Author Topic: Faking News: CIA Assets in the Newsroom  (Read 41663 times)

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Offline tritonman

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Faking News: CIA Assets in the Newsroom
« on: September 04, 2009, 07:48:43 am »
Does anyone have the links for the articles on CIA planting news stories or CIA reporters?  

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #1 on: September 04, 2009, 07:50:19 am »
They call it "The Washington Post".
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline larsonstdoc

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #2 on: September 04, 2009, 07:56:48 am »



  Just use the search engine here at the Prison Planet Forum and you will find more articles than you can read.
I'M A DEPLORABLE KNUCKLEHEAD THAT SUPPORTS PRESIDENT TRUMP.  MAY GOD BLESS HIM AND KEEP HIM SAFE.

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #3 on: September 04, 2009, 07:58:16 am »
Reuters
February 25, 2002
http://www.fas.org/sgp/news/2002/02/re022502.html

U.S. Planting False Stories Common Cold War Tactic
By Tabassum Zakaria

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Recognizing that sometimes the pen is mightier than the sword, the CIA has a colorful history of planting false information in media outlets overseas, with results ranging from irritating the Soviet Union to paving the way for a coup in Latin America.

(So this is not new information, but I assume you were looking for CIA planting stories in US media?.. so more digging. Perhaps we'll find that article in the foreign press.)

Disinformation measures were a common tool in most CIA covert operations, and the Soviet Union elevated the practice to an art form during the Cold War, intelligence experts say.

"You would try and recruit a journalist and he would become an agent of influence," a former U.S. intelligence officer said.

The foreign journalist was either paid or acted out of hatred for a regime that harmed his family, "and he would plant stories which were favorable to your side," he said.

"The Russians did it, the Brits do it, the French do it -- it's regular intelligence procedure to try and influence a country's policies through the press," he said.

While the battlefield for the war of false words was traditionally the CIA's domain, a public debate over the issue of government-planted lies erupted this month after reports surfaced about the Pentagon's new Office of Strategic Influence.

Some of the reports said the office would be used to plant lies in foreign news outlets to influence public opinion abroad to further U.S. goals in its war on terrorism.

The flap forced top defense officials to publicly state they would never knowingly lie to the media, and left the U.S. intelligence community privately shaking its head at the folly of the military for trying to tread on its turf.

One former intelligence official derided the Pentagon's name for its propaganda office, saying at the CIA such an operation would be called something like "Division F" or "the 407 Committee," which might be a room in a building to disguise its purpose.

The CIA's disinformation campaigns were a constant source of irritation for the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

After the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979, the CIA would annually plant false notices carrying the Soviet military seal in newspapers in Muslim countries announcing invasion day celebrations at Soviet embassies, another former U.S. intelligence officer recalled.

'DROVE THEM CRAZY'

Those notices, "just drove them crazy," and made it appear that the Soviets were crowing over the invasion, he said.

The New York Times in 2000 revealed a classified history of CIA's covert 1953 operation in Iran to oust the prime minister and bolster Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. It included planting articles and editorial cartoons in newspapers.

The CIA used disinformation tactics in Latin America, using radio broadcasts under the name Voice of Liberation to help topple the government of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala in 1954.

It used similar tactics in Chile to discredit Socialist President Salvador Allende who died in a 1973 coup when forces loyal to Augusto Pinochet overthrew his government.

The Soviet Union was no slouch when it came to planting lies about the United States in the media, experts said.

The Soviets disseminated lies that the CIA conducted secret experiments on HIV that caused the AIDS epidemic in Africa and that the U.S. spy agency was connected to the West African body-parts market, a former U.S. intelligence official said.

When the United States became concerned that Indonesia's President Sukarno had pro-communist tendencies, a CIA team produced a pornographic film featuring an actor resembling Sukarno with the intent of embarrassing him, said Steven Aftergood, director of the project on government secrecy at the Federation of American Scientists. It was unclear whether the film was ever released.

ONE-ON-ONE

Sometimes the disinformation campaigns were one-on-one. A former intelligence officer recalls a set up in which a CIA officer acted like a broadcaster holding up a fabricated newspaper that declared in a banner headline a high-level official in a hostile country was dead. The subterfuge prompted a reluctant prisoner to break down and talk.

In the mid-1970s, CIA activities came under intense congressional scrutiny that developed into a greater oversight role for Congress on U.S. covert activities.

The CIA adopted a policy during that period of not recruiting reporters working for American news organizations to help conduct intelligence activities. The CIA also agreed to take care that the lies it promoted overseas were not picked up by U.S. media.

"If the CIA put something in an Urdu newspaper the chances of it coming back to the United States is zero and you could do it," Robert Baer, a former CIA officer, said. "But you certainly wouldn't want to put some horrendous leak in Le Monde because it would get picked up in the U.S. papers," he said.

"It is becoming much more difficult to do well today because everybody reads everything and if there is something of any significance that appears even in the most obscure foreign outlet it is going to echo in the global media sooner or later," Aftergood said.


Copyright 2002 Reuters Limited
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline tritonman

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #4 on: September 04, 2009, 07:58:50 am »


  Just use the search engine here at the Prison Planet Forum and you will find more articles than you can read.
 I have not found any using search engines here is why I am asking. ???

Offline Dig

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #5 on: September 04, 2009, 08:05:59 am »
Does anyone have the links for the articles on CIA planting news stories or CIA reporters? 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Mockingbird
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #6 on: September 04, 2009, 08:06:59 am »
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #7 on: September 04, 2009, 08:07:43 am »
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #8 on: September 04, 2009, 08:08:13 am »
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #9 on: September 04, 2009, 08:12:03 am »
US plans to fight the net revealed
2006-01-27, BBC News
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4655196.stm

A newly declassified document gives a fascinating glimpse into the US military's plans for "information operations". The declassified document is called "Information Operations Roadmap".

It was obtained by the National Security Archive at George Washington University using the Freedom of Information Act. Officials in the Pentagon wrote it in 2003. The Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld, signed it. The operations described in the document include a surprising range of military activities: public affairs officers who brief journalists, psychological operations troops who try to manipulate the thoughts and beliefs of an enemy, computer network attack specialists who seek to destroy enemy networks. The military's psychological operations, or Psyops, is finding its way onto the computer and television screens of ordinary Americans. "Psyops messages will often be replayed by the news media for much larger audiences, including the American public. Strategy should be based on the premise that the Department [of Defense] will 'fight the net' as it would an enemy weapons system," it reads. The document recommends that the United States should seek the ability to "provide maximum control of the entire electromagnetic spectrum". US forces should be able to "disrupt or destroy the full spectrum of globally emerging communications systems, sensors, and weapons systems dependent on the electromagnetic spectrum". The fact that the "Information Operations Roadmap" is approved by the Secretary of Defense suggests that these plans are taken very seriously indeed in the Pentagon.
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #10 on: September 04, 2009, 08:15:54 am »
Psychological Operations Described in Washington Post
http://www.wanttoknow.info/060123psyops

"PSYOPS seek to exploit human vulnerabilities in enemy governments, militaries and populations to pursue national and battlefield objectives.... The feasibility had been established of projecting large, three-dimensional objects that appeared to float in the air. Washingtonpost.com has learned that a super secret program was established in 1994 to pursue [this] very technology for PSYOPS application. The 'Holographic Projector' is described in a classified Air Force document as a system to 'project information power from space ... for special operations deception missions.'"
  -- Washington Post, 2/1/1999

(They should know....)

Dear friends,

PYSOPS may be an unfamiliar term to you, yet it is of crucial importance. PSYOPS, or psychological operations, is a term used in military and government intelligence networks to "exploit human vulnerabilities in enemy governments, militaries and populations to pursue national and battlefield objectives," as quoted from the Washington Post article below. Stated more simply, PSYOPS is a means of intentionally deceiving targeted individuals and populations through a variety of sophisticated methods for specified objectives.

Consider that all major countries have developed sophisticated PSYOPS programs such as those described below. Consider also that governments sometimes use PSYOPS technology to deceive their own people in order to achieve certain military or strategic objectives. Learn about Operation Northwoods as one powerful example. If you want to avoid being deceived and to be informed of how public opinion is sometimes manipulated by government, read the below article and explore our Mind Control Information Center. By informing ourselves and spreading the word, we can and will build a brighter future for us all.

With best wishes,
Fred Burks for the WantToKnow.info Team
Former language interpreter for Presidents Bush and Clinton


When Seeing and Hearing Isn't Believing
By William M. Arkin

"Gentlemen! We have called you together to inform you that we are going to overthrow the United States government." So begins a statement being delivered by Gen. Carl W. Steiner, former Commander-in-chief, U.S. Special Operations Command.

At least the voice sounds amazingly like him.

But it is not Steiner. It is the result of voice "morphing" technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico.

By taking just a 10-minute digital recording of Steiner's voice, scientist George Papcun is able, in near real time, to clone speech patterns and develop an accurate facsimile. Steiner was so impressed, he asked for a copy of the tape.

Steiner was hardly the first or last victim to be spoofed by Papcun's team members. To refine their method, they took various high quality recordings of generals and experimented with creating fake statements. One of the most memorable is Colin Powell stating "I am being treated well by my captors."

"They chose to have him say something he would never otherwise have said," chuckled one of Papcun's colleagues.

A Box of Chocolates is Like War

Most Americans were introduced to the tricks of the digital age in the movie Forrest Gump, when the character played by Tom Hanks appeared to shake hands with President Kennedy.

For Hollywood, it is special effects. For covert operators in the U.S. military and intelligence agencies, it is a weapon of the future.

"Once you can take any kind of information and reduce it into ones and zeros, you can do some pretty interesting things," says Daniel T. Kuehl, chairman of the Information Operations department of the National Defense University in Washington, the military's school for information warfare.

Digital morphing — voice, video, and photo — has come of age, available for use in psychological operations. PSYOPS, as the military calls it, seek to exploit human vulnerabilities in enemy governments, militaries and populations to pursue national and battlefield objectives.

To some, PSYOPS is a backwater military discipline of leaflet dropping and radio propaganda. To a growing group of information war technologists, it is the nexus of fantasy and reality. Being able to manufacture convincing audio or video, they say, might be the difference in a successful military operation or coup.

Allah on the Holodeck

Pentagon planners started to discuss digital morphing after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. Covert operators kicked around the idea of creating a computer-faked videotape of Saddam Hussein crying or showing other such manly weaknesses, or in some sexually compromising situation. The nascent plan was for the tapes to be flooded into Iraq and the Arab world.

The tape war never proceeded, killed, participants say, by bureaucratic fights over jurisdiction, skepticism over the technology, and concerns raised by Arab coalition partners.

But the "strategic" PSYOPS scheming didn't die. What if the U.S. projected a holographic image of Allah floating over Baghdad urging the Iraqi people and Army to rise up against Saddam, a senior Air Force officer asked in 1990?

According to a military physicist given the task of looking into the hologram idea, the feasibility had been established of projecting large, three-dimensional objects that appeared to float in the air.

But doing so over the skies of Iraq? To project such a hologram over Baghdad on the order of several hundred feet, they calculated, would take a mirror more than a mile square in space, as well as huge projectors and power sources.

And besides, investigators came back, what does Allah look like?

The Gulf War hologram story might be dismissed were it not the case that washingtonpost.com has learned that a super secret program was established in 1994 to pursue the very technology for PSYOPS application. The "Holographic Projector" is described in a classified Air Force document as a system to "project information power from space ... for special operations deception missions."

War is Like a Box of Chocolate

Voice-morphing? Fake video? Holographic projection? They sound more like Mission Impossible and Star Trek gimmicks than weapons. Yet for each, there are corresponding and growing research efforts as the technologies improve and offensive information warfare expands.

Whereas early voice morphing required cutting and pasting speech to put letters or words together to make a composite, Papcun's software developed at Los Alamos can far more accurately replicate the way one actually speaks. Eliminated are the robotic intonations.

The irony is that after Papcun finished his speech cloning research, there were no takers in the military. Luckily for him, Hollywood is interested: The promise of creating a virtual Clark Gable is mightier than the sword.

Video and photo manipulation has already raised profound questions of authenticity for the journalistic world. With audio joining the mix, it is not only journalists but also privacy advocates and the conspiracy-minded who will no doubt ponder the worrisome mischief that lurks in the not too distant future.

"We already know that seeing isn't necessarily believing," says Dan Kuehl, "now I guess hearing isn't either."

William M. Arkin, author of "The U.S. Military Online," is a leading expert on national security and the Internet. He lectures and writes on nuclear weapons, military matters and information warfare. An Army intelligence analyst from 1974-1978, Arkin currently consults for Washingtonpost, Newsweek Interactive, MSNBC and the Natural Resources Defense Council.

Arkin can be reached for comment at [email protected].


Note: To see the original of this article on the Washington Post website, click here. This article was published in 1999. Imagine how much these technologies have advanced since then. And if you don't believe these technologies are used by governments to manipulate their own people, see the excellent summary of false flag operations available here.


Final Note: WantToKnow.info believes it is important to balance disturbing cover-up information with inspirational writings which call us to be all that we can be and to work together for positive change. Please visit our Inspiration Center at http://www.WantToKnow.info/inspirational for an abundance of uplifting material.
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline Dig

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #11 on: September 04, 2009, 08:17:43 am »
http://www.prisonplanet.com/analysis_louise_01_03_03_mockingbird.html
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKmockingbird.htm
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=912132237224261694
http://whatreallyhappened.com/RANCHO/POLITICS/MOCK/mockingbird.html
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/ciadisinfoinaction28mar05.shtml
http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=5142
http://robertscourt.blogspot.com/2009/06/operation-mockingbird-how-cia-controls.html
http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Talk:Operation_Mockingbird


I think that there are more than 50,000 links and over one million pages of documentation as well as over 5,000 hours of video. The church commission documents should be a real eye opener.

The CIA has been controlling media content since they were called oss.  This control became more nefarious when Nazi General Gehlen was paperclipped to the United States (although he was a war criminal) and helped set up the CIA to begin with.  Bilderberg/CFR enhanced the projects and diffused any criticism. After Iran/Contra, CIA began working on behalf of the G7 bankers rather than any sovereign countrty. This media control therefore is now owned by the G7 bankers and the media no longer operates in the best interest of the United States' suicidal foreign policy much less the constitution.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #12 on: September 04, 2009, 08:21:17 am »
I recently watched "The Good Shepherd" about the beginnings of the CIA.. fascinating glimpse into it. I'm sure it was just barely scratching the surface though.
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline tritonman

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #13 on: September 04, 2009, 08:22:08 am »
Don't stop but I just wanted to but in here to say thank you for your help ;)

Mike Philbin

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #14 on: September 04, 2009, 08:24:41 am »
They call it "The Washington Post".

LOL

Size10

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Re: CIA planting news? - Holographic Projector with tactile feedback demo'd
« Reply #15 on: September 04, 2009, 08:26:46 am »
Psychological Operations Described in Washington Post
http://www.wanttoknow.info/060123psyops

"PSYOPS seek to exploit human vulnerabilities in enemy governments, militaries and populations to pursue national and battlefield objectives.... The feasibility had been established of projecting large, three-dimensional objects that appeared to float in the air. Washingtonpost.com has learned that a super secret program was established in 1994 to pursue [this] very technology for PSYOPS application. The 'Holographic Projector' is described in a classified Air Force document as a system to 'project information power from space ... for special operations deception missions.'"
  -- Washington Post, 2/1/1999

(They should know....)

http://www.siggraph.org/s2009/galleries_experiences/emerging_technologies/details/?type=etech&id=154



Recently, mid-air displays are attracting a lot of attention in the fields of digital signage and home TV, and many types of holographic displays have been proposed and developed. Although we can "see" holograhpic images as if they are really floating in front of us, we cannot "touch" them, because they are nothing but light.

This project adds tactile feedback to the hovering image in 3D free space. Tactile sensation requires contact with objects, but including a stimulator in the work space dilutes the appearance of holographic images. The Airborne Ultrasound Tactile Display solves this problem by producing tactile sensation on a user's hand without any direct contact and without diluting the quality of the holographic projection.


Takayuki Hoshi
The University of Tokyo

Masafumi Takahashi
Kei Nakatsuma
Hiroyuki Shinoda
The University of Tokyo

http://www.pinktentacle.com/2009/08/tangible-hologram-projector/

Offline Dig

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #16 on: September 04, 2009, 08:33:24 am »
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #17 on: September 04, 2009, 08:37:19 am »


All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Berminator

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #18 on: September 04, 2009, 08:39:56 am »
Holo-Planes, i knew it was possible.

Offline Dig

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #19 on: September 04, 2009, 08:40:53 am »
Too superficial concerning the fairness doctrine, otherwise some cool info:

http://www.unique-design.net/library/mass.html



"Capture the press!
Through it everything will come
to you in the natural course of events."
- Adolphe Cremioux* 1907

"Persuasion is often more effectual than force
and appearances often are deceiving." - Aesop

"From brand names to PR slogans to political codewords,
the language of the media that inundates modern life consists almost
wholly of subtle lies, misdirection, and manipulation." - Charles Eisenstein
"Our minds are being impacted through a long standing series of programs aimed at manipulating public opinion through intelligence agencies, think tanks, corporate media and a host of non-governmental organizations designed to engender fear, division and uncertainty in the public."
- Peter Phillips, Lew Brown and Bridget Thornton
"One need look no further than all of the attention being lavished on new "CBS Evening News" anchor Katie Couric to see the current sad state of our mainstream media. It is no longer about informing the public but about personalities and attractiveness. What's amazing is that highly paid executives still don't grasp why millions like me flock to non-mainstream sources to find out what's really happening; meanwhile, their ratings continue to decline. I recommend these execs go back and view Edward R. Murrow, Walter Cronkite and "The Huntley-Brinkley Report" to get a grasp of what the media could and should do to fulfill their duty of informing the public." - Matt Giorgi
"Nothing real issues from the American media. The mindlessness of the news reflects the mindlessness of the government, for which it is a spokesperson. The American media does not serve American democracy or American interests. It serves the few people who exercise power."
- Paul Craig Roberts, Assistant Secretary of the United States Treasury in the Reagan Administration
"Inevitably, the media create a circus,
elevating everything and elucidating nothing."
- Stephany Yablow
“The mainstream media ignore information they don't want people to know about. Television is the modern weapon. It's better than a bomb. Whoever controls it controls the people and the people don't even realize it. This television fantasy world is what we are fighting against.” - Eric Hufschmid
Mass media is existent today for one purpose and one purpose alone; to market - to sell product to the target audience. That product may come in a solid form such as an iPod, a digital form such as the songs sold by iTunes or the product may come packaged as an idea, an opinion or a popular 'notion'.
"The first step is to understand that television is just a delivery system for ads. The only programming that really matters to those in power is the advertisements. The success of a show is not measured by how good it is, or who says they loved it, or even how many people watch. A show is a success if the people who watched it go and buy the products that were advertised." - Dean Batali
The collection of personal information has long been a standard American corporate process as that information has long been understood to equate with the ability to further 'serve' and 'supply' the American consumer.

The extent of personal information collection took on dramatic new dimensions in the 1990s due to profound improvements in computing and the advent of the internet. Most of this increase in personal information collection takes place out of the public's view without the public's direct consent.

Marketers want to know their customers better.

Marketers want to automate the process of customer relationships.

Marketers ask questions that can only be answered with more data.

Who is someone really?

What motivates an individual?

How is someone likely to behave?

How can we get a certain type of individual to open his/her wallet?

How do we separate the relatively few very profitable customers from the 'herd'?
"The press can be corrupted by tyrannies other than the political. The tyranny of the bottom line or profit margin is equally insidious." - Thomas Wortham
To answer these questions marketers are on a data collection binge, gathering, parsing, and shaping more information about more people than ever before in history. These include not just credit bureaus, banks and telemarketers but each and every corporation that wants to know when, what, why and where you purchase products. Ever had a 'club' account?

Grocers - do you eat fresh or processed food? what toiletries do you use? do you drink alcoholic beverages and if so what type and how much?

Pharmacists - which prescription drugs do you use? which over-the-counter drugs do you use? what medical conditions apply to you - hemorrhoids? hay fever? femine itch?

Airlines - who flies where? when? why?

Politicians - who donates money to who? who 'knows' who?

Publishers - who reads what, when, where and in what form?

The direct mailer who sold you sex toys wants to understand your sexual needs and desires. (yuk!)

The multitude of corporations give you a toll-free number to make your life more convenient, give you the no charge debit card, give you credit card accounts, provide you with the 'chip' in the card, in your pet cat or implanted in you which activates your account - and companies you've never heard about harvest data from surveys, public records, credit card applications, warranty cards, and so many other forms, like giant combines harvesting wheat.

After the terror attacks on September 11, 2001, American aristocracy could not resist the promise that information technology could make them feel safe again. American aristocracy turned to computers, surveillance gear, and mountains of information about Americans as part of their nascent war on terror.

If law enforcement could only know nearly everything about everyone, American aristocracy reasoned, then law enforcement would be able to easily identify potential evil doers. Less would be unknown.

This imaginative ideology was foisted on the military and all levels of law enforcement.

This ideological fantasy required a data revolution to make it feasible on an epic scale and is only now possible due to the profound improvements in data storage.

After the terror attacks the federal government wedded itself to the information brokers and database marketers who had quietly amassed vast reservoirs of information about Americans and created tools to track, assess, and predict individual American behavior. The owners of the vast reservoirs of information about Americans understand and predict collective behavior better than an average American individual can predict his or her own individual behavior.

Government and corporations now use exactly the same tools to predict and modify collective as well as individual behavior. Government and corporate goals have become one and the same - predict and modify the behavior, collectively and individually, of every American. (Their collective goal is to make all Americans slap happy, sensually addicted adherents to the cult of materialistic consumerism.)
"The myth of the liberal media is continually advanced by conservatives. What drives coverage is corporate ownership, which is increasingly concentrated and beholden to advertisers, not to liberal values and ideals." - Bill Dunn
This successful endeavor, designed psychologically to alter common popular opinion to facilitate government and corporate control of the populace, uses mass media to modify the behavior of individual Americans collectively.

Purveyors of mass media engage in psychological operations to create popular cultural opinions, expectations and preconceptions.

Psychological operations are planned operations to convey selected information and opinions to select audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of organizations, groups, and ultimately individual Americans. (This is also the definition of marketing, see branding.)

Psychological operations became a standard part of federal government programs when the Psychological Strategy Board was established by a Harry S. Truman Presidential Directive of April 4, 1951. Dwight D. Eisenhower changed the name to the Operations Coordinating Board.

Psychological operations, psychological warfare or marketing is based on simply learning every little thing about your target audience, their beliefs, likes and dislikes, strengths, weaknesses, and vulnerabilities. Once you know what motivates your target, you are ready to begin your mass media propaganda campaign.

Psychological operations, the use of deception, is one of the oldest weapons in the arsenal of man.

Psychological operations, known as marketing in it's milder form and propaganda in it's harsher forms, may be defined broadly as the planned use of communications to influence human beliefs, opinions and behavior ... to create in target audience or groups behavior, emotions, and opinions that support the attainment of objectives.

A psychological warfare or propaganda campaign is a war for the soul using deception.

The primary weapons used are sights and sounds.

Psychological operations can be disseminated by face-to-face communication, audio visual means (television), audio media (radio or loudspeaker), visual media (leaflets, newspapers, books, magazines and/or posters).
"Through their international news agencies they mould your minds and have you see the world not as it is, but as they want you to see it. Through their cinema, they are the educators of our youth - and with just one film in two hours, can wipe out of a child's brain what he has learned in six months in the home, the church or the school." - Adrien Arcand October 31, 1937
On the Earth today it is as easy to deceive through visual ‘reality' as it is to deceive with spoken fallacy. Computer-generated digital imagery images are easily manipulated making it extremely easy to stage and invent scenes as propaganda.

The signature image of the fall of Baghdad, the toppling of a statue of Saddam Hussein surrounded by a large, jostling crowd of celebrating Iraqis, was staged. The crowd was not the "massive demonstration" that was widely reported, a depiction buttressed by the dense congestion in the close-up images. A Reuters long-distance shot of the entire square where the statue was downed shows the crowd was small, no more than about 200 people. (Those 200 were all given asylum in the good old United States of A.)

In February 2004 a 1972 image of Jane Fonda speaking at a Vietnam War protest in Miami Beach was spliced with a 1971 image of John Kerry preparing to speak at an antiwar rally in Mineola, New York. The composite image was designed to suggest that Kerry and Fonda had been closely allied in the Vietnam War antiwar effort, which they were not. This image raced around the web and convinced a large number of individuals of it's legitimacy.

Faking or staging photos is not a new idea. There are many ways to deceive the eye as any magician will attest to. The stakes in recent times have been particularly high and many individuals have been taken in repeatedly by potent fictions with serious consequences.

It is human nature to believe your eyes, giving images a visceral power words can not match.

Images are often the only thing individuals will recall.

A healthy dose of skepticism is needed in judging the authenticity of images.

Deceptive images that appear truthful and speed across the digital transom will continue to poison our sense of reality creating a conceptually false reality and re-writing history.

