correspondence was kept up with people like Sir Herbert Read, Alex Comfort, George Woodcock, Charles Wrey Gardner, Tambimuttu, and others. I for instance first read the poetry of Denise Levertov when she was a Land Girl in Essex and introduced her by mail to Charles Wrey Gardner, who was publishing Poetry Quarterly in Billericay. George Barker lived in Big Sur in the forties. Dylan Thomas spent two long periods in San Francisco.

French publications of the résistance like Éditions de minuit and Pierre Seghers’s Poésie arrived in G.I. mail in some quantity as soon as the Americans got to Africa, and lesser amounts had trickled in from the very beginning. Writers like Simone Weil, Sartre, Camus, and poets of the résistance like Char, Frénaud, Rousselot, Seghers, Follain, Guillevic, were read in San Francisco before anyone in New York literary circles had so much as heard of them. People in San Francisco had corresponded with Simone Weil from the days of the Spanish War.

All this goes to make up the picture of the emergence of the post-modern worldwide intellectual culture in which the Beat Generation was only a minor episode, a kind of misunderstanding on the part of a few intellectual amateurs and following them the literary journalists of the gutter press. The present revolt of youth, the new radicalism, the democratization of the avant-garde, are all aspects of a worldwide revolution in the very foundations of culture, basic changes in ways of living, the emergence of a fundamentally new civilization. Allen Ginsberg has survived into this new civilization, and is today one of its leading figures in Tel Aviv, Calcutta, Moscow, but the Beat Generation placard which was hung around his neck has long since dropped away. Only squares and elderly Communist bureaucrats in the minor Balkan countries used the term “beatnik” after 1960.

What was the significance of the Beat movement, so called? What was its effect on the evolution of American literature and culture? It was the form in which the mass disaffiliation of postwar youth from a commercial, predatory, and murderous society first came to the attention of that society itself. Kerouac’s On the Road was a bestseller. It served the purpose of detective stories and cowboy romances and girlie magazines for the vast new white-collar class; the grey flannel suburbia escaped into a dream world of fast cars, easy women, drunken parties. This world of Jack Kerouac’s had essentially the same values as did the world of the upwardly mobile new professions. A whole literature of dope, homosexual prostitution, knife fights, sado-masochism, gang bangs has followed in its train — the soap operas and horse operas of the lumpen petty power élite, the little Jet or Squirt Set, in the decade since its publication. Their life has gradually come to resemble their escape literature. The effect of Kerouac on young people, on the revolt of youth, on the genuinely disaffiliated, was minimal. True, all sorts of juvenile delinquents abandoned their disorderly conduct in the soda fountains near the high schools of Cle Elum, Fort Dodge, and Tucumcari, hitchhiked to San Francisco, and started making like Kerouac’s characters in North Beach. But this invasion vanished like the Gauls from Rome. It was unable to hold the territory. While it lasted it had certain characteristics that distinguished it from the older bohemia or the present worldwide culture of secession. It was life-denying. It hated sex. It used alcohol only for oblivion. One of the diagnostic signs of the Beat syndrome, very obvious in Kerouac’s and Burroughs’s books, was contempt for women. The Beat come-on was to treat a girl exactly as one would treat a casual homosexual pickup in a public convenience. An interesting thing about the winter of 1957 in North Beach was the wave of young girl suicides, one of them the mistress of the hero of On the Road. Another man had killed his wife in Mexico some years before, playing William Tell at a party. This kind of senseless nihilism was pushed aside by the rising tide of genuine revolt with a new ethic and a new kind of social responsibility and a new and very male and very female sexuality — even though the squares are still bothered because everybody wears long hair.

Burroughs is a special case. His work is source material for social history, not literature, and as such of minor importance. He is also one of many writers mining a current faddism. Corso is another special case. Like most naïves, he really has little relationship to literary literature. It is possible to relate le douanier Rousseau to the beginnings of Cubism but the relationship is fortuitous. If anything, they were influenced by him, certainly not the other way around. He wanted to paint as photographically as possible. This does not mean that Corso is not a considerable poet; he is, just as Rousseau is a very great painter.

Of the four Beat writers, Ginsberg is much the most important. Howl has sold hundreds of thousands of copies and been translated into most civilized languages and many semi-civilized ones. It is a true vatic utterance, the speech of a nabi, an excited Hebrew prophet, and the closest parallels in literature are Hosea and Jeremiah. For several years it was fantastically popular with American students and played an important role in reinforcing and consolidating their contempt for the conspiracy of the Social Lie — the American Way of Life. Ginsberg has none of the life hatred, nihilism, praise for oblivion, sexual disgust, or social destructiveness of Kerouac and Burroughs. He has never lost a certain boyish ingenuousness which leads him to showing off on television and provoking arguments about dope and homosexuality with Bolshevik bureaucrats. In some ways he resembles, most especially in his unquenchable youthfulness, Colin Wilson. The great difference between the Angries and the Beats is that the Americans rejected the entire social structure. They didn’t want to be admitted to the old Establishment or to found a new one. They wanted to pull down all Establishments whatsoever. More important even than this — all of them, even Kerouac and Burroughs, were interested in what the avant-garde between the wars called The Revolution of the Word. They were interested in attacking, disorganizing, and in the case of Ginsberg and Corso, reorganizing the structure of the human sensibility as such through a revolutionary use of language, the overturning of the old patterns of logic and syntax. This last phrase is almost exactly that of the surrealist theoretician André Breton and it is still believed in passionately by the Beat poets. On the other hand, I have found in interviews with the leading Angries that when you question them about this matter they are unable to understand what you are talking about — it’s some French thing, like eating frogs and snails. An American television interviewer, after a long hassle trying to get the most articulate of the Angries to understand what he was talking about, gave up with the remark, aired throughout the world, “I guess I’d be angry too if I went to all that trouble and ended up writing like bum Galsworthy.” Whatever the faults of the Beats, they were the first challenge to what we call the basic values of the civilization to reach a popular audience, but it must be remembered that they were essentially a small focal point in an overwhelming social movement, a highly visible ripple in a worldwide New Wave.


The most significant, if not the best by older critical standards, literature in America today is to be found, not in books, or even in the established literary magazines, but in poetry readings, in mimeographed broadsides, in lyrics for rock groups, in protest songs — in direct audience relationships of the sort that prevailed at the very beginnings of literature. The art of reading and writing could vanish from memory in a night and it would not make a great difference to the poetry, or even much of the prose, of the youngest generation of poets and hearers of poetry. This is the new world of youth which so disturbs the oldies. Rightly so, it is a world they never made. In it they are strangers and afraid — totally unable, most of them, to comprehend what is happening.

The last few years have seen a steady stream of American books on the New Left, on the revolt of youth, and especially on such mass phenomena as the Free Speech Movement in Berkeley and the anti-Vietnam protests on all the campuses. With no exceptions these books have been written by ideologues, men of the Thirties, or by somewhat younger people who grew up in lingering Marxist sectarian groups. They all try to assimilate a non-ideological, non-political worldwide movement to the programmatic delusions of another age.

What we are witnessing today is a profound change in the patterns of life and an even greater change in its possibilities. This affects all nations — I used to say except Red China — beatniks, hooligans, gammlers, stilyagi, provos, hippies — they’re not just to be found in Amsterdam, in the East Village in New York, on Haight Street in San Francisco, or on Notting Hill in London. Terms of abuse only represent the attempt of the squares and the oldies to exorcise behavior which they do not understand with stereotyped formulas which they think they do.

Britain is a special case. British society assimilates all things — the ceremonies of the monarchy, the country house orgies of high life, the stodgy Communist Party of Great Britain. Today the Teddy Boys are middle-aged; the Angries lunch in the Reform Club; and even Mods and Rockers, no longer young, have been digested by a homogeneous and homogenizing society. Carnaby Street is already part of the Establishment and a tourist attraction second only to the boys in bearskin busbies. The subculture of secession in Great Britain is a kind of Fabian anarchism, slowly penetrating all structures of the society by metastasis. This is not true anywhere else and it makes the profound and ever-widening schism in the soul in modern society difficult to explain to a British audience. Can you imagine an American president making the very influential American anarchist, critic, poet, psychiatrist, urbanist, educator, Paul Goodman, a knight like Sir Herbert Read, or Bob Dylan an M.B.E. like John Lennon?

Most nations show no capacity to absorb their youth culture. Not only does the sight of the long coiffure give most premiers, ministers, and cabinet secretaries running and barking fits, but it is becoming increasingly difficult for young people in the uniform of secession — beards, long hair, blue jeans — to cross national boundaries. They are harassed with elaborate customs inspections and forced to give proof of their solvency and in some countries, Greece, Morocco, and Algiers for instance, are refused entrance on their appearance alone. Les douaniers are perfectly right; they are the enemy. If there were enough of them national boundaries would disappear instantly.

Does this mean that they are Internationalists and Pacifists, capital I and capital P? Certainly not. Any question like this provokes a false answer. What is happening cannot be explained in terms of ideology. Ideologies are at best schematizations of social reality, never fit the facts, and wear out rapidly like ill-fitting shoes. Suppose Hitler had conquered the world and had totally suppressed all the documents and the very memory of the writings of Marx. Would the industrial process then have failed to produce “human self-alienation”? Would there no longer be any necessity for the capitalist system to expand regardless of human values or else collapse? Would the ratio of labor power to capital investment and with it the rate of profit stop falling? Would the failure of the economic system to ensure a minimum of life satisfactions for the majority of its members not have resulted in an ever-increasing demand for a fundamental change in the quality of life? Do all these things depend upon familiarity with a four-foot shelf of books full of errors and failed prophecies? Revolutionary consciousness is not the product of courses in the ABC of Marxism. It is a kind of natural secretion of the hopeless contradictions of modern society and it is most doubtful if Marx would have recognized it — in fact he notoriously was as intolerant as any country pastor in Ibsen of the mild bohemianism of his own children.

Fortunately for the present generation, the hundred years from 1848 to 1948 witnessed the total bankruptcy of all ideologies. The revolutions of the past, said Teilhard de Chardin, had economic and political objectives, but the latter half of the twentieth century will see a worldwide revolutionary struggle to change the quality and meaning of life. This revolution cannot be understood unless we realize that it starts off with the slate wiped clean. There is no worse guide conceivable than an aged ex-Left-Trotskyite holding down a professorship in a multiversity, the boss of a corps of graduate students tagging demonstrators about the campus with questionnaires.

Today there is growing up throughout the world an entirely new pattern of life. For several years I have called it the subculture of secession but this it is no more — it is a competing civilization, “a new society within the shell of the old.” It has come about not through books or programs but through a change in the methods of production. It is a society of people who have simply walked into a computerized, transistorized, automated world, a post-industrial or post-capitalist economy, in which there is an ever-increasing democratization of at least the possibilities for a creative response to life.

What does democratization of the arts mean in practice in America? What happens when an entire subculture takes to poetry, rock groups, folk songs, junk sculpture, collage pop pictures, total sexual freedom, and costumes invented ad lib? What is the relationship of this literary and artistic activity in which everyone can take part to the official, professionalized culture? What is the relationship of the Establishment and the Secession? Obviously the younger people are both seceding from something and acceding to something. What?

Conventional academic poetry is certainly flourishing in America. Most poets of this type, in fact all of them, have very good jobs in universities which pay from $8000 to $30,000 a year. Their books do not sell, but readings on the poetry circuits of the Establishment are at least as profitable as ever was Vaudeville. Any established poet can ask and receive fees from $500 to $1000 an appearance, thus nuzzling the heels of concert stars on the rung above him.

There is another world of poetry readings altogether. Ferlinghetti, Ginsberg, and Bob Dylan form the only bridge from one world to another. I have no idea what Bob Dylan’s sales are, but Ferlinghetti’s Coney Island of the Mind alone had sold 250,000 copies by 1969. The book sells at the rate of 45,000 a year and has been translated into Swedish, Danish, Polish, Russian, French, Italian, German, Spanish, Czech, Slovak, Serbian, at least, not counting pirated editions in the Orient and in the smaller Iron Curtain countries. Ferlinghetti’s other books sell 20,000 a year, altogether. Ginsberg’s Howl has sold over 200,000 in the U.S. alone. Kaddish had sold 30,000. Reality Sandwiches, 20,000. The foreign editions of Ginsberg are innumerable. Dylan Thomas’s sales are still about equal to Ginsberg’s or Ferlinghetti’s and he was one of the most popular “platform personalities” in American history — but not in Great Britain!

People like Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, and the leading rock groups have fabulous incomes. Yet even those who have gone over to the nightclub circuit like Peter, Paul, and Mary and Judy Collins still live essentially the same lives as the seceders on unemployment payments or welfare, with the same values and the same pleasures, and they are even more active in civil-rights and civil-liberties struggles. That is the point — in a society of abundance where the poor live better than Charlemagne, everybody can afford to be ethical. Aristotle confines his Nichomachean Ethics to the moral behavior of free citizens of Greek city states. Slaves, says he, cannot afford ethics — their wills are not their own. The reason for the vast eruption of moral protest in America since the beginning of the civil-rights struggle is that people now can afford to be good — aggressively so. Nothing serious, except possibly murder, can happen to a young girl who leaves a Northern college and goes to the South to help out. Suppose her parents disown her? She won’t starve. She’ll have an interesting life and be welcomed back to school with a scholarship. In an abundant society a large number of people will discover that ethics is (or are) fun — like poetry or jazz or happenings. Only in a wealthy society could the film play so important a role. Kenneth Anger, Stan Brakhage, Bruce Conner, James Broughton, one of their films costs more than James Joyce made on Ulysses — yet these film-makers are as much a part of the scene as Gary Snyder, whose life motto is, “Don’t own anything you wouldn’t leave out in the rain” — or as Joan Baez, who must make as much as Maria Callas.

Far more important than their large sales, readings by Ginsberg, Ferlinghetti, Gary Snyder are mass demonstrations where the charisma practically reeks, and could be bottled and sold. In the new subculture, no longer very submerged, these poets have founded a way of life. In countless coffee shops and community pads people gather nightly, play records of rock groups like The Jefferson Airplane, The Grateful Dead, The Only Alternative and the Other Possibilities, records of protest and of folk singers like Bob Dylan and Joan Baez, or records of the modern jazz musicians, Ornette Coleman, John Handy, Cecil Taylor, Archie Shepp; or they may beat congas and atonal guitars polyrhythmically and recite their own poetry. Usually this poetry has no life beyond the immediate occasion. Sometimes small groups, essentially neighborhood communities, in the analogs of New York’s East Village and San Francisco’s Haight-Ashbury district, which are springing up all over the country, get together and put out duplicated publications of their own poems. Sometimes they even manage a hand press, and produce a regular magazine. The girls set type, the fellows turn the cranks, babies crawl on the floor, and cats tip over the fonts and piss in the pied type. The first magazine of this kind from such a group was The Ark, published just after World War II by the San Francisco Anarchist Circle. Since 1946 its progeny are numbered in thousands, but they still come from the same kind of group (although nobody is so square as to call himself an anarchist anymore), and are produced in the same circumstances in the same cold water flats with rubbish décor.

Like the old French Canadian threat of winning the battle of the cradle, this is a revolution which hopes to win simply by outliving and outbreeding the squares. In a few years most people will be under 25. In this world there are no economic problems. This is the world of post-Theobald man, functioning on the bare minimum subsistence income which the modern Welfare State actually does guarantee right now. These people not only accept their redundancy, they glory in it. Nobody works any more than enough to get his unemployment insurance. The standard of living is exactly that of the unsophisticated redundants — two pairs of blue jeans a year in Appalachian fashion, welfare cuisine of lots of rice and beans, wine at $1.30 a gallon, and grass consumed till every roach has vanished from its crutch. Where the records and books come from, I don’t know. I guess they’re stolen. Paintings, and found art, like the poetry, are authentic products of cottage industry.

