Author Topic: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté  (Read 47075 times)

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Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic
http://www.infowars.com/personal-recollections-of-the-1957-h2n2-flu-pandemic/
JT Coyote
Infowars
August 28, 2009

The students in the farming community I grew up in were having a grade school “fair” in the fall of 1957. It was the beginning of fourth grade for me. We were setting up props for the weekend festivities, when parents and students would all attend. We were busy converting the 4 room school into a frontier town. It was all part of the run up to the Colorado statehood Centennial celebration and we chose an Old West theme. 1957 was the first year of school polio and smallpox shots, which we had all received a couple of weeks earlier. I remember that I wasn’t feeling well that day, but I didn’t want to miss the fun, yet by mid afternoon — let’s just say, I had to go home early that Friday.
   
   
Citizens line up for their vaccinations in the 1950s.
   
By Saturday morning I was running an incredible fever. I was in a constant state of vomiting and dry heaves, I couldn’t keep anything down, and for the longest time my only conscious moments were filled with fever, vomiting, and delirium. Within hours of one another, one by one, my brothers and sisters came down with the bug, though I have little conscious recollection of those first three days.

By Sunday my parents had also succumb. The only one who was still standing was my maternal grandmother, who while in her late teens, had survived the 1918 Spanish flu. Lucky for us she knew what to do and in her immunity, she nursed us all through the critical first few days of ordeal and the week of recovery. I also thank providence for the other two families that worked on the dairy farm. They had no grade school age children and were able to maintain the milking chores and other things necessary to keep the farm running. Yet within a week or two, one after another they all came down with flu as well. I know of people who were killed by this virus. There were some members of the Victory Grange, and the Tower Baptist Church, that we never saw again.

There must be a reason why the authorities are not talking about this strain of flu — primary obfuscation perhaps, by the weak red herring H1N1, that’s my gut feeling. I say this because when the story first broke in 2004/2005, about the 3000 or so H2N2 (1957) flu test kits that were “accidentally” mailed all over the world, it suddenly disappeared from the media. I repeat the word accidentally with a “don’t you believe it” advisory, (”nudge, nudge,- wink, wink, – know what I mean, known what I mean.”)

To quote the reference source:

“From October 2004 to February 2005, approximately 3,700 test kits of the 1957 H2N2 virus were accidentally spread around the world from the College of American Pathologists (CAP). CAP assists laboratories in accuracy by providing unidentified samples of viruses; private contractor Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, U.S., chose the 1957 strand instead of one of the less deadly avian influenza virus subtypes. “CAP spokesman Dr. Jared Schwartz said Meridian knew what the virus was but believed it was safe. In selecting it, the company had determined that the virus was classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) agent, which meant it could legally be used in the kits. [...] Before the problem came to light, the CDC had made a recommendation that the H2N2 virus be reclassified as a BSL-3 agent, Gerberding said. She promised to speed up the reclassification. The CDC determines the classifications in
collaboration with the National Institutes of Health. In BSL-3 labs, agents are handled with equipment designed to prevent any airborne contamination and resulting respiratory exposure.” [10] The 1957 H2N2 virus is considered deadly and the U.S. government called for the vials containing the strain to be destroyed.”

So just how many of these vials were actually destroyed? Do we know how many were opened and cultured? Well, the one thing we do know for sure is that they contained the BSL-3, deadly, live H2N2 virus. No need to dig up dead, obese, Inuit Eskimo women from which to extricate and resurrect the virus, all they had to do was ship out the existing 50 year old, culture test kits and allow the eugenics clinics to do what they do best… namely, culture, replicate, and distribute, the known killer, H2N2 (1957) avian flu virus.

I’ve had what they call the flu since then, a couple of days of achiness in the military in ‘68, and then again when I took the “mandatory” Air Force swine flu shot in 1972/73 and got sick from that. But again, just achy joints and muscles, a little nausea, and a fever for a few days, but nowhere near the 1957 flu. After 1973, I haven’t had the flu at all really, not even the most subtle symptoms. I seldom even have a cold beyond the sniffles, and achy joints, mostly now in my later years.