The fine point in the weapon of propaganda is not how the message is sent, but the message the weapon carries and how that message affects the recipient.

For instance, our American flag, when it goes by in a parade do you feel a sense of pride?

How about when you hear our American anthem played?

Music or sound can be a major factor in motivating emotion.

It has long been said that: "The pen is mightier than the sword".

That is because, if used properly, words can be an inspiration to motivate others.

Some examples:

"Remember the Alamo"

"Give me liberty or give me death"

"I regret I have but one life to give for my country"

"Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country."

For psychological operations to be effective, you must carefully plan your propaganda campaign. You must make sure that you know every minor thing about your audience, that you are targeting audience beliefs and not using beliefs the target audience can easily identify as other than their own.

In a memo written to Secretary of State John Foster Dulles on 24 October 1953, Dwight D. Eisenhower defined psychological warfare as any thing "from the singing of a beautiful anthem up to the most extraordinary category of physical sabotage."

Persuading rather than compelling physically, psychological warfare relies on false logic, fear, desire and/or other emotional factors to promote specific emotions, opinions or behaviors.

There are three ‘colors' of propaganda:

‘white'- truthfully - attributed and non-attributed messages.

‘gray'- falsely attributed to a third party messages.

‘black' - nothing less than a form of intellectual subversion.

"Propagandists have for a long while realized that a lie is not good for their purposes, that "truth pays," that propaganda must be based upon facts." - Jacques Ellul

The giant strides made in the area of behavioral, psychological sciences, which can now enable us to know and understand why humans behave as they do, combined with the development and perfection of mass media communications, have greatly multiplied the capability and intrinsic value of psychological operations as a means of achieving objectives.

Historically, the application of psychological operations in one form or another has proven to be almost as essential to the successful waging of war as the use of manpower and weaponry. Use of psychological operations as a force multiplier may be easily recognized in it's use by warriors and perceptive politicians.

Alexander the Great of Macedonia had conquered most of the known world during his reign. With each region he conquered he left behind soldiers to control the newly conquered area. At one point Alexander realized he had stretched his army too thin and he was now in danger of losing to a large opposing force. Alexander the Great's only option was to retreat and regroup forces with the armies he had left behind.

To do so would incite the opposing force to pursue him and possibly capture or defeat his now smaller army. Alexander the Great instructed his armor smiths to make several oversized armor breastplates and helmets that would fit "giants", men 7 to 8 feet tall.

As Alexander the Great and his forces withdrew during the night they left behind the oversized armor. The oversized armor was of course found by the opposing force who then were deceived into believing that they had come close to engaging in a battle with giants.

A battle that they surely would have lost.

The oversized armor coupled with the stories they had heard from travelers of the savagery of Alexander the Great's army caused enough doubt and fear that they elected not to pursue Alexander the Great's army.

Sun Tsu, recognized as one of the greatest military tacticians of all times,
strongly advocated the use of psychological warfare as a force multiplier.

Sun Tsu wrote that:

"To capture the enemy's entire army is better than to destroy it; to take intact a regiment, a company, or a squad is better than to destroy them. For to win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence. Thus, what is of supreme importance in war is to attack the enemy's strategy. Next best is to disrupt his alliances by diplomacy. The next best is to attack his army. And the worst policy is to attack cities."

Sun Tzu understood that given the opportunity,
an adversary will surrender to a superior commander prior to conflict.

Mongol leader Genghis Khan was widely known for leading hordes of savage horsemen across Russia and into Europe. While not totally unfounded, the Mongols' image of total, barbaric domination was greatly enhanced by Genghis Khan's use of deception, operational security, and targeting his adversaries' decision-making process.

"Agents of influence" were sent in advance of his armies to do face-to-face psychological warfare, telling of brutality and large numbers in the Mongol army. Genghis Khan also used deception to create the illusion of invincible numbers by using rapid troop maneuver, making his army look larger than it really was. Genghis Khan had a network of horsemen called "arrow riders" to communicate quickly with his commanders, and he targeted enemy messengers to prevent enemy commanders from communicating with each other. All these actions caused a weakness in the enemy's psyche, and the Mongols were feared wherever they went.

Adolf Hitler rose to power by exploiting the dissatisfaction of supporters of the traditional left and right wing parties, by dwelling on the failure of these parties to solve the problems created by the conditions imposed on Germany under the Treaty of Versailles.

Adolf Hitler then presented national socialism as the one movement capable of uniting conservative nationalists with international socialists, the professional classes with the working classes in the service of the nation. The speeches he delivered urged national pride and unity and placed the blame for all of Germany's problems on ‘others'.

Sound familiar?

Adolf Hitler's oratory techniques and use of propaganda gave him a truly hypnotic grip over the German masses. Joseph Goebbels, Adolf Hitler's minister of propaganda, practiced the techniques of psychological operations both to unite Germany and to intimidate their enemies.

The most well known innovative use of psychological warfare must be attributed to a radio broadcast by the British Broadcasting Corporation, the BBC.

In 1940, when the German invasion of England seemed imminent, a regular BBC radio program, easily heard and often listened to by the Germans, began a series of English language lessons for the invaders. These broadcasts of course were presented in flawless German.

The British announcer stated the purpose of these broadcast like this:

"…..and so it will be best if you learn a few useful phrases in English before visiting us.

For your first lesson, we take ‘DIE KANAUEBERFAHRT'. The channel crossing."

"Now, just repeat after me: ‘DAS BOOT SINKT.' The boat is sinking. The boat is sinking"

"DAS WASSER IST KALT. The water is cold. SER KALT. Very cold"

"Now I will give you a verb that should be very useful. Again, please repeat after me. ICH BRENNE. I am burning. Du Brennst. You are burning. ER BRENNT. He is burning. WIR BRENNEN. We burn. IHR BRENNT. You are burning. SIR BRENNEN. They are burning."

This crude propaganda proved extremly effective. The phrases about burning in the English Channel seemed to confirm the intensive rumors already being spread by British agents on the continent that the British had perfected an apparatus with which they were going to set fires in the Channel and on the English beaches whenever Hitler launched his invasion.

Although not true, the rumors were so well planned and cleverly spread that to this day many Germans still believe them.
The power of the subconscious to facilitate belief should never be underestimated.
Documents found after the war confirmed that the German high command believed that the British had a workable plan to set fire to the English Channel. Masters of propaganda were beaten at their own trick! Obviously they were not in touch with their subconscious.
This propaganda worked on a subconscious level as a fantasy seen as a reality.
Perhaps the most ambitious and spectacular psychological operations of modern times was the effort of the Allies to convince the German high command that the upcoming Allied invasion of Europe would occur across the beaches near the Pas de Calais.

Psychological operations of the Allies created the fictitious "Army group Patton," which was poised to strike across the English Channel at the Germans 15th Panzer Army defending the Pas de Calais.

Even after the Allied invasion came at Normandy, Adolf Hitler would not allow for the deployment of the 15th Panzer Army from the Pas de Calais. Adolf Hitler was convinced that the Normandy invasion was only a prelude to the real invasion. The 15th Panzer Army waited in vain at the Pas de Calais for nearly SEVEN WEEKS for Army group Patton, an invasion that was never to come.

General of the army Omar Bradley later referred to this propaganda operation as "the biggest hoax of the war".

The German army never fully recovered from the reversals
set in motion by their delay in releasing the 15th Panzer army and Germany lost the war as a result.

The next example concerns another objective of psychological operations, it's use is to promote cooperation, unity and morale within a target audience.

With Josef Stalin's regime reeling under the blows of the German blitz in 1941, Josef Stalin sensed that the ideological abstractions and communist platitudes, which the communist party had driven into the minds of its captive domestic audience were in reality barren. Ideological abstractions and communist platitudes did not have the emotional and spiritual impact necessary to fortify the Russian people for their struggle against Hitler's armies.

Therefore, Josef Stalin systematically set about identifying the communist regime with "Holy Russia", "Mother Russia", Russia's ancient heritage and the accompanying archetypical symbolism.

The two Russian institutions with the deepest roots in the past, the army and the church, were cultivated by Josef Stalin's propagandists as never before in the Soviet Socialist Union's history.

The historic accomplishments of Russian armies were glorified. The church hierarchy and class distinctions were returned to pre-revolution standards. "PRAVDA," dropped its Marxist motto, "WORKERS OF THE WORLD, UNITE," and substituted the openly nationalistic slogan, "DEATH TO THE GERMAN INVADER."

The ensuing struggle became and is still officially known in Soviet history as "The Great Patriotic War".

Even Josef Stalin, one of the most ruthless murdering dictators of the 20th Century, realized that his conventional military weapons alone, were not enough to meet the challenge of the German armies.

Josef Stalin's choice of utilizing psychological operations to augment his conventional military forces played a major role in maintaining the survival of his communist regime.

By this time radio broadcasts had become a major means of passing propaganda and deceiving the target audience.

During WWII Japan used the notorious "Tokyo Rose" to broadcast music,
propaganda, and words of discouragement to allied forces.

The Germans used Mildred Gillar, better remembered as "Axis Sally".

In Vietnam "Hanoi Hannah" broadcasted a daily radio program where she played music, coupled with the North's view of the news and messages of discouragement to our troops.

Today Rush Limbaugh, Bill O'Reilly, Al Franken and Howard Stern are heard throughout America.
"I submit that as long as folks continue to belly up to the trough to feed on the slop that folks like Rush Limbaugh are serving daily on talk radio, despicable lies will still be credited as truth." - Gary L. Platt
American propagandist's ability to divide the American people
into ideological divisions is quite easy to recognize.

A truly effective psychological operations program must have the input of highly-qualified clinical psychologists " who specialize in the unconscious dynamics of human behavior and motivation'' (ie market specialists) and who are knowledgeable about the "social and cultural values of different target audiences.''

Through mass media communications, market specialists have demonstrated , time and time again, that they can appeal to the emotions of the target audience to get them to think and act as they desire.
"In order to turn reluctant consumers with few unsatisfied core needs into permanent shoppers, consumer product producers must dumb down consumers by shaping their wants essentially taking over their lives by encouraging impulse buying, cultivating shopoholism and manufacturing new desires." - Benjamin R. Barber
It should be clear, anyone with vision will see, that modern psychological operations in the form of marketing and advertising are embedded within all mass media and that Americans are exposed to it every day.

As well as corporate interests the State, which is firmly in the control of American aristocracy, uses communications via mass media to build an image of reality concordant with the interests of American aristocracy.

Psychological operations are a vital part of the broad range of American political, military, economic and ideological activities used by the American government to secure objectives of American aristocracy by the government's own admission. (See Federal Bureau of Investigation and propaganda, Central Intelligence Agency and propaganda, the broadcasting board of governors, the Gulf war, Gulf of Tonkin and the Committee of Public Information as examples)

Psychological operations prevent many Americans from recognizing the simple truth that this deception creates a conceptual fallacy within which individual understanding of the reality of the Earth is warped, American's place on the Earth is elevated to godlike status and American notions of freedom are corrupted along with popular historical American ethical beliefs.

As Americans are begining to awaken to the reality of mass media's psychological operations and deception they are turning away from mass media monopolies as shown in the following mass media study:
mass media study finds few bright spots to report
The audience for most news mass media outlets is either shrinking or stagnant, according to a study released by the Project for Excellence in Journalism.

The study examined newspaper, television, magazines, radio and internet news industries, and found that only online journalism and ethnic or alternative sources of news, such as Spanish language newspapers, are seeing growth.

"We're in a period of change and dislocation," said Tom Rosenstiel, director of the Project for Excellence in Journalism, part of Columbia University's Graduate School of Journalism.

The study found that English language newspaper circulation has declined 11% since 1990 and network evening news ratings are down 34% over the last decade. Despite major news events such as the war in Iraq, the median cable news audience has not grown since 2001.

The study also found that, overall, trust in news sources is down. The percentage of people who believe what they read in newspapers has declined from 80% in 1985 to 59% in 2003, and the percentage who give high grades in credibility to network news dropped from 74% in 1996 , to 65% in 2002.
"Most of what we, the audience, thinks is news is just PR that is pitched to program producers by the publicity department of an entity with a vested interest in seeing that person or idea promoted." - Nancy Snow
"As a democracy we extol the virtues of the free press, but the reality is that our press really is not free." - Syed Hussani

deception
"The major news media have failed the American public for years and are still doing so." - Darrell Williams
The most insidious part of any deception is not its outrageous claims but its appeal to the needs of its potential audience. The real art of deception lies in understanding how subtle touches and preconceptions can be twisted in the minds of the audience.

Successful deception requires a cooperative audience. The key is finding smart people with shared expectations and preconceptions. These people are then hired to staff think tanks. Audiences with shared expectations and preconceptions will make allowances, will reach the 'right' conclusion and will unwittingly participate in the deception. This is the case with all celebrity figures which include news anchors, talk show hosts, movie stars, well known authors, corporate CEO's and popular politicians all of which have an economic interest in furthering the status quo.

Deception may require complicity, but a little disorientation helps as well.

Indian street fakirs, sleight of hand artists, have a simple game: Indian street fakirs get their audiences to laugh, then tap into another emotion, fear. Once frightened their marks are ripe to be sold whatever is promised to soothe their fear. The need for emotional comfort will often overrule reason. The fakir's amulets and rings are guaranteed to assure an emotionally 'happy' ending.
"The psychology of deception is not a mature field, and the neural mechanisms that underlie the ability to intentionally suppress, distort, or fabricate information are not yet well understood. Consequently, if the investment is correct in stating that confidence in a given technique will require a solid theoretical base, then a significant research investment into the underlying neuropsychological mechanisms of deception must be made before any practical system for detecting deception can be developed and employed." - Intelligence Science Board Study on Educing Information
Deceptions are extremely useful in the halls of commerce and politics.

"Deceit fills hearts that are plotting evil." - Proverbs 12:20
Marketers, politicians and pundits play on our fears
then deliver the fatherly, and false, embrace of their protection.

Fairness Doctrine
"The idea that somebody's home-made Internet content can ever have the wide audience and reach of a big city newspaper, a television network like Fox or a radio show like Rush Limbaugh's is merely a variation of the old argument that the rich and the poor are equally free to sleep under a bridge.

Under today's privatized, hyper-concentrated American media system, the views of those with money and power are disproportionately represented. Those who oppose American imperialism and pro-corporate trade policy, and who advocate labor rights and serious pro-consumer regulation of corporations, have to struggle to be heard at all.

To say Americans don't need the Fairness Doctrine because opinions censored by private owners of big media companies can still appear somewhere on the Internet - even though only a tiny fraction of the public will ever encounter them - is to proclaim the absolute right to forward only opinions of the plutocrats and oligarches controlling the industrial-military-media-corporate complex." - Mark Gabrish Conlan
In the wake of Republican defeats in the 2008 elections right wing radicals fought among themselves over how to revive their movement. Edwin Feulner of the Heritage Foundation says not to worry: "If you want to see when (neo)conservatives were in trouble, go back 35 years to 1973, the year the Heritage Foundation set up shop. We were just a handful of people in a few rented rooms. At that time there were no cable outlets like Fox News. There was no (neo)conservative talk radio, because the Fairness Doctrine was still in effect."
From the birth of the broadcasting industry, the airwaves - from which most Americans obtain their news - were regarded and regulated as a public trust, a communal resource like the clean air and clean water, the commons.

The Federal Radio Act of 1927 required that broadcasters, as a condition of their licenses, operate in the public interest by covering important policy issues and providing equal time to both sides of public questions.

Those requirements evolved into the powerful Fairness Doctrine, which mandated that the broadcast media has a duty to maintain an informed public. Broadcasters had to set aside time to air program content that was community-based and program content made for children. The rules set were weighted to encourage diversity of ownership and local control.

The Fairness Doctrine governed television and radio for most of the twentieth century.

In the 1960s the Federal Communications Commission and the courts applied the Fairness Doctrine to require cigarette manufacturers to include the surgeon general's warnings in their television and radio advertisements, and polluters to notify the public when advertising a polluting product. Advertisers of gas guzzling automobiles, for example, had to provide rebuttal time for public interest advocates to debate the impact of wasteful fuel consumption on our environment and public health.
"The clear intent was to prevent a monopoly of commercial values from overwhelming democratic values - to assure that the official image of reality - corporate or government - was not the only image of reality that reached the people." - Bill Moyers
The Supreme Court unanimously upheld the Fairness Doctrine in the Red Lion case in 1969, confirming that it is "the right of the viewers and listeners, not the right of the broadcasters which is paramount."
Ronald Reagan abolished the Fairness Doctrine in 1988 as a favor to the studio heads that supported his election.
A Syracuse, New York, television station had broadcast nine paid editorials advocating the construction of a nuclear power plant. When the station refused to air opposing viewpoints an anti-nuke group complained. The three Ronald Reagan appointees who ran the Federal Communications Commission sided with the television station, applying the same laissez-faire philosophy to the airwaves as the Ronald Reagan administration did to the other parts of the commons.

They reasoned that the recent proliferation of cable television allays the Supreme Court's concern that listeners and viewers have access to diverse sources of information.
Broadcasters would henceforth be under no obligation to air views that opposed their own.
Today cable operators carry C-SPAN which covers legislative and public policy issues. The State and American aristocracy claims that opposing views are aired on C-SPAN.

How many Americans actually watch C-SPAN?

"C-SPAN is seen regularly by twice as many men as women. Less well educated individuals and those who do not use computers most often say they never watch the channel." - Pew Research Center for the People and the Press

In January 1995, C-SPAN launched Washington Journal, a political talkshow that C-SPAN now describes as its “flagship viewer call-in program.” Airing seven mornings a week, usually three hours per day, Washington Journal generally features a host, guests and viewer calls.

Extra! studied Washington Journal’s guestlist, tabulating all 663 guests that appeared on the show in the six-month period from November 1, 2004 to April 30, 2005. Guests were classified by gender, ethnicity, party affiliation (if any) and profession. The study also looked at the think tanks most prominently represented on the television show.

Extra!’s study found Washington Journal skewing rightward, favoring Republican and right-of-center interview subjects by considerable margins over Democratic and left-of-center guests. The study also found that women, people of color and public interest viewpoints were substantially under represented.

Republicans outnumbered Democrats nearly two to one. No representative of a third party appeared during the study period. The American Enterprise Institute and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace were the best-represented think tanks, providing ten guests each. The Brookings Institution had seven guests, followed by the Heritage Foundation and the Center for Strategic and International Studies, two conservative groups whose experts each appeared five times. Among left-leaning think tanks, only the Center for International Policy provided as many as two guests. Citizen-based organizations and public interest groups accounted for just nine percent of total guests. Union representatives, environmentalists and consumer rights groups accounted for just six guest appearances, or one percent of the total.

"No more than four out of ten [cable viewers] ever watch C-SPAN.

I took at face value what people were saying - in the government and in the mass media and in business over the years - that all they really cared about was fairness and objectivity.

The closer I got to it, the less I believed they really cared about was fairness and objectivity.
I don't want the government to tell me what I can listen to.
I would trust the public at large any day to make a decision over what is good and what is evil and how many choices there are out there before I would a government based in Washington were there is a sense that only a certain group of people should be controlling the air waves, because they're more responsible and they have the right kind of opinions.
To put a media industry represenative on the Federal Communications Commission and say, "You decide what's fair" is outrageous!

We've asked to put our own cameras in the chamber of the House and the Senate, and have been laughed at. We show up with our cameras, and they'll have a public meeting, and then they'll shut it down and do private meetings until they get their decisions made, and you'll never see how the deals are cut.

Telecommunications has been this humongous tin cup for politicians for a lot of years, and it's gotten to the point where you've got to watch very carefully to see why a new piece of legislation is dropped in the hopper because it could do nothing more or less than generate tremendous amounts of money into the political coffers of both parties."
- Brian Lamb, CEO C-SPAN
The State does not want an educated public that is why the State reduced funds for public television and radio by $95 million in 2006.
Concerns that the loss of the nation's most popular open forum diminished American democracy were scoffed at by Ronald Reagan's Federal Communications Commission chairman.

"Television is just another appliance - it's a toaster with images." - Mark Fowler

The Federal Communications Commission's pro-industry, anti-regulatory philosophy effectively ended the right of access to broadcast television by any but moneyed interests. As an unregulated part of the commons, television and radio are today subject to the same dynamic that is polluting our other public trust assets, with behemoths consolidating control of the airwaves.

Absent a resurrection of the Fairness Doctrine, America's broadcast mass media, which should include an open forum for American democracy, will continue to devolve into a marketplace exclusively for commerce. It allows corporations to extend the reach of their empires into American homes with customized, interactive multimedia transforming American's into 24-hour-a-day consumers.

The news and entertainment is now dictated by advertisers with personalized appeals calculated to program American's to buy, buy, buy.

American civic life, already invisible on television, will become an irrelevant relic to the next generation which will know little about relevant issues or why they should participate in democracy.

adapted from Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., Crimes Against Nature


News Distortion Rule



In 2003, the North American winners of the prestigious Goldman Environmental Prize, known as the "Nobel Prize for grass roots work," were former Fox television network reporters Jane Akre and Steve Wilson. The two investigative reporters lost their jobs when they refused to change a news report that had displeased Monsanto.

The reporters had visited regional dairies and discovered that Monsanto's bovine growth hormone was being injected into cows. The chemical was present in the state's milk supply despite commitments by Florida's supermarkets not to sell milk tainted by bovine growth hormone.

In various studies bovine growth hormone has been linked to cancer and is banned by many countries, including Canada, New Zealand, and the entire European community. Jane Akre and Steve Wilson's report said that Monsanto had been accused of fraud in connection with information it had provided to the Environmental Protection Agency concerning food safety and had attempted to bribe public officials in Canada.

Jane Akre and Steve Wilson testified that the local Fox television network station manager, David Boylan, carefully reviewed the investigative reports for factual accuracy, found no errors, and scheduled them to run the following week. Monsanto hired a powerful law firm before the show ran and threatened to sue Fox television network if the report was run. The station offered Monsanto an opportunity to appear on the show and respond but Monsanto declined the offer.

Jane Akre and Steve Wilson testified that the local Fox television network station manager, David Boylan, then ordered the reporters to edit the show in a way that was favorable to Monsanto and deceptive. Declining to cooperate in the deception both reporters were given a ‘special assignment' with full salaries for their contract period provided they agreed to sign a confidentiality agreement and provide a report acceptable to Monsanto. For nine months they worked on 83 different drafts of the story - none of which satisfied Monsanto.

"For every fact we intended to broadcast, we had documentation six weeks from Sunday. The station's lawyer told us, 'You don't get it. It doesn't matter what the facts are, we don't want to be spending money to defend a lawsuit.'" - Steve Wilson

Jane Akre testified that the station had tried to force her to say that the bovine growth hormone milk was safe and no different from milk without bovine growth hormone, despite abundant studies that proved otherwise. "We told them to go ahead and kill the story," Steve Wilson says, "just don't make us lie."

They were fired. They sued. They won on whistleblower statute law. Overturned on appeal.

The Federal Communications Commission's 50 year old News Distortion Rule which prohibits broadcast of false reports was declared to not qualify under the whistleblower statute since it had been created over the years in judicial decisions and was never promulgated in a rule creation process.

- adapted from Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., Crimes Against Nature

Monsanto is a perfect example of a rogue corporation that has only one concern, profit. Monsanto does not care about the ultimate effect of its products on people or how its products might be detrimental to humanity as a whole.

In February 2006 Monsanto agreed to pay $100 million to the University of California for patent infringement. It seems that University of California scientists patented the bovine growth hormone that Monsanto pushes. So, apparently, Monsanto has no qualms about stealing either.

fair advertising and government bodies
Dairy cows live miserable lives on over crowded dirt lots. Dairy cows are artificially inseminated annually because they do not produce milk without pregnancies. Dairy cows are pumped full of hormones, including bovine growth hormones, so that they will give 10 times as much milk as they would naturally. Their calves are carted off to veal crates. Then at about age 5, the 'happy' cows are turned into hamburgers.

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, PETA, filed a law suit that stated that the California Milk Advisory Board, a State of California governmental agency, had falsely advertised the condition in which dairy cattle live in it's "happy cows" advertising campaign.
PETA's suit failed on the grounds that government institutions are exempt from fair advertising laws.
Government institutions are free to say whatever they want, even if what is said is entirely false. And they do so with regularity in their attempt to forward whatever policy is now on their agenda.

So the basic truth comes down to this:
There is absolutely no reason whatsoever to believe anything that a government employee or agency states to be a fact as those employees and agencies have no obligation whatsoever to tell the truth.
"If you're in government, you can lie to your heart's content so long as the lie is intended to advance your agenda." - Jonathan Chait

blogging
Think that blog opinion is honest? Think again. Thousands of bloggers are writing sponsored posts.

"Using a blog to attract and engage customers is fast becoming a popular marketing strategy." - Karen E. Klein

Check out PayPerPost Inc. which states on it's web site:

"PayPerPost is the leading marketplace for Consumer Generated Advertising. The PayPerPost platform connects advertisers and Consumer Content Creators to deliver compelling marketing messages. The marketplace is fueled by the self-expression of bloggers, videographers, photographers, podcasters and participants in social networks."