If you democratize art you necessarily, at least at first, lower its standards. Anybody can do junk sculpture or drip painting or collages. Anybody can sing as well as Bob Dylan. Anybody can write as well as most of the poems given away in San Francisco shops by the Free Poetry Movement (on the butcher’s counter a stack of mimeographed sheets and a card, “Free Poems — Take One”). When Lenin said the time would come when any cook could run the State he didn’t say he’d be a very good cook or a very good governor. However, already a new set of artistic and literary values or criteria are emerging. They reflect the interpersonal relationships and their attendant values of a quite different kind of society — anti-predatory, anti-exploitative, personally, morally engaged. This results in a quite different formal esthetic — and through all the apparent chaos, a new concept of form can be seen emerging and new evaluations. Fifty years of socialist power have not ended human self-alienation but seem to have increased it. You can’t expect the Free Poetry Movement to produce Homers overnight or even T.S. Eliots. However — the Seceders have attacked precisely alienation and I suppose that is the fundamental criterion: does this poem or song or story or film or painting or play overcome the gulf between man and man and between man and himself — even a very little?

This is a revolutionary movement which has substituted for “Workers of the World Unite — You Have Nothing to Lose But Your Chains,” “Please Let Me Alone, Man; I Just Want to Do Nice Things With My Friends.” Innocuous as this might seem as a revolutionary slogan, it is a specter that is haunting Europe, and America, and Asia as well. In Prague there was a coffee shop called “The Viola” where Ferlinghetti was recited to records by Thelonious Monk, although in Prague in cette belle époque between the wars nobody ever thought to recite Allen Tate to Stephen Foster on the banjo.

Poetry, probably because it is the one art most difficult to turn into a commodity, is, with folk-rock and jazz, the focus of life in this world. An equally important reason is that contemporary disaffiliation is essentially a religious challenge to the universal hypocrisy of the Social Lie, and poetry, of all the arts, can give most specific, most overt, most challenging expression to religious values. Beginning with Howl, which is a poem by a nabi of the New York Subway, strictly in Allen Ginsberg’s own tradition, that of the Hebrew prophets, most of the poetry of the subculture of secession has been religious and its practitioners have been devoted to the theological virtues — voluntary poverty, sexual honesty, and obedience to personal integrity.

In such a culture, particularly if it is floated by, rather than submerged in, an affluent society like our own, economic questions wither away, more rapidly than in Lenin’s State. The significant poetry of the youngest generation escapes altogether from the strictures of the dismal science. These are the people who have walked into the Great Society uninvited, without even turning down an invitation to the White House. They have taken possession of the social results of the cybernetic future.

Political organizations that represent one pole or the other of the vast evil try to use this subculture without success. Turnouts like the great Vietnam protests are not organized by the Progressive Labor Party or the Students for a Democratic Society or any of the other tiny neo-Bolshevik groups that crowd their way into the TV cameras. They crank out leaflets and go through the mechanical patterns of “leading the struggle” but they are very minor external parasites on the tail of a vast mass movement. When they take over and force their people to the front, they find themselves without followers. The youth of America — or the rest of the world for that matter — do not protest the Vietnam War for geopolitical reasons, in the interests of Chairman Mao or Ho Chi Minh or the Kremlin — but as a murderous conspiracy of the aged, and for purely human and moral reasons. They look on the war as a war of the old men at the desks and on the podiums against the young men and women in the rice paddies and behind the guns. When political groups try to force this protest into their own channels they discover that the protestors have suddenly gone away. The crazier violent groups are doubtless, as always, 75 percent agents provocateurs.

There is a good deal of confusion about several quite different types of youth behavior. Just because conduct is revolting, that doesn’t mean it is revolt. There is no more relationship between the wild boys of the road — motorcycle clubs like Hell’s Angels or some of the more violent Rocker types — and poets like Gary Snyder or singers like Bob Dylan or Joan Baez, than there is between an Establishment writer like John Osborne and people who hunt foxes. A good part of what goes on amongst people under thirty is simply the perennial youth culture we have always had, which has always disturbed the old, from Babylon to Benny Goodman. Today the opportunities for mischief offered by affluent society simply make it all that more conspicuous.

When the Hell’s Angels announced they were going to disrupt the Vietnam protest march in Berkeley, Ken Kesey and Allen Ginsberg invited the leaders down to Kesey’s mountain home and turned them on with LSD and the next day they were as meek as lambs, loved all sentient creatures, and rode in the march on Kesey’s Op-Art truck. That’s the connection.

Which brings up the subject of narcotics. It is true that more young people smoke marijuana than drink alcohol (except for wine and beer). They say it is obviously less harmful, and less harmful than tobacco. Most medical opinion agrees with them. The reason for the persecution by the State is that marijuana is impossible to tax. Anybody can grow it in a window box in a moderately dry and warm climate. But by very definition, a pleasure which is not taxable is a vice.

As for LSD and the various hallucinogens and stimulants (speed) — the more dangerous ones are losing their popularity. People who use LSD claim that it doesn’t cause lung cancer or lead men to beat their wives or women to let their children starve. Since older Americans smoke two to four packs of lethal cigarettes a day and consume immense quantities of alcohol — solely to get drunk — and go to sleep with the goof ball and get up with a pep pill — their moral horror when they discover their children smoke grass or drop acid is a little disgusting. I have been in some pretty low pads but I have never been in one whose atmosphere of evil and debauchery approached by miles that of an ordinary financial district junior executives’ and stenographers’ cocktail bar.

Total sexual freedom — astonishingly enough to the elders — doesn’t seem to make a great deal of difference. There is total sexual freedom in the Wall Street or Madison Avenue cocktail lounge too — but there it is motivated by malevolent mutual hostility and exploitation. In the typical post-Beat cooperative rooming house it is usually motivated by a rather excessively aggressive mutual affection, a vulgarized hobo Buddhism. An older-type square is liable to turn off abruptly when the young lady poet says as she takes him to bed, “I just love all sentient creatures, don’t you, hunh?” Most remarkable is the sharp decline in homosexuality in a completely permissive environment.

Again, the Carnaby Street costume is often confused with the Revolt of Youth. This is absurd. Carnaby Street is for the rich — rich by the standards of the secession. It is a remarkably successful attempt of London to disrupt and capture some of the international fashion trade so long held by Paris and then by Italy and New York. (The Beatles and Carnaby Street are what defunct empires produce, attempting to rectify the balance of payments when everybody can make their own steel.) Nor is it really peculiarly British. Clothes like this are common now everywhere amongst the junior Jet or Squirt Set. Portobello Road and Waterlooplein costumes — Edwardian evening gowns topped by 1840 army dress tunics, or togas, or chitons worn with high button boots are something else. This fashion for optional dress — dress any way you want — began in San Francisco and New York about 1960. Before that it had been confined to a small handful of post-Beat intellectuals and their girls, mostly in San Francisco — but with a few friends in the East Village. Now it is also worldwide but I think it is more than a fashion — it is here to stay. In the future probably both rich and poor will dress any way they like. The society can produce an unlimited variety of costume. Clothes are certainly not crucial — but it is beards, long hair, bare feet, that seem to distress the oldies more than even dope and promiscuity.

What lies back of all this confusion is simply that the older generation believes that those who reject their values must be delinquents. They are incapable of seeing that a new culture with a new system of values has sprung up around them. People ask loaded questions like: Do they sponge on their parents for a college education? No. In the American West a college education costs so little it can be earned by part-time work. Many students attend classes without registering or paying anything and the hipper teachers wink at them. I conducted a seminar last year in which half the students, and by far the better half, were so-called non-students.

Do they loaf and write poetry on welfare or unemployment payments — in other words on the taxpayers’ money? What’s wrong with that? Better write poetry with the taxes than what any current administration is doing with them. One bomber destroyed while attacking a bamboo bridge or burning up babies costs more than it would cost to keep all the poets in America for a year.

Such questions are invidious and show a complete lack of understanding of people whose only response is, “Go away man, I just want to do nice things. I love everybody. Something is happening and you’ll never know what it is.”

What are the things the seceders accede to? Where and how are they engagé? In issues that directly effect the quality of life. The provos of Amsterdam are no different than the people in the East Village or San Francisco’s Haight-Ashbury. They are against and will act in mass against the destruction of the environment by the automobile, the pollution of the atmosphere and waters, the censorship of art, drama, literature, they will act for all civil-rights and civil-liberties issues. They will even support trade-union action to organize the wage slaves in California agriculture — because this is a moral issue. Otherwise they are antagonistic to trade unions as part of a vicious system. They will fight for free theater and music in the parks. For neighborhood cultural centers — and of course in attacks by the Establishment on the Blacks — they appear in force.

The society is vulnerable to this kind of direct, personal spontaneous attack. If you put your hand in an old-fashioned gear box of a steam shovel, you will get it torn off. If you poke your finger into a million-dollar computer, it will shudder, choke, and break down. Four Negro boys walked into a cheap Southern restaurant and asked for hamburgers and sat and waited quietly — that was more than a decade ago. They began a process which nothing now can ever stop.

Similarly, poets and singers and even underground moviemakers are — each one — more subversive of the old society than any organization or party possibly could be anymore. And they have their own international. The London Scene is top-heavy with Americans — especially San Franciscans. Provos seem to go back and forth across the Channel every week. The Underground Press Syndicate includes not only The Berkeley Barb and The East Village Other, but the London International Times, and Peace News, and papers in Amsterdam, Stockholm, Paris, and the Rhineland. Although they are many times as many, like the old Paris-London-America avant-garde around the Café Dôme in the twenties, everybody seems to know everybody else — and wherever you go, you find friends who dig Gary Snyder, know where the best grass grows, and love all sentient creatures.


Youth is The Man of the Year. Marijuana parties and Vietnam demonstrations are overwhelmed by sociology students with true-or-false questionnaires and by Life photographers. What passes for analysis of what is happening is usually based on vestigial remnants of the sectarian Marxism of the years between the wars, as appropriate to contemporary problems as the speculations of the Gnostics.

“What goes on? I really wanna know,” says Donovan. First, the biological structure of the human race is changing. Most obviously man is growing younger. In both the wealthy and poor nations the majority of the population is under thirty, and soon the majority of the voting population will be in their twenties. Birth rates, death rates, infant mortality, age at sexual maturity, age at the onset of senescence, general health, causes of death, even height, weight, and condition of the teeth — all the statistics of public health have changed drastically in the last two decades and are still changing in the same directions. People under thirty don’t look like members of the same nation as their grandparents.

Mental health statistics, records of commitments to mental hospitals, prison populations, out-patient cases of neurosis and psychosis, arrests for petty crimes and disorders, juvenile delinquency, seem to be moving in the opposite direction. Mostly this is due to better diagnosis and treatment and to more thorough policing of the society. It is simply not true that “the tensions of life are greater now than they were a century ago,” as a reading of Engels’s Condition of the British Working Class or any of hundreds of similar works on the slum poor and the workers in mines and mills of those days will prove.

The poor didn’t have mental problems. Tension, like sexual intercourse in the old joke, was much too good for them. If they broke through the crust of society and disturbed their betters they were hauled off to court and jail. If they stayed in the slums they were allowed to stew in their own juice of crime undisturbed, or tried, convicted, and punished on the spot by the policeman’s club.

Today a skilled mechanic in a Stockholm suburb lives better than Gustavus Adolphus; that we know, but we seldom realize that in many ways a Negro family in San Francisco on welfare payments in a subsidized housing project lives better than Charlemagne. Both can afford tensions and neuroses which only fifty years ago were the exclusive privilege of the Viennese mercantile aristocracy.

In the years since the Second World War our ways of life have changed drastically, but they have lagged just as drastically behind the changes in technology, as technology still lags behind the changes in science itself. The well-educated layman over forty seldom has any notion of what has happened in biology, physics, astronomy, cosmology, since he read the ABC of Relativity and the popular works of Eddington and Jeans, just as the suburban housewife who switches on her “electronic oven” has any idea of how it works, or still less, of what technology could really do to housekeeping if it got the chance. We are still destroying the environment with a machine, the internal combustion automobile engine, which is totally obsolete, from the steering mechanism to the sales organization to the political disgrace of the Arab peninsula. A billion people still have unwanted children year after year. We still inhale clouds of carcinogens to relax our nerves. We still drink alcohol in poisonous concentrations. We still murder “niggers” in America and “gooks” in Vietnam. One third of the population is still, as FDR said, ill clothed, ill housed, and ill fed — in the civilized countries. In the world, nine-tenths of the people still live lives that are nasty, brutish, and short, and grow steadily worse.

Here, in the foregoing paragraphs, lies the explanation of what’s happening. The cybernetic, computerized, transistorized society is already here in potential and an ever-increasing number of people are insisting on walking into it and living there. We can afford peace, we can afford creative leisure, we can afford to demonstrate and revolt until we get them. A society in which hard labor is no longer the original source of value can afford to be good. The best and most effective demonstration is simply to start living by the new values. The people who do are going to outlive the people who don’t unless the oldies murder them all in their wars.

The past year has witnessed a tremendous step up in the tempo and force of protest and a great clarification of objectives. First of course is the Vietnam War. It is no longer safe for spokesmen for the Credibility Gap, otherwise known as the U.S. State Department and Executive, to appear on college campuses. They are physically attacked and driven from the platform and have to be rescued by helicopter from cellar exits. One of the most popular buttons amongst young Americans reads, “Lee Harvey Oswald, Where Are You Now That Your Country Needs You?” Students riot and go on general strikes when the Navy erects a recruiting booth on university property. You don’t have to take my word for it — Time magazine says so too.

What would have happened had there been no Vietnam War? Much the same thing but at a slower tempo. Vietnam, like Voltaire’s God, has been so convenient that, had it not have existed, it would have had to be invented. There is more than a stale joke here. All correspondents agree that the minute they land in Saigon, the brass overwhelms them with exhibitions of new hardware, like little children on Christmas morning. All wars, but Vietnam most especially, are characterized by a qualitative change in the technology, a “great leap forward” in which “quantity changes into quality,” to talk Marxist argot. Electronic search-and-destroy gimmicks above the jungles, and an indomitable demand to change completely the quality of life at home.

There are no Dutch troops in Vietnam, so the provos have been able to concentrate on resistance to the destruction of the environment by an outworn technology in the grip of mindless greed. From the point of view of an intelligent insect from Mars, there is a remarkable similarity. The fumes that make Amsterdam almost uninhabitable and the machines that clutter the streets and destroy all the advantages and pleasures of men living together in cities — these differ from napalm only in being slower in their effects — it is all gasoline in one form or another. For “politics” in Clausewitz’s maxim, substitute “technology.”

Against cigarettes, against hard alcohol, against sexual hypocrisy, against political fraud, against the commodity culture of conspicuous expenditure, against the dead hand of the past armed with a police truncheon that opposes all motion into the future — for the ancient theological virtues, voluntary poverty — the rejection of the destructive lures of a predatory society, the chastity of sexual honesty, and obedience to personal integrity . . . it is very convenient to the social critic that the youth of Amsterdam should have been able to define their program so clearly, unconfused by the vast evil that hangs in a cloud over America. Is this anarchism? If anarchism is the realization that the ballot is a paper substitute for the bullet, the bayonet, and the billy, that liberty is the mother, not the daughter of order, and that property in the means of life is robbery, it is anarchism. Certainly there is no important difference between the anti-programmatic programs of youth in Amsterdam, Stockholm, and San Francisco. The fundamentals stand out clearer in the smoggy air of Amsterdam, that is all. As jazz musicians say, we need a new book.

The great difference between Europe and America is on the other side, amongst the old whisky drinkers, as American youth now call them. Europe lies under a dictatorship of the aged. Willy Brandt, Günter Grass, Harold Wilson, these are professional young men grown old. Who represents “youth” in France? A mummified boy adventurer from the Chinese and Spanish Revolutions, a kind of political Jean Cocteau . . . really a horrifying vision. A politician like Kiesinger, who has been as carefully manufactured as a TV image as ever was Nixon, Kennedy, and Reagan, to whom is he manufactured to appeal to? The young? Indeed not. People all over recently were crying about the comeback of Nazism in the provincial elections. Kiesinger has been constructed to appeal to the stay put, not the come back. His publicity image is that of a kind of Talleyrand or Abbé Sieyès of a half-century of lost revolutions, wholesale betrayals, and genocide on all hands. His appeal is aimed at a target distinguishable by the same gleam of silver hair as his own head.