You would think that this latest scare, would bring the national media to mention the pandemic of 1957. After all, according to the WHO, (World Health Organization), it killed 2 million+ people world wide that year. Other credible sources say 4 million died. The official stats for the number of deaths in the United States during that pandemic is 70,000. I wonder if the folks who died that I knew, and folks in other out of the way rural areas in the country, and the world for that matter — were they counted in those statistics? Sources other than the WHO say that the number is more likely between 100,000 and 140,000 American deaths by flu in ‘57-’58…

This past Friday night there was a flyover above my home at about 8:30 in the evening. It happened again at just before midnight on Saturday, and then a third fly by — and I will never forget the exact time of this one, it was 2:09 AM Monday morning August 24th. The airplane was a twin-engine turbo prop that rumbled the house rafters as it went over. The valley where I live is about 9000 feet in elevation, about a mile wide and is rimed on opposite sides by 12,000 to 13,000 foot peaks. I could hear the aircraft feather its propellers on approach as it dropped down in a crop duster like swoop. It breezed across the valley in only a few seconds, then it powered back up into a climbing turn and disappeared over the reservoir. I should alert you to the fact that large twin engine aircraft flying at low altitude over our little valley in the wee hours of the morning, is as rare as snow storms in Pensacola Florida, yet it happened three times, in as many nights.

The reason I won’t forget the last flyover is this — in hopes of catching a glimpse of the noisy bird, I scurried out the front door onto the porch. I was immediately hit with a smell and taste that I can never forget. A sensation I have not experienced since the first time I tasted it. It was the taste and smell of that deathly ill three days I lived through, back in 1957.

I for one will not be surprised at all when they announce that what is taking people’s lives this time, will not be the H1N1 at all, but a variant of the H2N2 virus! — Still — why doesn’t the press even mention the 1957/58 H2N2 flu pandemic… seems curious, don’t you think?

–Oldyoti

“What we meant, in going for those redcoats was this –
we had always governed ourselves, and always meant to…
they, didn’t mean we should.”

– An old New England militia captain,
after the battles of Lexington and Concord
April 19, 1775




Influenza A virus subtype H2N2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H2N2


H2N2 is a subtype of the species influenzavirus A (sometimes called bird flu virus). H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the Asian Flu strain (now extinct in the wild), H3N2, and various strains found in birds. It is also suspected of causing a human pandemic in 1889.[1][2]


[edit]
Russian flu
See Influenzavirus A subtype H1N1#Russian flu for the 1977-1978 Russian flu

Some believe that the 1889 - 1890 Russian flu was caused by the influenzavirus A virus subtype H2N2, but the evidence is not conclusive. It is the earliest flu pandemic for which detailed records are available.[3] "The 1889 pandemic, known as the Russian Flu, began in Russia and spread rapidly throughout Europe. It reached North America in December 1889 and spread to Latin America and Asia in February 1890. About 1 million people died in this pandemic."[4]

[edit]
Asian flu

The "Asian Flu" was a category 2 flu pandemic outbreak of avian influenza that originated in China in early 1956 lasting until 1958. It originated from mutation in wild ducks combining with a pre-existing human strain.[5] The virus was first identified in Guizhou.[6] It spread to Singapore in February 1957[7], reached Hong Kong by April, and US by June. Death toll in the US was approximately 69,800.[5] Estimates of worldwide deaths caused by this pandemic varies widely depending on source; ranging from 1 million to 4 million, with WHO settling on "about 2 million".

Asian Flu was of the H2N2 subtype (a notation that refers to the configuration of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins in the virus) of type A influenza, and an influenza vaccine was developed in 1957 to contain its outbreak.