A blogger convention teaches bloggers how to "monetize your voice."

"Why should you attend PostieCon '07? Two words: Rock Star. Bloggers and Internet personalities are the Rock Stars of the information age. Bloggers reach millions of dedicated fans on a day to day basis, it's easy to see why today's humble blogger could potentially be tomorrow's Rock Star. That's why PostieCon '07's theme is "You're A Rock Star". We are here to educate bloggers on how to build traffic and readership, and use your notoriety and unique brand to create value and monetize your voice."

"Advertisers are trying to buy a blogger's voice, and once they've bought it they own it." - Jeff Jarvis

"PayPerPost versus authentic blogging is like comparing prostitution with making love to someone you care for deeply." - Jason MaCabe Calacanis

Other pay per post sites include ReviewMe, Loud Launch, SponsoredReviews.com.

Here I must disclose all the sponsors for unique-library. There are no sponsors! And there is only one writer/editor - me.

Blogging has become just another way for commercial endeavors to propagandize.

"Corporate blogs are giving established companies and obscure brands alike the ability to connect with their audiences on a more personal level, build trust, collect valuable feedback and foster strengthened business relationships. More importantly, these companies are enjoying tangible returns in their blogging investment in the form of increased sales, partnerships, business opportunities, press coverage and lead generation." - http://www.backbonemedia.com

CEO and exec bloggers include Alan Meckler, Bill Marriott, Bob Langert, Bob Lutz, Bob Parsons, David Bain, David Sifry, Irving Wladawsky-Berger, Jonathan Schwartz, Karen Christensen, Mark Cuban, Richard Edelman, Ted Leonsis and Zane Safrit.

Alan Meckler = Jupitermedia, Inc.; Bill Marriott = Marriott International; Bob Langert = Senior Director for Corporate Social Responsibility at McDonald's; Robert "Bob" A. Lutz = General Motors Vice Chairman of Product Development and Chairman of GM North America; Bob (Robert) Parsons = CEO and founder of Go Daddy; David Bain = 'viral mrketing' PurpleInternetMarketing.com; Dave Sifry = Technorati; Irving Wladawsky-Berger = Chairman Emeritus, IBM Academy of Technology; Jonathan Ian Schwartz = President and CEO of Sun Microsystems; Karen Christensen = CEO Berkshire Publishing Group; Richard Edelman = CEO Edelman, first to employ the Web in crisis management; Ted Leonsis = Vice Chairman of America Online; Zane Safrit, CEO Conference Calls Unlimited.

Journalistic Integrity
"The single most frightening aspect of our current national dilemma is the abdication of the media's responsibility to report important news." - Steve Cagan 11/26/07
"Our analysis confirms an economically significant demand for news slanted toward one's own political ideology." - Matthew Gentzkow, Jesse M. Shapiro, November 2006
"There is universal distrust of the media by Americans, because of their notorious monopoly and bias. The media unanimously urge higher taxes on working people, more government spending, a welfare state with totalitarian powers, close relations with Russia, and a rabid denunciation of anyone who opposes Communism." - Eustace Mullins
"It is a fact that most editors and newsmen on the staffs of Life, Look, Time, Newsweek, etc., and most editors, reporters, and commentators at NBC, CBS, and ABC take their news and editorial cues from the New York Times. Technically, it is a great newspaper; but it reports much of the news in conformity with its editorial policies." - Alice Widener



"Years ago, if I wanted to place a bad story, I would have to con-vince an investigative reporter. He'd resist due to journalistic standards. He'd have to spend weeks, if not months, on the research." - Eric Dezenhall

"The days when dignity counted for anything on this continent are long gone. A society afflicted with an almost pornographic fascination with the foibles of the idle rich has no time to spend thinking about the poor, and, as a result, the lower classes have largely dropped off the radar screen. The agenda-setting tendencies of the media have had much to do with this. A profession once dominated by tough, streetwise refugees from the working class is now dominated by dainty alumni from our finest schools, people to whom poverty is not only unpleasant and unhygienic but totally uncool." - Joe Queenan


Journalism of verification has ceded ground for years on talk shows and cable to a new journalism of assertion, where information is offered with meager attempts independently verify the informations veracity.

The result is that stories are sometimes true and sometimes false.

All this makes it easier for those who would manipulate public opinion - government, think tanks and corporations.

Those who distrust the news media are often heavier consumers of news outlets than those who are more trusting. This is explained by the fact that there is so much conflicting content.

Journalists need to make significant changes by documenting their reporting process openly so that audiences can decide for themselves whether to trust their reports.

Viewers of PBS will see a different range of concerns from those who watch cable, where entertainment and celebrity are a notable part of the agenda.

On Fox news, the journalists themselves offer their opinions, without attribution to any reporting, in seven out of ten stories. That happens in less than one story out of ten on CNN, and in fewer than three stories out of ten on MSNBC. Fox news' stories are more deeply sourced than those of its cable rivals, but are also more one-sided. PBS's NewsHour, however, is noticeably even more thorough in its sourcing.

"News organizations often willingly collude with efforts to censor because media owners are members of the political elite themselves and therefore share the goals and outcomes of government leaders. Profit ranks higher than truth telling in the minds of media owners and many of their employees." - Nancy Snow

"In 2004 magazines, the big new growth area is in publications that concern not public life at all, but shopping. Beyond the question of agenda, there are also measurable differences in the nature of the reporting in different mass media, even under the same corporate roof. Cable news, for instance, is a more thinly reported medium than its rivals. The story segments include fewer sources, tend to be more one-sided and feature more opinion from the journalists.

"Every year after thanksgiving, the food magazines attack the problem of leftovers, and every year I clip and save the recipes with all the self control of a zombie in the service of some evil genius bent on world domination." - Julie Powell

Newspapers in 2004 continued to be distinguished for the depth, range and variety of their content. Just 7% of all newspaper stories, and 13% of front-page stories, contained anonymous sources. Among the largest newspapers, 12% of all 2004 coverage contained anonymous sources, compared to just 3% at the smallest newspapers and 6% at mid-range newspapers.

In 2004, more than half of all network television stories, 53%, contained anonymous sources. On the morning television programs the figure rose to 79% of the morning packages. The use of anonymous sources was rare on cable television news. Just 9% of the stories overall contained any anonymous sources. Online 19% of the stories studied contained anonymous sourcing.

The long term trend is toward investing fewer resources in original news gathering. Much of the investment and effort is in repackaging, reformulating, redacting, reenacting, thus re-presenting previously presented "information" in new distracting ways, not in gathering it. Americans are more likely to see the same images across multiple television channels, read the same wire story in different publications and observe the crosspollination the various media outlets such as a television advertisement that is also played on the radio and, as well, is visually incorporated into a billboard and print ads venues than they were a generation ago.

Americans remain skeptical about the news media.

A wave of high-profile scandals involving plagiarism and fabrication at some of the nation's most established news institutions confirmed what people already thought. People have long considered the press sensational, rude, pushy, and callous.

In the late 1970s early 1980s, consumers of news began to see the press as less professional, less moral, more inaccurate, and less caring about the interests of ordinary Americans.

Consider just a few statistical changes between 1985 and 2002.

The number of Americans who news organizations were highly professional declined from 72% to 49%.

The number who felt news organizations were moral fell from 54% to 39%.

Those who felt news organizations tried to cover up their mistakes rose from 13% to 67%.

The number who felt the press got the facts straight fell from 55% to 35%.

Those who felt news organizations were biased politically rose from 45% to 59%.

Americans resent the lack of independence, the lack of altruistic aspiration and the sense of professional ethics that defined the quality journalism of the past." - Project for Excellence in Journalism


"Our media has collapsed. They've questioned no one. One of the reasons George W. Bush and Dick Cheney are so daring is that they know there's nobody to stop them. Nobody is going to write a story that says the war on terror is not a war, only Congress can declare war. And you can only have a war with another country. You can't have a war with bad temper or a war against paranoids. Nothing makes any sense, and the people are getting very confused.

The people are not stupid, but they are totally misinformed.

When you've got a press like we have, you no longer have an informed citizenry. The press' belongs to the people who own them. There used to be foreign correspondents in other countries. There's nobody abroad now. The New York Times gave up being anything except a kind of shadow of The Wall Street Journal. The Washington Post is the court circular. What has the emperor done today? And who will be the under-assistant of the secretary of agriculture? As though these things mattered.

In America, everybody listens to 19th Century Fox TV News. In which a bunch of loons just scream and scream and scream. And with each scream they tell another lie. How are we ever going to have an informed citizenry? Which means then how can we have an informed election?" - Gore Vidal

Americans are increasingly convinced that news media as a whole is motivated by the dictates of wealth generation and that individual journalists have been corrupted with personal ambition.

The long-term trends revealing declining credibility and believability have been established in scores of surveys from several different polling operations asking the questions in a variety of different ways. Those changes deepened the sense that the news media were basically economicallymotivated while failing to focus on issues of public interest.

Today, a host of new forms of communication offer a way for news makers to reach the public. There are talk show hosts, cable interview shows, corporate web sites, government web sites, web sites that purport to be citizen blogs but are really something else, and more.

True Journalists are trained to be skeptics and aspire to speak TRUTH to power.

True journalism is the one source those who want to manipulate the public are most prone to denounce.

If the American news media expects Americans to respect the value of the news it propagates it must prove that it is willing to deny the syndicate of the soulless its existing monopoly on the approval of which "news" items will be broadcast or appear in print.




"Investigative reporting - the kind Jack Anderson used to do regularly and which was carried in hundreds of papers across the country, the kind of muckraking, data-intensive work that takes time and money and ruffles feathers - is dying.

Until there is some official investigation or allegation made by a prominent politician, there is no story. Sometimes the media like to cover the controversy, but riot the substance, preferring an ambiguous and unsatisfying "he said, she said" report. Safe reporting, but not investigative.

I know some of the reasons why investigative reporting is on the decline.

To begin with, investigations take time and money.

In America's cash-short, instant-deadline journalistic world, there's not much room for that.

Are there still aggressive, talented investigative reporters in America?

There are hundreds. I'll mention two: Seymour Hersh, formerly of the New York Times, and Robert Parry, formerly of the Associated Press, who uncovered the Iran-Contra scandal. The operative word here is "formerly." Robert Parry tells me that he can no longer do this kind of investigative work within the confines of an American daily newsroom.

One of the biggest disincentives to doing investigative journalism is that it jeopardizes future access to politicians and corporate elite.

During the I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby trial, the testimony of Judith Miller and other American journalists about the confidences they were willing to keep in order to maintain access seemed to me sadly illuminating.

Expose the critters and the door is slammed.

That's not a price many American journalists are willing to pay." - Greg Palast

Ever day we are totally bombarded with an endless parade of messages awakening us to our innermost desires. Accepting our culture as the enlightened one in every facet is the same as being a worshiper of the commercial-industrial-corporate-mass media-entertainment complex that directs our energy towards fruitless and faulty solutions for contentment and happiness.


"Television commentator Armstrong Williams was paid $240,000 to promote George W. Bush 's education policies, and syndicated columnists Maggie Gallagher and Michael McManus were paid $21,500 and $10,000, respectively, to advocate George W. Bush's marriage initiatives. This money was provided by American taxpayers, illegal under the Smith-Mundt Act of 1948, which forbids the domestic dissemination of government propaganda designed to sway public policy. Materials that serve "a solely partisan purpose" are expressly prohibited." -Harry Brunser

"I don't understand why the Department of Homeland Security is so bent out of shape about the Federal Emergency Management Agency's fake news conference last week. What's the difference between that and George W. Bush holding bogus town hall meetings, in which only pre-screened questions were allowed to be asked? Or, perhaps a better analogy, the White House feeding television stations video clips that it produced with phony news anchors? Isn't it all part of the George W. Bush administration's long-standing manipulation of the media?" - Tom Ogden 11/07

"Have we become so accustomed to our government lying that faking a news conference is just an "error in judgment"?"- Eric Werner 11/07

" I have learned that in mass media, "truth" is not based on clarity but on repetition. An assumption repeated three times becomes a fact."- Tariq Ramadan

"Freedom of the mind requires not only, or not even especially, the absence of legal constraints but the presence of alternative thoughts. The most successful tyranny is not the one that uses force to assure uniformity, but the one that removes awareness of other possibilities. Without freedom of thought, there can be no such thing as wisdom; and no such thing as public liberty, without freedom of speech." -Cato

"As an amateur garage band composer I greatly appreciate the less discussed bene
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #20 on: September 04, 2009, 08:42:23 am »
Psychological Operations Field Manual No.33-1
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/fr/546409/posts
 31 August 1979 | Department of the Army

Posted on 10/12/2001 10:29:22 AM PDT by Fixit

PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUES
"Propaganda Techniques" is based upon "Appendix I: PSYOP Techniques" from "Psychological Operations Field Manual No.33-1" published by Headquarters; Department of the Army, in Washington DC, on 31 August 1979
(from http://www.zoehouse.com/is/sco/proptech.html)
Knowledge of propaganda techniques is necessary to improve one's own propaganda and to uncover enemy PSYOP stratagems. Techniques, however, are not substitutes for the procedures in PSYOP planning, development, or dissemination.
Techniques may be categorized as:
Characteristics of the content self-evident. additional information is required to recognize the characteristics of this type of propaganda. "Name calling" and the use of slogans are techniques of this nature.
Additional information required to be recognized. Additional information is required by the target or analyst for the use of this technique to be recognized. "Lying" is an example of this technique. The audience or analyst must have additional information in order to know whether a lie is being told.
Evident only after extended output. "Change of pace" is an example of this technique. Neither the audience nor the analyst can know that a change of pace has taken place until various amounts of propaganda have been brought into focus.
Nature of the arguments used. An argument is a reason, or a series of reasons, offered as to why the audience should behave, believe, or think in a certain manner. An argument is expressed or implied.
Inferred intent of the originator. This technique refers to the effect the propagandist wishes to achieve on the target audience. "Divisive" and "unifying" propaganda fall within this technique. It might also be classified on the basis of the effect it has on an audience.


SELF-EVIDENT TECHNIQUE

Appeal to Authority. Appeals to authority cite prominent figures to support a position idea, argument, or course of action.

Assertion. Assertions are positive statements presented as fact. They imply that what is stated is self-evident and needs no further proof. Assertions may or may not be true.

Bandwagon and Inevitable Victory. Bandwagon-and-inevitable-victory appeals attempt to persuade the target audience to take a course of action "everyone else is taking." "Join the crowd." This technique reinforces people's natural desire to be on the winning side. This technique is used to convince the audience that a program is an expression of an irresistible mass movement and that it is in their interest to join. "Inevitable victory" invites those not already on the bandwagon to join those already on the road to certain victory. Those already, or partially, on the bandwagon are reassured that staying aboard is the best course of action.


Obtain Disapproval. This technique is used to get the audience to disapprove an action or idea by suggesting the idea is popular with groups hated, feared, or held in contempt by the target audience. Thus, if a group which supports a policy is led to believe that undesirable, subversive, or contemptible people also support it, the members of the group might decide to change their position.


Glittering Generalities. Glittering generalities are intensely emotionally appealing words so closely associated with highly valued concepts and beliefs that they carry conviction without supporting information or reason. They appeal to such emotions as love of country, home; desire for peace, freedom, glory, honor, etc. They ask for approval without examination of the reason. Though the words and phrases are vague and suggest different things to different people, their connotation is always favorable: "The concepts and programs of the propagandist are always good, desirable, virtuous."
Generalities may gain or lose effectiveness with changes in conditions. They must, therefore, be responsive to current conditions. Phrases which called up pleasant associations at one time may evoke unpleasant or unfavorable connotations at another, particularly if their frame of reference has been altered.

Vagueness. Generalities are deliberately vague so that the audience may supply its own interpretations. The intention is to move the audience by use of undefined phrases, without analyzing their validity or attempting to determine their reasonableness or application.


Rationalization. Individuals or groups may use favorable generalities to rationalize questionable acts or beliefs. Vague and pleasant phrases are often used to justify such actions or beliefs.


Simplification. Favorable generalities are used to provide simple answers to complex social, political, economic, or military problems.


Transfer. This is a technique of projecting positive or negative qualities (praise or blame) of a person, entity, object, or value (an individual, group, organization, nation, patriotism, etc.) to another in order to make the second more acceptable or to discredit it. This technique is generally used to transfer blame from one member of a conflict to another. It evokes an emotional response which stimulates the target to identify with recognized authorities.


Least of Evils. This is a technique of acknowledging that the course of action being taken is perhaps undesirable but that any alternative would result in an outcome far worse. This technique is generally used to explain the need for sacrifices or to justify the seemingly harsh actions that displease the target audience or restrict personal liberties. Projecting blame on the enemy for the unpleasant or restrictive conditions is usually coupled with this technique.


Name Calling or Substitutions of Names or Moral Labels. This technique attempts to arouse prejudices in an audience by labeling the object of the propaganda campaign as something the target audience fears, hates, loathes, or finds undesirable.
Types of name calling:
-Direct name calling is used when the audience is sympathetic or neutral. It is a simple, straightforward attack on an opponent or opposing idea.
-Indirect name calling is used when direct name calling would antagonize the audience. It is a label for the degree of attack between direct name calling and insinuation. Sarcasm and ridicule are employed with this technique.
-Cartoons, illustrations, and photographs are used in name calling, often with deadly effect.

Dangers inherent in name calling: In its extreme form, name calling may indicate that the propagandist has lost his sense of proportion or is unable to conduct a positive campaign. Before using this technique, the propagandist must weigh the benefits against the possible harmful results. It is best to avoid use of this device. The obstacles are formidable, based primarily on the human tendency to close ranks against a stranger. For example, a group may despise, dislike, or even hate one of its leaders, even openly criticize him, but may (and probably will) resent any non group member who criticizes and makes disparaging remarks against that leader.


Pinpointing the Enemy: This is a form of simplification in which a complex situation is reduced to the point where the "enemy" is unequivocally identified. For example, the president of country X is forced to declare a state of emergency in order to protect the peaceful people of his country from the brutal, unprovoked aggression by the leaders of country.


Plain Folks or Common Man: The "plain folks" or "common man" approach attempts to convince the audience that the propagandist's positions reflect the common sense of the people. It is designed to win the confidence of the audience by communicating in the common manner and style of the audience. Propagandists use ordinary language and mannerisms (and clothes in face-to-face and audiovisual communications) in attempting to identify their point of view with that of the average person. With the plain folks device, the propagandist can win the confidence of persons who resent or distrust foreign sounding, intellectual speech, words, or mannerisms.
The audience can be persuaded to identify its interests with those of the propagandist:
Presenting soldiers as plain folks. The propagandist wants to make the enemy feel he is fighting against soldiers who are "decent, everyday folks" much like himself; this helps to counter themes that paint the opponent as a "bloodthirsty" killer.
Presenting civilians as plain folks. The "plain folks" or "common man" device also can help to convince the enemy that the opposing nation is not composed of arrogant, immoral, deceitful, aggressive, warmongering people, but of people like himself, wishing to live at peace.
Humanizing leaders. This technique paints a more human portrait of US and friendly military and civilian leaders. It humanizes them so that the audience looks upon them as similar human beings or, preferably, as kind, wise, fatherly figures.
Categories of Plain Folk Devices:
Vernacular. This is the contemporary language of a specific region or people as it is commonly spoken or written and includes songs, idioms, and jokes. The current vernacular of the specific target audience must be used.
Dialect. Dialect is a variation in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary from the norm of a region or nation. When used by the propagandist, perfection is required. This technique is best left to those to whom the dialect is native, because native level speakers are generally the best users of dialects in propaganda appeals.
Errors. Scholastic pronunciation, enunciation, and delivery give the impression of being artificial. To give the impression of spontaneity, deliberately hesitate between phrases, stammer, or mispronounce words. When not overdone, the effect is one of deep sincerity. Errors in written material may be made only when they are commonly made by members of the reading audience. Generally, errors should be restricted to colloquialisms.
Homey words. Homey words are forms of "virtue words" used in the everyday life of the average man. These words are familiar ones, such as "home," "family," "children," "farm," "neighbors," or cultural equivalents. They evoke a favorable emotional response and help transfer the sympathies of the audience to the propagandist. Homey words are widely used to evoke nostalgia. Care must be taken to assure that homey messages addressed to enemy troops do not also have the same effect on US/friendly forces.
If the propaganda or the propagandist lacks naturalness, there may be an adverse backlash. The audience may resent what it considers attempts to mock it, its language, and its ways.


Social Disapproval. This is a technique by which the propagandist marshals group acceptance and suggests that attitudes or actions contrary to the one outlined will result in social rejection, disapproval, or outright ostracism. The latter, ostracism, is a control practice widely used within peer groups and traditional societies.


Virtue Words. These are words in the value system of the target audience which tend to produce a positive image when attached to a person or issue. Peace, happiness, security, wise leadership, freedom, etc., are virtue words.


Slogans. A slogan is a brief striking phrase that may include labeling and stereotyping. If ideas can be sloganized, they should be, as good slogans are self-perpetuating.


Testimonials. Testimonials are quotations, in or out of context, especially cited to support or reject a given policy, action, program, or personality. The reputation or the role (expert, respected public figure, etc.) of the individual giving the statement is exploited. The testimonial places the official sanction of a respected person or authority on a propaganda message. This is done in an effort to cause the target audience to identify itself with the authority or to accept the authority's opinions and beliefs as its own. Several types of testimonials are:


Official Sanction. The testimonial authority must have given the endorsement or be clearly on record as having approved the attributed idea, concept, action, or belief.
Four factors are involved:
Accomplishment. People have confidence in an authority who has demonstrated outstanding ability and proficiency in his field. This accomplishment should be related to the subject of the testimonial.
Identification with the target. People have greater confidence in an authority with whom they have a common bond. For example, the soldier more readily trusts an officer with whom he has undergone similar arduous experiences than a civilian authority on military subjects.
Position of authority. The official position of authority may instill confidence in the testimony; i.e., head of state, division commander, etc.
Inanimate objects. Inanimate objects may be used in the testimonial device. In such cases, the propagandist seeks to transfer physical attributes of an inanimate object to the message. The Rock of Gibraltar, for example, is a type of inanimate object associated with steadfast strength.
Personal Sources of Testimonial Authority:
Enemy leaders. The enemy target audience will generally place great value on its high level military leaders as a source of information.
Fellow soldiers. Because of their common experiences, soldiers form a bond of comradeship. As a result, those in the armed forces are inclined to pay close attention to what other soldiers have to say.
Opposing leaders. Testimonials of leaders of the opposing nation are of particular value in messages that outline war aims and objectives for administering the enemy nation after it capitulates.
Famous scholars, writers, and other personalities. Frequently, statements of civilians known to the target as authoritative or famous scholars, writers, scientists, commentators, etc., can be effectively used in propaganda messages.
Nonpersonal Sources of Testimonial Authority:
Institutions, ideologies, national flags, religious, and other nonpersonal sources are often used. The creeds, beliefs, principles, or dogmas of respected authorities or other public figures may make effective propaganda testimonials.

Factors To Be Considered:
Plausibility. The testimonial must be plausible to the target audience. The esteem in which an authority is held by the target audience will not always transfer an implausible testimonial into effective propaganda.
False testimonials. Never use false testimonials. Highly selective testimonials? Yes. Lies (fabrications)? Never. Fabricated (false) testimonials are extremely vulnerable because their lack of authenticity makes them easy to challenge and discredit.
PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUES WHICH ARE BASED ON CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONTENT BUT WHICH REQUIRE ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THE PART OF AN ANALYST TO BE RECOGNIZED

Incredible truths. There are times when the unbelievable (incredible) truth not only can but should be used.
Among these occasions are:
When the psychological operator is certain that a vitally important event will take place.
A catastrophic event, or one of significant tactical or strategic importance, unfavorable to the enemy has occurred and the news has been hidden from the enemy public or troops.
The enemy government has denied or glossed over an event detrimental to its cause.

A double-cutting edge. This technique has a double-cutting edge: It increases the credibility of the US/friendly psychological operator while decreasing the credibility of the enemy to the enemy's target audience. Advanced security clearance must be obtained before using this technique so that operations or projects will not be jeopardized or compromised. Actually, propagandists using this technique will normally require access to special compartmented information and facilities to avoid compromise of other sensitive operations or projects of agencies of the US Government.
Though such news will be incredible to the enemy public, it should be given full play by the psychological operator. This event and its significance will eventually become known to the enemy public in spite of government efforts to hide it. The public will recall (the psychological operator will "help" the recall process) that the incredible news was received from US/allied sources. They will also recall the deception of their government. The prime requirement in using this technique is that the disseminated incredible truth must be or be certain to become a reality.

Insinuation. Insinuation is used to create or stir up the suspicions of the target audience against ideas, groups, or individuals in order to divide an enemy. The propagandist hints, suggests, and implies, allowing the audience to draw its own conclusions. Latent suspicions and cleavages within the enemy camp are exploited in an attempt to structure them into active expressions of disunity which weaken the enemy's war effort.
Exploitable vulnerabilities. Potential cleavages which may be exploited include the following:


- Political differences between the enemy nation and its allies or satellites.