In America things are different. This is the land of highly developed consumer research. What’s the Target? Youth. What’s the hottest commodity along Mad Alley? Revolt. God knows, I was told that on Madison Avenue in the executive office of MCA ten years ago, when they wanted to take me over as a stellar attraction.

So the Republican rebirth in the November election was a kind of youth revolt . . . a revolt of aging youth who are entering income brackets they never knew existed until they got their tax forms. Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, the winners were all presented as idealized junior executive types. Where this was impossible, as in the case of Reagan, who is about as old as I am, liberal applications of pancake makeup, Man-Tan, mascara, hair dye, pep pills, and the experience of a lifetime playing good cowboys produced a reasonable facsimile thereof, if not youth itself. Reagan’s opponent, Pat Brown, looked old and tired and vulgar in his cradle.

Johnson the Second and his successors are old men with old ways and old solutions for old problems, whatever their ages. Most of them are men of the Cold War, if not of the New Deal, the Spanish Civil War, and the Moscow Trials. What everyone realizes, except themselves, about the Vietnam War is that, blood and horror disregarded, it is inappropriate — it is an obsolete answer. The 1968 national election was a contest (as will be the 1972) between the draft-card burners and the IBM branch managers, young youth against old youth . . . the audiences of Bob Dylan versus the audiences of Dave Brubeck. I think from the point of view of older societies, in both senses, American politics in the coming years is going to seem very odd indeed. The Declaration of Independence, the Communist Manifesto, Mein Kampf, these are totally obsolete as rhetorical manuals. The new styles are to be found in Seventeen, Mademoiselle, and Playboy. Or so the million-dollar public-relations firms believe. The backwash into Europe is going to be interesting to observe. Even more interesting is going to be the youth backlash — the response of the target itself. Besides being anti-anti-life, the young are also anti-manipulation, or is that the same thing?


"Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression." Qur'an 5:2
At the heart of that Western freedom and democracy is the belief that the individual man, the child of God, is the touchstone of value..." -RFK

Offline PEOA

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #70 on: February 09, 2010, 10:23:18 am »
....what the .......
When the garden flowers baby are dead yes
and your mind is full of BREAD
your eyes, I say your eyes may look like his
but in your head baby I'm afraid you don't know where it is

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #71 on: February 09, 2010, 02:58:04 pm »
Good find...
The Making of the Counterculture
There is a good deal of confusion about several quite different types of youth behavior. Just because conduct is revolting, that doesn’t mean it is revolt. There is no more relationship between the wild boys of the road — motorcycle clubs like Hell’s Angels or some of the more violent Rocker types — and poets like Gary Snyder or singers like Bob Dylan or Joan Baez, than there is between an Establishment writer like John Osborne and people who hunt foxes. A good part of what goes on amongst people under thirty is simply the perennial youth culture we have always had, which has always disturbed the old, from Babylon to Benny Goodman. Today the opportunities for mischief offered by affluent society simply make it all that more conspicuous.

When the Hell’s Angels announced they were going to disrupt the Vietnam protest march in Berkeley, Ken Kesey and Allen Ginsberg invited the leaders down to Kesey’s mountain home and turned them on with LSD and the next day they were as meek as lambs, loved all sentient creatures, and rode in the march on Kesey’s Op-Art truck. That’s the connection.
Kenneth Rexroth

Kenneth Charles Marion Rexroth was born December 22, 1905 in South Bend, Indiana. Orphaned at fourteen, Rexroth moved to live with his aunt in Chicago, where he was expelled from high school. He began publishing in magazines at the age of fifteen. As a youth, he supported himself with odd jobs--as a soda jerk, clerk, wrestler, and reporter. He hitchhiked around the country, visited Europe, and backpacked in the wilderness, reading and frequenting literary salons and lecture halls, and teaching himself several languages.

Rexroth and his first wife, the painter Andrée Shafer, moved to San Francisco in 1927. There he published his first poems in a variety of small magazines, while also pursuing an interest in eastern mysticism and leftist politics. He kept company with like-minded left-wing poets such as George Oppen and Louis Zukovsky, and with them aimed to rescue poetry from its supposed downslide into formalist sentimentality. They organized clubs to support struggling writers and artists.

By the early 1930s, through a correspondence with Ezra Pound, Rexroth was introduced to James Laughlin of New Directions press, who included Rexroth’s poems of in the second volume of Laughlin’s pivotal annual, New Directions in Poetry and Prose in 1937. Rexroth’s first collection, In What Hour, which articulated the poet’s ecological sensitivities along with his political convictions, was published by Macmillan in 1940. In 1944 another collection, The Phoenix and the Tortoise, continued his exploration of the natural and the erotic, presented his pacifist stance on World War II, incorporated references to the work of classical poets from the East and the West, and expanded his tonal range with poems touching on world religions and the history of philosophy. A consummate activist, during the war Rexroth aided Japanese-Americans in escaping West Coast internment camps.

By the late 1940s, Rexroth was laying the groundwork for what would become the San Francisco Renaissance. He promoted the poetry of Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Philip Whalen, Denise Levertov, William Everson, LeRoi Jones (Amiri Baraka), and many others on the radio station KPFA. He organized a weekly salon and invited friends and other poets to come and share their philosophical and poetic theories. Among those in attendance were Robert Duncan, Richard Eberhart, and, eventually, Allen Ginsberg, Gary Snyder, and other Beat poets.

Rexroth organized and emceed the legendary Six Gallery reading on October 7, 1955, at which Ginsberg introduced the world to "Howl." Rexroth’s work was composed with attention to musical traditions and he performed his poems with jazz musicians. Nonetheless, Rexroth was not wholly supportive of the dramatic rise in popularity of the so-called "Beat Generation," and he was distinctly displeased when he became known as the father of the Beats. By 1955, his marriage to his third wife, Marthe Larsen, the mother of his two daughters, was coming to an end.

By the 1960s, Rexroth’s appeal reached far beyond San Francisco. He was devoted to world literature and brought public attention to poetry in translation through his "Classics Revisited" column in the Saturday Review and through his anthologies, One Hundred Poems from the Japanese and One Hundred Poems from the Chinese. In 1964 he was given an award from the National Institute of Arts and Letters. He went on to publish collections of his shorter poems and longer poems in 1967 and 1968, respectively.
Kenneth Rexroth died in 1982 and is buried in Santa Barbara on a cliff above the sea

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #72 on: February 11, 2010, 01:54:23 am »
How the US Government Created the 'Drug Problem' in the USA
by Michael E. Kreca

Michael E. Kreca lived in San Diego and had been a financial reporter for Knight-Ridder, Business Week and the Financial Times of London. On February 11, 2006, he was shot to death by a San Diego cop.

Copyright © 2001 by Permission to reprint in whole or in part is gladly granted, provided full credit is given.

"The bottom line on this whole business has not yet been written."  Dr. Sidney Gottlieb
CIA Technical Services Staff director for the MK-ULTRA program

Eighteenth-century German philosopher Georg Friedrich Hegel long ago developed, among other things, what he called the principle of "thesis, antithesis, synthesis" to explain the process of deliberately enacted social disorder and change as a road to power.

To achieve a desired result, one deliberately creates a situation ("thesis"), devises a "solution," to solve the "problems" created by that situation ("antithesis"), with the final result being the ultimate goal of more power and control ("synthesis").

It is unsurprising Karl Marx and his disciples like Lenin and Trotsky, as well as the US government in its so-called War On Drugs, made this process a keystone of their drive for total control of all individual actions that, in their views, were not, in Mussolini's terms, "inside the state" and thus controllable by the same.

In September 1942, OSS director and Army Maj. Gen. William "Wild Bill" Donovan began his search for an effective "truth serum" to be used on POWs and captured spies. Beginning with a budget of $5,000 and the blessing of President Franklin Roosevelt, he enlisted the aid of a few prominent physicians and psychiatrists like George Estabrooks and Harry Murray as well as former Prohibition agent and notorious Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN) director Harry Anslinger.

The OSS/FBN team first tested a potent marijuana extract, tetrahydrocannabinol acetate (THCA), a colorless, odorless substance, lacing cigarettes or food items with it, and administering them to volunteer US Army and OSS personnel, all who eventually acquired the nickname "Donovan’s Dreamers." Testing was also conducted under the guise of treatment for shell shock.  [Tavistock]

Donovan’s team found that THCA, which they termed "TD," for "truth drug," induced "a great loquacity and hilarity," and even, in cases where the subject didn’t feel physically threatened, some useable "reefer madness." Peyote, morphine and scopolamine were judged too powerful to be used in effective interrogation. In light of all this, Donovan concluded, "The drug defies all but the most expert and search analysis, and for all practical purposes can be considered beyond analysis." The OSS did not, however, end the program. By that time, faced with the terrifying ship losses the USA was suffering from German U-boats, Donovan pressed on, hoping to find some effective chemical means to help interrogate captured U-boat sailors.
In May 1943, George Hunter White, an Army captain, OSS officer and former FBN agent, gave standard cigarettes laced with THCA to an unwitting August "Augie Dallas" Del Grazio, an influential New York City gangster. Del Grazio, who had by then had done prison stretches for assault and murder, had been one of the Mafia’s most notorious enforcers and narcotics smugglers. He operated an opium alkaloid factory in Turkey and was a key participant in the long-running Istanbul/Marseilles/NYC heroin pipeline commonly known as the "French Connection." Influenced by the THC, Del Grazio (who was also helping to smuggle spies and Mafiosi into German-occupied Italy) revealed volumes of vital information about underworld operations, including the names of several high-ranking city and state officials who took bribes from the Mob. Donovan was encouraged by the results of White’s tests when he wrote, "Cigarette experiments indicated that we had a mechanism offering promise in relaxing prisoners to be interrogated."

Unsurprisingly, the extensive wartime German experiments with various hallucinogenic drugs at the Dachau concentration camp, directed by one Dr. Hubertus Strughold, later honored as "the father of aviation medicine," aroused great interest in the USA especially after an October 1945 Navy technical mission to Dachau reported in detail on Strughold’s work. So great, in fact, that when the OSS and its successor, the CIA, imported 800 German scientists of various specialties under the auspices of the infamous "Project Paperclip" during 1945–55, it made sure to include Dr. Strughold.

Dr. Strughold’s barbaric "medical experiments," for which his subordinates were tried and convicted as war criminals at Nuremburg, were nothing more than a series of bizarre and unspeakably brutal tortures. Even so, he learned a lot about human behavior and mescaline, a natural alkaloid present in the peyote cactus. Mescaline, long central to many Native American religious rituals and first chemically isolated in 1896, is a phenethylamine whose ergoline skeleton is also contained in lysergic acid (a tryptamine).

Sandoz Labs chemist Dr. Albert Hofmann also discovered a lysergic acid derivative called ergonovine, a medication used to retard excessive postpartum uterine bleeding. Based on his work with ergonovine, Dr. Hofmann first derived d-lysergic acid diethylamide tartrate-25 (LSD, a refined alkaloidal liquid byproduct of a rye fungus, ergot) in a series of experiments in Zurich in 1938. He used the naturally occurring lysergic acid radical, the common item in all ergot alkaloids, as the major component of the substance. Further experiments in this vein yielded psilocybin, derived from the Mexican Psilocybe cubensis mushroom, hydergine, essential today in the improvement of cerebral circulation in geriatric patients, and dihydroergotamine, an important ingredient in blood pressure medication.
The well-read and broadly educated Dr. Hofmann knew ergot had a long natural and cultural history as both medicine and poison. Ancient Greek midwives used to give an ergot-based, gruel-like drink, called kykeon, to their patients about to give birth. Kykeon was also consumed during the autumn Eleusinia, the ancient Greek agricultural festival celebrated in honor of the goddess of agriculture, Demeter. Across the Atlantic, sacramental Maya morning glories, beautifully depicted at the ancient Mayan temple-palace complex at Teotihuacán, Mexico, dating to about 1450, also contain ergot-based alkaloids.

However, the mindset the CIA had in its drug research work was far different from that of Dr. Hofmann’s. To our Cold War spymasters, ex-Nazis like Dr. Strughold were definitely evil, but they were definitely useful as well. This pervasive amoral pragmatism led, of course, to the extensive and notorious MK-ULTRA experiments in which, for nearly 25 years, thousands of everyday Americans, both military and civilian, were heavily dosed with numerous very potent artificial psychoactive drugs, often without their knowledge or consent.

This phenomenon of the obsessive "interests of national security" expediency combined with our celebrity-obsessed pop culture that gleefully raises and shamelessly promotes snake oil hustlers as well as the pharmaceutical industry’s pricey "pill for every ill" philosophy, was a form of incompetence and arrogance far more hazardous than any synthetic alkaloid ever developed and came as no surprise to those like Dr. Hofmann. LSD, invaluable in psychiatric treatment – actor Cary Grant was cured of alcoholism by carefully administered doses of the drug under close medical supervision – is thousands of times more potent than the traditional herbal mixtures. In fact, it is thousands of times more potent than the milder of the entheogenic alkaloids. It is effective at doses of as little as a ten-millionth of a gram, which makes it 5,000 times more potent than mescaline. It should not be taken without training or supervision.

The Navy tested mescaline as part of its 1947–53 Project CHATTER. MK-ULTRA was first organized in 1949 by Richard Helms under the direction of Allen Dulles as Project BLUEBIRD. Two years later, it was renamed ARTICHOKE (after one of Dulles’s favorite foods) then termed MK-ULTRA in 1953, finally becoming MK-SEARCH in 1965 until the program's "official termination" eight years later. MK-ULTRA was directly responsible for the wide underground availability of LSD, phencyclidine (PCP – also called "angel dust"), dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (STP) and other powerful synthetic psychoactive drugs in the 1960s.

In the early 1950s, the CIA and the Army had contacted Sandoz requesting several kilograms of LSD for use in the test program. Dr. Hofmann and Sandoz refused this request, so Director Dulles persuaded the Indianapolis-based pharmaceutical luminary Eli Lilly (later the pioneers of and chief cheerleaders for the widely prescribed antidepressant Prozac) to synthesize the drug contrary to existing international patent accords – making the US government and Lilly the first illegal domestic manufacturers and distributors of LSD.

These were distributed via the agency’s sometime allies in organized crime and through the FBI’s counterintelligence programs (COINTELPROs) directed against various activist groups of the period. The actual definition of the term MK-ULTRA remains unclear but a former Army Special Forces captain, John McCarthy, who ran the CIA’s Saigon-based Operation Cherry which targeted the Cambodian ruler Prince Sihanouk for assassination, claimed that MK-ULTRA stood for "Manufacturing Killers Utilizing Lethal Tradecraft Requiring Assassination."
On April 10, 1953, in a speech at Princeton University, CIA director Allen Dulles (further feeding the already widespread but misguided fear about the high effectiveness of the alleged Chinese "brainwashing" of US POWs in the Korean conflict) warned that the human mind was a "malleable tool," and that the "brain perversion techniques" of the Reds were "so subtle and so abhorrent" that "the brain becomes a phonograph playing a disc put on its spindle by an outside genius over which it has no control."

Propaganda, in its simplest form, is condemning one’s opponent publicly for doing what one is already doing privately. Dulles, of course, was that very "outside genius." Three days after warning assembled Princetonians of the disturbing ramifications of these techniques, he had directed MK-ULTRA researchers to perfect them. Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, the CIA’s expert on lethal poisons, (who reputedly was the inspiration for director Stanley Kubrick’s bizarre Dr. Strangelove character played by Peter Sellers in the 1964 film of the same title) headed up the operation as director of the Chemical Division of the Technical Services Staff and, via a front organization called "The Society For Human Ecology," distributed $25 million in drug research grants to Harvard, Stanford, UC Berkeley and other institutions.

Meanwhile, George Hunter White, of THCA-laced "Lucky Strikes" fame, had returned to the FBN (now the DEA) at war’s end and continued to research behavior modifying drugs. In 1955, when MK-ULTRA was running full throttle, he was a high-ranking FBN administrator who helped the Agency develop and implement a similar operation called Midnight Climax. In this infamous scheme, "safehouses" staffed with prostitutes were established in San Francisco. The hookers lured men from local taverns back to these safehouses after their drinks had been previously spiked with LSD. White’s team secretly filmed the subsequent events in each house. The purpose of these so-called "national security brothels" was to enable the CIA to experiment with the use of sex and mind altering drugs to extract information from test subjects, and it was planned, from spies, POWs, defectors and saboteurs.