The Asian Flu strain later evolved via antigenic shift into H3N2 which caused a milder pandemic from 1968 to 1969.[8]

Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) clearly arose through reassortment between human and avian viruses, the influenza virus causing the 'Spanish flu' in 1918 appears to be entirely derived from an avian source (Belshe 2005)." [9]

[edit]
Test kits

From October 2004 to February 2005, approximately 3,700 test kits of the 1957 H2N2 virus were accidentally spread around the world from the College of American Pathologists (CAP). CAP assists laboratories in accuracy by providing unidentified samples of viruses; private contractor Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, U.S., chose the 1957 strand instead of one of the less deadly avian influenza virus subtypes. "CAP spokesman Dr. Jared Schwartz said Meridian knew what the virus was but believed it was safe. In selecting it, the company had determined that the virus was classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) agent, which meant it could legally be used in the kits. [...] Before the problem came to light, the CDC had made a recommendation that the H2N2 virus be reclassified as a BSL-3 agent, Gerberding said. She promised to speed up the reclassification. The CDC determines the classifications in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health. In BSL-3 labs, agents are handled with equipment designed to prevent any airborne contamination and resulting respiratory exposure."[10] The 1957 H2N2 virus is considered deadly and the U.S. government called for the vials containing the strain to be destroyed.

"CDC officials reported on 21 April that 99% of the samples had already been destroyed. News reports on 25 April said the last samples outside the United States had been destroyed at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, after they were found at the Beirut airport. Earlier reports said H2N2 samples were sent to 3,747 labs under CAP auspices and to about another 2,700 labs certified by other organizations. All but about 75 labs that received the CAP samples were in the United States."[11]

"In the United States, there is no government regulation over the 1957 flu strain. In fact, federal officials at the CDC do not even know how many U.S. laboratories keep this deadly strain in their viral libraries."[12]

[edit]
Sources
^ Sdstate.edu
^ Pilva.com
^ Encarta on influenza
^ CIDRAP article Pandemic Influenza Last updated 29 May 2008
^ a b Greene Jeffrey. Moline, Karen. [2006] (2006) The Bird Flu Pandemic. ISBN 0312360568.
^ Goldsmith, Connie. [2007] (2007) Influenza: The Next Pandemic? 21st century publishing. ISBN 0761394575
^ Germ Warfare, History Today
^ Starling, Arthur. [2006] (2006) Plague, SARS, and the Story of Medicine in Hong Kong. HK University Press. ISBN 9622098053
^ Chapter Two : Avian Influenza by Timm C. Harder and Ortrud Werner from free on-line Book called Influenza Report 2006 which is a medical textbook that provides a comprehensive overview of epidemic and pandemic influenza.
^ Cidrap UMN.edu
^ Flu.org
^ Globalist.com

[edit]
Further reading
Pandemic preparedness: lessons learnt from H2N2 and H9N2 candidate vaccines
Interim CDC-NIH Recommendation for Raising the Biosafety Level for Laboratory Work Involving Noncontemporary Human Influenza Viruses
New Scientist: Bird Flu
Pandemic-causing 'Asian flu' accidentally released
Persistence of Q strain of H2N2 influenza virus in avian species: antigenic, biological and genetic analysis of avian and human H2N2 viruses

[edit]
External links
BioHealthBase Bioinformatics Resource Center Database of influenza sequences and related information.v • d • e
Influenza

General topics   Research - Vaccine - Treatment - Genome sequencing - Reassortment - Superinfection - Season

Influenza viruses   Orthomyxoviridae - Influenza A - Influenza B - Influenza C

Influenza A virus
Subtypes   H1N1 - H1N2 - H2N2 - H2N3 - H3N1 - H3N2 - H3N8 - H5N1 - H5N2 - H5N3 - H5N8 - H5N9 - H7N1 - H7N2 - H7N3 - H7N4 - H7N7 - H9N2 - H10N7

H1N1          Pandemics   1918 flu pandemic (Spanish flu) - 2009 flu pandemic (Swine flu)

Science   2009 A/H1N1


H5N1   Science   Genetic structure - Transmission and infection - Global spread - Clinical Trials - Human mortality - Social impact - Pandemic preparation

        Outbreaks   Croatia (2005) - India (2006) - UK (2007) - West Bengal (2008)