- Ethnic and regional differences.

- Religious, political, economic, or social differences.

- History of civilian animosity or unfair treatment toward enemy soldiers.

- Comforts available to rear area soldiers and not available to combat soldiers.

- People versus the bureaucracy or hierarchy.

- Political differences between the ruling elite, between coalitions members, or between rulers and those out of power.

- Differences showing a few benefiting at the expense of the general populace.

- Unequal or inequitable tax burdens, or the high level of taxes. The audience should be informed of hidden taxes.

- The scarcity of consumer goods for the general public and their availability to the various elites and the dishonest.

- Costs of present government policies in terms of lost opportunities to accomplish constructive socially desirable goals.

- The powerlessness of the individual. (This may be used to split the audience from the policies of its government by disassociating its members from those policies.) This technique could be used in preparing a campaign to gain opposition to those government policies.

Insinuation devices. A number of devices are available to exploit these and similar vulnerabilities:


- Leading questions: The propagandist may ask questions which suggest only one possible answer. Thus, the question, "What is there to do now that your unit is surrounded and you are completely cut off?" insinuates that surrender or desertion is the only reasonable alternative to annihilation.

- Humor: Humor can be an effective form of insinuation. Jokes and cartoons about the enemy find a ready audience among those persons in the target country or military camp who normally reject straightforward accusations or assertions. Jokes about totalitarian leaders and their subordinates often spread with ease and rapidity. However, the psychological operator must realize that appreciation of humor differs among target groups and so keep humor within the appropriate cultural context.

- Pure motives. This technique makes it clear that the side represented by the propagandist is acting in the best interests of the target audience, insinuating that the enemy is acting to the contrary. For example, the propagandist can use the theme that a satellite force fighting on the side of the enemy is insuring the continued subjugation of its country by helping the common enemy.

- Guilt by association: Guilt by association links a person, group, or idea to other persons, groups, or ideas repugnant to the target audience. The insinuation is that the connection is not mutual, accidental, or superficial.

- Rumor: Malicious rumors are also a potentially effective form of insinuation.

- Pictorial and photographic propaganda: A photograph, picture, or cartoon can often insinuate a derogatory charge more effectively than words. The combination of words and photograph, picture, or cartoon can be far more effective. In this content, selected and composite photographs can be extremely effective.

- Vocal: Radio propagandists can artfully suggest a derogatory notion, not only with the words they use, but also by the way in which they deliver them. Significant pauses, tonal inflections, sarcastic pronunciation, ridiculing enunciation, can be more subtle than written insinuation.


Card stacking or selective omission. This is the process of choosing from a variety of facts only those which support the propagandist's purpose. In using this technique, facts are selected and presented which most effectively strengthen and authenticate the point of view of the propagandist. It includes the collection of all available material pertaining to a subject and the selection of that material which most effectively supports the propaganda line. Card stacking, case making, and censorship are all forms of selection. Success or failure depends on how successful the propagandist is in selecting facts or "cards" and presenting or "stacking" them.
Increase prestige. In time of armed conflict, leading personalities, economic and social systems, and other institutions making up a nation are constantly subjected to propaganda attacks. Card stacking is used to counter these attacks by publicizing and reiterating the best qualities of the institutions, concepts, or persons being attacked. Like most propaganda techniques, card stacking is used to supplement other methods.
The technique may also be used to describe a subject as virtuous or evil and to give simple answers to a complicated subject.
An intelligent propagandist makes his case by imaginative selection of facts. The work of the card stacker in using selected facts is divided into two main phases:
- First, the propagandist selects only favorable facts and presents them to the target in such a manner as to obtain a desired reaction.
- Second, the propagandist uses these facts as a basis for conclusions, trying to lead the audience into accepting the conclusions by accepting the facts presented.


Presenting the other side. Some persons in a target audience believe that neither belligerent is entirely virtuous. To them propaganda solely in terms of right and wrong may not be credible. Agreement with minor aspects of the enemy's point of view may overcome this cynicism. Another use of presenting the other side is to reduce the impact of propaganda that opposing propagandists are likely to be card stacking (selective omission).


Lying and distortion. Lying is stating as truth that which is contrary to fact. For example, assertions may be lies. This technique will not be used by US personnel. It is presented for use of the analyst of enemy propaganda.


Simplification. This is a technique in which the many facts of a situation are reduced so the right or wrong, good or evil, of an act or decision is obvious to all. This technique (simplification) provides simple solutions for complex problems. By suggesting apparently simple solutions for complex problems, this technique offers simplified interpretations of events, ideas, concepts, or personalities. Statements are positive and firm; qualifying words are never used.
Simplification may be used to sway uneducated and educated audiences. This is true because many persons are well educated or highly skilled, trained specialists in a specific field, but the limitations of time and energy often force them to turn to and accept simplifications to understand, relate, and react to other areas of interest.

(continued on next post)


Posted by: Give me Liberty () *
09/26/98 13:07:05 PDT
To: Give me Liberty

(continued from previous post)


Simplification has the following characteristics:
It thinks for others: Some people accept information which they cannot verify personally as long as the source is acceptable to them or the authority is considered expert. Others absorb whatever they read, see, or hear with little or no discrimination. Some people are too lazy or unconcerned to think problems through. Others are uneducated and willingly accept convenient simplifications.
It is concise: Simplification gives the impression of going to the heart of the matter in a few words. The average member of the target audience will not even consider that there may be another answer to the problem.
It builds ego: Some people are reluctant to believe that any field of endeavor, except their own, is difficult to understand. For example, a layman is pleased to hear that '"law is just common sense dressed up in fancy language," or "modern art is really a hodgepodge of aimless experiment or nonsense." Such statements reinforce the ego of the lay audience. It is what they would like to believe, because they are afraid that law and modern art may actually be beyond their understanding. Simple explanations are given for complex subjects and problems.
Stereotyping is a form of simplification used to fit persons, groups, nations, or events into ready-made categories that tend to produce a desired image of good or bad. Stereotyping puts the subject (people, nations, etc.) or event into a simplistic pattern without any distinguishing individual characteristics.





CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTENT WHICH MAY BECOME EVIDENT WHEN NUMEROUS PIECES OF OUTPUT ARE EXAMINED

Change of Pace. Change of pace is a technique of switching from belligerent to peaceful output, from "hot" to "cold," from persuasion to threat, from gloomy prophecy to optimism, from emotion to fact.


Stalling. Stalling is a technique of deliberately withholding information until its timeliness is past, thereby reducing the possibility of undesired impact.


Shift of Scene. With this technique, the propagandist replaces one "field of battle" with another. It is an attempt to take the spotlight off an unfavorable situation or condition by shifting it to another, preferably of the opponent, so as to force the enemy to go on the defense.



REPETITION
An idea or position is repeated in an attempt to elicit an almost automatic response from the audience or to reinforce an audience's opinion or attitude. This technique is extremely valid and useful because the human being is basically a creature of habit and develops skills and values by repetition (like walking, talking, code of ethics, etc.). An idea or position may be repeated many times in one message or in many messages. The intent is the same in both instances, namely, to elicit an immediate response or to reinforce an opinion or attitude.
The audience is not familiar with the details of the threat posed. Ignorance of the details can be used to pose a threat and build fear.
Members of the audience are self-centered.
The target can take immediate action to execute simple, specific instructions.


Fear of change. People fear change, particularly sudden, imposed change over which they have no control. They fear it will take from them status, wealth, family, friends, comfort, safety, life, or limb. That's why the man in the foxhole hesitates to leave it. He knows and is accustomed to the safety it affords. He is afraid that moving out of his foxhole will expose him to new and greater danger. That is why the psychological campaign must give him a safe, honorable way out of his predicament or situation.


Terrorism. The United States is absolutely opposed to the use of terror or terror tactics. But the psychological operator can give a boomerang effect to enemy terror, making it reverberate against the practitioner, making him repugnant to his own people, and all others who see the results of his heinous savagery. This can be done by disseminating fully captioned photographs in the populated areas of the terrorist's homeland. Such leaflets will separate civilians from their armed forces; it will give them second thoughts about the decency and honorableness of their cause, make them wonder about the righteousness of their ideology, and make the terrorists repugnant to them. Follow-up leaflets can "fire the flames" of repugnancy, indignation, and doubt, as most civilizations find terror repugnant.


In third countries. Fully captioned photographs depicting terroristic acts may be widely distributed in third countries (including the nation sponsoring the enemy) where they will instill a deep revulsion in the general populace. Distribution in neutral countries is particularly desirable in order to swing the weight of unbiased humanitarian opinion against the enemy.
The enemy may try to rationalize and excuse its conduct (terroristic), but in so doing, it will compound the adverse effect of its actions, because it can never deny the validity of true photographic representations of its acts. Thus, world opinion will sway to the side of the victimized people.

Friendly territory. Under no circumstances should such leaflets be distributed in friendly territory. To distribute them in the friendly area in which the terrorists' acts took place would only create feelings of insecurity. This would defeat the purpose of the psychological operator, which is to build confidence in the government or agency he represents.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #21 on: September 04, 2009, 08:43:19 am »
Psychological Operations/Warfare
http://www.psywarrior.com/psyhist.html
by Major Ed Rouse (Ret)
"Capture their minds
and their hearts and souls
will follow"

Psychological Operations or PSYOP are planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of organizations, groups, and individuals. Used in all aspects of war, it is a weapon whose effectiveness is limited only by the ingenuity of the commander using it.

A proven winner in combat and peacetime, PSYOP is one of the oldest weapons in the arsenal of man. It is an important force protector/combat multiplier and a non-lethal weapons system.

Psychological Operations (PSYOP) or Psychological Warfare (PSYWAR) is simply learning everything about your target enemy, their beliefs, likes, dislikes, strengths, weaknesses, and vulnerabilities. Once you know what motivates your target, you are ready to begin psychological operations.

Psychological operations may be defined broadly as the planned use of communications to influence human attitudes and behavior ... to create in target groups behavior, emotions, and attitudes that support the attainment of national objectives. The form of communication can be as simple as spreading information covertly by word of mouth or through any means of multimedia.

A psychological warfare campaign is a war of the mind. Your primary weapons are sight and sound. PSYOP can be disseminated by face-to-face communication, audio visual means (television), audio media (radio or loudspeaker), visual media (leaflets, newspapers, books, magazines and/or posters). The weapon is not how its sent, but the message it carries and how that message affects the recipient.

For instance, our American flag, when it goes by in a parade do you feel a sense of pride? How about when you hear our national anthem played? How about "God Bless the USA", Lee Greenwood's song which became popular during Desert Storm? Music or sound can be a major factor in motivating emotion if it is associated with the right message. How many of you think about the pottery wheel scene with Patrick Swaytze and Demi Moore in the movie "Ghost" when you hear the theme song "Unchained Melody"?

It has long been said that: "The pen is mightier than the sword". That is because, if used properly, words can be an inspiration to motivate others. Some examples:

"Remember the Alamo"
"Give me liberty or give me death"
"I regret I have but one life to give for my country"
"Ask not what your country can do for you? Ask what you can do for your country"

Now for psychological operations to be effective, you must carefully plan your propaganda. You must make sure that you know everything about your enemy and that you are targeting his beliefs and not using your own. For example, at the very beginning of Desert Shield, just after Iraq invaded Kuwait, President Bush referred to Saddam Hussein as being
"just like Adolph Hitler"

For Americans and most of Europe that was an insulting comparison. However, looking at it through the eyes of an Iraqi soldier Adolph Hitler tried to exterminate all the Jews. Iraq has long hated Israel. Hitler drove out the British and French forces that had long occupied the middle east. So with the right propaganda, the comparison could be interpreted that Saddam, like Hitler, hates Israel and wants to keep the western infidel influence from contaminating the middle east. This would be a compliment not an insult.

On the reverse side, knowing your enemy's beliefs can work for you. For example, remember when Saddam Hussein broadcasted live images of his "Human Shields, the woman and children of westerners that were in Iraq when the war broke out? The Koran, the Moslem bible, states that you can do what you with with your enemy, but that you must not harm his family,(wife and children). Saddam's actions allowed us to show that he was a coward, hiding behind innocent people and ignoring the Moslem laws he was so quick to say he was defending.

How do you get to know your enemy? Intelligence reports, Area studies, in country research, defectors, native help, and even the enemy prisoners of war all are sources of information. As leaflets were developed during Desert Storm, they were tested on cooperative EPWs (enemy prisoners of war. Some of the recommendations for changes to the leaflet's illustrations made by these EPWs were: remove any trace of the color red (a danger signal to Iraqis), show Allied soldiers with chin beards rather than clean-shaven faces (beards convey trust and brotherhood in Iraqi culture), and add bananas to a bowl of fruit shown being offered to surrendering Iraqis (bananas are a great delicacy in Iraq). Also, an illustration depicting a surrendering Iraqi thinking of his family back home confused the EPWs. "Thought bubbles" are well-known in Western culture, but virtually unknown to Iraqis. The illustration was dropped.

In a memo written to then-Secretary of State John Foster Dulles on 24 October 1953, former U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower defined psychological warfare as anything "from the singing of a beautiful anthem up to the most extraordinary kind of physical sabotage."

Used during peacetime, contingencies and declared war, these activities are not a form of force, but are force multipliers that use nonviolent means in often violent environments. Persuading rather than compelling physically, they rely on logic, fear, desire or other mental factors to promote specific emotions, attitudes or behaviors. The ultimate objective of U.S. military psychological operations is the dissemination of truthful information to foreign audiences in support of U.S. policy and national objectives to convince enemy, neutral, and friendly nations and forces to take action favorable to the United States and its allies.

Now please note that I stated above that Psychological Operations as conducted by the US Military is the dissemination of "truthful" information, not propaganda which is categorized as "white, gray, or black". Now what is the difference between PSYOP and propaganda? A memorandum prepared by the Chief of Army Field Forces at Fort Monroe, Virginia in September of 1953 briefly explained the difference between "gray" propaganda, messages broadcast with the goal of "avoiding identification," and "black" propaganda, which involves "attribution to a source other than the true one."

A more recent set of definitions, reportedly used by former CIA chief William Colby and cited in at least one commercial publication, calls truthfully-attributed and non- attributed messages "white" propaganda, whereas messages falsely attributed to a third party are considered "gray." The term "black propaganda" is reserved for those materials "planted by the United States but in such as way that it seems to be the product or even an internal document of the target group." In other words, "black propaganda" is nothing less than a form of intellectual and political subversion.

Historically, the application of psychological operations in one form or another has proven to be almost as essential to the successful waging of war as the use of manpower and weaponry. However, in spite of its long history of successful employment, the potential for using the power of persuasion through psychological operations as a force multiplier to achieve national objectives with a minimum of destruction, has been recognized by only the most perceptive of military leaders and statesmen. Furthermore, it has been since World War II that PSYOP has come into its own as an effective weapon system.

The giant strides made in the area of behavioral sciences, which can now enable us to know and understand why people behave as they do, combined with the development and perfection of mass media communications, have greatly multiplied the capability and value of PSYOP as a means of achieving our own national objectives without needless bloodshed.

An analysis of recent conflicts has demonstrated the value of psychological operations/warfare on and off the battlefield. As a result, military authorities are now beginning to accept the fact that psychological operations is a very special combat weapon…one that every military commander must consider employing, and defending against, if he is to accomplish his mission with minimum losses. This recognition of the important role of PSYOP has resulted in its integration into many training programs and tactical exercises, as well as the consideration of PSYOP employment in all future military operations.

United States psychological operations consist of three distinct types: Tactical PSYOP, Strategic PSYOP and Consolidation PSYOP.

Tactical PSYOP is addressed to a specific enemy combat group, to induce them to perform a specific action that will affect the current or short-range combat situation.

Aimed at a larger audience, Strategic PSYOP is put into effect by a carefully planned campaign against a larger target audience than that toward which Tactical PSYOP is directed.

Consolidation PSYOP’s mission is to assist the civil and military authorities in consolidating their gains, by establishing and maintaining law and order, and by re-establishing civil government in an occupied or liberated area.

All three types of psychological operations - - Tactical, Strategic and Consolidation--- can be employed to produce the following desired effects:
Reduce moral and combat efficiency within the enemy’s ranks.
Promote mass dissension within and defections from enemy combat units and/or revolutionary cadre.
Support our own and allied forces cover and deception operations.
Promote cooperation, unity and morale within one’s own and allied units, as well as within resistance forces behind enemy lines.

Now Psychological Operations (PSYOP)is not a new military tactic by any means. There are numerous examples of the use of psychological warfare throughout history. The following are some historical examples which illustrate the attainment of each of these four objectives.

Perhaps one of the earliest examples of Psychological Warfare was attributed to "Alexander the Great of Macedonia. Alexander had conquered most of the known world during his reign. With each region he conquered he left behind soldiers to keep control of the newly conquered area. Eventually, there came a point when Alexander realized that he had stretched his army too thin and was now in danger of losing to a large opposing force. Alexander's only option was to retreat and regroup forces with the armies he left behind. However, to do so would certainly incite the opposing force to pursue him and very possibly capture or defeat his now smaller army.

Alexander knew that if he could intimidate the opposing force they would be scared to follow his army. Alexander instructed his armorers to make several oversized armor breastplates and helmets that would fit "giants", men 7 to 8 feet tall. As Alexander and his forces withdrew during the night they left behind the oversized armor. The oversized armor was of course found by the opposing force who then believed that they had come close to engaging in a battle with giants. A battle that they surely would have lost. The oversized armor coupled with the stories they had heard from travelers of the savagery of Alexander's army caused enough doubt and fear that they elected not to pursue Alexander's army.

Sun Tsu, recognized as one of the greatest military tacticians of all times, strongly advocated the use of psychological warfare as a force multiplier. Sun Tsu wrote that:

To capture the enemy's entire army is better than to destroy it; to take intact a regiment, a company, or a squad is better than to destroy them. For to win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence. Thus, what is of supreme importance in war is to attack the enemy's strategy. Next best is to disrupt his alliances by diplomacy. The next best is to attack his army. And the worst policy is to attack cities.

Sun Tzu understood that given the opportunity, an adversary will surrender to a superior commander prior to conflict. In order to have a chance to be that superior leader, PSYOP must be coordinated and included in initial planning and implemented prior to conflict. If hostilities begin, proper PSYOP implementation can end the conflict earlier than otherwise expected. PSYOP is a force multiplier and resource saver.

Mongol leader Genghis Khan was widely known for leading hordes of savage horsemen across Russia and into Europe. While not totally unfounded, the Mongols' image of total, barbaric domination was greatly enhanced by Khan's use of PSYOP, deception, operational security (OPSEC), and targeting his adversaries' decision-making process. "Agents of influence" were sent in advance of his armies to do face-to-face PSYOP, telling of brutality and large numbers in the Mongol army. Khan also used deception to create the illusion of invincible numbers by using rapid troop maneuver, making his army look larger than it really was. He had a network of horsemen called "arrow riders" to communicate quickly with his commanders, and he targeted enemy messengers to prevent enemy commanders from communicating with each other. All these actions caused a weakness in their enemy's psyche, and the Mongols were feared wherever they went.
World War II

Psychological operations were used extensively by all sides during World War II. Adolf Hitler rose to power by exploiting the dissatisfaction of supporters of the traditional left and right wing parties, by dwelling on the failure of these parties to solve the problems created by the conditions imposed on Germany under the Treaty of Versailles. He then presented National Socialism as the one movement capable of uniting conservative nationalists with international socialists, the professional classes with the working classes in the service of the nation. The speeches he delivered urged national pride and unity and placed the blame for all of Germany's problems on others. His oratory techniques and use of propaganda gave him a truly hypnotic grip over the German masses. After taking over as dictator, the Germans continued to use propaganda both to unite Germany and to intimidate their enemies.

Radio broadcasts became a major means of passing propaganda to the enemy. Japan used the notorious "Tokyo Rose" to broadcast music, propaganda, and words of discouragement to our allied forces. The Germans used Mildred Gillar, better remembered as "Axis Sally". The Americans used deception and psychological operations to convince the German high command that the D-Day invasion was not going to be launched at Normandy but at Calais.

However the best and most innovative use of psychological warfare must be attributed to a radio broadcast by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). During the period May through September 1940, when the German invasion of England seemed imminent, a regular BBC radio program, easily heard and often listened to by the Germans, began a series of English language lessons for the would-be invaders. These broadcasts of course were presented in flawless German. The British announcer stated the purpose of these broadcasts like this:

"…..and so it will be best if you learn a few useful phrases in English before visiting us. For your first lesson, we take ‘DIE KANALUEBERFAHRT’. The channel crossing."

"Now, just repeat after me: ‘DAS BOOT SINKT.’ The boat is sinking. The boat is sinking"

"DAS WASSER IST KALT. The water is cold. SER KALT. Very cold"

"Now I will give you a verb that should be very useful. Again, please repeat after me. ICH BRENNE. I am burning. Du Brennst. You are burning. ER BRENNT. He is burning. WIR BRENNEN. We burn. IHR BRENNT. You are burning. SIR BRENNEN. They are burning."

This was rather crude material: but it proved effective. The phrases about burning in the English Channel seemed to confirm the intensive rumors already being spread by British agents on the continent that the British had perfected an apparatus with which they were going to set fires in the Channel and on the English beaches whenever Hitler launched his invasion. Although not true, the rumors were so well planned and cleverly spread that to this day, many Germans believe them. Documents found after the war confirmed that the German High Command believed that the British had a workable plan to set fire to the English Channel.

Cover and deception operations are complex and intricate affairs, invariably involving many talents, techniques and resources. Perhaps the most ambitious and spectacular cover and deception operation of modern times was the effort of the Allies to convince the German high command that the upcoming Allied invasion of Europe would occur across the beaches near the Pas de Calais, rather than the narrow sand strips and cliffs of Normandy nearly 100 hundred miles away.

Through imaginative employment of psychological operations the Allies created the fictitious "Army Group Patton," which was poised to strike across the English Channel at the Germans 15th Panzer Army defending the Pas de Calais. This ruse convinced the German strategists and planners that the Allied assault would be spearheaded at the Pas de Calais by an army under the command of Lieutenant General George S. Patton, whom many considered our best combat command. As a result, the heaviest concentration of German combat power in France was positioned at the Pas de Calais, waiting for Patton.

Even after the Allied invasion came at Normandy, Hitler would not allow for the deployment of the 15th Panzer Army from the Pas de Calais. Hitler was still convinced that the Normandy invasion was only a prelude to the real invasion. The 15th Panzer Army waited in vain at the Pas de Calais for nearly seven weeks for Army Group Patton, an invasion that was never to come. General of the Army Omar Bradley later referred to this operation as "the biggest hoax of the war". As for the German Army, they never fully recovered from the reversals set in motion by their delay in releasing the 15th Panzer Army.

The next example concerns the fourth objective of psychological operations, that is, its use to promote cooperation, unity and morale within friendly units and people as well as within resistance forces behind enemy lines. 

During World War II, the very survival of the Soviet Union was due in large part to Stalin;s ability to appeal to and mobilize the emotional patriotism of the Russian people. With his regime reeling under the blows of the German blitz in 1941, Stalin sensed that the ideological abstractions and Communist platitudes, which the Party had driven into the minds of its captive domestic audience since its take over in 1918, were relatively barren and did not have the emotional and spiritual impact necessary to fortify the Russian people for their struggle against Hitler’s armies. Therefore, in one of the most dramatic policy turn-abouts in modern history, Stalin systematically set about identifying his Communist regime with "Holy Russia" (and "Mother Russia") its ancient heritage and its accompanying symbolism.

The two Russian institutions with the deepest roots in the past, the Army and the Church, were cultivated by Stalin’s propagandists as never before in Soviet history. The historic accomplishments of Russian armies were glorified. The church hierarchy and class distinctions were returned to pre-revolution standards. Even the official newspaper, "PRAVDA," dropped its Marxist motto, "WORKERS OF THE WORLD, UNITE," and substituted the openly nationalistic slogan, "DEATH TO THE GERMAN INVADER." The ensuing struggle became and is still officially known in Soviet history as "The Great Patriotic War".

Thus we see how even Josef Stalin, one of the most hard-headed dictators of the 20th Century, realized that his conventional military weapons alone, were not enough to meet the challenge of the German armies. In retrospect, we can see that his choice of utilizing psychological operations to augment his conventional military forces, would prove to play a major role in maintaining the survival of his communist regime for so many years.
Korea

Having learned the effectiveness of radio broadcasts and leaflets during World War II, the U.S. Army Far East Command's small Special Projects Branch of the Headquarters G-2 (Intelligence) Division, began radio broadcasts and leaflet drops over the Republic of South Korea immediately after North Korea's invasion across the 38th Parallel in June 1950. Later during the fall of that year, the 1st Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company arrived in South Korea. This unit would serve as the 8th Army's tactical psychological warfare unit to the end of the war in 1952.