Midnight Climax was terminated after eight years when CIA Inspector General John Earman charged that "the concepts involved in manipulating human behavior are found by many people within and outside the Agency to be distasteful and unethical." He stated that "the rights and interest of U.S. citizens were placed in jeopardy." Earman further noted LSD "had been tested on individuals at all social levels, high and low, native American and foreign."

Richard Helms, MK-ULTRA’s bureaucratic godfather, summarily rebuffed Earman’s charges, claiming that "positive operational capacity to use drugs is diminishing owing to a lack of realistic testing. Tests," Helms continued, "were necessary to keep up with the Soviets." However, Helms reversed himself a year later when testifying before the Warren Commission investigating the JFK assassination, claiming that "Soviet research has consistently lagged five years behind Western research."

Upon retirement from civil service in 1966, White wrote a startling farewell letter to Dr. Gottlieb. He reminisced about his Midnight Climax work. His comments were frightening:

"I was a very minor missionary, actually a heretic, but I toiled wholeheartedly in the vineyards because it was fun, fun, fun. Where else could a red-blooded American boy lie, kill, cheat, steal, rape and pillage with the sanction and blessing of the all-highest?"

Where else indeed, but as a member of what would later become the hypocritical War on (Some) Drugs?
By the end of the 1950s the CIA was funding just about every qualified LSD researcher and psychologist it could find, through such contractors as the Society for the Study of Human Ecology, the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, and the Geschichter Fund for Medical Research.

Author John Marks, in his 1975 book, The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, identified the CIA’s LSD research pioneers as:

Dr. Robert Hyde at Boston Psychopathic Hospital
Dr. Harold Abramson at Mt. Sinai Hospital and Columbia University in New York City
Dr. Carl Pfeiffer at the University of Illinois Medical School, Champaign-Urbana
Dr. Harris Isbell of the NIMH-sponsored Addiction Research Center in Lexington, Ky.
Dr. Louis Jolyon West at the University of Oklahoma, Stillwater
Dr. Harold Hodge at the University of Rochester (N.Y.)

However, there were prominent critics of the US government’s activities, the earliest among them being Aldous Huxley, the famed author of the chillingly prescient 1932 novel Brave New World (which described a totalitarian society whose population was completely controlled by forcible administration of a government-mandated "happiness drug" called "soma.") While taking mescaline supplied by famed English surgeon Dr. Humphrey Osmond (who discovered the close similarities between the molecular structures of adrenaline and mescaline), Huxley completed another work entitled The Doors of Perception in 1954. In that book, the novelist described his intensely personal vision of the world around him:

"I continued to look at the flowers, and in their living light I seemed to detect the qualitative equivalent of breathing – but of a breathing without returns to a starting point, with no recurrent ebbs but only a repeated flow from beauty to heightened beauty, from deeper to ever deeper meaning. Words like ‘grace’ and ‘transfiguration’ came to my mind&Those idiots (MK-ULTRAns) want to be Pavlovians; Pavlov never saw an animal in its natural state, only under duress. The ‘scientific’ LSD boys do the same with their subjects. No wonder they report psychotics."

Obviously, this isn’t a typical CIA spook writing, and, given Huxley’s incredible mind, creative vision and compassion, we’re not talking about a moron or a mental case either. Which means that giving someone mescaline while they’re being tortured or lobotomized or electrocuted at Dachau will only tell you a lot about torture, lobotomies and electrocution, not about mescaline.

As author Marks noted:

"It would become supreme irony that the CIA’s enormous search for weapons among drugs – fueled by the hope that spies could control life with genius and machines – would wind up helping to create the wandering, uncontrollable minds of the counterculture."
Admiral’s son and musician Jim Morrison led The Doors, [of Perception] a quartet of Liverpudlians sang of "Lucy In the Sky With Diamonds," while the Rolling Stones dropped transparent hints about "Mother’s Little Helper." To take a lesson from Orwell, what is more important about the 1960s, indeed, about any period in history, is not so much what really happened as how that period is remembered publicly decades later.

The public memories of that particular era were carefully manipulated in great part by the deliberate creation and promotion (via television and the recording industry) of the phony and in reality quite small "drug/rock/hippie subculture."

The first underground LSD labs were actually set up by the FBI in 1963 in both New York City and San Francisco. Many began to incorrectly confuse the ancient medical art of herbalism with the shenanigans of amateur basement "flower-power" and "biker" chemists. Overenthusiastic pitchmen like social psychologist Dr. Timothy Leary and Beat poet Allen Ginsberg sadly failed to sufficiently stress that key difference, although the technically competent Leary clearly understood the artificially high potency of LSD.

Leary (and his longtime associate, psychologist Richard Alpert) matured professionally in a CIA-funded research world. In 1948, Leary, then a UC Berkeley graduate student, attended the yearly convention of the left-wing American Veterans’ Council in Milwaukee. There he met CIA officer Cord Meyer. Meyer’s professional specialty was infiltrating and discrediting various organizations deemed "un-American" or "disloyal." Meyer persuaded Leary to help him. Leary acknowledged Meyer’s influence, crediting him with "helping me understand my political-cultural role more clearly."

During 1954–59 Leary was the director of clinical research and psychology at the Kaiser Foundation Hospital in Oakland, Calif. The personality test that made him famous, "The Leary," was actually used by the CIA to test prospective employees. A grad school classmate of Leary’s, CIA contractor Frank Barron, worked with the Berkeley Institute for Personality Assessment and Research, which was funded and staffed by CIA psychologists. In 1960 Barron, with government funding, founded the Harvard Psychedelic Drug Research Center. Leary followed Barron to Harvard, becoming a lecturer in psychology where he remained for three years.

Leary’s Harvard associates included former chief OSS psychologist Harry Murray, who had monitored the early OSS "truth serum" experiments, and numerous other knowing CIA contractors.

One of Dr. Murray’s many test subjects was a Harvard undergraduate math major named Theodore Kaczynski.

In the spring of 1963, Leary and Alpert left Harvard and founded the International Foundation for Internal Freedom (IFIF) – later renamed the Castalia Foundation – on a 2,500-acre estate in the small upstate New York community of Millbrook. There, the pair of psychologists continued their hallucinogenic drug research and soon became the chief investigative target of an ambitious Dutchess County district attorney named G. Gordon Liddy. Multimillionaire William Mellon Hitchcock generously bankrolled the founding and operation of IFIF/Castalia and later financed a huge black-market LSD manufacturing operation.

Even so, Leary carefully stressed proper mindset, setting and dosages in a book he coauthored with Alpert and Ralph Metzner, The Psychedelic Experience. It was based on an ancient Tibetan shamanic manual, The Book of the Dead. The latter work referred to an herbal tea similar in content to but far less powerful than LSD, and insisted on mental discipline as an inherent part of the process. The Incans of Andean South America, for instance, were an invaluable source of medical knowledge, and used whole herbs like ayahuasca and the coca leaf, not their artificially refined alkaloids, and spiritual technique was also taught as a key part of the process.
However, much like the crusading "drys" before and during Prohibition, the MK-ULTRA inquisitors with their police state mentality in concert with misinformed and emotionally distressed LSD users, had found their "devil drug," (the term used by the Harrison Tax Act advocates in the 1910s and Marijuana Tax Act backers in the 1930s) replete with tragic tales of already emotionally distressed and lonely young people quite unprepared for such an artificially powerful entheogen.

It was also well within CIA policy to randomly distribute LSD laced with the lethal poison strychnine so as to create "horror stories" useful as propaganda. Dr. Hofmann himself chemically confirmed the presence of pure strychnine in several random street samples of LSD.

Consistent with its policy of deliberately confusing the beneficial ancient herbs with extremely dangerous synthetic alkaloid derivatives, the CIA surreptitiously distributed of these synthetic compounds, termed "psychedelics," to the public. One of them was STP, originally developed as an incapacitating agent for the Army in 1964 at Dow Chemical. Dow even made the STP formula public information three years later.

This potent synthetic put many unsuspecting people on a three-day trip, and sent many, hysterical with anxiety, to the emergency room. That, of course, was the purpose of its distribution.

During 1955–75, the Army tested LSD (termed EA-1729) and PCP on several of its enlisted men at what was then the headquarters of its Chemical Corps, Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland, something described in detail by Bill Kurtis in a televised 1995 A&E Investigative Reports segment titled "Bad Trip to Edgewood."

The CIA also tested PCP (in conjunction with electroshock "therapy" and sleep deprivation) at Allain Memorial Institute in Montreal under the direction of the notorious Canadian psychiatrist Dr. Ewen Cameron.

The Chemical Corps (whose commander in the 1950s, Lt. General William Creasy, advocated a new military strategy of LSD-based "nonkill warfare") then stockpiled PCP for use as a "nonlethal incapacitant." Excess doses of PCP, reported the CIA, could "lead to convulsions and death." Soon, PCP was flooding the streets.

Edgewood also received an average of 400 product "rejects" a month from major US pharmaceutical firms. These "rejects" were actually drugs found to be commercially useless because of their demonstrated hazards and numerous undesirable side effects.

In 1958, Edgewood obtained its first sample of a "reject" called phenylbenzeneacetic acid (BZ) developed by pharmaceutical giant Hoffmann-LaRoche, later known by its street nickname as "brown acid."

| -----
" is probably safe to say that Frank’s dad...had little regard for the youth culture of the 1960s, given that Francis Zappa was...a chemical warfare specialist assigned to – where else? – the Edgewood Arsenal. Edgewood is, of course, the longtime home of America’s chemical warfare program, as well as a facility frequently cited as being deeply enmeshed in MK-ULTRA operations.

"...Frank Zappa literally grew up at the Edgewood Arsenal, having lived the first seven years of his life in military housing on the grounds of the facility. The family later moved to Lancaster, California, near Edwards Air Force Base, where Francis Zappa continued to busy himself with doing classified work for the military/intelligence complex.

Frank Zappa with his parents (his dad Francis Zappa


| -----
[ A Woodstock acid trip wasn't always voluntary. "Outside (the tent), they were giving out electric Kool-Aid laced with whatever," Nurse Sanderson said. "They said, ?Don't take the brown acid.' They put it in watermelon. Now, when kids take a tab of acid, they know what they're getting into. When you drink something that's cold because you're thirsty, that's different. A lot of the kids hurt with this stuff were just thirsty. They didn't have any choice. " ]
BZ (some 10,000 times as powerful as LSD) inhibits the production of hormones which aid the brain’s transfer of messages and instructions across nerve endings (synapses), thereby severely disrupting normal human perceptual, behavioral and sensory patterns. Its effects generally last about three days, although symptoms–migraine headaches, giddiness, disorientation, auditory and visual hallucinations, and erratic if not maniacal behavior – could persist for as long as six weeks. "During the period of acute effects," noted an Army physician, "the person is completely out of touch with his environment." The Army also developed artillery shells and rockets with warheads able to deliver large dosages of BZ to selected targets.

In the summer of 1964, Beat novelist Ken Kesey (the author of One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest and who had been an MK-ULTRA test subject at Stanford along with Allen Ginsberg and Grateful Dead musician Bob Hunter) launched a yearlong cross-country trip in a Day-Glo painted school bus filled with friends called "Merry Pranksters."

The Merry Pranksters distributed thousands of doses of LSD along the way (a phenomenon colorfully described in author Tom Wolfe’s 1968 book, The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test) supplied by one Ronald Hadley Stark. Stark (who died in 1984) was a CIA operative fluent in five languages with access to unlimited public funds and numerous high-level contacts in business and government throughout the world.

For instance, when the underground manufacture and distribution of LSD was suddenly derailed in 1969 due to the scarcity of its key ingredient, ergotamine tartrate, and increasing federal law enforcement pressure, Stark, via the Laguna Beach, Calif.-based Brotherhood of Eternal Love, a small group of local surfers led by chemist Nicholas Sand, got it quickly back on track. For five years, Stark, aided by the Castle Bank of the Bahamas (which pioneered the art of money laundering for the Mob) and his contacts in a French pharmaceutical firm, facilitated the mass production and distribution (via the Brotherhood and other groups) of an even more powerful strain of LSD nicknamed "orange sunshine." This firm also manufactured BZ. Stark (who operated LSD labs in Brussels and Paris as well) claimed he was going to supply orange sunshine as an offensive weapon to CIA-backed Tibetan rebels fighting the Chinese occupation.

Stark also was a close friend of the Los Angeles founders of a small breakaway Scientology sect called "The Process Church of the Final Judgement," English expatriates Robert DeGrimston Moore and Mary Ann McClean.

Regular attendees of the Process Church included members of the Beach Boys, the Rolling Stones and other prominent pop performers as well as an ex-convict and wannabe rock musician named Charles Manson. Manson and his followers became heavy users of orange sunshine – the trademark "bad acid" of the day – which they were all on when, on Manson’s orders, they carried out the brutal August 1969 Tate-LaBianca murders.

When Stark (who is believed to have distributed an estimated 50 million doses of LSD during his Agency career) was arrested for drug trafficking in Bologna in 1975, Italian magistrate Giorgio Floridia ordered his release on the grounds that he had been a CIA agent since 1960. Judge Floridia documented and justified this using a list of Stark’s numerous intelligence contacts.

These were and are all classic government COINTELPRO-style tricks – this is how natural herbs and their mild, pharmaceutical-grade derivatives were quickly and easily made lethal and consequently demonized. How was this done? First, foolish claims were made that there was no difference between safe whole herbs and their potentially deadly ultra-refined alkaloids; next, the best of the traditional herbs and the milder of the pharmaceutical-grade alkaloid derivatives were made unavailable, and finally, the streets were flooded with potentially deadly synthetics. Deliberate perversions of science like angel dust continue to be a great propaganda tool for our diehard drug warriors, and the worn catchall excuse of "the interest of national security" is used to justify appalling covert drug capers ranging from CIA-sponsored heroin production and trafficking in Southeast Asia in the 1960s to the Bush/Clinton/Mena/Nicaragua cocaine-for-arms smuggling schemes in the 1980s.
These Constitution-shredding police state methods were adapted from the Nazis and the Soviets by and large and were applied by the CIA, NSA, DEA, BATF, IRS and FBI against us. Scores of groups, ranging from the American Indian Movement and Black Panthers to militias and religious organizations like the Branch Davidians in Waco, Texas (which the government first falsely charged as illegal methamphetamine dealers in order to get a Posse Comitatus Act waiver to use military force against them) were either disrupted by agents provocateur-style riots, bombings and armed standoffs, smeared in the mainstream news media through the "Reichstag Fire" approach, or, in the case of the Davidians, physically exterminated. The War on Some Drugs is merely a horrible extension and intensification of these tried-and-true Hegelian methods, a "war" in which we all lose.

Short Bibliography
Bowart, Walter; Operation Mind Control, Dell Publishing, 1978.
Delgado, Jose, Physical Control of the Mind, Harper, NYC, 1969.
Huxley, Aldous, The Doors of Perception, Harper, NYC, 1954.
Lee, Martin; Shalin, Bruce, Acid Dreams, 1986.
Marchetti, Victor, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence, New York, 1974.
Marks, John, The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, New York, 1975.
Masters, Robert & Houston, Jean, The Varieties of Psychedelic Experience: The Classic Guide to the Effects of LSD on the Human Psyche, 2000.
McCoy, Alfred, The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade, Lawrence Hill, 1972, rev. 1991.
Meerloo, Joost, The Rape of the Mind, Crowell, NYC, 1956.
Skinner, B.F., Beyond Freedom and Dignity," Knopf, NYC, 1971
Smith, Harris R. OSS: The Secret History of America’s First Central Intelligence Agency, Berkeley, 1972.
Stevens, Jay, Storming Heaven – LSD and the American Dream, 1998.
Major General William M. Creasy

Major General William M. Creasy was born in North Carolina on April 26, 1905 and graduated from the
United States Military Academy in 1926. His sustained outstanding performance during a 32-year military
career reflects total devotion toward increasing the effectiveness of the U.S. Army and improving national

Through his forceful and motivating leadership, the Chemical Corps accomplished new objectives in
the fields of chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) protection

He initiated an extensive CBR research and development program which, coupled with procedures successfully adapted from various civilian scientific agencies, resulted in providing modern protection for the American soldiers on a CBR battlefield. As Chief Chemical Officer of the US Army, his personal contributions and leadership had an impact upon the entire world.