Treatments   Antiviral drugs   Arbidol - adamantane derivatives (Amantadine, Rimantadine) - neuraminidase inhibitors (Oseltamivir, Laninamivir, Peramivir, Zanamivir)
Experimental (Peramivir)

Flu vaccines   FluMist - Fluzone


Influenza epidemics & pandemics          Pandemics   Russian flu (1889–1890) - Spanish flu - Asian flu - Hong Kong flu - 2009 flu pandemic

Epidemics   Russian flu (1977–1978) - Fujian flu (H3N2)


Non-human   Mammals   Canine influenza - Cat influenza - Equine influenza (2007 Australian outbreak) - Swine influenza

Non-mammals   Avian influenza - Fujian flu (H5N1)


Related   Influenza-like illness


Categories: Subtypes of Influenza A virus | 1957 in Hong Kong
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Persistence of Q strain of H2N2 influenza virus in avian species: antigenic, biological and genetic analysis of avian and human H2N2 viruses.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6477129?dopt=Abstract
Nerome K, Yoshioka Y, Torres CA, Oya A, Bachmann P, Ottis K, Webster RG.

The characteristics of an avian influenza virus were compared in detail with those of human Asian (H2N2) influenza viruses. Antigenic analysis by different antisera against H2N2 viruses and monoclonal antibodies to both the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens showed that an avian isolate, A/duck/München/9/79 contained hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subunits closely related to those of the early human H2N2 viruses which had been prevalent in 1957. However, this avian virus gave low HI titers with absorbed and non-absorbed antisera to different human H2N2 viruses isolated in 1957. Like human Q phase variant, such as A/RI/5-/57 (H2N2), hemagglutination of the above avian strain was not inhibited by the purified non-specific gamma-inhibitor from guinea pig serum. Growth behavior at restrictive temperature (42 degrees C) clearly differentiate the avian H2N2 virus from human influenza viruses, showing that the former virus grew well in MDCK cells at 42 degrees C but not the latters. Genomic analysis of these viruses revealed that the oligonucleotide map of H2N2 virus isolated from a duck was quite different from those of human H2N2 viruses from 1957 to 1967. The oligonucleotide mapping also indicated that different H2N2 influenza virus variants had co-circulated in humans in 1957.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 6477129 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Pandemic-causing 'Asian flu' accidentally released
http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn7261
14:21 13 April 2005 by Debora MacKenzie

The virus that caused the 1957 "Asian flu" pandemic has been accidentally released by a lab in the US, and sent all over the world in test kits which scientists are now scrambling to destroy.

There are fears the virus could escape the labs, as the mistake was discovered after the virus escaped from a kit at a high-containment lab in Canada. Such an escape could spread worldwide, as demonstrated in Russia in the 1970s.

The flu testing kits were sent to some 3700 labs between October 2004 and February 2005 by the College of American Pathologists (CAP), a professional body which helps pathology laboratories improve their accuracy, by sending them unidentified samples of various germs to identify.

The CAP kits - prepared by private contractor Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, US - were to contain a particular strain of influenza A - the viral family that causes most flu worldwide. But instead of choosing a strain from the hundreds of recently circulating influenza A viruses, the firm chose the 1957 pandemic strain.

This is a problem because of the way pandemic flu strains edge each other out of circulation. The most lethal flu pandemic on record, in 1918, was caused by an influenza A of the H1 type, named for the haemagglutinin, a surface protein, it carries. After 1918, H1 flu evolved into an "ordinary" flu, and continued to circulate.
Bird flu

The 1957 pandemic started in China before spreading worldwide, killing an estimated two million or more people. It was triggered by the hybridisation of human H1 flu with flu viruses from birds which carried another surface protein, H2. It was more lethal than the then-circulating H1 strains because no human had ever encountered the H2 protein before, and so lacked any immunity to the new strain.

Immediately after 1957, all traces of H1 flu in humans disappeared, to be replaced by H2 strains. A similar process occurred again in 1968, when another hybrid virus emerged - again in China - carrying another haemagglutinin, H3. This caused the "Hong Kong flu" pandemic, which killed an estimated one million people worldwide.