The 1st Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company used both vehicle and aircraft mounted loudspeakers to get their verbal messages across. However, as in previous U.S. wars, leaflets were still the major medium. Korean War leaflets themes center around the "happy POW." "good soldier-bad leaders," "surrender and you will be well-treated," "we can crush you," and nostalgia for home, family and women.
Vietnam

 

Psychological Operations were used by both sides. Many G.I.'s may remember the notorious "Hanoi Hannah", who like "Tokyo Rose" of WW II broadcasted a daily radio program where she played music, coupled with the North's view of the news and messages of discouragement to our troops.

The Americans countered with their own radio broadcasts, and leaflet programs.

In Vietnam, the United States conducted air attacks against military and military-related strategic targets partly for psychological effect. The principal psychological objective of these attacks was to persuade enemy leaders to negotiate an early end to the conflicts on terms acceptable to the United States.

These air attacks failed to deter the communists from protracting the fighting for over eight years in Vietnam. In addition to the humanitarian and other constraints the United States imposed on its air operations, various conditions and attitudes in the enemy camp diluted the coercive effects of the U.S. strategic attacks. These included the enemy government's:
access to support and sanctuary from external powers, which allowed the enemy to continue fighting even when its indigenous war-related production facilities had been destroyed.
strong commitment to the objectives or cause that gave rise to the conflict with the United States.
readiness to absorb enormous human and materiel losses.
ability to maintain domestic support for the war effort and/or sufficient internal security to suppress any potential opposition.
perception that the likely benefits from continued conflict would exceed the costs resulting from the U.S. bombing.

After having already made what it considered to be its maximum feasible concessions in the Vietnam peace talks, the United States resorted to escalation or threatened escalation to bring the negotiations to closure.

Severe U.S. escalation or threatened escalation was required to extract comparatively modest concessions from both enemies. In Vietnam, Washington had to employ massive B-52 and fighter-bomber strikes on Hanoi and Haiphong to force the communists to complete a peace agreement, the key provisions of which they had already accepted.

The communists agreed to terms only after their military forces on the battlefield had been stalemated. Prior to the settlements, the communist forces in Vietnam had mounted major offensives, the defeat of which left them no prospects for immediate further military gains.
Operation Just Cause - Panama

At H-Hour, 1-508th Abn had the mission of securing Ft. Amador, an installation shared by the U.S. and Panama Defense Force (PDF). Because of the need for OPSEC, American dependents could not be evacuated in advance of the attack. This complication, and the requirement to minimize enemy casualties and physical damage, made PSYOP loudspeaker teams, from the 1st Bn, 4th PSYOP Gp, a key asset. The battalion sealed off the PDF portion of Ft. Amador and ensured that all noncombatants were safe. After daylight, the task force set about systematically securing the area. When initial appeals failed to persuade the PDF to surrender, the commander modified the broadcasts. The holdouts were warned that resistance was hopeless in the face of overwhelming firepower and a series of demonstrations took place, escalating from small arms to 105mm howitzer rounds. Subsequent broadcasts convinced the PDF to give up. The entire process allowed Ft. Amador to be secured with few casualties and minimal damage.
The Gulf War

 

The Gulf War brought a whole new meaning to the use of multimedia in psychological operations. Radio and TV broadcasts, leaflets, and loudspeakers used the themes of Arab brotherhood, allied air power, and Iraqi isolation to induce large numbers of enemy soldiers to desert. One of the most effective tactics involved the dropping of leaflets on a particular unit, informing it that it would be bombed within twenty-four hours and had to surrender to avoid destruction. Over a seven-week period, 29 million leaflets of more than 100 different leaflets were disseminated, reaching approximately 98% of the 300,000 troops. Click here for some examples of Gulf War leaflets.

The 4th PSYOP Group began broadcasting the "VOICE OF THE GULF" radio network on 19 January 1991. It operated continuously through 1 April 1991 with more than 210 hours of live broadcasting and 330 hours of prerecorded programs. A total of 2072 news items were aired along with 189 PSYOP messages. The VOICE OF THE GULF network consisted of a 50 KW AM transmitter located at Abu Ali, Saudi Arabia broadcasting on AM 1134; a 10KW AM transmitter located at Qaisumah, Saudi Arabia broadcasting on AM 1179; a 1KW FM transmitter located at Qaisumah, Saudi Arabia broadcasting on FM 87.5 and two Volant Solo EC-130 aircraft of the 193rd Special Operations Group broadcasting on AM 690 and FM 88.5 and 87.9.

Of course like some of the other big wars, Iraq chose to use a woman, "Baghdad Betty", to conduct propaganda broadcasts to deter and disillusion their enemy. Unfortunately for Iraq, they forgot that a truly effective psychological warfare program must have the input of highly-qualified clinical psychologists "who specialize in the unconscious dynamics of human behavior and motivation'' and who are knowledgeable about the "values and customs of different cultures.'' Such expertise is essential to the "selection of a culturally appropriate and effectively persuasive concept and value-based theme" that is the heart of any PSYOP. In one of her first broadcast Baghdad Betty warned the American soldiers listening that while they were in the desert of Saudi Arabia, their wives and girlfriends were sleeping with Tom Cruise, Tom Selleck and Bart Simpson. Now it was ridiculous enough to infer that our wives and girlfriends would be seduced by two movie stars but by their failure to do thorough research on the American culture, Betty lost any chance of credibility by telling our servicemen that a cartoon character was seducing our women back home.

During Desert Storm the 4th PSYOP Group fielded 71 Tactical loudspeaker teams. These teams provided support to USARCENT (both XVIII Airborne Corps and VII Corps), USMARCENT and USSOCCENT. Loudspeaker teams broadcast surrender appeals, harassment and deception tapes. Most loudspeaker teams had Saudi Arabian, Egyptian or Kuwaiti linguists attached to execute live broadcasts as the situation dictated. Loudspeaker teams were also innovatively employed for prisoner control at the EPW camps with broadcasts designed to accomplish prisoner pacification and underscore Military Police authority.

One of the best examples of the successful use of loudspeakers occurred during the Gulf War. The allied coalition effectively isolated, both physically and psychologically, a large element of Iraqi forces on Faylaka Island. Rather then reduce the island by direct assault, a tactical PSYOP team from the 9th PSYOP Battalion, aboard a UH-1N helicopter, flew aerial loudspeaker missions around the island with cobra gunships providing escort. The message told the adversary below to surrender the next day in formation at the radio tower. The next day 1,405 Iraqis, including a general officer, waited in formation at the radio tower to surrender to the Marine forces without a single shot having been fired.

How successful was the US PSYOP campaign in Desert Storm? The International Red Cross reported that nearly 87,000 Iraqi soldiers turned themselves over to coalition forces, most of them clutching the leaflets or hiding them in their clothing. All incidents of surrender were bloodless. Perhaps the best testimony to the effectiveness of PSYOP was given by an Iraqi General when he stated that:

"PSYOP...was a great threat to troop morale, second only to the coalition bombing campaign."

Thus, psychological operations are coming of age. We saw from historical examples, how Tactical, Strategic and Consolidation PSYOP can cover the short-range, long-range and recuperative phases of warfare, to reduce enemy morale and combat effectiveness; to promote dissension within and defections from enemy ranks; to support cover and deception operations; and to promote unity, cooperation and morale within our own military and those of our allies, and to provide meaningful domestic assistance to less fortunate groups and communities.

Why then , you may ask, has the value of psychological operations taken so long to receive general recognition, and why is it full potential yet to be realized?

Part of the answer to this question was covered earlier in our presentation, when it was discussed that although psychological operations has been utilized by various military leaders over the centuries, it has only been recently with the major advances in behavioral sciences and mass communications that PSYOP has come into its own as an effective weapon system of great potential.

Another part of the answer to this question lies in the attitude of people towards psychological operations. To some, it produces images of government controlled communications/mass media, telling the people only what the government wants them to hear. To others, it raises the horrid specter of Joseph Goebbels, Hitler’s Propaganda Minister, practicing the technique of the "big lie" which has incorrectly become synonymous with "propaganda". Still to others, the mere mention of "psychological" operations or warfare invokes visions of "mind control" through some mysterious means of brainwashing.

It should be clear that modern psychological operations, or PSYOP, is none of those things. On the contrary PSYOP is not unlike the public advertising that we are all exposed to wherever we go, every day, through all kinds of mass media. However the negative connotation that some people attach to the word psychological" prevents many people from recognizing the simple truth. Everyone knows that if you do not have a good product to sell, people will not continue buying it, no matter how much you advertise. The same applies to the points of view advertised through the use of psychological operations. Thus we have no reason to fear PSYOP, but we do have ample reason to respect it for what it can do.

By the application of sound PSYOP techniques, through face-to-face communication and mass media communications, we have demonstrated , time and time again, that we can appeal to the intelligence, reason, and emotions of our target audience to get them to think and act as we desire. If these people are shooting at us, we can persuade them to lay down their arms. If they fear us, we can convince them that they have nothing to fear. If they are belligerent and uncooperative, we can show them the value of unity and cooperation. Lastly and most important, the utilization of PSYOP can prevent needless bloodshed, destruction and misery. That is why we say, with conviction, that psychological operations, or PSYOP, is truly a humane weapon.

Today, Psychological Operations are a vital part of the broad range of U.S. political, military, economic and ideological activities used by the U.S. government to secure national objectives. The mission of providing Psychological Operations for the U.S. Military today rests with the U.S. Army's Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.

 
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

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Lakewood Public Library
Wild Ideas Lecture Series -- The Battle for Your Mind
Propaganda, PR and PsyOps
Quotron
presented by Kenneth Warren and John Guscott
October 15, 2000
http://www.lkwdpl.org/wildideas/propaganda.html

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Propositions in Play

"No enlightened person wishes to be duped by his desires, his fantasies, his glands." Gordon W. Allport

"All coercive techniques involve, on one level or another, frightening, or threatening, or intimidating a person, so that they move into survival mode." Douglas Rushkoff

"If we understand the mechanisms and motives of the group mind, it is now possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will without their knowing it." Edward L. Bernays

"Everytime you watch someone else doing something(or even starting to do something), the corresponding mirror neuron might fire in your brain..." Arleen Raymond

"I think the subject which will be of most importance politically is mass psychology....Although this science will be diligently studied, it will be rigidly confined to the governing class. The populace will not be allowed to know how its convictions were generated." Bertrand Russell

"What we observe in the population today are the three destructive symptoms of persons whose minds are controlled by alien forces: 1. Amnesia, i.e. loss of memory. 2. Abulia, i.e. loss of will. 3. Apathy, i.e. loss of interest in events vital to one's own health and survival." Michael A. Hoffman II

"It would not be impossible to prove with sufficient repetition and psychological understanding of the people concerned that a square is in fact a circle. They are mere words and words can be molded until they clothe ideas in disguise." - Joseph Goebbels

"We shall assume that what each man does is based not on direct and certain knowledge, but on pictures made by himself or given to him...But what is propaganda, if not the effort to alter the picture to which men respond, to substitute one social pattern for another?" - Walter Lippmann

"The notion of rational man, capable of thinking and living according to reason, of controlling his passions and living according to scientific patterns, of choosing freely between good and evil--all this seems opposed to the secret influences, the mobilizations of myths, the swift appeals to the irrational, so characteristic of propaganda." - Jacques Ellul

"There are no facts." - Michel Foucault

"You shall know the truth and the truth shall make you mad." - Aldous Huxley

Propaganda

Context and Definitions

"If you think about how you think, you will find your mind is made of memories, facts, and that sort of thing; you picked these up through continual reinforcement... Using a computer metaphor, your mind is hardware (the grey matter, providing you with senses, nerve endings, neurons) and software (combined from that odd core of your being that is doing the reflecting, and the material it is reflecting upon, kind of like a computer program and its data). That isn't the whole story, of course; there is an unidentified extra component, the 'wetware,' that gives you free will, volition, self-awareness. We know next to nothing about how this piece works; it appears to be an odd combination of chaotic and stochastic processes, transcending both. About the only thing we know for certain about the human mind is that we haven't even begun to utilize it to its full potential." Michael Wilson, from: "Memetic Engineering PsyOps and Viruses for the Wetware"

Propaganda - "systematic manipulation of public opinion, generally by the use of symbols such as flags, monuments, oratory, and publications. Modern propaganda is distinguished from other forms of communication in that it is consciously and deliberately used to influence group attitudes; all other functions are secondary. Thus, almost any attempt to sway public opinion, including lobbying, commercial advertising, and missionary work, can be broadly construed as propaganda." Columbia Encyclopedia

Propaganda - "The deliberate attempt to influence mass attitudes on controversial subjects by the use of symbols rather than force. 2. A systematic effort to persuade a body of people to support or adopt a particular product, opinion, attitude, or course of action. Propaganda and Persuasion Techniques A Guide to Identifying Manipulative Information by Virginia Stewart, M.Ed.

"Words are the new weapons, satellites the new artillery. . . . Caesar had his officers; Napoleon had his armies. I have my divisions: TV, news, magazines." -- Archvillain Elliot Carver to James Bond in Tomorrow Never Dies

"As generally understood, propaganda is opinion expressed for the purpose of influencing actions of individuals or groups... Propaganda thus differs fundamentally from scientific analysis. The propagandist tries to "put something across," good or bad. The scientist does not try to put anything across; he devotes his life to the discovery of new facts and principles. The propagandist seldom wants careful scrutiny and criticism; his object is to bring about a specific action. The scientist, on the other hand, is always prepared for and wants the most careful scrutiny and criticism of his facts and ideas. Science flourishes on criticism. Dangerous propaganda crumbles before it." Alfred McLung Lee & Elizabeth Bryant Lee, from: The Fine Art of Propaganda

"Propaganda seeks to induce action, adherence, and as little thought as possible. According to propaganda, it is useless, even harmful for man to think .... Action must come directly from the depths of the unconscious ..... This is the basic condition of the political organization of the modern world, and propaganda is the instrument to attain this effect. An example that shows the radical devaluation of thought is the transformation of words in propaganda; there, language, the instrument of the mind, becomes "pure sound," a symbol directly evoking feelings and reflexes. This is one of the most serious disociations that propaganda causes. Propaganda sometimes deliberately separates from man's real world the verbal world that it creates; it tends to destroy man's conscience" Jacques Ellul, from Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes

"It is the emergence of mass media which makes possible the use of propaganda techniques on a societal scale. The orchestration of press, radio and television to create a continuous, lasting and total environment renders the influence of propaganda virtually unnoticed precisely because it creates a constant environment. Mass media provides the essential link between the individual and the demands of the technological society." Jacques Ellul, from Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes

"... every day we are bombarded with one persuasive communication after another. These appeals persuade not through the give-and-take of argument and debate, but through the manipulation of symbols and of our most basic human emotions. For better or worse, ours is an age of propaganda." Anthony Pratkanis and Elliot Aronson, Age of Propaganda: The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion

"Our contemporaries only see the presentations which are given them by the press, the radio, propaganda, and publicity. . . . In his eyes, a fact becomes true when he has read an account of it in the paper, and he measures its importance by the size of the headlines!" Jacques Ellul, from: The Presence of the Kingdom

"Propagandists love short-cuts -- particularly those which short-circuit rational thought. They encourage this by agitating emotions, by exploiting insecurities, by capitalizing on the ambiguity of language, and by bending the rules of logic." Aaron Delwiche, from: "Why Think About Propaganda?

Categories of propaganda techniques are: "1. Characteristics of the content self-evident -No additional information is required to recognize the characteristics of this type of propaganda. "Name calling" and the use of slogans are techniques of this nature. 2. Additional information required to be recognized - Additional information is required by the target or analyst for the use of this technique to be recognized. "Lying" is an example of this technique. The audience or analyst must have additional information in order to know whether a lie is being told. 3. Evident only after extended output - "Change of pace" is an example of this technique. Neither the audience nor the analyst can know that a change of pace has taken place until various amounts of propaganda have been brought into focus. 4. Nature of the arguments used - An argument is a reason, or a series of reasons, offered as to why the audience should behave, believe, or think in a certain manner. An argument is expressed or implied. 5. Inferred intent of the originator - This technique refers to the effect the propagandist wishes to achieve on the target audience. "Divisive" and "unifying" propaganda fall within this technique. It might also be classified on the basis of the effect it has on an audience." Dorje Carl, from "Propaganda Techniques"

"The five propaganda techniques generally used in advertisements: a. Bandwagon: persuading people to do something by letting them know others are doing it; b. Testimonial: using the words of a famous person to persuade you; c. Transfer: using the names or pictures of famous people, but not direct quotations; d. Repetition: the product name is repeated at least four times; e. Emotional words: words that will make you feel strongly about someone or something." Lorraine Tanaka

"Command propaganda" seeks an immediate, specific response: NOW. Most commercial advertising does this. In much political advertising,* persuaders also use this same 5-part pattern of "the pitch": Attention-getting starts with simple "name recognition"; Desire-Stimulating refers to the issues discussed (if any), the social (not individual) benefits promised; Urgency and Response focus on a simple act, "Vote for Me. Now." Thus, election campaign rhetoric is a form of command propaganda. "Command Propaganda and Conditioning"

"Conditioning propaganda" seeks a future response: LATER. Conditioning propaganda is designed to mold public opinions, basic assumptions, attitudes, beliefs, myths, and world views, on a long-term basis, as the necessary prelude, climate, or atmosphere for eventually getting a response, later. Observers disagree on terms here: Jacques Ellul, the French scholar, in the classic study, Propaganda, called this "sub-propaganda"; the Nazi leader, Goebbels, called it "basic propaganda"; the Soviet leader, Lenin, called it "political education." Recently, the terms "consciousness raising" and "awareness building" have been used by various cause groups (anti-abortionists, feminists, environmentalists, civil rights) in the United States. And, everyone argues over the distinctions and borderlines between "conditioning propaganda" and "indoctrination" and "education." However, some political and social command propaganda uses a related 4-part pattern (the "pep talk") which not only calls for immediate action, but also calls for "committed, collective action": to join a group, to fight for a cause." "Command Propaganda and Conditioning"

Agencies and Applications

Since WWII the U.S. government's national security campaigns have overlapped with the commercial ambitions of major advertisers and media companies and with the aspirations of an enterprising stratum of university administrators and professors. Military intelligence and propaganda agencies such a the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency helped bankroll substantially all of the post – WWII generation's research into techniques of persuasion, opinion measurement interrogation, political and military mobilization, propagation of ideology and related questions. The persuasion studies, in particular, provided much of he scientific underpinning for modern advertising and motivational techniques." Christopher Simpson, from: The Science of Coercion

"What is the propaganda model and how does it work? The crucial structural factors derive from the fact that the dominant media are firmly imbedded in the market system. They are profit-seeking businesses, owned by very wealthy people (or other companies); they are funded largely by advertisers who are also profit-seeking entities, and who want their ads to appear in a supportive selling environment. The media are also dependent on government and major business firms as information sources, and both efficiency and political considerations, and frequently overlapping interests, cause a certain degree of solidarity to prevail among the government, major media, and other corporate businesses. Government and large non-media business firms are also best positioned (and sufficiently wealthy) to be able to pressure the media with threats of withdrawal of advertising or TV licenses, libel suits, and other direct and indirect modes of attack." Edward S. Herman, from: "The propaganda model revisited" Monthly Review, July, 1996

"Nazism, the myth of Germanic racial superiority, is an interesting look at a common historical occurrence. Hitler provided the skeleton, but Goebbels and the Propaganda Ministry put flesh on the bones. Use of constant reinforcement, triggering an amazing number of cultural responses such as 'noble sacrifice' and 'total commitment,' use of the 'elite chosen by God' metaphor, indoctrination of the young, all were a masterful implementation by a natural talent. The meme, however, had the roots of its destruction built in, with non-tolerance, the inability to conceive of losing, and the perpetration of unspeakable acts as side effects that combined to kill off those infected. Nazism also gives an example in recent history of a successful meme actually managing to become an operational paradigm for continuing generations." Michael Wilson, from: "Memetic Engineering PsyOps and Viruses for the Wetware"

"Jacques Ellul, author of "Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes" (1965) defines psychological warfare like this -- "the propagandist is dealing with an adversary whose morale he seeks to destroy by psychological means so that the opponent begins to doubt the validity of his beliefs and actions." "The incestuous relationship of the Monopoly Media Cartel and psychological warfare has a long history. Veterans of World War II, for example, the US Army's Psychological Warfare Division, became the Cold War's media giants. OSS agent William S. Paley became a CBS executive. C.D. Jackson worked at Time/Life. W. Phillips Davison became a Rand Corporation think-tanker. William Casey was an executive at Capital Cities, which merged with ABC and subsequently devoured by Disney. Casey himself, of course, became Director of the CIA. In other words, when former intelligence operatives get a new job in the media, does their psychological warfare ever stop? Mind control by mass media manipulation is just another variation of the Hegelian Dialectic, the concept that "conflict creates history." The theory is simple -- if you control the conflict, you control the outcome. In other words, an existing force (the thesis) generates an opposing force (the antithesis) and the conflict between the two creates the final effect (the synthesis). " Uri Dowbenko, from "The General's Daughter: Psyops & the Military Career Criminal"

"The alchemical processing of humans is performed with the props of time and space: what happens ritually in a series of significant places can "bend" reality. That's what "wicker" means in its most subterranean signification. Wicca (witchcraft) is just a description of the end-result of the function of bending reality. How is reality bent? By the placing of ritual props in ceremonial places. These places exist both in the mind and in physical space." Michael A. Hoffman II, from: "Profiling the FBI's Unabom Charade"

Messages and Targets

"The average American is exposed to at least three thousand ads every day and will spend three years of his or her life watching television commercials." Jean Kilbourne, from: Deadly Persuasion

Dell Computer and Web PC - (ca. January, 2000) Different people speak in turn. One says, "I was born to be bombarded by information." Another says, "I was born to turn my mind over to the web." --Nobody was born to be bombarded by information, or to turn their mind over to anything or anyone. A truly disgusting and Big Brotherish ad." Mark Seely, from "Propaganda Watch It's in the commercials Second Edition"

"Few Americans, however, know of a hidden government effort to shoehorn anti-drug messages into the most pervasive and powerful billboard of all -- network television programming." Daniel Forbes, from "Prime-time propaganda How the White House secretly hooked network TV on its anti-drug message"

"OnStar - (ca. January and February, 2000) A married couple talks about an incident where they were driving through the desert, got a flat tire, and the ground was crawling with rattlesnakes. They pushed the "OnStar" button on the car's console, and "within seconds the OnStar advisor pinpointed our location and sent a tow truck... called the paramedics..." The announcer says, "The one touch connection to people who can help." A caption on the screen reads, "Wherever you go, here we are." --You bet they are. What they didn't tell you was that they knew your location even before you pressed that button.This ad is rumored to be the first step in the establishment's plan to put a tracking device in every car." Mark Seely, from "Propaganda Watch It's in the commercials Second Edition"

"In the summer of 1959, just before McCloy took his family for an extended trip to Europe, C.D. Jackson wrote to remind McCloy that later that summer a World Youth Festival was scheduled to take place in Vienna. Jackson asked McCloy to contribute an article, perhaps on the "benign and constructive aspects" of the U.S. occupation of Germany. The piece would appear in a daily newspaper to be published in Vienna in conjunction with the festival. McCloy agreed, and the article was published (in five languages) in a newspaper distributed by a twenty-five-year-old Smith graduate named Gloria Steinen... McCloy's connection to Steinem went beyond contributing an article to the propaganda operation of which she was an editor in Vienna. Late in 1958, he and Jackson had discussed how the United States should respond to the expected Soviet propaganda blitz in Vienna. Previous gatherings of this kind had always been held in Moscow, East Berlin, or other cities in Eastern Europe. These events were major propaganda circuses, and the CIA was determined, in the words of Cord Meyer, a career CIA officer, 'to compete more effectively with this obviously successful Communist apparatus." Kai Bird, from The Chairman: John J. McCloy and the Making of the American Establishment (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992), pp. 483-84, 727 as quoted by Daniel Brandt in "Gloria Steinem and the CIA"

"Lynne Cheney describes an incident at Vassar College where several male students were charged and then found innocent of date rape. Afterward, assistant dean Catherine Comins declared of the men: "They have a lot of pain, but it is not a pain I would necessarily have spared them. I think it ideally initiates a process of self-exploration. ‘How do I see women?’ ‘If I didn’t violate her, could I have?’ ‘Do I have the potential to do to her what they say I did?’" Two University of Pennsylvania instructors explicitly justify such strategies in the Journal of Social History. "We are all engaged in writing a kind of propaganda," they insist. "Rather than believe in the absolute truth of what we are writing, we must believe in the moral or political position we are taking with it." Karl Zinsmeister, from "Propaganda in America?"