Under  his guidance, innovations in the field of psychochemical agents and radiological defense, as well as various humanitarian benefits in medical research, were realized. He also worked closely with national and international groups and the other Armed Services to provide improved chemical offensive capabilities. His able presentations to organizations heightened the awareness of the American public concerning the realities of CBR warfare. His keen foresight and technical skills enabled him to establish the managerial and organizational elements to develop a deterrent biological warfare capability for the U.S. Army. General Creasy retired in 1958 and died on March 22, 1987.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline PEOA

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #73 on: February 11, 2010, 07:34:40 am »

Top 10 Greatest LSD Quotes
#10 - JERRY GARCIA [1942-95]

“Nobody stopped thinking about those psychedelic experiences. Once you’ve been to some of those places, you think, ‘How can I get back there again but make it a little easier on myself?’”
—Quoted in Rolling Stone, November 30, 1989

#09 - TERENCE MCKENNA [1946-2000]

"LSD burst over the dreary domain of the constipated bourgeoisie like the angelic herald of a new psychedelic millennium. We have never been the same since, nor will we ever be, for LSD demonstrated, even to skeptics, that the mansions of heaven and gardens of paradise lie within each and all of us."

#08 - STEVEN WRIGHT [1955- ]

"If God dropped acid, would He see people?"

#07 - BILL HICKS [1961-94]

"Always that same LSD story, you've all seen it. 'Young man on acid, thought he could fly, jumped out of a building. What a tragedy.' What a dick! f**k him, he’s an idiot. If he thought he could fly, why didn’t he take off on the ground first? Check it out. You don’t see ducks lined up to catch elevators to fly south—they fly from the ground, ya moron, quit ruining it for everybody. He’s a moron, he’s dead—good, we lost a moron, f**kin’ celebrate. Wow, I just felt the world get lighter. We lost a moron! I don’t mean to sound cold, or cruel, or vicious, but I am, so that’s the way it comes out. Professional help is being sought. How about a positive LSD story? Wouldn't that be news-worthy, just the once? To base your decision on information rather than scare tactics and superstition and lies? I think it would be news-worthy. 'Today, a young man on acid realized that all matter is merely energy condensed to a slow vibration. That we are all one consciousness experiencing itself subjectively. There is no such thing as death, life is only a dream and we're the imagination of ourselves' . . . 'Here's Tom with the weather.'"

#06 - JIM MORRISON [1943-71]

"In the beginning we were creating our music, ourselves, every night . . . starting with a few outlines, maybe a few words for a song. Sometimes we worked out in Venice, looking at the surf. We were together a lot and it was good times for all of us. Acid, sun, friends, the ocean, and poetry and music."

#05 - KEN KESEY [1935-2001]

"I believe that with the advent of acid, we discovered a new way to think, and it has to do with piecing together new thoughts in your mind. Why is it that people think it's so evil? What is it about it that scares people so deeply, even the guy that invented it, what is it? Because they're afraid that there's more to reality than they have confronted. That there are doors that they're afraid to go in, and they don't want us to go in there either, because if we go in we might learn something that they don't know. And that makes us a little out of their control."
—Quoted in the BBC documentary, "The Beyond Within: The Rise and Fall of LSD," 1987

#04 - TOM WOLFE [1931- ]

“The Pranksters had what looked like about a million doses of the Angels’ favorite drug—beer—and LSD for all who wanted to try it. The beer made the Angels very happy and the LSD made them strangely peaceful and sometimes catatonic, in contrast to the Pranksters and other intellectuals around, who soared on the stuff . . . The Angels were adding LSD to the already elaborate list of highs and lows they liked, beer, wine, marijuana, Benzedrine, Seconal, Amytal, Nembutal, Tuinal. Some of them had terrible bummers—bummer was the Angels’ term for a bad trip on a motorcycle and very quickly it became the hip world’s term for a bad trip on LSD. The only bad moment at Kesey’s came one day when an Angel went berserk during the first rush of the drug and tried to strangle his old lady on Kesey’s front steps. But he was too wasted at that point to really do much.”
—The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, 1968

#03 - TIMOTHY LEARY [1920-96]

"'Turn on' meant go within to activate your neural and genetic equipment. Become sensitive to the many and various levels of consciousness and the specific triggers that engage them. Drugs were one way to accomplish this end. 'Tune in' meant interact harmoniously with the world around you—externalize, materialize, express your new internal perspectives. Drop out suggested an elective, selective, graceful process of detachment from involuntary or unconscious commitments. 'Drop Out' meant self-reliance, a discovery of one's singularity, a commitment to mobility, choice, and change. Unhappily my explanations of this sequence of personal development were often misinterpreted to mean 'Get stoned and abandon all constructive activity.'"
—Flashbacks, 1983

02 - HUNTER S. THOMPSON [1937-2005]

“That was the fatal flaw in Tim Leary’s trip. He crashed around America selling ‘consicousness expansion’ without ever giving a thought to the grim meat-hook realities that were lying in wait for all the people who took him too seriously . . . All those pathetically eager acid freaks who thought they could buy Peace and Understanding for three bucks a hit. But their loss and failure is ours, too. What Leary took down with him was the central illusion of a whole life-style that he helped to create . . . a generation of permanent cripples, failed seekers, who never understood the essential old mystic fallacy of the Acid Culture: the desperate assumption that somebody—or at least some force—is tending the Light at the end of the tunnel.”
—Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, 1971

#01 - ALBERT HOFMANN [1906-2008]

"Of greatest significance to me has been the insight that I attained as a fundamental understanding from all of my LSD experiments: what one commonly takes as 'the reality,' including the reality of one's own individual person, by no means signifies something fixed, but rather something that is ambiguous—that there is not only one, but that there are many realities, each comprising also a different consciousness of the ego. One can also arrive at this insight through scientific reflections. The problem of reality is and has been from time immemorial a central concern of philosophy. It is, however, a fundamental distinction, whether one approaches the problem of reality rationally, with the logical methods of philosophy, or if one obtrudes upon this problem emotionally, through an existential experience. The first planned LSD experiment was therefore so deeply moving and alarming, because everyday reality and the ego experiencing it, which I had until then considered to be the only reality, dissolved, and an unfamiliar ego experienced another, unfamiliar reality. The problem concerning the innermost self also appeared, which, itself unmoved, was able to record these external and internal transformations. Reality is inconceivable without an experiencing subject, without an ego. It is the product of the exterior world, of the sender and of a receiver, an ego in whose deepest self the emanations of the exterior world, registered by the antennae of the sense organs, become conscious. If one of the two is lacking, no reality happens, no radio music plays, the picture screen remains blank."
—LSD: My Problem Child, 1980

The Lord God

For whether we be beside ourselves, it is to God: or whether we be sober, it is for your cause.
2 Corinthians 5:13
When the garden flowers baby are dead yes
and your mind is full of BREAD
your eyes, I say your eyes may look like his
but in your head baby I'm afraid you don't know where it is

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #74 on: June 23, 2010, 05:33:43 pm »
The DNA - LSD connection...
Crick and Watson discover DNA in 1953 - Just about when the Sequoia Seminars Begin...

Gerald Heard,  Christopher Isherwood, Sir Julian Huxley
Auldous Huxley and Linus Pauling L.A. 1960
Nobel Prize genius Crick was high on LSD - when he discovered the secret of life
Copyright 2004 Associated Newspapers Ltd. Mail on Sunday (London) 
August 8, 2004 

FRANCIS CRICK, the Nobel Prize-winning father of modern genetics, was under the influence of LSD when he first deduced thedouble-helix structure of DNA nearly 50 years ago.

The abrasive and unorthodox Crick and his brilliant American co-researcher James Watson famously celebrated their eureka moment in March 1953 by running from the now legendary Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge to the nearby Eagle pub, where they announced over pints of bitter that they had discovered the secret of life.

Crick, who died ten days ago, aged 88, later told a fellow scientist that he often used small doses of LSD then an experimental drug used in psychotherapy to boost his powers of thought. He said it was LSD, not  the Eagle's warm beer, that helped him to unravel the structure of DNA, the discovery that won him the Nobel Prize.

Despite his Establishment image, Crick was a devotee of novelist Aldous Huxley, whose accounts of his experiments with LSD and another hallucinogen, mescaline, in the short stories The Doors Of Perception and Heaven And Hell became cult texts for the hippies of the Sixties and Seventies.

In the late Sixties, Crick was a founder member of Soma, a legalise-cannabis group named after the drug in Huxley's novel Brave New World. He even put his name to a famous letter to The Times in 1967 calling for a reform in the drugs laws.

It was through his membership of Soma that Crick inadvertently became the inspiration for the biggest LSD manufacturing conspiracy-the world has ever seen the multimillion-pound drug factory in a remote  farmhouse in Wales that was smashed by the Operation Julie raids of the late Seventies.

Crick's involvement with the gang was fleeting but crucial. The revered scientist had been invited to the Cambridge home of freewheeling American writer David Solomon a friend of hippie LSD guru Timothy Leary who had come to Britain in 1967 on a quest to discover a method for manufacturing pure THC, the active ingredient of cannabis.

It was Crick's presence in Solomon's social circle that attracted a brilliant young biochemist, Richard Kemp{associated with The Brotherhood of Eternal Love } , who soon became a convert to the attractions of both cannabis and LSD. Kemp was recruited to the THC project in 1968, but soon afterwards devised the world's first foolproof method of producing cheap, pure LSD.

Solomon and Kemp went into business, manufacturing acid in a succession of rented houses before setting up their laboratory in a cottage on a hillside near Tregaron, Carmarthenshire, in 1973. It is estimated that Kemp manufactured drugs worth Pounds 2.5 million an astonishing amount in the Seventies before police stormed the building in 1977 and seized enough pure LSD and its constituent chemicals to make two million LSD 'tabs'.

The arrest and conviction of Solomon, Kemp and a string of co-conspirators dominated the headlines for months. I was covering the case as a reporter at the time and it was then that I met Kemp's close friend, Garrod Harker, whose home had been raided by police but who had not been arrest ed. Harker told me that Kemp and his girlfriend Christine Bott by then in jail were hippie idealists who were completely uninterested in the money they were making.

They gave away thousands to pet causes such as the Glastonbury pop festival and the drugs charity Release.

'They have a philosophy,' Harker told me at the time. 'They believe industrial society will collapse when the oil runs out and that the answer is to change people's mindsets using acid. They believe LSD can help people to see that a return to a natural society based on self-sufficiency is the only way to save themselves.

'Dick Kemp told me he met Francis Crick at Cambridge. Crick had told him that some Cambridge academics used LSD in tiny amounts as a thinking tool, to liberate them from preconceptions and let their genius wander freely to new ideas. Crick told him he had perceived the double-helix shape while on LSD.

'It was clear that Dick Kemp was highly impressed and probably bowled over by what Crick had told him. He told me that if a man like Crick, who had gone to the heart of human existence, had used LSD, then it  was worth using. Crick was certainly Dick Kemp's inspiration.' Shortly afterwards I visited Crick at his home, Golden Helix, in Cambridge.

He listened with rapt, amused attention to what I told him about the role of LSD in his Nobel Prize-winning discovery. He gave no intimation of surprise. When I had finished, he said: 'Print a word of it and I'll sue.'

Linus Pauling was working on the structure of DNA too:

"Linus Pauling and the Race For DNA - A documentary history"

Linus Pauling, 1950

Francis Crick, 1955    James Watson, 1955
Linus Pauling was the first to identify[20] the 3.6 amino acids per helix turn ratio of the α helix.

Stimulated by their discussions with Wilkins and what Watson learned by attending a talk given by Franklin about her work on DNA, Crick and Watson produced and showed off an erroneous first model of DNA. Their hurry to produce a model of DNA structure was driven in part by Watson's belief that they were competing against Linus Pauling. Given Pauling's recent success in discovering the Alpha helix, it was not unreasonable to worry that Pauling might also be the first to determine the structure of DNA.[28]
Operation Julie - The best acid ever?

The late 1970s saw Operation Julie, which netted some 1.5kg of LSD, enough for 7.5 million 1970s doses of the drug, or up to 20-30 million doses at today"s levels. These were small tablets or "microdots" of high purity and potency, produced in a remote farmhouse in Wales. The "conspirators" were arrested and jailed in 1978 following an intensive police surveillance operation led by Dick Lee, who along with undecover officers, subsequently resigned from the police. Although presented as a great success, the operation started almost by accident:

The Brotherhood of Eternal Love, one of the groups formed by Leary and funded by Bill Hitchcock, a millionaire property dealer, in the wake of the prohibition of LSD in the USA in 1965, was disbanded following a police bust. One of the members, Ron Stark, flew to London and met Richard Kemp, a Cambridge chemistry student. Stark provided 7.4 kioos of ergotamine tartrate, a precursor for LSD synthesis, from which Kemp made 1.7 kilos of LSD, using a process known as the "wrinkle" which allowed production of 99.7% pure acid. This was sufficient to make 8.5 million doses of 200µg each.

In 1974, Gerald Thomas, a cannabis smuggler earlier thrown out of the group for unreliability, was arrested in Canada and gave the names of Kemp, Christine Bott, and Henry Todd as being involved with "the biggest acid lab in the world".

Kemp and Bott moved to Wales where they set up a lab in a remote farmhouse, whereas Todd and Andrew Munro, an inorganic chemist, set up shop in a basement in Seymour Road, London producing inferior quality LSD in 100µg black microdots. Kemp"s bad luck started when his Range Rover was involved in a fatal accident, and was impounded by police. By chance, Dick Lee was visiting the area, noticed the owner of the vehicle, and searched in finding a note with reference to hydrazine hydrate, a chemical used in LSD synthesis. From that point on Kemp and the cottage were put under surveillance.

The two labs, operating independently but stated to be part of the same conspiracy, were raided on 26th March 1977. The welsh operation had already shut down, and undercover officers had missed seeing Bott burying the equipment in the garden. Even so, there was little hard evidence when the defendants were arrested, most coming from confessions. The 17 defendants pleaded guilty at Bristol Crown Court and were sentenced to a total of 130years imprisonment, with Kemp and Todd each receiving 13 years. The author, David Solomon (Marijuana Papers) received 10 years for providing raw materials, Munro received 10 years, and Bott 9 years.

Although there were persistent rumours that the group had stashed away several million doses, none reappeared years later following the release of the main protagonists. Following Julie, the price of LSD rose sharply, from around 50p to over £1 per tablet. By this time, LSD had fallen out of fashion, the preferred drug among youth culture in the late 1970s being alcohol. Punks regarded LSD and cannabis as drugs of the unfashionable and wimpish hippies, their preferred drugs being "sulphate" (amphetamine) and Special Brew.

Operation Julie UK - LSD and the Brotherhood
"Operation Julie", Dick Lee & Colin Pratt.  London:  W.H.Allen (1978). 
Out of Print.  Covers the tracking and 1977 take-down of the U.K.  organization led by Richard Kemp that formed from the regrouping of the  post-indictment remnants of the BEL.  The Kemp ring allegedly  manufactured 60% of the world's LSD at the time, amounting to tens  of millions of hits over a several year period.

The motive of the ring's leadership was the expectation that  widespread use of LSD by Britain's youth would catalyze leftist  Revolution, leading to the overthrow of the aging and morally bankrupt

For the temerity of admitting this to post-arrest police, sentences  totaled 170 years in prison.

Their bust was immortalized in the delightful electric guitar/piano  medley, "Julie's in the Drug Squad" by the Clash (on the "Give 'em Enough Rope" album).

The most recent LSD bust of note occurred in Bolinas, California in July 1993, and was the largest seizure of LSD in U.S. history:  1.5  million dosage units bought over a four year period.