But after 1968, H2 flu disappeared - so anyone born after this year will have no immunity to H2 flu and any escape of the virus in the test kits could be as lethal to them as the Asian flu of 1957.

A similar event happened in 1977, with the sudden reappearance of an H1 flu identical to one that had been isolated in 1950. It is believed that the virus escaped from a faulty batch of live flu vaccine prepared in Russia. But fortunately that strain had evolved into a much tamer creature than its 1918 predecessor. Unfortunately, the 1957 H2 virus is the most lethal variant of its kind.
Routine test

A few of the CAP kits were sent to labs in Asia, the Middle East and South America, as well as Europe and North America. The kits' originators should have known what strain they contained, in order to evaluate the test results, though they claim they did not realise their mistake.

However, when Canada's National Microbiology Lab in Winnipeg identified the strain on 26 March - in a routine sample sent there from a Vancouver-based lab - it alerted the US Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization.

A major concern is that test kits are not usually handled at a high level of biological containment as it is generally assumed they do not carry unusually dangerous viruses. The Asian flu's most probable route of escape into the outside world would be if a lab worker were to unknowingly become infected by it.

But there has been no sign of the virus infecting humans yet, says Klaus Stöhr, chief flu scientist at the World Health Organization in Geneva.

"If this incident doesn't cause a major reassessment of the safety of flu research, a lab-sponsored pandemic may well be the only thing that induces sobriety," comments Ed Hammond of the Sunshine Project, a biosafety pressure group.
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Interim CDC-NIH Recommendation for Raising the Biosafety Level for Laboratory Work Involving Noncontemporary Human Influenza Viruses
http://www.cdc.gov/flu/h2n2bsl3.htm

Excerpted from the draft Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th edition.

NOTE: This document is provided for historical purposes only and may not reflect the most accurate and up-to-date information on this subject. For current flu information, please visit the CDC Flu Homepage.

The Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) manual is a Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) publication that provides guidelines for the safe handling of infectious agents in various laboratory settings. The BMBL is updated and published every 5 years as a collaborative project by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The 5th edition of the BMBL is expected to be published in early 2006. This new edition will include an updated Agent Summary Statement for Influenza that contains revised recommendations for the safe handling of influenza viruses in the laboratory. These recommendations are advisory and are intended to provide a basis for individual laboratory risk assessment of the viruses and activities used within that laboratory.

The recommended biosafety level for work with various human and animal influenza viruses, including non-contemporary human influenza A viruses, can be found below in the Draft Agent Summary Statement for Influenza for the upcoming 5th edition of the CDC/NIH Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories.
Draft Agent Summary Statement for Influenza
INTRODUCTION
Description

Influenza is an acute viral disease of the respiratory tract. The most common clinical manifestations are fever, headache, malaise, sore throat and cough. GI tract manifestations (nausea, vomiting and diarrhea) are rare but may accompany the respiratory phase in children. The two most important features of influenza are the epidemic nature of illness and the mortality that arises from pulmonary complications of the disease (Treanor, 2005).

The influenza viruses are enveloped RNA viruses belonging to the Orthomyxoviridae. There are three serotypes of influenza viruses, A, B and C. Influenza A is further classified into subtypes by the surface glycoproteins that possess either hemagglutinin (H) or neuraminidase (N) activity. Emergence of completely new subtypes (antigenic shift) occurs at irregular intervals with Type A viruses. New subtypes are responsible for pandemics and can result from reassortment of human and avian influenza virus genes. Antigenic changes within a type or subtype (antigenic drift) of A and B viruses are ongoing processes that are responsible for frequent epidemics and regional outbreaks and make the annual reformulation of influenza vaccine necessary.

Influenza viral infections, with different antigenic subtypes, occur naturally in swine, horses, mink, seals and in many domestic and wild avian species. Interspecies transmission and reassortment of influenza A viruses have been reported to occur among, humans and wild and domestic fowl. The human influenza viruses responsible for the 1918, 1957 and 1968 pandemics contained gene segments closely related to those of avian influenza viruses (APHA, 2000). Swine influenza has also been isolated in human outbreaks (Dowdle & Hattwick, 1977).