"Disinformation rules in The Siege. Here are the most obvious propaganda factoids. 1. Demonizing the Militia. Continuing the mainstream-media propaganda, Denzel Washington asks his fellow feds in the FBI office, "You think it's militia?" "Not their style," they answer, as if most militas were capable of "terrorism" without the active participation by undercover CIA, FBI, or BATF agent provocateurs. 2. Demonizing the Internet. "Everybody on the Internet knows explosives," says Washington, spreading the lie about how the Internet is a tool of subversion and therefore must be controlled. Department of Justice has lobbied long and hard for anti-internet, anti-cryptography legislation. 3. Demonizing Cash. "Where does a guy like you come up with ten thousand dollars?" the FBI man berates the Arab suspect, implying that cash anywhere is immediately suspect. According to US State Propaganda, only "terrorists" or "money launderers" use cash. This reinforces the suspicion in moviegoers' minds that only "criminals" would have any concerns about privacy." Uri Dowbenko, from: "The Siege: PsyOps Movie Prepares U.S. for Martial Law"

PR

Industry History and Profile

"The PR industry employs 200,000 people in the US. The PR industry in the UK employs more than 48,000 people, most of them in London. While in Australia there are 2,400 full-time members of the Public Relations Institute." "The Rise of Corporate Propaganda", new internationalist issue 314 - July 1999"

"...what makes advertising and PR work is that people see their own personal needs or interests being stoked, and ... unless you acknowledge the appeal of this stuff — its eroticism — and the self-interest of the receiver of the message, it's like presenting a machine without anything driving it; there's no sense of what propels the apparatus." Stuart Ewen

"An estimated $1.4 trillion is spent every year marketing goods and services worldwide." Kim Cassino, American Demographics, November 1997.

"The first wave of PR strategy... is... rational reportage...laying out facts to persuade people the corporate position was in their best interest. It wasn’t particularly successful. Meanwhile, another intellectual tradition began to raise its head in the late nineteenth century. It has as its founder a French sociologist named Gustav Le Bon who wrote in 1895 a book called The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind. Le Bon was an anguished French middle-class academic who saw the growth of democratic politics and the old systems of hierarchy and deference breaking down. Particularly after the Paris Commune of 1871 he felt that the mob at any moment could seize society and destroy all he held sacred. Le Bon starts to examine the social psychology of the crowd. For him the crowd is not driven by rational argument, but by its spinal cord. It responds solely to emotional appeals and is incapable of thought or reason. Somebody interested in leading the crowd needs to appeal not to logic but to unconscious motivation. For Le Bon, the most effective way to do this is through the use of images. In a period of great social turmoil Le Bon’s ideas began to have a tremendous impact. The Crowd was available in 19 languages a year after publication. In the US it influenced everyone from Teddy Roosevelt to the founders of the modern PR movement. By the First World War rational journalistic PR gave way to a propaganda designed to pluck people’s heartstrings." Stuart Ewen

"By World War I, middle-class fears of the rising tide of immigrants and the social turbulence borne on their wake were overtaking the progressive agenda; the Enlightenment faith in a reasoning "public," susceptible to arguments founded on fact, was giving way to a vision of the masses as an irrational, unmanageable "crowd." Informed by social science, public relations emerged as a tool for controlling cultural chaos and maintaining the status quo." Mark Dery, from "Hidden Persuaders"

"PR was originally a tool for damage control or crisis management. If a company committed a wrongdoing or had some other disaster on its hands, it would employ PR defensively to save face. Managing image perception (or "manufacturing consent," to use the words of PR pioneer/pollster Walter Lippmann) soon became a much more active process. Now crisis management is but a small subset of the ever-expanding field of public relations." Carrie McLaren

"Press releases were invented by public-relations expert Ivy Lee in the early years of the twentieth century in an effort to control media coverage of railway accidents for his client, Pennsylvania Railway. He decided that if the press was going to report the accidents it would be better to make sure they reported them from the company point of view. The strategy was so successful that by the late 1940s almost half the news was based on press releases from public-relations departments and firms." Sharon Beder, from "The Best Coverage Money Can Buy"

"The daily tonnage output of propaganda and publicity... has become an important force in American life. Nearly half of the contents of the best newspapers is derived from publicity releases; nearly all the contents of lesser papers... is directly or indirectly the product of PR departments." Fortune magazine 1949 as cited by Sharon Beder in Global Spin

"Edward L. Bernays...became one of the most influential pioneers of American public relations...In the twenties, Bernays fathered the link between corporate sales campaigns and popular social causes, when-while working for the American Tobacco Company-he persuaded women's rights marchers in New York City to hold up Lucky Strike cigarettes as symbolic "Torches of Freedom." In October of 1929, Bernays also originated the now familiar "global media event," when he dreamed up "Light's Golden Jubilee," a worldwide celebratory spectacle commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the electric light bulb, sponsored-behind-the-scenes-by the General Electric Corporation." Stuart Ewen, "Visiting Edward Bernays" from PR!: A Social History of Spin

"The Torches of Freedom campaign was a classic instance of using sexual liberation as a form of control. It proposed addiction as a form of freedom. In this, it was an early version of the Virginia Slims, “You’ve Come a Long Way, Baby” campaign, which made repeated reference to the suffragette movement as a way of associating cigarettes with freedom...All the gullible consumer saw was women wanting to be free, whereas in reality the women who marched in the parade smoking their Luckies were being manipulated by the Tobacco Industry into a sort of bondage that was both literal, in terms of physical addiction, and moral in the sense that it was motivated by a subliminal understanding of sexual liberation." E. Michael Jones, Ph.D., from: "The Torches of Freedom Campaign: Behaviorism, Advertising, and the Rise of the American Empire"

"Bernays regarded Uncle Sigmund as a mentor, and used Freud's insights into the human psyche and motivation to design his PR campaigns, while also trading on his famous uncle's name to inflate his own stature. There is, however, a striking paradox in the relationship between the two. Uncle Sigmund's "talking cure" was designed to unearth his patients' unconscious drives and hidden motives, in the belief that bringing them into conscious discourse would help people lead healthier lives. Bernays, by contrast, used psychological techniques to mask the motives of his clients, as part of a deliberate strategy aimed at keeping the public unconscious of the forces that were working to mold their minds." John Stauber and Sheldon Rampton on The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays & The Birth of PR

"The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society...Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. . . . In almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons . . . who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses. It is they who pull the wires which control the public mind." Edward Bernays, from: Propaganda

Applications and Effects

"By initiating the story, PR people are better able to shape the angle it gets told from and determine which people get interviewed. The ultimate pre-packaged news is the video news release. This is sent to TV stations and often aired with little change or indication to the audience that what they are watching is not independent reporting. Most broadcasters, whether in Europe or the US, make use of these releases in putting together the news. Sharon Beder, from "The Best Coverage Money Can Buy"

"...public relations, broadly defined, includes advertising. The difference being that, while advertising appears as an explicit commercial message, good PR is invisible. If PR is done right, you can't tell it's PR, it just looks like good business." Carrie McLaren

"The vast increase in corporate and government PR worldwide means that those with power are falling over themselves to let us in on the good things they are doing for us... It’s an enterprise whose collective purpose is to ‘administer’ democracy, eliminating risks for clients. The key ‘project’ is not to reform reality, but to manage our perceptions of it." Richard Swift, from "Mindgames It’s just a short step from political propaganda to corporate public relations"

"The powerful techniques of coercion -- from Carnegie's classic How to Win Friends and Influence People to Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) to the diabolical CIA Interrogation Manual -- have poisoned our lives. All personal interactions, from our daily workday encounters to our most intimate relationships, have been tagged, even perverted, by the meta-language of "sales." Uri Dowbenko, from "Media, Manipulation and the Cult of Consumerism An Interview with Douglas Rushkoff"

."The logic is clear -- propaganda is to a democracy what the bludgeon is to a totalitarian state and that's wise and good because again the common interests elude the bewildered herd, they cant figure them out. The public relations industry not only took this ideology on very explicitly but also acted on it, that's a huge industry, spending hundreds of..by now probably on the order of a billion dollars a year on it or something and its commitment all along was to controlling the public mind. "Chomsky on Propaganda"

"Using the latest communications technologies and polling techniques, as well as an array of high-level political connections, PR flacks routinely "manage" issues for government and corporate clients and "package" them for public consumption. The result is a "democracy" in which citizens are turned into passive receptacles of "disinfotainment" and "advertorials" and in which critics of the status quo are defined as ignorant meddlers and/or dangerous outsiders." Carmelo Ruiz, from Burson-Marsteller: PR For the New World Order"

"Founded in 1923, Hill & Knowlton (H&K) are an international public relations company...H&K... fabricated the story that `Iraqi soldiers had removed 312 babies from their incubators and left them to die on the cold hospital floor of Kuwait City'... The story was first reported to the London Daily Telegraph (September 5th, 1990) by exiled Kuwaiti housing minister and member of CFK Yahya al-Sumait. Because of the high emotional content of the story, it was repeated globally by much of the media, none of whom adequately checked the source... `the senior account people on the Kuwaiti account included Craig Fuller, Bush's former chief of staff when Bush was Vice President'. Using this connection, H&K set up a hearing with the Congressional Human Rights caucus on October 10th 1990 where they produced `Nayirah', a 15-year Kuwaiti who gave the following statement: 'I saw the Iraqi soldiers come into the hospital with guns, and go into the room where 15 babies were in incubators. They took the babies out of the incubators, took the incubators, and left the babies on the cold floor to die.'..According to MacArthur (1993), H&K 'made a brilliant little video news release out of it, which they beamed all over the world. It was on NBC Nightly News and millions and millions of people saw this'. This story was then presented to the United Nations Security Council during an audio-visual presentation on the 27th November 1990. In addition to `Nayirah', seven other witnesses were produced, five of whom 'coached by Hill & Knowlton - had used false names without saying they were doing so' ...Nayirah was, in fact, 'the daughter of the Kuwaiti Ambassador to the United States' (1), and had been coached by Lauri Fitz-Pegado to deliver the testimony which (according to Strauber & Rampton) 'even the Kuwaitis' own investigators later confirmed was false'. Not only had she never seen the atrocity she had alleged to, but had never been to the hospital, much less worked there." Darl Turner, from "Hill & Knowlton: Exporting Propaganda Engineering Warfare through Public Relations"

"Advertising at its best is making people feel that without their product, you're a loser," explained Nancy Shalek, president of the Shalek Agency." Gary Ruskin, from: "Why They Whine: How Corporations Prey on Our Children"

More than anything, they want your children's minds. "Kids marketing in general is becoming more sophisticated," says Julie Halpin, CEO of Gepetto Group, which specializes in marketing to kids. It is a competition for what she calls "share of mind." Gary Ruskin, from: "Why They Whine: How Corporations Prey on Our Children"

‘‘Persuasion, by its definition, is subtle. The best PR ends up looking like news. You never know when a PR agency is being effective; you’ll just find your views slowly shifting." A PR executive

"You have pollsters and demographers going around asking people questions, usually more about what they feel than what they think. From that fairly fragmentary data they put together an agglomeration called ‘public opinion’." Stuart Ewen

"It was in the post-War period that the PR industry, the advertising industry, the press agent industry, what the psychologist Robert Shalldini calls ‘the compliance industries’, really took off. These things grew exponentially in the 1920s in the US and provide the world with a model – and the world of course includes Germany. Goebbels himself was a reader of the work of Edward Bernays. Bernays was Freud’s nephew on both sides of his family. Here is a guy for whom the idea of the unconscious was his mother’s milk. What makes Bernays important is that he is the first PR guy to apply social psychology strategically and use theories of the unconscious in propaganda technique. Bernays is no mere theorist. He put his ideas to work for a number of corporations as well as for government." Stuart Ewen

":... to make the transition from effective policy interlocutor to effective public communicator, it is essential to shift from issues-based communications to stories-based communications. There are no issues-oriented media with any broad appeal, and the selling of complex issues coverage is a difficult task in any event because it contains little or no news value. Good stories, on the other hand, go around the world in minutes. That's the way adversaries play. That's the way industry must play." Leaked Document on Europabio PR Strategy"

"The 1930s and then the 1960s were periods in which the challenge to the business system became widespread. If you want to see the flowering of corporate public relations strategies look at the decade following those periods. After World War Two a kind of gung-ho corporate public-relations strategy tries to present the private business system as the quintessence of the American Way – a kind of commercialistic rendition of democracy. This became almost a national ideology used to roll back policies and ideas that came out of the 1930s New Deal – for example, the very idea that government might compete with business by providing public housing. In the 1960s people began to wonder if democracy was being violated by a destabilized business system. In the 1970s and 1980s, with the triumph of Reagan and Thatcherism, there comes to fruition a set of national public relations strategies catalyzed by the political issues of the Sixties." Stuart Ewen

Perhaps the biggest – and certainly the most expensive – PR effort on a Southern issue was the campaign undertaken by the Wexler Group for the ratificaction of the Northern American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with Mexico in 1993. Wexler worked for a coalition of Fortune 500 companies to reassure a worried US public about job losses and environmental deterioration. NAFTA’s broken promises were so under-reported that Project Censored named them ‘one of the top-ten censored stories of the year’, just one year after Wexler’s successful sales job.Richard Swift, from "Mindgames It’s just a short step from political propaganda to corporate public relations"

All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

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Re: CIA planting news?
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Subliminals and Technology

"High-tech mass persuasion has achieved levels of sophistication far beyond what most individuals imagine. Most still desperately cling to the delusion that they think for themselves, determine their own destinies, exercise both individual and collective free will (the great myth that underlies democratic ideology); that advertising works in the interest of the consumer; and perhaps the greatest self-deception of all -- that they can easily discriminate between fantasy and reality." Wilson Bryan Key

"With the onset of the machine technology known by the interesting sobriquet, "Virtual Reality," the immersion of mankind into the counterfeit, computer-generated cryptosphere, intensifies, and the march of induced hallucination, digital money, junk from Wal-Mart and miracles by priests in lab coats, accelerates, commensurate with the spiritual and mental deaths of animated corpses of the walking dead in America." Michael A. Hoffman II, from: Secret Societies and Psychological Warfare

"Subliminal visuals surround us as well. They're airbrushed into print ads and billboards, they flicker past during commercials at a hardly noticeable, barely legal rate. To heighten the hypnotic effects of moving video, producers need only place one blank, black frame for every 32 frames of film. Every hour that you spend watching tv, your right-brained, endorphin-numbed, glassy-ass trance state is deepened. So don't be too hard on yourself for accidentally "staying tuned" all the way through 7th Heaven—you were literally held against your will." Sven Golly, from "Learn the Deadly Secrets of Mind Control"

"Wayne Chilicki, a General Mills executive, agrees: "When it comes to targeting kid consumers, we at General Mills follow the Proctor & Gamble model of ‘cradle to grave,'" he says. "We believe in getting them early and having them for life."" Gary Ruskin, from: "Why They Whine: How Corporations Prey on Our Children"

"Advertising targeted at elementary school children," Professor McNeal says, "on programs just for them works very effectively in the sense of implanting brand names in their minds and creating desires for the products." Gary Ruskin, from: "Why They Whine: How Corporations Prey on Our Children"

""I was working with one firm that was doing focus groups with cult members about how they got pulled into their cult and what the cult did... They interviewed some people from Scientology. Some of them were still in. And [they interviewed] those who were in cult-like organizations like Amway or Hells Angels...They were looking for ways to apply the techniques of cult indoctrination to 'cult brands.' They're called 'cult brands.' In other words -- how to take a brand and have an off-the-shelf set of rules that they can apply. If a client comes in and says 'We want our brand to be a cult brand,' they say, 'Well, this is how to do it.'" Douglas Rushkoff

"Advertising is everywhere, and people everywhere are united by it. Perhaps for the first time, young people of all ethnic and geographic origins share images and experiences, thanks in large measure to mass media and mass advertising. Advertising offers youth entertainment, diversion, a way to manage their mood states, and information on how to satisfy personal needs. Its first-class graphics, music, and humour give advertising the potential to teach children language, cognitive, social, and artistic skills... What youngsters get are ideas for satisfying their needs for identity, belonging, and independence. They use information in commercials, and the commercials themselves, to help them achieve their personal goals. " Jeffrey Goldstein, Ph.D., Department of Mass Communications, University of Utrecht, from: "Children and advertising - the research"

"Recent tests by researcher Herbert Krugman showed that, while viewers were watching TV, right-brain activity outnumbered left-brain activity by a ratio of two to one. Put more simply, the viewers were in an altered state, in trance, more often than not. They were getting their Beta-endorphin "Fix." To measure attention spans, psycho - physiologist Thomas Mulholland of the Veterans Hospital in Bedford, Massachusetts, attached young viewers to an EEG machine that was wired to shut the TV set off whenever the children's brains produced a majority of alpha waves. Although the children were told to concentrate, only a few could keep the set on for more than 30 seconds! Most viewers are already hypnotized. To deepen the trance is easy. One simple way is to place a blank, black frame every 32 frames in the film that is being projected. This creates a 45 beat ñ per - minute pulsation perceived only by the subconscious mind, the ideal pace to generate deep hypnosis. The commercials or suggestions presented following this alpha-inducing broadcast are much more likely to be accepted by the viewer. The high percentage of the viewing audience that has somnambulistic-depth ability could very well accept the suggestions as commands, as long as those commands did not ask the viewer to do something contrary to his morals, religion, or self-preservation." "Battle for Your Mind: Subliminal Programming"

"McDonald’s spends $1.8 billion a year on various PR." Joel Kovel, Z magazine, September 1997.

"The biotech industry has chosen a slam dunk strategy to gain public acceptance for its products: Slip unlabeled genetically engineered food into the food supply and hope too many people don't notice or object. Deal with those who do notice and object with an army of "experts" that stand ready to refute any criticisms or critics of the technology....If plans run awry for some reason, mount a full public relations offensive..." Karen Charman, from: "Force Feeding Genetically Engineered Foods"

Europe's most powerful biotechnology industry has contracted the government and public affairs PR agency, Burson Marsteller, to manage the crisis that the biotech market is facing as a result of the widespread resistance to genetic engineering and its products in this part of the world. "Leaked Document on Europabio PR Strategy"

"Subliminal perception occurs whenever stimuli presented below the threshold or limen for awareness are found to influence thoughts, feelings, or actions. The term subliminal perception was originally used to describe situations in which weak stimuli were perceived without awareness. In recent years, the term has been applied more generally to describe any situation in which unnoticed stimuli are perceived." Philip M. Merikle, from "Subliminal Perception"

"Mental illness, the Twentieth Century Plague, may be related to subliminal stimuli. What is vaguely called schizophrenia, for example, could be involved with an individual's perception of subliminal stimuli." Wilson Bryan Key, from: Subliminal Seduction

"According to research by the Roper Organization in 1992, fifty-seven percent of American consumers still believe that subliminal advertising is practiced on a regular basis, and only one in twelve think it "almost never" happens. To protect themselves from the techniques they believe are being used against them, the advertising audience has adopted a stance of cynical suspician." Douglas Rushkoff, from Coercion: Why We Listen to What "They" Say

"Kilbourne, Painton and Ridley created a test of subliminals using an original Chivas Regal ad with a subliminal nude and an additional picture retouched to take out the nude. They reported their results in Psychology Today. The picture with the subliminal nude was preferred over the picture without the subliminal nude (Natale, 1988; Kilbourne et. al., 1984). They point out that part of the problem with Key's reports is his ambiguous use of the word subliminal. Key makes no distinction between innuendo, metaphor, embeds and subliminals. The phenomenon that Key is most concerned with are actually visual embeds, also known as hidden pictures." B. Diane Miller Blackwood, from: Sex and the Single Sociologist: An Essay on Subliminal Advertising"

"In March of 1994, someone discovered that Jessica Rabbit had no underwear for a very short time during the animated movie Who Framed Roger Rabbit? (Globe & Mail, March 17, 1994). In this example, there were at least three offending frames-unnoticeable unless the tape is advanced frame by frame. Were they deliberately planted there for some nefarious reason, or were the artists just saving some ink or playing a practical joke? It's hard to know, but the physical presence of an uncovered Jessica tells us nothing about the perceptual or psychological consequences of her undressed state. It is probable that under normal viewing conditions the contents of the frames are completely and thoroughly masked by the subsequent material. In the absence of the appropriate tests, however, one cannot simply assert that stimuli are (or are not) subliminal. In none of these examples is it possible to know definitively if the signal or image was subliminal, nor if it was deliberately planted." Timothy E. Moore, from: "Scientific Consensus and Expert Testimony: Lessons from the Judas Priest Trial"

"Certain studies seem to show that subliminal visual or aural conditioning in movie theaters can increase sales of refreshments. However, the results are not significant enough to be regarded as evidence of a real effect. Additionally, experiments have shown that any changes in behavior occur only immediately after the subliminal message is given and they disappear just as quickly. It is only a temporary modification of the subject's reactions, and not a durable conditioning." Jean-Marie Abgrall, from Soul Snatchers: The Mechanics of Cults

"In fact, the man who claims to have developed subliminal persuasion, James Vicary, admitted to Advertising Age in 1984 that he had fabricated his evidence that the technique worked in order to drum up business for his failing research company." Douglas Rushkoff, from Coercion: Why We Listen to What "They" Say

"Gore staffers alerted at least one news organization and were contacting others about an RNC ad in which the word "RATS" appears briefly on screen in an ad that criticizes Gore's prescription drug plan. A Bush spokesman brushed aside suggestions of subliminal advertising as "bizarre, ridiculous and absurd." The RNC had no immediate comment." Candy Crowley, from "Gore campaign smells 'rats' in RNC ad"

"...on a slow news day in a laggardly news week, the Gore campaign called Berke with its "scoop." It said a clever viewer in Seattle had noticed the "r" word in a Republican ad, insinuating that the rodentine reference constituted dirty, lowdown, filthy politics at its worst. Berke snapped at the bait. He wrote a piece, which the Times splashed across its front page. It alleged deep and troubling ugliness in the heart of the Republican camp -- all because of four letters only a highly vigilant viewer would notice. The story fingered Alex Castellanos, a GOP ad man, and fulsomely quoted some of Castellanos' most ardent enemies. It gave him a sentence or two for rebuttal. The original item carried no mention of Fox News, meaning Berke had no idea he had been fooled into touting a stale story about an ad scheduled to go off the air the day his piece appeared. Gore operatives thus transformed the Times into a purveyor of all the news that's fit to reprint." Tony Snow, from "Rodentine Reference"

"Kathleen Hall Jamieson, dean of the Annenberg School of Communication at the University of Pennsylvania and author of several books on political ads, told MSNBC.com that the technique used in the GOP spot is known in psychological literature as “priming” — a word or image is flashed at the viewer to predispose him to view a subject negatively." Tom Curry, ‘Rats’ joins famous ad gallery"

"As the presidential campaign gives every sign that it can't wait to be upstaged by the Olympics, we are suddenly thrust back into the 1950s with the hyped-up fear that subliminal advertising is tampering with our brains. A Republican commercial deriding Al Gore's prescription-drug plan flashes the word "RATS" on the screen for one-thirtieth of a second, right after the phrase "Bureaucrats Decide." Detected by Fox News two weeks ago, then given front-page treatment by The New York Times Tuesday, this ad flap suggests a 3-D movie about a mad social scientist. The whole thing makes about as much sense as the widespread 1950s belief that crouching under a schoolroom desk would protect children against a Russian atomic attack. The only coherent explanation was belatedly provided by Alex Castellanos, who made the 30-second spot for the Republican National Committee (RNC). He claimed that the rodent language was coincidental and that the oversize letters were designed to create visual interest. "People get bored watching TV," Castellanos told the Associated Press. "You're trying to get them interested and involved." Walter Shapiro, from "Fear of subliminal advertising is irrational"

"A research project by Jacob Jacoby, a Purdue University psychologist, found that of 2,700 people tested, 90 percent misunderstood even such simple viewing fare as commercials and "Barnaby Jones." Only minutes after watching, the typical viewer missed 23 to 36 percent of the questions about what he or she had seen. Of course they did, they were going in and out of trance! If you go into a deep trance, you must be instructed to remember, otherwise you automatically forget." "Battle for Your Mind: Subliminal Programming"

PsyOps

Definitions

"PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS: (DOD) Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign government, organizations, groups, and individuals. The purpose of psychological operations is to induce or reinforce foreign attitudes and behavior favorable to the originator's objectives. Also called PSYOP. See also perception management.

PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS: (NATO) Planned psychological activities in peace and war directed to enemy, friendly, and neutral audiences in order to influence attitudes and behavior affecting the achievement of political and military objectives. They include strategic psychological activities, consolidation psychological operations and battlefield psychological activities.

PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS: (IADB) These operations include psychological warfare and, in addition, encompass those political, military, economic, and ideological actions planned and conducted to create in neutral or friendly foreign groups the emotions, attitudes, or behavior to support the achievement of national objectives." Propaganda And Psychological Warfare Studies: Glossary Department of Defense Military and Associated Terms"

The PSYOPS "process"... is divided into six parts: intelligence gathering, target audience analysis, product development, media selection, media production, and dissemination." Benjamin Richardson, from: "The Use of the Psyops Against High School Terrorism"

Brains and Targets

"Once you have a brain harnessed to imitation, you can transmit behavior non-genetically, thus giving rise to "culture" or "memes." Richard van Ort, on "Mirror Neurons"

"Santa Claus is a meme that parents deliberately infect their children with; the purpose for it is quite unfathomable, and seems to run along two paths--it didn't seem to hurt the parent when they had it, and it helps to explain the odd behavior that people go through once a year. The Claus meme in a child helps the way cowpox helped with smallpox; part of growing up is the 'trauma' of learning, once old enough, that Santa is a myth, and that people, including one's own parents, have systematically lied to you. This may seem a callous way to view it, but from the viewpoint of building cognitive mechanisms, this is one of the earliest we gain that fosters the ability of disbelief." Michael Wilson, from: "Memetic Engineering PsyOps and Viruses for the Wetware"

"...the astonishing truth is that any given mirror neuron will also fire when the monkey in question observes another monkey (or experimenter performing the same action), e.g., tasting a peanut!" Arleen Raymond, on "Mirror Neurons 2"

"In the study of mind control and psychological warfare, it is not enough to simply review the latest technology of coercion, the most recent gadgetry and techno-junk littering the hardware and supply depots of governments and cults. Far more dangerous PSYOPS "use specially constructed communications to manipulate the actions of target groups without the use of physical force. PSYOPS, in one form or another has been used against the enemies of the United States for hundreds of years. Most people think of PSYOPS as something directed at the nation's foreign enemies. Today, however, there are new, domestic threats to United States' security that may also pose legitimate targets for such operations. The sudden surge in high school terrorism in the last five years has created a conundrum for the nation. The youths that commit such violence are American citizens. They are teens that, on the surface, differ very little from the millions of other high school students in the United States. The federal government cannot simply order anti-terrorist units like Delta Force to hunt them down. The public would find such tactics too drastic. These are, after all , just kids. Thus, the need for less severe countermeasures makes PSYOPS very attractive. These techniques are well grounded in research and have been copied by others like advertisers and marketers. If properly implemented, the legitimate use of PSYOPS to reduce future high school terrorism would be both appropriate and effective." Benjamin Richardson, from: "The Use of the Psyops Against High School Terrorism"

"Naval Reserve United States Atlantic Command Psychological Operations Unit is a special purpose radio/television production unit whose dedicated mission is to train audiovisual personnel for mobilization and to produce audiovisual products in response to CINCUSACOM Special Operation Requirements." Mission Statement

"In 1950 the CIA's budget for "psychological warfare was $34 million; over the next two years that figure quadrupled." Laura Brahm, from "The Culture Vultures," In These Times, May 15, 2000

Applications, High Technology, Memes and the Religious Impulse

"Religious strivings...often originate in the desires of the body, in the pursuit of meanings beyond the range of our intellectual capacity, and in the longing that values be conserved. Do we not then merely "rationalize" our yearnings with manufactured beliefs that are egomorphic, fashoioned to satisfy private desire or inner compulsion? Does not the very prominance of the fear motive indicate that we have invented a God to protect us against anxiety? And if life or society demands many renunciations from us, are we not prone to invent an after-life that will compensate us for present deprivation? Gordon W. Allport, from The Individual and His Religion

"Back in the 1950s, during the rebellion in the Philippines, U.S. Air Force General Edward Lansdale, then head of CIA PsyOps in the islands, used the legend of Philippine vampires to chase the Huk rebels from their various areas of operation. The asuag, or Philippine vampire, struck terror in the hearts of the superstitious population, a fact exploited by the CIA. When a Huk patrol would pass by, the last member of the patrol was silently captured, and then killed. Two holes were punctured in the Huk's neck, and he was hung upside down to drain the blood from his body. The corpse would then be left where it would be found by his comrades - a victim of the vampire." W. Adam Mandelbaum, from: The Psychic Battlefield

"In occult crimes the objective is not linear, that is to say, is not solely bound to the achievement of the immediate effects of the attack on the victim, but may in fact be a part of a larger, symbolic ritual magnified by the power of the electronic media, for the purpose of the alchemical processing of the subconscious Group Mind of the masses. If we are observing a ritual working, we should be looking for relevant synchronicities (coincidences that have meaning) in the days following 'Unabom's' explosive attacks, which would form a pattern, on the hypothesis that his bombing is the Introit to a kind of public, subliminal Black Mass that plays for days. Consciously we don't apprehend the connection, but our subconscious may and it is the subconscious that is being addressed in occult ritual, in a process CIA behavioral scientist Dr. Ewan Cameron termed, "psychic driving." Like other Group Mind imprinting, such as the Son of Sam series, the 'Unabomber' has a high media profile as a communicator, as someone having a message for the masses." Michael A. Hoffman II, from: "Profiling the FBI's Unabom Charade"

"PSYOP has a vital role to play in the effective use of military force. This is especially so as the world becomes increasingly urban and interconnected through the internet and satellite television, media which decrease the likelihood that US forces can use force against an adversary indiscriminately. PSYOP's role is also magnified as the US military finds itself more involved in protracted struggles at the lower end of the spectrum of conflict. As a US Army study once noted, "Low-intensity conflict is basically a struggle for people's minds . . . . And in such a battle, psychological operations are more important than fire power." Steven Collins, from: "Army PSYOP in Bosnia: Capabilities and Constraints"

"Historically in Haiti, any change of power was a very bloody deal. This was accomplished with minimal bloodshed," Crawmer said. "...I personally feel that because of [the psyop soldiers'] ability to influence the media environment in Haiti, the effect was to soothe the Haitians and get their cooperation." Katherine McIntire Peters, from Haitian Mission Is Smoothed By Psyops Getting Out The Word"

"Military personnel from the Fourth Psychological Operations Group based at Fort Bragg, in North Carolina, have until recently been working in CNN's hq in Atlanta. CNN is up in arms about our report in the last issue of CounterPunch concerning the findings of the Dutch journalist, Abe de Vries about the presence of US Army personnel at CNN, owned by Time-Warner. We cited an article by de Vries which appeared on February 21 in the reputable Dutch daily newspaper Trouw, originally translated into English and placed on the web by Emperor's Clothes. De Vries reported that a handful of military personnel from the Third Psychological Operations Battalion, part of the airmobile Fourth Psychological Operations Group based at Fort Bragg, in North Carolina, had worked in CNN's hq in Atlanta." Alexander Cockburn, from "CNN AND PSYOPS"

"Think of this new domain as 'applied sociology' or 'cultural engineering.' Neither name is sufficient description to a field that encompasses information theory, general semantics, semiotics, cybernetics, neurolinguistics, statistical theory, advertising/propaganda, conditioning, epistemology, epidemiology, game theory, cognitive psychology, sociology, and evolutionary biology. If your eyes have glazed over, or you have already decided that you shouldn't be reading such 'trash' as this, then resign yourself to being one of the sheep. Careful study of Nazism (and Goebbels), Marxism, or Scientology (and Hubbard) give clear indications that the concepts work; from there, it is simply a matter of analysis of the phenomenon to build a new form of engineering, which in deference to its roots, can be referred to as memetic engineering." Michael Wilson, from: "Memetic Engineering PsyOps and Viruses for the Wetware"

"A meeting sponsored by Defense & Foreign Affairs and the International Strategic Studies Association was held in Washington DC in 1983. High-level officials from many countries met for this conference. They discussed psychological strategies related to government and policymaking. A summary of the agenda reads: "The group will be discussing the essence of future policymaking, for it must be increasingly clear to all that the most effec- tive tool of government and strategy is the mind... If it's any consolation to the weapons-oriented among defense policymakers, the new technologies of communications -- satellites, television, radio, and mind-control beams -- are 'systems' which are more tangible than the more philosophically based psychological strategies and operations." Judy Wall, from "Aerial Mind-Control: The Threat to Civil Liberties"

"Those are things ranging from using low-frequency [electromagnetic] waves in battlefield situations to intimidate your enemy to using smells. There's a lot of scents now that chemo-reception scientists have figured out make people upset and make people intimidated...And those are real, and more than enough to talk about. I've seen them being [used in field test situations] or read research reports about them being used. I've interviewed people in the military who have used them. I've read the public relations materials -- bill collection agencies that use pheromones in the ink in collection letters." Douglas Rushkoff

"The March 23, 1991 newsbrief, "High-Tech Psychological Warfare Arrives in the Middle East", describes a US Psychological Operations (PsyOps) tactic directed against Iraqi troops in Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm. The manoeuvre consisted of a system in which subliminal mind-altering technology was carried on standard radiofrequency broadcasts. The March 26, 1991 newsbrief states that among the standard military planning groups in the centre of US war planning operations at Riyadh was "an unbelievable and highly classified PsyOps program utilising 'silent sound' techniques" Judy Wall, "PSY-OPS WEAPONRY USED IN THE PERSIAN GULF WAR"

"The Pentagon had listed the holographic projections openly as part of its "non-lethal" weapons program. But since 1994, the program has disappeared from view, evidently now a "black" effort, says DEFENSE WEEK. In conclusion, the DEFENSE WEEK article states that the Army's JFK Special Warfare Center and School in late 1991 disclosed that it was looking to develop a PSYOPS Hologram System with a capability "to project persuasive messages and three-dimensional pictures of cloud, smoke, rain droplets, buildings......(even religious "images" or "figures")........The use of holograms as a persuasive message will have worldwide application". (end quoting). (This looks like it will be a concentrated unit of soldiers armed with the very latest high-tech weapons systems)" Norio Hayakawa, from "Pentagon, Psyops and Holographic Technology"

"The objective and scope of the 1993 Los Alamos conference included exploring a nonlethal approach to apply force against not only wartime enemies (the Soviet Union had already fallen) but against "terrorists" and "international drug traffickers" as well. The introduction noted that the purpose of the conference was to bring together "industry, government, and academia to explore the potential of nonlethal defense and identify requirements so that the defense community can work together in leveraging the nonlethal concept. "Industry [law enforcement], particularly, will benefit from a more precise understanding of requirements and operational constraints regarding nonlethal defense technologies," noted the conference's sponsors, The American Defense Preparedness Association. Additionally, nonlethal defense was described as "an emerging technological option being developed conceptually with a sea of technical opportunity. Based upon the technical presentations listed in the brochure, it didn't appear to me that such technology as acoustical, highpower microwave, laser, ELF/RF weapons and "psychotronic" systems were particulary NEW in the field of military or intelligence applications. Obviously, what was occurring at this conference was the presentation of these formidable weapons to law enforcement for domestic (U.S.) applications." Carol Marshall, from "The Last Circle"

"The NSA uses this technology to resocialize (brainwash) the US civilian voting population into "Giving their lives to Christ" (giving up their personal will and civil rights to the NSA). Each subject is required to maintain a "Personal Relationship with Jesus Christ" (following the precepts of the Bible and doing what is ordered by the NSA). The technology is also used to monitor and optimize NSA employee performance and loyalty...Coincidence is used to create the perception in the subject that supernatural events are beginning in the subject's life. A combination of posthypnotic commands and pre-information awarded to the subject prior to an upcoming experience that the NSA intelligence system has discovered gives the subject a feeling that "God" or some other supernatural being is taken interest in their life...The following is one typical technique used by the NSA. NSA Intelligence gathers information regarding the topic of the sermon in the subject's church. This information is gathered through electronic surveillance equipment installed in the church. The NSA then implants a posthypnotic command that triggers the subject’s mind into concern and contemplation about the sermon’s topic prior to going to church. When the subject hears the sermon, the sermon seems to be speaking directly to the subject that adds to God's mysterious and unexplainable ability to address the innermost concerns of the subject, especially when the subject has not shared those concerns with any other human being. .. " NSA mind control and psyops

"The scary thing is, the technology exists to do it. You only have to look at the U.S. Patents Office Website to see that it's true. "There are patents for microwave devices that can beam sound directly into someone's head." Mind Control, Conspiracies and Lobster

"Dr. Igor Smirnov, of the Institute of Psycho-correction in Moscow, says in regard to this technology: "It is easily conceviable that some Russian 'Satan', or let's say Iranian [or any other 'Satan'], as long as he owns the appropriate means and finances, can inject himself [intrude] into every con- ceivable computer network, into every conceivable radio or television broad- cast, with relative technological ease, even without disconnecting cables. You can intercept the [radio] waves in the aether and then [subliminally] modulate every conceivable suggestion into it. If this transpires over a long enough time period, it accumulates in the heads of people. And even- tually they can be artificially manipulated with other additional measure- ments, to do that which this perpetrator wants [them to do]. This is why [such technology] is rightfully feared." From a German documentary, "Geheimes Russland: Moskau - Die Zombies dr roten Zaren" ("Secret Russia: Moscow - The Zombies of the Red Czars") aired on German TV network ZDF on December 22, 1998. Script translation by Jan Weisemann. The full text is to be published in Resonance, No. 35. Judy Wall, from "Aerial Mind-Control: The Threat to Civil Liberties"

"Last night on the Art Bell show, Ed Dames announced that PsiTech had remote-viewed the "third prophesy of Fatima." He identified it as equivalent to the opening of the sixth seal, as described in the book of Revelations in the Judeo-Christian Bible and said it would happen next month, in November. His description made a vague reference to war and other calamities. Noting the history of "Major Head Games" history as an intelligence agent, one wonders what psyop strategy is being implemented here. Is the government planning a major war next month (Wag The Dog?) and is this announcement being used to precondition the gullible to accept a mystical explanation or is it some other psyop strategy, such as raising the panic level among the gullible so they will be more likely to accept martial law?" Wes Thomas

"An ex-CIA agent interviewed by researcher Jim Keith claims to have knowledge of biological warfare testing and "special medical and Psy-ops (psychological operations) facilities at Fort Riley," where Timothy McVeigh was stationed. (Recall that McVeigh took a Psy-ops course at Ft. Riley) This agent stated that experimentation is conducted "in collaboration with the whole range of intelligence agencies, FBI, CIA, NSA, the works." The agent also told Keith that he had witnessed special psychological operations performed on the crew of the Pueblo naval vessel at Fort Riley, and at Fort Benning, Georgia (where did his basic training), prior to the ship's capture under mysterious circumstances by the North Koreans." David Hoffman, from: The Oklahoma City Bombing and the Politics of Terror

"Criteria for Determining Psychological Warfare in Documents 1. Is there low risk of attracting foreign intelligence organizations to the targeted topic? What is the extent of the risk involved with such a deception? Is it worth the tradeoffs? 2. Has there been a long multi-year history of credible relationship between the target of deception and the authors of the deception? 3. Is the reaction of the target predicable; will they swallow the bait and move in the desired direction for some length of time? 4. Is there a specific purpose, goal, objective or intent of the deception; can it be clearly stated? 5. Does the phrase, sentence or document establish believability in the eye of the target of deception? 6. Is there any direct evidence that the documents were ever launched at the target? 7. Are there a credible number of unique language words to draw suspicion about authorship? 8. Do the historically competent experts, in Psychological Warfare agree with the answers to these questions?" Ryan Wood, from "Psychological Warfare & The Majestic Documents: No Signs of Deception."

"The whole arsenal of frequencies will be unloaded on the USA, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Mexico as part of Stage 1 of the First Protocol, (to include) Woodpecker, Buzzsaw, Videodrome, Subliminals*, Sonic Pulses. Holograms, Visions, Voices and strange Psychokinetic phenomena. Beware of TV's, computers, movies, radios and phones! Also books, magazines, newspapers, printed advertisements and posters will also contain the encrypted hidden subliminal holograms. * In addition to the obvious programming of commercial, consumerism and marketing reason behind all the subliminals and electronically compressed information in movies, commercial television, Hollywood videos, radio and telephones - and now encrypted in printed matter, affect the brains neural networks and functions through select frequencies and their harmonics to diminish the Will, Individuality and Creativity of the Individual. Furthermore, the protocols intended to give, in essence, the commands of "Obey the Law", "Do Not Question Authority Government is Your God", "Do As You Are Told" and "God is talking to you". -Also, erratic thoughts of Anger, Fear, Depression, and wanton Sexuality are also included. This causes utter confusion in individuals who don't know where these strange thoughts are coming from -Now you do." CIA & Vatican, Holographic Projection Technology - The "Holy See"

"It is child's play to transmit an ELF modulated signal to be broadcast by the entire mobile phone network - if need be. By this means, all mobile phone users can be behaviourally modified, at the cost of developing cancer from low level microwave exposure from the phones they constantly use, stressing the neural network by constant calcium ion efflux and interference with bioelectric fields." Margaret Thatcher Masers, Microwaves, Mindcontrol & Abductions

"Within the last two decades a potential has emerged which was improbable, but which is now marginally feasible. This potential is the technical capability to influence directly the major portion of the approximately six billion brains of the human species, without mediation through classical sensory modalities, by generating neural information within a physical medium within which all members of the species are immersed. The historical emergence of such possibilities, which have ranged from gunpowder to atomic fission, have resulted in major changes in the social evolution that occurred inordinately quickly after the implementation. Reduction of the risk of the inappropriate application of these technologies requires the continued and open discussion of their realistic feasibility and implications within the scientific and public domain." Dr. Michael Persinger, Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at Laurentian University, from "On the Possibility of Directly Accessing Every Human Brain by Electromagnetic Induction of Fundamental Algorithms"

The best way to protect oneself... is the Delphic oracle's comment to 'know thyself.' Understanding the rudiments of what is going on allows for considerable self programming and self control; a sophisticated person in fact will have a number of paradigms and shift them at will. It is interesting to note that prophylactic measures against this sort of thing have considerable history; for example, Speculative Freemasonry, in an attempt to counteract the rise of superstition and the power of the Church, used various rituals and initiations (kept secret to increase the 'shock value' to the participant) to invoke and evoke a state of mind and being through 'gnosis,' direct experience. The influence, historically, of such groups is still debated, yet the influence of the practitioners still remains; we view them as the most significant free thinkers, artists, and scientists of their age. Clearly, the ability to continually integrate the signals one receives and choose one's own actions and reactions is a beneficial capability." Michael Wilson, from: "Memetic Engineering PsyOps and Viruses for the Wetware"
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #24 on: September 04, 2009, 08:53:52 am »
Media Conglomerates, MIC, Big Government, and the descendents of Goebbels
http://911exposed.org/Media/Mediagovernment.htm




The Influence of [a Corporatistic] Government over Free Speech


"Look, if you think any American official is going to tell you the truth, then you're stupid. Did you hear that? - stupid." -- Arthur Sylvester, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs

Government Employees in PR Training to effectively approach and pitch the media
Government Influence on Media
(Research from Business and Society Review 111:1 55–66 Mike Sibley and Gina Nadas [pdf)

Government officials have a number of ways to influence media content :
  • The media are dependent upon officials for the largest amount of source material
  • The US government provides a number of subsidies to media companies
  • The government protects media companies from foreign or domestic attack
  • Officials woo journalists who are compliant
  • Officials can withhold information
  • Officials can censor—especially during wartime

Government subsidies media in many ways:
  • Newspaper delivery rules
  • Third class postal rates
  • Special merger rules
  • Public broadcasting subsidies
  • Spectrum allocation
  • “According to official sources . . .”
  • News organizations depend on official sources for their raw materials and interpretations of events
  • Must ‘fill in the white space between the ads’ Backgrounding
  • Quotes
  • “Exclusives”
  • White papers

Government controls access:
  • During war, who is in ‘embedded’?
  • Army control over where they go, who they talk to, what they say, to some extent
  • Press releases
  • Press conferences
  • Who gets called on?
  • Who isn’t invited back?
  • Press passes
  • Official meetings
  • Air Force One, etc.
  • What organizations are considered the ‘press’?

President vs. Congress (the administration has much greater control over sources of information than Congress does):
  • Loyalty to the president
  • Hand-picked assistants
  • Can remove any leak from inner circle
  • President is ultimate news source
  • No alternative for journalists to turn to
  • Physical access of journalists controlled (White House, Pentagon, State, etc.)
  • Modern focus on, fascination with, president
  • Use press as a weapon against opposition
  • Trial balloons “off the record”
  • Exploiting Journalists with Incentives to advance Government Agenda:
  • Career motivations
  • Journalists get ahead by getting “scoops” and inside information
  • Government officials can use this to control press behavior

Media ownership:
  • Media owners tend to be more conservative than journalists
  • Media owners are interested in the business climate of the country
  • “longer range” view
  • Have at times been called upon to keep a story out of the public eye
  • National security
  • Inappropriate
  • Political favor

Direct Instruments used by authoritarian governments to influence the media include:
(1) Ownership of media firms by political elite,
(2) Control of resources used by the media,
(3) Taxes on circulation and value-added taxes on newsprint and advertising,
(4) Extensive government advertising,
(5) Bribes,
(6) Censorship,
(7) Intimidation, including threat of prosecution, and
(8) Volence or the threat of violence. These instruments are of two basic types:
(a) Coercive actions designed to force compliance, and
(b) Financial incentives designed to induce compliance.

 
Modern U.S. Government propaganda devised from Nazi masterminds- The aim of propaganda is to influence people's opinions or behaviors actively, rather than merely to communicate the facts about something.  An appeal to one's emotions is, perhaps, the more obvious propaganda method, but there are varied other more subtle and insidious forms.  A common characteristic of propaganda is volume (in the sense of a large amount).  For example, propaganda might be used to garner either support or disapproval of a certain position, rather than to simply present the position, or to try to convince people to buy something, rather than to simply let them know there is some thing on the market. What separates propaganda from "normal" communication is in ways by which the message attempts to shape opinion or behavior, which are often subtle and insidious among other characteristics.  Individually propaganda functions as self-deception.

Propaganda is a particularly effective weapon during or leading up to war. In this case its aim is usually to dehumanize and create hatred toward a supposed enemy, either internal or external.  The technique is to create a false image in the mind.  This can be done by using special words, special avoidance of words or by saying that the enemy is responsible for certain things he never did.  Most propaganda wars require the home population to feel the enemy has inflicted an injustice, which may be fictitious.  The object is to garner support from the population for a war effort that might normally be less enthusiastically supported.

Propaganda is also one of the methods used in psychological warfare (PSYOPS) — which also involve false flag operations. The US mass media “reports”, the style, content and especially the language, echo their Nazi predecessors of 70 years ago to an uncanny degree. Coincidence...  In both instances we have imperialist armies conquering countries, leveling cities and slaughtering civilians. Both in Nazi Germany and contemporary US, we are told by the mass media that the invading armies are “liberating the country” and "spreading democracy".  The enemy are foreigners, insurgents, or al Qaeda.  But never are we told that the Iraqis despise the U.S. invaders.  Are they not fighting to be a free people?  Almost the entire population of non-Kurdish Iraq is opposed to the US military and its puppet regime — yet the media refer to those defending their country from the imperial invaders as “insurgents”, minimizing the significance of a nationwide force of freedom fighters.  We are told that the mounting causalities are a result of civil war and sectarian violence, despite that the puppet police units are the main target of these attacks. Like the Nazi media, the major US radio and TV networks report that “freeing the city of insurgents” includes the systematic murder of friends, neighbors and relatives.  And, “securing the city for free elections” means terror bombing homes, hospitals and religious buildings by hundreds of jets, missiles, and helicopter gunships.  Why do Washington and the mass media resort to these tactics?  Answer: to galvanize support with the U.S. population in order to wage a "war of terror" on Iraqis — forcing them into submission while large energy corporation suck their country's oil supply dry. The technique perfected by Goebbels in Germany and practiced in the US is to repeat lies and euphemisms until they become accepted “truths”, and become embedded into everyday language.  Goebbels was behind the propaganda for Nazi Germany

Below are some propaganda points based upon "Goebbels' Principles of Propaganda" by Leonard W. Doob
1. Propagandist must have access to intelligence concerning events and public opinion.
2. Propaganda must be planned and executed by only one authority.
a. It must issue all the propaganda directives
b. It must explain propaganda directives to important officials and maintain their morale
c. It must oversee other agencies' activities which have propaganda consequences
3. The propaganda consequences of an action must be considered in planning that action.
4. Propaganda must affect the enemy's policy and action.
a. By suppressing propagandistically desirable material which can provide the enemy with useful intelligence
b. By openly disseminating propaganda whose content or tone causes the enemy to draw the desired conclusions
c. By goading the enemy into revealing vital information about himself
d. By making no reference to a desired enemy activity when any reference would discredit that activity
5. Declassified, operational information must be available to implement a propaganda campaign
6. To be perceived, propaganda must evoke the interest of an audience and must be transmitted through an attention-getting communications medium.
7. Credibility alone must determine whether propaganda output should be true or false.
8. The purpose, content and effectiveness of enemy propaganda; the strength and effects of an expose; and the nature of current propaganda campaigns determine whether enemy propaganda should be ignored or refuted.
9. Credibility, intelligence, and the possible effects of communicating determine whether propaganda materials should be censored.
10. Material from enemy propaganda may be utilized in operations when it helps diminish that enemy's prestige or lends support to the propagandist's own objective.
11. Black rather than white propaganda may be employed when the latter is less credible or produces undesirable effects.
12. Propaganda may be facilitated by leaders with prestige.
13. Propaganda must be carefully timed.
a. The communication must reach the audience ahead of competing propaganda.
b. A propaganda campaign must begin at the optimum moment
c. A propaganda theme must be repeated, but not beyond some point of diminishing effectiveness
14. Propaganda must label events and people with distinctive phrases or slogans.
a. They must evoke desired responses which the audience previously possesses
b. They must be capable of being easily learned
c. They must be utilized again and again, but only in appropriate situations
d. They must be boomerang-proof
15. Propaganda to the home front must prevent the raising of false hopes which can be blasted by future events.
16. Propaganda to the home front must create an optimum anxiety level.
a. Propaganda must reinforce anxiety concerning the consequences of defeat
b. Propaganda must diminish anxiety (other than concerning the consequences of defeat) which is too high and which cannot be reduced by people themselves
17. Propaganda to the home front must diminish the impact of frustration.
a. Inevitable frustrations must be anticipated
b. Inevitable frustrations must be placed in perspective
18. Propaganda must facilitate the displacement of aggression by specifying the targets for hatred.
19. Propaganda cannot immediately affect strong counter-tendencies; instead it must offer some form of action or diversion, or both.