Consistent with the unusual patterns associated with LSD trafficking,  not only did the distribution ring consist entirely of women, including  a grandmother in her fifties, but all refused to testify in exchange  for reduced sentences.
CDPRC Protests Bolinas LSD Bust -  20 Jul 93 

BOLINAS, CALIFORNIA: Drug reform activists are calling for an end to harassment of LSD and psychedelic drugs following the government's announcement of its biggest-ever LSD bust in Bolinas on June 29. Local residents expressed shock at the arrest of Sage Appel, 50, Marcella Whitefield, 27, George Horvath, 33, and Neal Dry, 38. who were well-regarded in the community.

Bolinas, a countercultural enclave on the coast north of San Francisco, has been the object of ongoing DEA harassment and an involuntary training ground for narcotics agents, who ride through the hills in tie-dye shirts on trail bikes looking for marijuana gardens.

The defendants, who are accused of operating a major nationwide LSD distribution network that sold over one million doses of crystal LSD to undercover agents over a period of four years, face a minimum of twelve years to life under current federal sentencing laws.

The Gerald Heard - Linus Pauling connection - Esalen (1961):
Mind Control in the 1990's: Neuro-Linguistic Programming - Rick Branch
In 1961 Michael Murphy and Richard Price opened a new residential community which came to be known as Esalen.

Located in California's Big Sur area, Esalen "helped mid-wife much of what came to be known as the human-potential movement. Seminar leaders in Esalen's first three years included Gerald Heard, Alan Watts, Arnold Toynbee, Linus Pauling, Norman O. Brown, Carl Rogers, Paul Tillich, Rollo May, and a young graduate student named Carlos Castaneda," (The Aquarian Conspiracy, p. 137; emphasis mine).

The Hollywood Hospital Ross McLean Abram Hoffer and Dr. Humphry Osmond- Linus Pauling connection :

Linus Pauling wrote: "In 1967, I happened to read a number of papers published by two psychiatrists in Saskatchewan, Canada. Dr. Abram Hoffer and Dr. Humphry Osmond. (T)here was something extraordinary about their work. They were giving very large amounts of niacin to the schizophrenic patients, as much as 17,000 milligrams per day, which is 1,000 times the RDA. I was astonished that niacin and ascorbate, with the striking physiological property, when given in very small amounts, of preventing death from pellagra and scurvy, should be so lacking in toxicity that 1,000 times the effective daily intake could be taken by a person without harm. This meant that these substances were quite different from drugs, which are usually given to patients in amounts not much smaller than the lethal dosages.

I thought that these substances, normally present in the human body, and required for good health and life, deserved a name to distinguish them from ordinary Pharmaceuticals, and I decided to call them 'orthomolecular' substances." (Linus Pauling in His Own Words: Selections from his Writings, Speeches and Interviews, edited by Barbara Marinacci. NY: Simon and Shuster, 1995.)

Dr. Humphry Osmond's remarkable medical career included decades of distinguished psychiatric practice and a prodigious output of writing and research. He is widely recognized as a pioneer investigator into the chemistry of consciousness. Along with Dr. John Smythies, Osmond developed the theory that schizophrenics suffer due to endogenous production of an adrenalin-based hallucinogen. This led to the Hoffer-Osmond Adreno-chrome Hypothesis in the early 1950s, the very origin of orthomolecular medicine. The popular press may today remember Humphry Osmond for coining the term "psychedelic," but countless thousands of grateful patients will remember him as the co-discoverer of niacin therapy for schizophrenia. A bibliography of Dr. Osmond's work is posted at

Dr. Abram Hoffer and Linus Pauling were friends. Each influenced the other. When Pauling started orthomolecular medicine in 1968, he cited articles by Hoffer & Osmond on psychiatry.
Hoffer wrote a chapter in the Linus Pauling book "Orthomolecular Psychiatry" (1). Hoffer advocated the use of niacin in psychiatry in this chapter. At that time Hoffer was working with Humphrey Osmond, who also contributed to this outstanding book. Osmond died before Hoffer.

Bill Wilson ( AA )

Hoffer was interested in alcoholism.

"From the day he was freed of lifelong tension and insomnia by taking 3000 milligrams of niacin daily, Bill Wilson became a powerful runner with us. Bill helped me organize the first Schizophrenic's Anonymous group in Saskatoon, which was very successful. Bill introduced the orthomolecular concepts to a large number of AA members, especially in the United States." Hoffer
Hoffer & Osmond. In Ref. 10 they blamed schizophrenia on the "M-substance", which was an unknown amine similar to mescaline. Their rationale for this was that mescaline produced similar symptoms to schizophrenia. In 1952 Osmond thought that the "M-substance" was DMPEA (11). This brilliant theory was ahead of its time, so it was largely ignored. Osmond was so mad that he moved from the UK to Canada. The other UK psychiatrists ignored Osmond's theory except for Smythies and Harley-Mason, who was a chemist. Hoffer thought that the Osmond/Smythies theory was brilliant, which it was.
Chronic Schizophrenic Patients Treated Ten Years Or More A.Hoffer, Ph.D. M.D.1

We (Dr. H. Osmond and I), began to use nicotinic acid nicotinamide and ascorbic acid in
large doses for treating acute schizophrenics in 1951
. Based upon the results obtained from pilot
studies, we began the first double blind therapeutic trials in the history of psychiatry in 1953. By then we knew that these vitamins were safe even in multigram doses, that they could be taken for long periods of time, and that the side effects were minimal and easily dealt with.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #75 on: June 23, 2010, 07:12:27 pm »
Crick's involvement with the gang was fleeting but crucial. The revered scientist had been invited to the Cambridge home of freewheeling American writer David Solomon a friend of hippie LSD guru Timothy Leary who had come to Britain in 1967 on a quest to discover a method for manufacturing pure THC, the active ingredient of cannabis.
August 01 - 07, 2007
Obituary - David Solomon, jazz critic, drug guru, 81 - April 26 2007

David Solomon, editor, jazz critic, psychedelic sage and longtime Village resident, died at his home on W. 10th St. on April 26 at the age of 81.

Born in California in 1925, he came to New York after serving in the Army during World War II. Because his two older brothers were lost on bombing runs over Germany, Solomon was reassigned as a sole-surviving son from a combat-ready unit to intelligence work. After his discharge in 1946, he went to the Washington Square College of New York University and earned a B.A. degree.

Living in the Village with his wife and two daughters, he became an editor at Esquire in the mid-1950s and worked with literary luminaries, including Aldous Huxley, Jack Kerouac, William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg.

He became managing editor of Metronome in the early 1960s and was a friend of Dizzy Gillespie, jazz writer Nat Hentoff, song writer and singer Earl Robinson and his son, Perry Robinson, the jazz clarinetist. In the 1960s, Solomon became literary editor of Playboy and published Timothy Leary, Ram Das (Richard Alpert), Alan Watts and Humphry Osmond, who coined the  word “psychedelic.”

He also edited two books, “LSD - the Consciousness Expanding Drug,” in 1964 and “The Marijuana Papers” in 1966. After that, he moved with his wife and daughters to England where he co-edited “Drugs and Sexuality” in 1973 and “The Coca Leaf and Cocaine Papers” in 1975.

He came back to the U.S. and the Village in 1983 and continued writing and editing counterculture works. He became a fixture at Sweet Basil, the jazz club on Seventh Ave. S., now gone. He is survived by his daughters, Lin and Kim, and three grandsons.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #76 on: June 24, 2010, 09:29:48 pm »
One of the interesting things about Linus Pauling back in 1952 was that he was a friend of Lord Victor Rothschild and Linus was having trouble getting a visa for his trip back to England also he was making trips to Vancouver Canada...

Victor Rothschild - born Oct 31 1910 - Halloween - Cambridge
February 1952

In February, Pauling receives a letter from Mrs. Ruth B. Shipley of the Passport Division of the Department of State, informing him that his request for a passport is being denied because "the Department is of the opinion that your proposed travel would not be in the best interests of the United States." Pauling had applied for a passport in January in order to visit England to take part in a meeting on the structure of proteins to be held on May 1. A debate was going on about whether his alpha helix really could be used to explain the structure of such proteins as alpha keratin, and the Royal Society was organizing a symposium to help resolve the differences about this important discovery.
# Throughout the summer, Pauling’s passport difficulties are constantly in the news. Senator Wayne Morse of Oregon publicly condemns the action of the State Department, as does Albert Einstein. Pauling makes a few more attempts to get a reversal, and on the "fourth try," he gets a "limited passport," good until October 1 for travel to England and France.

# During July and August, Linus and Ava Helen Pauling make a six-week trip to France and England. In Paris, he attends the second International Congress of Biochemistry, and in England, he attends a meeting of the Faraday Society on the physical chemistry of proteins.
February 7

Letter from LP to Lord Rothschild of Trinity College

RE: writes to inform Lord Rothschild of his upcoming visit to England for the Royal Society Conference on the structure of proteins. [Letter from Lord Victor Rothschild to LP February 13, 1952] [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #336, Folder #6: File (Rothschild, Victor.)].

February 13   (Vancouver, BC)
Letter from Lord Rothschild of Trinity College to LP

RE: writes to invite LP to spend a week with his family in May. [Letter from LP to Lord Victor Rothschild February 7, 1952, letter from LP to Lord Rothschild March 13, 1952] [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #336, Folder #6: File (Rothschild, Victor.)].

Letter from Victor Rothschild of Merton Hall, Cambridge [?] to LP RE: Invites LP to stay with him on the upcoming trip to England and carry out proposed experiments on bull spermatozoa.

So who was Lord N.M. Victor Rothschild?
Lord Victor Rothschild, 79, a Scientist And Member of Banking Family
Published: March 22, 1990

LONDON, March 21— Lord Rothschild, a scientist and member of the famous banking family who was linked to one of Britain's most well-known spy scandals, died Tuesday. He was 79 years old.

His wife, Lady Rothschild, who did not disclose the cause of death or other details, said in a statement issued today that the funeral would be private and that a memorial serice would be held later.

Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College in Cambridge, where he was an outstanding biophysicist.

He succeeded his uncle as the third Baron Rothschild in 1937. He took his seat in the House of Lords, the unelected upper chamber of Parliament, as a member of the Labor Party.

At Cambridge in the 1930's he joined the exclusive debating society known as the Apostles, which included Guy Burgess, Donald Maclean, Kim Philby and Anthony Blunt, who were later exposed as agents for the Soviet Union.

Cleared by Thatcher

In 1986 some Members of Parliament called for investigations into whether Lord Rothschild had also been a Soviet spy. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher dismissed the speculation, and Lord Rothschild strongly denied the allegations.

At the start of World War II, Lord Rothschild joined M.I.5, Britain's domestic intelligence agency, where he became a senior officer. Later, he recalled, when he realized his Jewish descent would condemn him to a concentration camp if the Nazis took over, he stole a death capsule from his employers.

In 1944 he was awarded the George Medal after defusing explosives hidden in a case of Spanish onions in a ship's hold. In keeping with his style, he carried out the operation with a set of jeweler's screwdrivers given to him by Cartier.

A Jazz Pianist { Think David Soloman }

He was awarded an honorary degree from Tel Aviv University for ''the advancement of science, education and the economy of Israel'' in 1971. It was followed in 1975 by an honorary degree from Jerusalem's Hebrew university.

Lord Rothschild was also a sportsman, a jazz pianist and a zoologist.

In 1970, Prime Minister Edward Heath appointed Lord Rothschild to head a review of all British Government departments. Mr. Heath later publicly rebuked Lord Rothschild for his outspoken views on the gloomy state of Britain's economy.

Lord Rothschild spent 20 years as an executive with the Shell Oil Company. After just two months working in the family bank he said he found the job ''dull,'' but he remained a director of N. M. Rothschild & Sons and was chairman from 1975-76.

Besides his wife, the former Teresa Mayor, Lord Rothschild is survived by their son, James, and their two daughters, Emma and Victoria.

He is also survived by three children from his first marriage, a son, Jacob, and two daughters, Sarah and Miranda. His eldest child, Jacob, is the heir to his title.
Was Victor Rothschild a "Soviet" Agent? (Encore)

Between 1935 and 1963, the Soviet Union knew all of Britain's military and scientific secrets thanks to "The Cambridge Five" a spy ring that operated in M1-5, MI-6 and the Foreign Office. Western intelligence agencies were rendered ineffective and Allied secrets including the design of the atomic bomb were stolen.

The traitors were Kim Philby, Donald Maclean, Guy Burgess and Anthony Blunt. But there is a natural reluctance to admit that "the Fifth Man" was Nathaniel Meyer Victor Rothschild (1910-1990), the Third Baron Rothschild, the British head of the world's richest banking dynasty , which controls the Bank of England.

In 1993, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, six retired KGB Colonels in Moscow confirmed Rothschild's identity to Roland Perry. Col. Yuri Modin, the spy ring's handler, went on the record.

Perry writes: "According to ...Modin, Rothschild was the key to most of the Cambridge ring's penetration of British intelligence. 'He had the contacts,' Modin noted. 'He was able to introduce Burgess, Blunt and others to important figures in Intelligence such as Stewart Menzies, Dick White and Robert Vansittart in the Foreign Office...who controlled Mi-6." (p.89)

You can understand the reluctance. The Rothschilds are undoubtedly the largest shareholders in the world's central bank system. Victor Rothschild's career as Soviet agent confirms that these London-based bankers plan to impose a "world government" dictatorship akin to Communism.

It adds credence to the claim they were behind the Bolshevik Revolution, and used the Cold War and more recently the 9-11 hoax and bogus "War on Terror" to advance their world hegemony.

Which is more plausible? One of the richest men in the world, Victor Rothschild espoused Communist ideals so that his own fabulous wealth and position could be taken away?

Or that Communism in fact was a deception designed to take away our wealth and freedom in the name of "equality" and "brotherhood"?
The fact that Rothschild was protected until his death suggests this is a ruling class conspiracy.
According to Greg Hallett, Anthony Blunt, a fellow spy, was an illegitimate son of George V, half-brother and look-alike to Edward VIII, the Duke of Windsor.

Until his exposure in 1964, Blunt was Knighted and Curator of the Queen's art collection. He received immunity from prosecution in exchange for his confession.
Victor Rothschild, a member of the famous banking dynasty, was born in 1910. A talented scientist, Rothschild joined MI5 during the Second World War. This included working with Arthur Koestler to produce anti-Nazi propaganda. In 1940 Rothschild suggested that Anthony Blunt should be invited to join the secret service. He also rented a house to his friend Guy Burgess.

After the liberation of France Rothschild worked with Dick White, Kim Philby and Malcolm Muggeridge at the MI6 offices established at the Rothschild family mansion in Paris.

In 1961 Rothschild passed on information to Arthur Martin that Kim Philby had tried to recruit Flora Solomon, as a spy in 1937. Rothschild also worked closely with Peter Wright and is believed to have supplied him with information that suggested that Roger Hollis was a Soviet spy.

Edward Heath was a great admirer of Rothschild and in 1970 he appointed him head of the government's Central Policy Review Staff. It was later claimed that Rothschild persuaded Heath to appoint Michael Hanley as Director General of MI5 in 1972. Later Margaret Thatcher appointed Rothschild as her unofficial security adviser.

Victor Rothschild died in 1990. Four years later, Roland Perry, published The Fifth Man, where he unconvincingly claimed Rothschild was one of the Cambridge Spy Ring (Kim Philby, Donald Maclean, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt and John Cairncross).,_3rd_Baron_Rothschild
NATHANIEL MAYER VICTOR ROTHSCHILD was born in England on October 31 {Holloween?)
In his memorial address, Sir Andrew Huxley observed ....
Andrew Fielding Huxley was born in Hampstead, London, on 22nd November 1917
The children of his first marriage included Sir Julian Huxley the biologist and Aldous Huxley the writer.
Pugwash Conferences  - 1957

The prime organizer of the original event was Lord Bertrand Russell. He was a member of the Cambridge Aspostles, just as Lord Victor Rothschild, the 3rd Baron Rothschild and father of today's Lord Jacob Rothschild. Aldous Huxley (wrote 'Brave New World'), John Maynard Keynes (famous economist; close friend of CFR chair and J.P. Morgan chairman Russell C. Leffingwell), and the 'Cambridge spies' (gay; MI5; MI6; 'KGB' spies; close associates of Lord Victor Rothschild) were other members of the Aspostles.