Control of influenza is a continuing human and veterinary public health concern.
Occupational Infections

Laboratory-associated infections have not been routinely documented in the literature, but informal accounts and published reports indicate that such infections are known to have occurred, particularly when new strains showing antigenic shift or drift are introduced into a laboratory for diagnostic/research purposes (Dowdle & Hattwick, 1977 ). Occupationally-acquired, nosocomial infections are documented (Stott et. al. 2002, Horcajada et.al.,2003). Laboratory animal-associated infections have not been reported; however, there is possibility of human infection acquired from infected ferrets and vice versa.
Natural Modes of Infection

Airborne spread is the predominant mode of transmission especially in crowded, enclosed spaces. Transmission may also occur through direct contact since influenza viruses may persist for hours on surfaces particularly in the cold and under conditions of low humidity (APHA, 2000). The incubation period is from one to three days. Recommendations for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza are available. (CDC, 2004).
LABORATORY SAFETY

The agent may be present in respiratory tissues or secretions of humans and most infected animals and birds. In addition, the agent may be present in the intestines and cloacae of many infected avian species. Influenza viruses may be disseminated in multiple organs in some infected animal species. The primary laboratory hazard is inhalation of virus from aerosols generated by infecting animals or by aspirating, dispensing, mixing, centrifuging or otherwise manipulating virus-infected samples. In addition, laboratory infection can result from direct inoculation of mucus membranes through virus contaminated gloves following handling of tissues, feces or secretions from infected animals. Genetic manipulation has the potential for altering the host range, pathogenicity, and antigenic composition of influenza viruses. The potential for introducing influenza viruses with novel genetic composition into humans is unknown.
Containment Recommendations

Biosafety Level 2 facilities, practices and procedures are recommended for diagnostic, research and production activities utilizing contemporary, circulating human influenza strains (e.g., H1/H3/B) and low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) strains (e.g., H1-4, H6, H8-16), and equine and swine influenza viruses. Animal Biosafety Level 2 is appropriate for work with these viruses in animal models. All avian and swine influenza viruses require an APHIS permit. Based on economic ramifications and source of the virus, LPAI H5 and H7 and swine influenza viruses may have additional APHIS permit-driven containment requirements and personnel practices and/or restrictions.

Non-contemporary human influenza (H2N2) strains

Non-contemporary, wild-type human influenza (H2N2) strains should be handled with increased caution. Important considerations in working with these strains are the number of years since an antigenically related virus last circulated and the potential for presence of a susceptible population. Biosafety Level 3 and Animal Biosafety Level 3 practices, procedures and facilities are recommended with rigorous adherence to additional respiratory protection and clothing change protocols. Negative pressure, HEPA-filtered respirators or positive air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) are recommended for use. Cold-adapted, live attenuated H2N2 vaccine strains may continue to be worked with at BSL-2.


1918 influenza strain

Any research involving reverse genetics of the 1918 influenza strain should proceed with extreme caution. The risk to laboratory workers is unknown at the present time but the pandemic potential is thought to be significant. Until further risk assessment data are available, the following practices and conditions are recommended for manipulation of reconstructed 1918 influenza viruses and laboratory animals infected with the viruses. These practices and procedures are considered minimum standards for work with the fully reconstructed virus.
Biosafety Level 3 and Animal Biosafety Level 3 practices, procedures and facilities
Large laboratory animals such as nonhuman primates should be housed in primary barrier systems in ABSL-3
Rigorous adherence to additional respiratory protection and clothing change protocols
Use of negative pressure, HEPA-filtered respirators or positive air-purifying respirators (PAPRs)
Use of HEPA filtration for treatment of exhaust air
Amendment of personnel practices to include personal showers prior to exiting the laboratory.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)