[Note: An intelligent person armed with the knowledge of how propaganda works can easily pick up these techniques being used upon the masses.  Once you figure it out, you will be amazed at how often you are being attacked by it.  It's worse than you think...]
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #25 on: September 04, 2009, 08:54:30 am »
Holy Shit. Thanks Sane... this is a massive rabbit hole with links to everything we see happening today.

And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #26 on: September 04, 2009, 08:56:56 am »
Holy Shit. Thanks Sane... this is a massive rabbit hole with links to everything we see happening today.


Posts like this make me think to the future when we have good text reading software,
and more importantly having a copy stored of the entire forum...

Offline Dig

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #27 on: September 04, 2009, 08:58:28 am »
Holy Shit. Thanks Sane... this is a massive rabbit hole with links to everything we see happening today.



I truly believe that once the 305 million citizens are free of this mind control, the NWO elites will just walk away. the psychopaths will be forced to just walk away for they will see the wisdom in leaving non-violent, non-cooperative free thinkers alone. IMO, we need to expose the "They Live" mind control we are under to render it impotent.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Harconen

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #28 on: September 04, 2009, 10:26:41 am »
The Media

Journalism is a perfect cover for CIA agents. People talk freely to journalists, and few think suspiciously of a journalist aggressively searching for information. Journalists also have power, influence and clout. Not surprisingly, the CIA began a mission in the late 1940s to recruit American journalists on a wide scale, a mission it dubbed Operation MOCKINGBIRD. The agency wanted these journalists not only to relay any sensitive information they discovered, but also to write anti-communist, pro-capitalist propaganda when needed.

The instigators of MOCKINGBIRD were Frank Wisner, Allan Dulles, Richard Helms and Philip Graham. Graham was the husband of Katherine Graham, today's publisher of the Washington Post. In fact, it was the Post's ties to the CIA that allowed it to grow so quickly after the war, both in readership and influence.8

MOCKINGBIRD was extraordinarily successful. In no time, the agency had recruited at least 25 media organizations to disseminate CIA propaganda. At least 400 journalists would eventually join the CIA payroll, according to the CIA's testimony before a stunned Church Committee in 1975. (The committee felt the true number was considerably higher.) The names of those recruited reads like a Who's Who of journalism:

* Philip and Katharine Graham (Publishers, Washington Post)

* William Paley (President, CBS)

* Henry Luce (Publisher, Time and Life magazines)

* Arthur Hays Sulzberger (Publisher, New York Times)

* Jerry O'Leary (Washington Star)

*Hal Hendrix (Pulitzer Prize winner, Miami News)

* Barry Bingham Sr., (Louisville Courier-Journal)

* James Copley (Copley News Services)

* Joseph Harrison (Editor, Christian Science Monitor)

* C.D. Jackson (Fortune)

* Walter Pincus (Reporter, Washington Post)

* ABC

* NBC

* Associated Press

* United Press International

* Reuters

* Hearst Newspapers

* Scripps-Howard

* Newsweek magazine

* Mutual Broadcasting System

* Miami Herald

* Old Saturday Evening Post

* New York Herald-Tribune

Perhaps no newspaper is more important to the CIA than the Washington Post, one of the nation's most right-wing dailies. Its location in the nation's capitol enables the paper to maintain valuable personal contacts with leading intelligence, political and business figures. Unlike other newspapers, the Post operates its own bureaus around the world, rather than relying on AP wire services. Owner Philip Graham was a military intelligence officer in World War II, and later became close friends with CIA figures like Frank Wisner, Allen Dulles, Desmond FitzGerald and Richard Helms. He inherited the Post by marrying Katherine Graham, whose father owned it.

After Philip's suicide in 1963, Katharine Graham took over the Post. Seduced by her husband's world of government and espionage, she expanded her newspaper's relationship with the CIA. In a 1988 speech before CIA officials at Langley, Virginia, she stated:

We live in a dirty and dangerous world. There are some things that the general public does not need to know and shouldn't. I believe democracy flourishes when the government can take legitimate steps to keep its secrets and when the press can decide whether to print what it knows.

This quote has since become a classic among CIA critics for its belittlement of democracy and its admission that there is a political agenda behind the Post's headlines.

Ben Bradlee was the Post's managing editor during most of the Cold War. He worked in the U.S. Paris embassy from 1951 to 1953, where he followed orders by the CIA station chief to place propaganda in the European press.9 Most Americans incorrectly believe that Bradlee personifies the liberal slant of the Post, given his role in publishing the Pentagon Papers and the Watergate investigations. But neither of these two incidents are what they seem. The Post merely published the Pentagon Papers after The New York Times already had, because it wanted to appear competitive. As for Watergate, we'll examine the CIA's reasons for wanting to bring down Nixon in a moment. Someone once asked Bradlee: "Does it irk you when The Washington Post is made out to be a bastion of slanted liberal thinkers instead of champion journalists just because of Watergate?" Bradlee responded: "Damn right it does!"10

It would be impossible to elaborate in this short space even the most important examples of the CIA/media alliance. Sig Mickelson was a CIA asset the entire time he was president of CBS News from 1954 to 1961. Later he went on to become president of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, two major outlets of CIA propaganda.

The CIA also secretly bought or created its own media companies. It owned 40 percent of the Rome Daily American at a time when communists were threatening to win the Italian elections. Worse, the CIA has bought many domestic media companies. A prime example is Capital Cities, created in 1954 by CIA businessman William Casey (who would later become Reagan's CIA director). Another founder was Lowell Thomas, a close friend and business contact with CIA Director Allen Dulles. Another founder was CIA businessman Thomas Dewey. By 1985, Capital Cities had grown so powerful that it was able to buy an entire TV network: ABC.

For those who believe in "separation of press and state," the very idea that the CIA has secret propaganda outlets throughout the media is appalling. The reason why America was so oblivious to CIA crimes in the 40s and 50s was because the media willingly complied with the agency. Even today, when the immorality of the CIA should be an open-and-shut case, "debate" about the issue rages in the media. Here is but one example:

In 1996, The San Jose Mercury News published an investigative report suggesting that the CIA had sold crack in Los Angeles to fund the Contra war in Central America. A month later, three of the CIA's most important media allies - The Washington Post, The New York Times and The Los Angeles Times - immediately leveled their guns at the Mercury report and blasted away in an attempt to discredit it. Who wrote the Post article? Walter Pincus, longtime CIA journalist. The dangers here are obvious.

http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=125489.msg783505#msg783505


Media and public education brainwash citizens into acquiescing to corrupted authority:

* Public education is behavior modification designed to create worker drones instead of capable individuals.This is done through systems of reward and punishment, compartmentalization of the mind, preoccupation with meaningless work, political correctness, and distortions of facts and principles in textbooks.

* The media has no obligation to report truth, only to make money and obey orders from the government. Thus they either appeal to the lowest common denominator in mass consciousness and thus help lower mass consciousness further, or else they report stories that propagate an agenda. News is designed to emotionally shock and hypnotize the public into giving up their self-determination and discernment.

http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=126664.0
Resist. Rebel. Cry out to all peoples and nations from the sky as the lightening flashes from the east to the west and judge the living and the dead.Or choose submission and slavery.

The light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.  (John 1:5)

Offline jofortruth

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #29 on: September 04, 2009, 10:40:49 am »
CIA Atrocities:
http://z4.invisionfree.com/The_Great_Deception/index.php?showtopic=2843


Anyone with any integrity would not be a part of this group, PERIOD!
Don't believe me. Look it up yourself!

Offline Satyagraha

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CIA planting news much? - used Blackwater-linked mercenaries as journalists
« Reply #30 on: September 05, 2009, 01:39:23 am »
CIA used Blackwater-linked mercenaries as journalists
http://onlinejournal.com/artman/publish/article_5090.shtml
By Wayne Madsen
Online Journal Contributing Writer
Sep 4, 2009, 00:21

(WMR) -- The CIA used credentialed journalists to engage in counter-intelligence and counter-terrorism operations from 2003 to 2005.

WMR has learned that two individuals working as subcontractors to the CIA had significant links to Blackwater’s CIA-approved and sanctioned operations in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, and Iran. Both traveled with credentials issued by United Press International (UPI), the wire service owned by News World Communications, owned by South Korean cult leader Reverend Sun Myung Moon.

One of the contractor fake UPI journalists obtained a journalist visa from the Iranian Interests Section, which operates under the Pakistan embassy in Washington, to visit Tehran in 2003 and engaged in “target analysis and spotting” for a planned U.S. attack on Iran.
The fake journalist also maintained close liaison with Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld’s office and officers of the Israeli Defense Force. The “reporter” also engaged in counter-intelligence/terrorism operations in the Pakistani northwest tribal border region with Afghanistan, as well as in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Another journalist covert agent operated in Afghanistan with not only a UPI credential but also a UPI tri-band international cell phone, which the individual used to run up a huge phone bill making phone calls from Afghanistan and other locations to the United States.

One of the CIA journalist agents also swept up intelligence on the knowledge possessed by various overseas officials about what they knew about the 9/11 attacks. These included Taliban, Northern Alliance, and Pashtun officials in Afghanistan, Pakistani Inter Service Intelligence (ISI) officers and mujaheddin elements once allied to the CIA during the Afghan war with the Soviet Union, Saudi government officials, and members of the neocon-linked Iraqi National Congress, including its leader Ahmad Chalabi.

Both faux journalists were also in Uzbekistan in the months following 9/11, ostensibly to cover the regional news from that country. However, the country was also a focal point for U.S. military activities in the region and, in 2005, Uzbek forces launched an attack against protesters in Andijan, killing up to 1,500 people. The government claimed the protesters were Islamic radicals but later admitted they were protesting poor economic conditions.

The CIA has long stressed that it does not use journalists as agents. However, the use of UPI-credentialed journalists in private military contractor covert operations puts to rest that stated policy.

Both journalists in question were veterans of the U.S. Special Forces and had close links to the headquarters of the U.S. Army Special Forces at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Blackwater/Xe maintains a training facility at Moyock, North Carolina.

Over the past few days, the Associated Press has reported that the CIA used Blackwater contract assassins in other countries and there have been other reports that the firm used foreign mercenaries to carry out covert operations. The AP also quoted one former high-level CIA official as stating that the agency used Blackwater for hit teams because “you wouldn’t want to have American fingerprints on it.”

WMR has also learned that a Blackwater security operative infiltrated the presidential campaigns of former Democratic Senator Mike Gravel of Alaska and Representative Ron Paul (R-TX). The operative, who was permitted to carry loaded weapons at televised presidential debates featuring other candidates, including Serect Service-protected candidates Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton, as well as Senators John McCain, Joe Biden, and Chris Dodd, Representative Dennis Kucinich, and former Governors Mitt Romney and Mike Huckabee, also served in Iraq and had close ties with the Israeli Defense Force. The Secret Service refused to interfere with the Blackwater employee’s access to the presidential candidates of both parties, claiming that whom presidential candidates chose to have as their personal security members was their business. The Blackwater employee also was permitted to fly on regularly-scheduled commercial flights with the loaded weapons.

The employee’s affiliations were not much of a secret as one source reported that he had a “huge Star of David” tattooed on his chest.

Previously published in the Wayne Madsen Report.

Copyright © 2009 WayneMadenReport.
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline spangler

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #31 on: September 05, 2009, 02:17:15 am »

How the spooks took over the news


In his controversial new book, Nick Davies argues that shadowy intelligence agencies are pumping out black propaganda to manipulate public opinion – and that the media simply swallow it wholesale


Monday, 11 February 2008
   

Onthe morning of 9 February 2004, The New York Times carried an exclusive and alarming story. The paper's Baghdad correspondent, Dexter Filkins, reported that US officials had obtained a 17-page letter, believed to have been written by the notorious terrorist Abu Musab al Zarqawi to the "inner circle" of al-Qa'ida's leadership, urging them to accept that the best way to beat US forces in Iraq was effectively to start a civil war.

The letter argued that al-Qa'ida, which is a Sunni network, should attack the Shia population of Iraq: "It is the only way to prolong the duration of the fight between the infidels and us. If we succeed in dragging them into a sectarian war, this will awaken the sleepy Sunnis."

Later that day, at a regular US press briefing in Baghdad, US General Mark Kimmitt dealt with a string of questions about The New York Times report: "We believe the report and the document is credible, and we take the report seriously... It is clearly a plan on the part of outsiders to come in to this country and spark civil war, create sectarian violence, try to expose fissures in this society." The story went on to news agency wires and, within 24 hours, it was running around the world.

There is very good reason to believe that that letter was a fake – and a significant one because there is equally good reason to believe that it was one product among many from a new machinery of propaganda which has been created by the United States and its allies since the terrorist attacks of September 2001.

For the first time in human history, there is a concerted strategy to manipulate global perception. And the mass media are operating as its compliant assistants, failing both to resist it and to expose it.

The sheer ease with which this machinery has been able to do its work reflects a creeping structural weakness which now afflicts the production of our news. I've spent the last two years researching a book about falsehood, distortion and propaganda in the global media.

The "Zarqawi letter" which made it on to the front page of The New York Times in February 2004 was one of a sequence of highly suspect documents which were said to have been written either by or to Zarqawi and which were fed into news media.

This material is being generated, in part, by intelligence agencies who continue to work without effective oversight; and also by a new and essentially benign structure of "strategic communications" which was originally designed by doves in the Pentagon and Nato who wanted to use subtle and non-violent tactics to deal with Islamist terrorism but whose efforts are poorly regulated and badly supervised with the result that some of its practitioners are breaking loose and engaging in the black arts of propaganda.

Like the new propaganda machine as a whole, the Zarqawi story was born in the high tension after the attacks of September 2001. At that time, he was a painful thorn in the side of the Jordanian authorities, an Islamist radical who was determined to overthrow the royal family. But he was nothing to do with al-Q'aida. Indeed, he had specifically rejected attempts by Bin Laden to recruit him, because he was not interested in targeting the West.

Nevertheless, when US intelligence battered on the doors of allied governments in search of information about al-Q'aida, the Jordanian authorities – anxious to please the Americans and perhaps keen to make life more difficult for their native enemy – threw up his name along with other suspects. Soon he started to show up as a minor figure in US news stories – stories which were factually weak, often contradictory and already using the Jordanians as a tool of political convenience.

Then, on 7 October 2002, for the first time, somebody referred to him on the record. In a nationally televised speech in Cincinnati, President George Bush spoke of "high-level contacts" between al-Q'aida and Iraq and said: "Some al-Q'aida leaders who fled Afghanistan, went to Iraq. These include one very senior al-Q'aida leader who received medical treatment in Baghdad this year, and who has been associated with planning for chemical and biological attacks."

This coincided with a crucial vote in Congress in which the president was seeking authority to use military force against Iraq. Bush never named the man he was referring to but, as the Los Angeles Times among many others soon reported: "In a speech [on] Monday, Bush referred to a senior member of al-Q'aida who received medical treatment in Iraq. US officials said yesterday that was Abu al Musab Zarqawi, a Jordanian, who lost a leg during the US war in Afghanistan."

Even now, Zarqawi was a footnote, not a headline, but the flow of stories about him finally broke through and flooded the global media on 5 February 2003, when the Secretary of State, Colin Powell, addressed the UN Security Council, arguing that Iraq must be invaded: first, to stop its development of weapons of mass destruction; and second, to break its ties with al-Q'aida.

Powell claimed that "Iraq today harbours a deadly terrorist network headed by Abu Musab al Zarqawi"; that Zarqawi's base in Iraq was a camp for "poison and explosive training"; that he was "an associate and collaborator of Osama bin Laden and his al-Q'aida lieutenants"; that he "fought in the Afghan war more than a decade ago"; that "Zarqawi and his network have plotted terrorist actions against countries, including France, Britain, Spain, Italy, Germany and Russia".

Courtesy of post-war Senate intelligence inquiries; evidence disclosed in several European trials; and the courageous work of a handful of journalists who broke away from the pack, we now know that every single one of those statements was entirely false. But that didn't matter: it was a big story. News organisations sucked it in and regurgitated it for their trusting consumers.

So, who exactly is producing fiction for the media? Who wrote the Zarqawi letters? Who created the fantasy story about Osama bin Laden using a network of subterranean bases in Afghanistan, complete with offices, dormitories, arms depots, electricity and ventilation systems? Who fed the media with tales of the Taliban leader, Mullah Omar, suffering brain seizures and sitting in stationery cars turning the wheel and making a noise like an engine? Who came up with the idea that Iranian ayatollahs have been encouraging sex with animals and girls of only nine?

Some of this comes from freelance political agitators. It was an Iranian opposition group, for example, which was behind the story that President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was jailing people for texting each other jokes about him. And notoriously it was Iraqi exiles who supplied the global media with a dirty stream of disinformation about Saddam Hussein.

But clearly a great deal of this carries the fingerprints of officialdom. The Pentagon has now designated "information operations" as its fifth "core competency" alongside land, sea, air and special forces. Since October 2006, every brigade, division and corps in the US military has had its own "psyop" element producing output for local media. This military activity is linked to the State Department's campaign of "public diplomacy" which includes funding radio stations and news websites. In Britain, the Directorate of Targeting and Information Operations in the Ministry of Defence works with specialists from 15 UK psyops, based at the Defence Intelligence and Security School at Chicksands in Bedfordshire.

In the case of British intelligence, you can see this combination of reckless propaganda and failure of oversight at work in the case of Operation Mass Appeal. This was exposed by the former UN arms inspector Scott Ritter, who describes in his book, Iraq Confidential, how, in London in June 1998, he was introduced to two "black propaganda specialists" from MI6 who wanted him to give them material which they could spread through "editors and writers who work with us from time to time".

In interviews for Flat Earth News, Ritter described how, between December 1997 and June 1998, he had three meetings with MI6 officers who wanted him to give them raw intelligence reports on Iraqi arms procurement. The significance of these reports was that they were all unconfirmed and so none was being used in assessing Iraqi activity. Yet MI6 was happy to use them to plant stories in the media. Beyond that, there is worrying evidence that, when Lord Butler asked MI6 about this during his inquiry into intelligence around the invasion of Iraq, MI6 lied to him.

Ultimately, the US has run into trouble with its propaganda in Iraq, particularly with its use of the Zarqawi story. In May 2006, when yet another of his alleged letters was handed out to reporters in the Combined Press Information Centre in Baghdad, finally it was widely regarded as suspect and ignored by just about every single media outlet.

Arguably, even worse than this loss of credibility, according to British defence sources, the US campaign on Zarqawi eventually succeeded in creating its own reality. By elevating him from his position as one fighter among a mass of conflicting groups, the US campaign to "villainise Zarqawi" glamorised him with its enemy audience, making it easier for him to raise funds, to attract "unsponsored" foreign fighters, to make alliances with Sunni Iraqis and to score huge impact with his own media manoeuvres. Finally, in December 2004, Osama bin Laden gave in to this constructed reality, buried his differences with the Jordanian and declared him the leader of al-Q'aida's resistance to the American occupation.

link

Offline spangler

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #32 on: September 05, 2009, 02:17:40 am »

Offline spangler

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #33 on: September 05, 2009, 02:22:02 am »

Offline spangler

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #34 on: September 05, 2009, 02:27:15 am »
Carl Bernstein's  "The CIA & The Media"

How Americas Most Powerful News Media Worked Hand in Glove with the Central Intelligence Agency and Why the Church Committee Covered It Up

Offline spangler

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #35 on: September 05, 2009, 02:31:53 am »
And an official summary of America's overthrow of the democratically-elected president of Iran in the 1950's states:

 "In cooperation with the Department of State, CIA had several articles planted in major American newspapers and magazines which, when reproduced in Iran, had the desired psychological effect in Iran and contributed to the war of nerves against Mossadeq." (page x)

http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB28/summary.pdf

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #36 on: September 05, 2009, 08:51:39 am »
How can anyone at this point believe that they're getting honest information from the mainstream media? Just watch a while, and in-between stories about Michael Jackson, Paris Hilton, and the horrors of poorly-plucked eyebrows, you might catch something newsworthy... but 99.9% of the time, that will be severely edited, spun, thrown through censorship filters, and delivered as "BREAKING NEWS" - and it will be utterly unrecognizable as truth.

It's critical for the alphabet NWO organizations to continue to maintain control of media; here and abroad - in order to continue their program of dominance. Sites that DO give you truth - PP, Inforwars, etc., are under constant heavy attack. When you find important information - post it by all means. But I see lots of posts that include ONLY THE LINK - and if you go back to older Prison Planet Forumorum posts (as I've been doing with some of AI's posts), you'll find the original link is now "404'd" - no longer there. They are SCRUBBING everything and it will all disappear. ALL OF IT.

Please post full text when you can - AI did that, but links within full text of the articles he posted are coming up empty. SAVE the important posts you make to your local drive, or better yet - print them out so you have a hard copy that you may need to refer to one of these days. This is an infowar - and depending exclusively on an internet-based news source is not going to cut it. They can take us down at any time, no problem. These bastards are playing with us; they'll stop the game, and finish it when and if they choose.
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline chris jones

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #37 on: September 05, 2009, 10:28:28 am »
Hi Sane.

Agreed, and thanks for your research, good dig.

Journalism, MSM, is now writing what they are told to.

Dan Rathers said it nicely , Journalists need a spine transplant.

MSM Contolled, absulutely.

JTCoyoté

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #38 on: September 05, 2009, 12:05:36 pm »
Media Conglomerates, MIC, Big Government, and the descendents of Goebbels
http://911exposed.org/Media/Mediagovernment.htm




The Influence of [a Corporatistic] Government over Free Speech


"Look, if you think any American official is going to tell you the truth, then you're stupid. Did you hear that? - stupid." -- Arthur Sylvester, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs

[...]



Yet, there he is, Arthur Sylvester, Assistant Secretary of Defense for public affairs, an American official, telling you that all American public officials lie, therefore since he is a public official he must be lying. This is the kind of circular propaganda that fries brain cells... the only defense to it, is not to listen to anything that they say. The only problem with that is, that's what they want you to do.

When you get into the horrifically convoluted world of psychological operations, you had better be able to read their energy... or you will be trapped in their words. If you only see them flat and two-dimensional, like on a television or computer screen, their energy will be difficult if not impossible to read... it is important therefore if you must listen to them this way, to first watch the presentation closely with the sound off, then, listen to the presentation without the picture... the first time you do this, you will instantly see exactly what I mean... you want to avoid doing both at the same time until you have firmly separated the visual from the auditory.

We are bombarded daily... and those who watch hours of television every day, news broadcasts, C-SPAN, MSNBC, CNN, Fox, the Hitler Channel, etc. etc. etc. thinking that they are becoming informed... I have news for you... you are becoming dis-informed... cookie cutter molded, and ripe for packaging and sent to the camps.

You may think that by experience, and by knowing that this propaganda tool exists, that you are somehow immune to it... I can assure you that nothing could be further from the truth. Always defuse the two dimensional video/auditory propaganda the way I suggest above... you will notice the difference right away.

JTCoyoté

"Those who profess to favor freedom, and yet depreciate agitation, are men who want crops without plowing up the ground. They want rain without thunder and lightning, they want the ocean without the awful roar of its waters. This struggle may be a moral one; or it may be a physical one; or it may be both moral and physical; but it be a struggle. Power concedes nothing without a demand... It never did... and it never will... Find out just what the people will submit to, and you have found out the exact amount of injustice and wrong which will be imposed upon them; and these will continue until they are resisted with either words or blows, or with both. The limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance of those whom they oppress." -- Frederick Douglas (1857)

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: CIA planting news?
« Reply #39 on: September 05, 2009, 12:49:21 pm »

When you get into the horrifically convoluted world of psychological operations, you had better be able to read their energy... or you will be trapped in their words. If you only see them flat and two-dimensional, like on a television or computer screen, their energy will be difficult if not impossible to read... it is important therefore if you must listen to them this way, to first watch the presentation closely with the sound off, then, listen to the presentation without the picture... the first time you do this, you will instantly see exactly what I mean... you want to avoid doing both at the same time until you have firmly separated the visual from the auditory.


Thanks JT - I'll give that a try... interesting observations... and I agree; the conditioning is insidious. You don't even realize it as you watch tv news; even though you may be consciously aware of the bs; subconsciously you're still drinking from the poisoned well.

I have a question about how you're defining "their energy" ... do you mean their body language?
 
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40