The first Pugwash meeting was held at the home of Cyrus Eaton, Sr. in Pugwash, Nova Scotia (7). Eaton began his career working for John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Cyrus Eaton, Jr. would later team up with the Rockefellers to start an investment project in the Soviet Union during the height of the Vietnam war (8). The Rothschilds announced that they would team up with the same Rockefeller company two years later (9).

Oh and Victor's Sister "Nica" was also into jazz and lived in New York...
She probably knew David Soloman (jazz Critic), She was known as the Jazz Baroness:

"Nica" Rothschild - New York - Jazz
Pannonica de Koenigswarter (10 December 1913 – 30 November 1988) was a British-born jazz enthusiast and member of the prominent Rothschild international financial dynasty.

Kathleen Annie Pannonica Rothschild was the daughter of Charles Rothschild and the Hungarian baroness Rozsika Edle von Wertheimstein. She grew up in Waddesdon Manor, among other family houses. The name "Pannonica" (nicknamed "Nica") derives from Eastern Europe's Pannonian plain. Her friend Thelonious Monk reported that she was named after a species of butterfly her father had discovered. She was a niece of Walter Rothschild, the 2nd Baron Rothschild, and her brother Victor Rothschild became the 3rd Baron Rothschild. (According to, she was granted the rank of the daughter of a baron on 15 March 1938.[1]) Her elder sister Dame Miriam Rothschild was a distinguished scientist and zoologist.

In 1935 she married French diplomat Baron Jules de Koenigswarter, later a Free French hero. She worked for Charles de Gaulle during World War II. The couple separated in 1951 and she moved to New York City, renting a suite at the Hotel Stanhope on Fifth Avenue. The couple eventually divorced in 1956.[2] In 1958, she purchased a house with a Manhattan skyline view, that was built for film director Josef von Sternberg at 63 Kingswood Road in Weehawken, NJ.

In New York, she became a friend and patron of many prominent jazz musicians, hosting jam sessions in her hotel suite. She is sometimes referred to as the "bebop baroness" or "jazz baroness" because of her patronage of Thelonious Monk and Charlie Parker among others. Following Parker's death in her Stanhope rooms in 1955, Koenigswarter was asked to leave by the hotel management; she re-located to the Bolivar Hotel at 230 Central Park West, a building commemorated in Thelonious Monk's 1956 tune "Ba-lue Bolivar Ba-lues-are".

She was introduced to Thelonious Monk by jazz pianist/composer Mary Lou Williams in Paris while attending the "Salon du Jazz 1954", and championed his work in the USA, writing the liner notes for his 1962 Columbia album Criss-Cross, and even took criminal responsibility when she and Monk were charged with marijuana possession by the police. After Monk ended his public performances he retired to Nica's house in Weehawken, New Jersey and died there in 1982.

see also:

Waddesdon Manor
The generous act of my cousin Jimmy in offering Waddesdon Manor to the National Trust ensured the preservation of the house and its contents in perpetuity... One hundred and thirty years ago this house and its setting were created to delight and surprise the small circle of Baron Ferdinand's friends ...
Lord Jacob Rothschild

Related: Mentmore Castle :Eyes Wide Shut (1999)
The Castle in Kubrick's Wide Eyes Shut was built in reality by Baron Mayer de Rothschild

Is Paul McCartney of the Beatles who's face is made of plastic Dead?

I don't know , as a Tavistock operation I like to look at the details. The Paul/Faul cannot be proved. But expert doubles are very much the style of the brits. "I Buried Paul" is a real thing. Why would anyone have a joke like that?

I just was watching BBC's "Beatles Biggest Secrets" and found it interesting with the story line that something did happen when Brian Epstein OD/suicided/murdered and the Beatles run off to Maharishi Mahesh [Tavistock/Rothschild] in India . Paul breaks with Asher and a little later marries Linda Eastman (Heiress) (McCartney) and forms Apple possibly for legal reasons.

So Asher knew the Paul was dead and Faul marries Linda Eastman, Apple is formed to include Faul. No nothing can be proved but that Tavistock operation was not complete and with future millions  $ at stake the McCartney family would certainly keep their mouths shut for the good of Queen and Country and $.

In the BBC footage it shows a nervous Asher with ?Paul? in India.

Interesting that  :
Life magazine's June 16th 1967 edition featured the story, 'The New Far-Out Beatles: They're grown men now and creating extraordinary musical sounds' written by Thomas Thompson. In Thompson's article, Paul McCartney is quoted as saying, "After I took it (LSD), it opened my eyes. We only use one-tenth of our brain. Just think what we could accomplish if we could only tap that hidden part. It would mean a whole new world."

So one assumes sometime in the first half of '67 Paul and The Beatles dropped acid.
He took his second "acid trip" with Lennon on 21 March 1967 after a studio session
On 24 August 1967, McCartney met the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi at the London Hilton, and later went to Bangor, in North Wales, to attend a weekend 'initiation' conference

27 August 1967 Epstien OD's/suicides/murdered

On 25 December 1967[11] McCartney and Asher announced their engagement, and
she accompanied McCartney to India in February and March 1968.
Asher ended the engagement in early 1968, after returning from Bristol to discover Paul in bed with another woman, Francie Schwartz.[3][12]
Asher has consistently refused publicly to discuss McCartney or her time with him,[1] and has maintained her position on the matter to this day.[14] On this basis, she is described by the Beatles' 1968 biographer Hunter Davies as the only major Beatles associate not to have published her recollections

Brian Epstein Od/suicided/murdered , I'm in with the biggest rock group ever, I'm worth millions, I'm so happy I could just die.....
Brian Samuel Epstein (pronounced /ˈɛpstaɪn/) (19 September 1934 – 27 August 1967)

Epstein died of an accidental drug overdose at his home in London in August 1967. The Beatles' early success has been attributed to Epstein's management and sense of style. Paul McCartney said of Epstein: "If anyone was the Fifth Beatle, it was Brian

Linda Louise McCartney, Lady McCartney (née Eastman, formerly See, September 24, 1941 – April 17, 1998) was an American photographer, musician and animal rights activist. Her father and mother were Lee Eastman and Louise Sara Lindner Eastman, heiress to the Lindner Department Store fortune.

On 15 May 1967, the then Linda Eastman met Paul McCartney at a Georgie Fame concert at the Bag O'Nails club in London.[16] She was in the UK on an assignment to take photographs of "Swinging Sixties" musicians in London. The two later went to the Speakeasy club on Margaret Street to see Procol Harum.[6][17] They met again four days later at the launch party for Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band at Brian Epstein's house in Belgravia.
When her assignment was completed, she flew back to New York City.[18]

In May 1968, they met again in New York, as John Lennon and Paul McCartney were there to announce the formation of Apple Corps.[19] In September of the same year, he phoned her and asked her to fly over to London.  They were married six months later at a small civil ceremony (when she was four months pregnant with their daughter Mary) at Marylebone Registry Office on 12 March 1969

There also seems to be a connection with Victor Rothschild and Auldous Huxley to the UK side of the Tavistock LSD push. When, Who and How did the Beatles get turned on to LSD? The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
The Castle in Kubrick's Wide Eyes Shut was built in reality by Baron Mayer de Rothschild

Mentmore Towers is a Neo-Renaissance English country house in the village of Mentmore in Buckinghamshire. It takes its name from the village in which it stands, and from its numerous towers and pinnacles. It was built by Baron Mayer de Rothschild

This Rothschild/Mentmore collection is said to have been one of the finest ever to be assembled in private hands, other than the collections of the Russian and British royal families

The empty house, unaltered since the day it was built, was sold in 1977 for £220,000 to the Transcendental Meditation movement founded by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. In 1992, the TM organization made Mentmore the British national headquarters of its political arm, the Natural Law Party.

From 1977 to 1979, the building housed the national office of the TM organization, and was used for weekend and longer residence courses in Transcendental Meditation, as well as World Peace Assemblies for the practice of the more advanced TM-Sidhi program.
Maharishi inspired Beatles but died leaving £2b and rape rumours

He inspired the Beatles and promised world peace but died leaving £2 billion amid rumours of rape and murder
He was the Sixth Beatle, a spiritual force with the potential to create world peace and end famine.
Or he was an avaricious old man with a penchant for young girls who ruined the greatest pop group in history.
when he began his first world tour as a spiritual leader in Burma in 1958, the Maharishi was praised for his austerity.

One commentator wrote: "He asks for nothing. His worldly possessions can be carried in one hand."
The 'giggling guru' - so called because of his high-pitched laugh - lived in an opulent 200-room mansion, with helicopters and dozens of cars at his disposal, and was worth an estimated £2billion.

The movement the Maharishi leaves behind, after his death at his luxurious retreat in Vlodrop in the Netherlands, has been called the world's richest cult.

Then came the stories of the Maharishi's attempt to have sex with Mia Farrow. John Lennon said later: "There was a hullabaloo about him trying to rape Mia and a few other women. The whole gang charged down to his hut and I said: 'We're leaving!' He asked why and I said: 'If you're so cosmic, you'll know why.' The Maharishi gave me a look that said: 'I'll kill you, you bastard!'"

In 1997 Mentmore Towers was sold to a company, owned by Simon Halabi, now named Mentmore Towers Ltd

The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
Under the auspices of MK-ULTRA the CIA regularly dosed its agents and associates with powerful hallucinogens as a preemptive measure against the Soviets' own alleged chemical technology, often with disastrous results. The secret project would see at least two deaths: tennis pro Harold Blauer died after a massive injection of MDA; and the army's own Frank Olson, a biological-warfare specialist, crashed through a closed window in the 12th floor of New York's Statler Hotel, after drinking cognac laced with LSD during a CIA symposium. Dr. Osmond doubts that Hubbard would have been associated with such a project "not particularly on humanitarian grounds, but on the grounds that it was bad technique."

[Note: Recently, a researcher for WorldNetDaily and author of a forthcoming book based on the Frank Olson "murder," revealed to this writer that he has received, via a FOIA request of CIA declassified materials, documents which indicate that Al Hubbard was, indeed, in contact with Dr. Sidney Gottlieb and George Hunter White--an FBI narcotics official who managed Operation Midnight Climax, a joint CIA/FBI blackmail project in which unwitting "johns" were given drinks spiked with LSD by CIA-managed prostitutes, and whose exploits were videotaped from behind two-way mirrors at posh hotels in both New York and San Francisco. The researcher would reveal only that Al Hubbard's name "appeared in connection with Gottlieb and White, but the material is heavily redacted."]

Hubbard's secret connections allowed him to expose over 6,000 people to LSD before it was effectively banned in '66. He shared the sacrament with a prominent Monsignor of the Catholic Church in North America, explored the roots of alcoholism with AA founder Bill Wilson, and stormed the pearly gates with Aldus Huxley (in a session that resulted in the psychedelic tome <i>Heaven and Hell</i>), as well as supplying most of the Beverly Hills psychiatrists, who, in turn, turned on actors Cary Grant, James Coburn, Jack Nicholson, novelist Anais Nin, and filmmaker Stanley Kubrick.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #77 on: July 22, 2010, 11:23:24 am »
This post will focus on Stewart Brand and Esalen - (Cybernetics Beginnings ?)

Excellent find. It is interesting our problem is NOT having too many babies, It's that we are not dying fast enough for them...

ClimateGate and Scenario Planning - "Hide the decline" is just the tip of the iceburg

Sub-Replacement fertility -  the Second Demographic Transition

Memorable quotes for THX 1138 SRT: How shall the new environment be programmed? It all happened so slowly that most men failed to realize that anything had happened at all.

The Sequoia Seminars

Stolaroff, with the help of Willis Harman, largely funded the foundation, the real purpose of which was to conduct the research needed to make LSD credible in the medical profession. They worked with several psychologists, including Fadiman, as well as the mysterious Al Hubbard, who was a mentor to both Harman and Stolaroff and who became a member of the board of directors.

Fadiman, who soon was teaching at San Francisco State, finished his Ph.D. in psychology at Stanford, and his research at the foundation focused on the changes in beliefs, attitude, and behavior that resulted from taking LSD.
The foundation was not far from Roy Kepler's bookstore and a short walk from the hole-in-the-wall store where the Midpeninsula Free University store and print shop were to locate in the mid-sixties. In another building a block away, Stewart Brand later established the Whole Earth Truck Store and the Whole Earth Catalog. About a mile away from the truck store, the original People's Computer Company settled and in turn was the catalyst for the Homebrew Computer Club in the mid-1970s. The club itself served to ignite the personal-computer industry.
Stewart Brand - On the Waterfront
Published: April 15, 2009

Job description: I design stuff; I start stuff; I found stuff. On the passport I put “writer.”

Bad trip: That was my first trip. I had 400 micrograms of LSD under quite clinical circumstances at a psychological research institute in Menlo Park, Calif. It was in a white room with therapists sitting around.

Good trip: In 1963 or ’64 I showed up at the door of Ken Kesey, the novelist and LSD evangelist. I was involved in Kesey’s Acid Tests, which were happenings where LSD made its way around and everyone was there to entertain each other.

On the wagon: Since 1969 I haven’t used psychedelics. I realized I’d seen all I needed to see

Current project: With the Long Now Foundation, I am helping to build a 10,000-year clock inside a mountain in Nevada. We are trying to get people to think long-term, because civilization’s shortening attention span is mismatched with the pace of environmental problems

What was Bucky Fuller’s reaction to your button campaign that asked, “Why haven’t we seen an image of the whole earth yet?”

It was all because of LSD, see. I took some lysergic acid diethylamide on an otherwise boring afternoon and came to the notion that seeing an image of the Earth from space would change a lot of things.

So, on next to no budget, I printed up buttons and posters and sold them on street corners at the University of California, Berkeley. I went to Stanford and back east to Columbia, Harvard, and MIT.

I also mailed the materials to various people: Marshall McLuhan, Buckminster Fuller, senators, members of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. Out of everyone, I only heard back from Bucky Fuller, who wrote, “Dear boy, it’s a charming notion but you must realize you can never see more than half the earth from any particular point in space.” I was amused, and then met him a few months later at a seminar at Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California. I sat across from his lunch table and pushed the button over to him, asking him what he thought about it. He said, “Oh yes, I wrote to that guy.” I said, “I’m the guy. So what do you think?

What kind of difference do you think it will make when we actually get photographs of the earth from space?”

There was this slow, lovely silence. Then he said, “Dear boy, how can I help you?”

Stewart Brand is founder of the Whole Earth Catalog and cofounder of The Long Now
Foundation, The WELL, and Global Business Network.

I know the Global Business Network does some work with the Pentagon.
What about the possibility of a long peace?

I love working with the Pentagon because they’re the only entity I know that is
completely eager to think in half-century terms
. And there are several reasons for that.

They’re not a commercial entity so they’re not worried about the next quarter. They’re not a democratic entity so they’re not worried about the next election. There really is a socialist economy in the military, and the people that you encounter at the senior levels are extremely bright. They’ve come up in a very tough meritocratic pyramid, and are trained throughout their lives to think globally.

What sort of scenario planning do you do with them?

One of the scenarios that developed in the course of our work with the Pentagon was what we refer to as a rogue superpower. We were looking at the various threats from rogue states and one of us said, “Let’s see. What if you combined a lone superpower?

What about rogue states? What if they’re one and the same?” The answer is a rogue superpower! So we looked at this at great length and, lo and behold, in 2001 we received a call from a friend in the Pentagon. He said, “I think we’ve gotten to the rogue superpower scenario.”

What were your thoughts on 9/11?

We were thinking that it was sort of right on schedule. It was horrifying for a lot of people who had been working both in the Clinton Administration and in Congress on the  terrorism environment because we were saying for some time, “Look, the U.S. is not invulnerable in this.” So a lot of us just groaned because we had already thought about
The idea to build a monument scale, multi-millennial, all mechanical clock as an icon to long-term thinking came from computer scientist Danny Hillis and was published in the form of an email to friends. Later it was followed up with an essay published in the 1995 Wired magazine "Scenarios" issue.