Manipulating highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in biomedical research laboratories requires similar caution because some strains may pose increased risk to laboratory workers and have significant agricultural and economic implications. Biosafety Level 3 and Animal Biosafety Level 3 practices, procedures and facilities are recommended along with clothing change and personal showering protocols. Loose-housed animals infected with HPAI strains must be contained within BSL-3 (Ag) facilities. Negative pressure, HEPA-filtered respirators or positive air-purifying respirators are recommended for HPAI viruses with potential to infect humans. The HPAI are agricultural Select Agents requiring registration of personnel and facilities with the lead agency for the institution (CDC or USDA-APHIS). An APHIS permit is also required. Additional containment requirements and personnel practices and/or restrictions may be added as conditions of the permit.
Other influenza recombinant or reassortant viruses

When considering the biocontainment level and attendant practices and procedures for work with other influenza recombinant or reassortant viruses the local Institutional Biosafety Committee should consider but not limit consideration to the following in the conduct of protocol-driven risk assessment. If adequate risk assessment data are not available, a more cautious approach utilizing elevated biocontainment levels and practices is warranted.
The gene constellation used
Clear evidence of reduced virus replication in the respiratory tract of appropriate animal models, compared with the level of replication of the wild-type parent virus from which it was derived
Evidence of clonal purity and phenotypic stability
The number of years since a virus that was antigenically related to the donor of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes last circulated.

There may be specific requirements regarding the setting of containment levels if your institution is subject to the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules.
SPECIAL ISSUES
Occupational Health Considerations

Institutions performing work with HPAI and avian viruses that have infected humans; non-contemporary wild-type human influenza strains, including recombinants and reassortants; and viruses created by reverse genetics of the 1918 pandemic strain should develop and implement a specific medical surveillance and response plan. At the minimum these plans should 1) require storage of baseline serum samples from individuals working with these influenza strains; 2) strongly recommend annual vaccination with the currently licensed influenza vaccine for such individuals; 3) provide employee counseling regarding disease symptoms including fever, conjunctivitis and respiratory symptoms; 4) establish a protocol for monitoring personnel for these symptoms; and 5) establish a clear medical protocol for responding to suspected laboratory-acquired infections. Antiviral drugs (e.g., oseltamivir, amantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir) should be available for treatment and prophylaxis , as necessary (CDC). It is recommended that the sensitivities of the virus being studied to the antivirals be ascertained. All personnel should be enrolled in an appropriately constituted respiratory protection program.

Influenza viruses may require USDA and/or USPHS import permits depending on the host range and pathogenicity of the virus in question.
References

American Public Health Association. Influenza. in Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 17th ed., 2000.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for preventing health-care-associated pneumonia. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Committee, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Recommendations and Reports; 53(RR-3): 1-36, 2004.

Dowdle, W.R. and M. A.W. Hattwick. Swine Influenza Virus Infections in Humans. J Infect Dis. 136 (Supplement): S386-5399, 1977.

Horcajada, J.P., Pumarola, T., Martinez, J.A., Tapias, G., Bayas, J.M., de la Prada, M., Garcia, F., Codina, C., Gatell, J.M., Jimenezde Anta, M.T. A nosocomial outbreak of influenza during a period without influenza epidemic activity. Eur Respir J 21(2): 303-7, 2003.

Stott, D. J., Kerr, G., Carman, W.F. Nosocomial transmission of influenza. Occupational Medicine. Vol. 52 No. 5, pp. 249-253, 2002.

Treanor, J.J. Influenza Virus in Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. (Eds Mandell, Bennett and Dolen), 2005.
More Information
Q & A: Destruction of H2N2 Panels
Q & A: Background
May 3, 2005 CDC Health Update: Destruction of Samples; Guidance for BSL3-Enhanced Biocontainment for H2N2
Apr 15, 2005 CDC Health Update: Monitoring Health of Lab Workers & Destroying H2N2 Samples
Apr 13, 2005 CDC Health Advisory: CDC & WHO recommend H2N2 panels be destroyed
Apr 21, 2005 Press Conference Transcript
Apr 13, 2005 Press Conference Transcript
Apr 12, 2005 WHO Statement: International response to distribution of H2N2

Page last modified October 6, 2005
Content Source: Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (CCID)
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD)
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Med Microbiol Immunol. 2002 Dec;191(3-4):203-8. Epub 2002 Oct 19.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12458361?dopt=Citation
 
Pandemic preparedness: lessons learnt from H2N2 and H9N2 candidate vaccines.