EST - Esalen - Werner Erhard - Ira Einhorn - George Lucas - Stewart Brand
Bob Toben drove Sharon and me down to Philadelphia. We stayed with my literary agent Ira Einhorn and his doomed girl friend Holly Maddux [13]. Ira took us to the mainline mansion of  Arthur Young. Young was the inventor of the Bell Helicopter and was a  close friend of Charles Lindbergh. Young's wife was an heiress of the Forbes Steel fortune. Young financed the Institute for the Study of Consciousness in Berkeley California. He invited me to stay there. Einhorn told me he would introduce me to Stewart Brand, Michael Murphy [14] and George Leonard [15] when I got to San Francisco. He was very concerned about what he called "Soviet breakthroughs in psychotronic weapons of mind control at a distance using ELF and sound waves." He said he had support from the local telephone company and from the Bronfman [16] in Toronto to link up visionary scientists like myself.

He also said he was working with Jacques Vallee [17] and Brendan O Regan on a UFO data base. Ira mentioned that he was working with Congressman Charlie Rose (D. North Carolina) of the House Select Committee on Intelligence [18]. Rose confirmed his connection to Einhorn in a telephone conversation with me.

Werner was as good as his word and promptly had his EST Foundation write me an initial $5,000 check (Autumn 1974). Einhorn did his job as my literary agent and arranged a meeting at Arthur Young's Institute in Berkeley that included Michael Murphy, Hazel Henderson [19] and another physicist, Saul Paul Sirag [20], who was Barbara Honegger's [21] lover.

Werner gave me free run of his organization which I found rather odd. The estoids all seemed to be glassy-eyed and very creepy [22]. One in particular, Raz Ingrasci, talked about Werner as if he were God-incarnate. One day Raz said he would jump out of a high window if Werner ordered him to. One day I noticed a table with a sign that said "Bulgarian Desk" [23]. There were a lot of pretty young women who were easily available since I was known as one of Werner's special friends -- a Prince of the Court. Werner was always very warm with me and invited me to many dinners both at Franklin House and at expensive restaurants. He never carried any money or credit cards. We were always escorted (in a Mercedes) by a security team, who also paid all the bills.

A former student of physicist John Wheeler [24], Robert Fuller was head of Werner's Foundation. Fuller had been President of Oberlin College but had suffered a mid-life crisis and had fallen under Werner's influence. Fuller now heads the World Watch Institute in Washington. Fuller [25] was jealous of Werner's fondness for me and that this was a factor precipitating my falling out with Werner. I was worried about the crypto-Nazi feel of the est-org, but I had hoped that Werner would get his intellectual act together and say something of genuine interest in terms of physics and philosophy. I was not at all subservient to Werner in his presence like most of the academics that surrounded and apparently adored him. Some of them called him the "new Heidegger" [26]. Professor Irwin Corey [27] made more sense.

There was a lot of talk of Werner running for President one day.
Werner said he would appoint me to be head of the National Science Foundation. Werner's brother Nathan Rosenberg was in the Navy as an aide to President Carter's Secretary of Defense Harold Brown [28]. Kevin Garvey [29] told me that Werner had fifteen loyal estoids in the Carter White House. Werner was very active with the training of government people in Washington D.C. Carter [30] had created Project Scanate [31] for remote-viewing of military targets by psychics. Werner used remote-viewing in his training, and he also contributed money to SRI for that project.

Sidney was a close friend of the late Bishop Pike. Werner had me meet with several Stanford and U.C. Faculty before he set up the Physics Consciousness Research Group at Esalen with me and Michael Murphy as co-directors. Michael arranged all our activities in Big Sur. Saul Paul Sirag [32] was my chief assistant. Michael arranged for Jean Lanier to supply me with money. Jean, who resembled Shirley MacLaine [33], was the widow of the late Chairman of the Board of Stone-Webster Engineering. Her current husband was an Episcopal Priest, Sidney Lanier.

Sidney was a close friend of the late Bishop Pike. He was active in New York off-broadway theater. Sidney was also a close friend of Jose Ferrer, who I resemble. Jean rented a five bedroom suite for us on top of Nob Hill [34]. [Jean Lanier ] She was a close friend of Laurance Rockefeller who would telephone the Nob Hill flat looking for her.

I attended the EST April Celebrity Training of 1975. The list of trainees included Ellie Coppola, Sterling Hayden [35], Michael Murphy, Buzz Aldrin [36], Ted Ashley [37], the late Jerry Rubin [38], Fred Wolf, Saul Paul Sirag and many others.

Sterling Hayden quickly walked out calling Werner a "Nazi" as he pushed away some estoids who tried to block his passage. Michael Murphy was visibly upset and angry at his close friend Werner. I was sitting with Astronaut Buzz Aldrin, who was having a severe kidney problem. Werner got all confused when he tried to talk about the new physics. He let me explain to the group in ordinary language what he was trying to say in his hypnotic _estspeak_.

The trick of est is to seduce your consciousness by subverting the English language with dominating psycho-babble. It was right out of George Orwell's 1984. The est-training did get every one high. It must have been how the SS officers felt after being indoctrinated as leaders of the Master Race.

I was introduced to Ellie Coppola during a break in the training.
She had just read _Space-Time and Beyond_. Ellie invited Fred Wolf and me to her home at 2800 Broadway at 2am after the training. We met her husband Francis Ford Coppola. The first thing Francis said to me was that he did not like Werner Erhard but that he would not tell his wife what to do. Francis has fine moral instincts. I was getting suspicious of Werner [39] especially after I heard the rumor that he said he changed his name from Jack Rosenberg to Werner Erhard to "give up Jewish weakness for German strength."

I started to spend a lot of time at the Coppola's house. I introduced them to Uri Geller and to Einhorn's friend, French UFO scientist Jacques Vallee [40]. I think Steven Spielberg and George Lucas were there as well that time but I am not sure. Vallee became technical consultant to _Close Encounters of the Third Kind_ as a result of that introduction. Francois Trauffaut [41] played the role of Jacques Vallee in the Spielberg film. Ira Einhorn had introduced me to Vallee. Einhorn and Vallee were working together on a computer network project that anticipated the Internet. Einhorn originally introduced me to Hazel Henderson, Arthur Young, Stewart Brand and Michael Murphy.

Einhorn at Esalen is described by Willian Irwin Thompson in _The Edge of History_. Congressman Charlie Rose (D. North Carolina) of the House Committee on Intelligence confirmed to me by telephone that Ira was involved in National Security operations. Ira, like O.J. Simpson, always claimed he was framed by "the KGB." It is curious that he was never found. Ira spent weeks at Esalen after he was indicted for the murder of Holly Maddux. Senator Arlen Specter was his defense attorney and one of the Bronfmans from Toronto allegedly paid his legal fees.

I met Jack Nicholson [42], Michael Douglas, Milos Forman, Saul Zaentz and Hans Syberberg [43] at various parties at the Coppola's Broadway mansion and at Tomasso's Restaurant in North Beach where Francis would bake the pizza in the wood-burning oven. Francis was running CITY Magazine. Ellie had Raisa Gustaitus do an article about our Esalen Group called "Faster than the speeding photon." I first met Stephen Schwartz [44] at CITY where he was assisting Warren Hinckle [45]. I once walked into the Caffe Trieste with Francis when Steve Turner walked up to him and aggressively pushed him calling him a "dirty dog."  Francis floored Turner with one punch. My meeting with Hans Syberberg at Francis's showing of _Our Hitler_ is of particular importance because it involved a man named "Putzi."

I received a phone call from a man named George Koopman [46] during one of our Esalen seminars in 1976. He asked if he could come to Big Sur. I said yes. Koopman soon became a financial patron of my _Ghost Busters_ [47] at Esalen. Koopman was a  close friend of Dan Akroyd [48], and my group was the  inspiration for the film Ghost Busters. He provided money  through military contracts with the Air Force and the U.S.  Army Tank Command funnelled through his company Insgroup in  Irvine, California.

Koopman was addicted to cocaine and would talk freely when high. He told us that he was related to Arthur Krock, the publisher of the New York Times. He said that he had blown the whistle on U. S. Army Intelligence domestic spying to the New York Times. Koopman said that he had worked on the "kook desk" for the Defense Intelligence Agency and that they were very interested in the kind of new physics we were working on. They were especially interested in machines that could tell the future [49] and in new kinds of aircraft propulsion systems. Koopman liked to show how he could open locked doors with his burglar tools that he always carried in his brief case. He showed me a letter from the military giving him permission to have the tools.

Koopman was very interested in Werner Erhard's tax structure. I took Koopman to meet Werner. Werner was in a room with a large blackboard. On the board were several references to "UFOs" and "extra-terrestrial contacts." Werner did not seem to trust Koopman.

I found out through one of my girlfriends [50] that Koopman succeeded in spying on the Arica organization. Koopman, Sirag and I had heard weird stories from Jan Brewer at Esalen that Arica was started in Chile by high ranking fugitives from the Third Reich who were masters of the occult. Many of the regulars at Esalen, including some of our group like Dr. John Lilly [51] and Claudio Naranjo [52] had been in the first Arica training in Chile. Timothy Leary was released from prison. Leary became part of my group at Esalen. Leary was a close friend of Michael Murphy. George Koopman arranged for Leary and me to lecture together at the Arthur Young's Institute in Berkeley. Koopman spent a lot of money hiring a professional T.V. crew to record us. Robert Anton Wilson, Nick Herbert and Saul Paul Sirag participated in this event. Koopman became Leary's business manager and publisher. Leary's message was SMI2LE (Space Migration Intelligence Increase Life Extension) which is also the message of this book.

Koopman sabotaged me at Esalen by suddenly breaking his contract and stopping the cash flow he had committed. The ostensible reason was that I had insulted the New Age seminarians at Esalen by calling them "idiots and morons," which I did. Werner would say much worse in his trainings. Koopman was very high when he confronted me with this supposed sin. Koopman would show up at the Caffe Trieste on several occasions years later. Koopman was apparently ordered by higher ups to cut me out of the Esalen picture because I was too much of a "loose cannon" that they could not control. They replaced me with my assistant Saul Paul Sirag and with Nick Herbert who continued to run the Esalen seminars. It may be that Koopman's death in 1989 was no accident.

That's just a hunch. Chipman's death around the same time as Koopman's may also not have been from natural causes.

In 1974, Jack Sarfatti is Director of a physics program at the Esalen Institute. He's been funded by Werner Erhard and Jean Lanier, a friend of Laurance Rockefeller. (Sarfatti, Jack, "The Parsifal Effect", The Destiny Matrix) Sarfatti met with Puharich, Uri Geller, and Ira Einhorn at Puharich's Ossining ranch. Einhorn acted as a literary agent for Sarfatti, and brought him to Esalen.

Physics /Consciousness research group.This is where it all started back in 1975. PCRG was co-founded by Jack Sarfatti and Michael Murphy at the Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California in 1974.

Financed by Werner Erhard, Jean Lanier and the late George Koopman, the PCRG nurtured the creation of books like Space-Time and Beyond, The Tao of Physics, The Dancing Wu Li Masters, Cosmic Trigger, and The Roots of Consciousness. The group included the physicists and authors, Fred Alan Wolf, Nick Herbert and Fritjof Capra, along with Saul Paul Sirag, Henry Dakin, Robert Anton Wilson, Uri Geller, Barbara Honneger, the late Brendan O Regan, George Leonard, Gary Zukav, Ira Einhorn, and artist Lynn Hershmann.

Nobel Laureate, Brian Josephson, along with physicists David Finkelstein, Russell Targ, Karl Pribram, Henry Stapp, Phillipe Eberhard, and Ralph Abraham, all came for shorter visits. The group is now reborn on the World Wide Web twenty years later with both new and old faces. According to George Koopman, the PCRG was the inspiration for the film Ghost.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline tritonman

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #78 on: May 18, 2011, 12:39:03 am »
Bump for tomorrows research as it is getting late, but damn after browsing this thread I can already agree that it is a must read Tahoe, thanks again.   Do you know if Doc has looked at this stuff?  I would think he would be interested for sure.

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
« Reply #79 on: May 18, 2011, 12:31:57 pm »
...It may be that Koopman's death in 1989 was no accident. That's just a hunch. Chipman's death around the same time as Koopman's may also not have been from natural causes.

Loose ends? George Koopman's Obit....
George Koopman, 44, Founded Rocket Firm
OBITUARIES July 21, 1989|The New York Times

George A. Koopman, an enterpreneur in space technology who founded the American Rocket Co., died in an automobile accident on Wednesday in Lancaster, Calif. He was 44 and lived in Malibu.

Mr. Koopman was driving alone from his home to the Edwards Air Force Astronautics Laboratory, where his company is testing a rocket motor. His car overturned, and he died of head injuries, said Anita Storey, a spokeswoman for Amroc, as the company is known.

Mr. Koopman`s career included being an intelligence analyst in the Vietnam War, a maker of military training films for the government and the coordinator of spectacular stunts in the 1980 movie The Blues Brothers.

Four years ago he formed the rocket company with Bevin McKinney, an aerospace engineer, and James Bennett, a researcher who helped Congress to draft the law allowing commercial space launches.

The company, based in Camarillo, Calif., states as its purpose developing the technology to deliver commercial and government payloads into space.
I received a phone call from a man named George Koopman [46] during one of our Esalen seminars in 1976. He asked if he could come to Big Sur. I said yes. Koopman soon became a financial
patron of my _Ghost Busters
_ [47] at Esalen. Koopman was a  close friend of Dan Akroyd [48], and my group was the  inspiration for the film Ghost Busters.
Was Jan Brewer telling the truth about the Fourth Reich using Arica to influence the New Age?

Brewer was part of the original Esalen group of forty that went to Chile for the first Arica training with Oscar Ichazo [67]. Arica was big at Esalen at the same time that the Soviets were soaking in the hot tubs.

Was I pulled out of the operation by George Koopman because in his opinion I was unpredictable and uncontrollable? Or is the truth still even stranger than even I can imagine?

Was Michael Murphy a brilliant Puppet Master or merely a lucky charming “useful idiot,” a Forrest Gump character like me?
Was Ira Einhorn framed?
Was Jean Nadal murdered?
Was Francois Trauffaut murdered?

Was Harold Chipman [68] murdered?
Was George Koopman murdered?
Is this all my Walter Mitty paranoid exaggeration? What do you think?

Reisser Nadal. He was investigating the New Age movement for French National Radio...
He stayed with me in San Francisco and told me he had discovered some disturbing political
connections including a plan to assassinate Nelson Rockefeller
... Rockefeller did die soon after under odd

His death was due to a sudden onset of bone cancer. This is the way Harold Chipman also died. I am told that radioactive poisoning has been used for murder by intelligence organizations. Trauffaut is also dead.

Witness of Rockefeller Co.'s CEO's "suicide" is product of Bankster Eugenics
Where was Megan Marshak when Vice-President Nelson Rockefeller Died?
In recounting old news stories similar to the Monica Lewinsky case, the press has often invoked the name of 27-year-old Megan Marshak, whom, they say, was at the side of  former Vice-President Nelson Rockefeller when he died on January 26, 1979.

However, that is a damn lie and everybody familiar with the case knows it. Megan Marshak was not "at his side" when Nelson Rockefeller died of a heart attack.  Megan Marshak  - Where then was she?

The official coroner’s report, issued by the competent New York State authority, states that Nelson Rockefeller died of a heart attack while he was having sexual intercourse. You can look it up in the archives at 28th Street and First Avenue (provided they let you look at this one).

Megan Marshak was, in fact, underneath Nelson Rockefeller when he died.

The tragedy, which was recounted daily in the press at the time, was that had there not been political considerations, his life might have been saved.

Nelson Rockefeller was a big, heavy man. When he collapsed of a heart attack, Megan Marshak was pinned underneath him. She had to struggle to get out. He was naked. It was not known that he had a mistress. For these reasons, she was reluctant to call the ambulance. Instead, Megan Marshak called her girlfriend, who lived nearby. ...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5