Hehme N, Engelmann H, Künzel W, Neumeier E, Sänger R.

GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, SSW Dresden, Zirkusstrasse 40, 01069 Dresden, Germany. [email protected]

Vaccination against influenza is considered to be one of the key interventions in case of a pandemic. Unfortunately, shortages in vaccine supplies will occur because of the substantial increase in vaccine demands worldwide and the limited available supply resources. The recommended use of monovalent--instead of current trivalent--vaccines containing 15 micro g hemagglutinin (HA) per dose can theoretically triple vaccine volumes but is unlikely to meet the demand. Furthermore, previous experiences demonstrated that one dose of 15 micro g HA will not be sufficient to elicit protective antibody levels in unprimed individuals. Modified formulation approaches were investigated, that would be suitable to provide significantly higher volumes of potent vaccine within a given period of time. Low doses of HA combined with aluminum (Al) adjuvants and the use of whole virus instead of split or subunit antigens can lead to substantial increases in process yield. In addition, production of whole virus vaccines will reduce manufacturing complexity. In a dose-finding study in healthy adults and elderly, immune responses after administration of Al-adjuvanted low-dose formulations were compared to a standard split virus vaccine (Fluarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium). All vaccines were safe and well tolerated. Antigen concentrations as low as 1.9 micro g HA/strain per dose of adjuvant-containing experimental vaccines induced protective antibody levels in primed populations. Reactogenicity profiles of Al-adjuvanted low-dose vaccines were investigated in a feasibility trial. Neither the use of Al-adjuvant nor of whole virus had a significant effect on general reactions. Studies in unprimed populations with H2N2 and H9N2 candidate vaccines showed different results, with a potential need for a two-dose schedule. Indeed, hemagglutination inhibition titers did not reach protective levels after a single vaccine dose but could be met following administration of a second dose. The same is true for Al-adjuvanted whole virus formulations with an up to eightfold-reduced antigen content. It may be concluded that the use of Al-adjuvanted whole virus vaccines with low HA content can raise protective antibody levels after two vaccine doses, which may, in turn, result in significant increases of vaccine supplies in the case of a pandemic.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH Terms:
Adjuvants, Immunologic
Adolescent
Adult
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control*
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Health Planning
Humans
Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype
Influenza A virus/classification
Influenza A virus/immunology
Influenza B virus/classification
Influenza B virus/immunology
Influenza Vaccines*/supply & distribution
Influenza, Human/drug therapy
Influenza, Human/epidemiology*
Influenza, Human/prevention & control*
Middle Aged

Substances:
Adjuvants, Immunologic
Antiviral Agents
Influenza Vaccines

PMID: 12458361 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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http://www.influenzareport.com/ir/ai.htm

Antigenic shift, in contrast, denotes a sudden and profound change in antigenic determinants, i.e. a switch of H and/or N subtypes, within a single replication cycle. This occurs in a cell which is simultaneously infected by two or more influenza A viruses of different subtypes. Since the distribution of replicated viral genomic segments into budding virus progeny occurs independently from the subtype origin of each segment, replication-competent progeny carrying genetic information of different parental viruses (so-called reassortants) may spring up (Webster and Hulse 2004, WHO 2005). While the pandemic human influenza viruses of 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) clearly arose through reassortment between human and avian viruses, the influenza virus causing the 'Spanish flu' in 1918 appears to be entirely derived from an avian source (Belshe 2005).
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Germ Warfare

Robert Bud says we should remember the Asian flu epidemic of 1957 as a turning point in the history of antibiotics.


http://www.historytoday.com/MainArticle.aspx?m=31983&amid=30236374
History Today January 2007 | Volume: 57 Issue: 1 | Page 30-32 | Words: 2914 | Author: Bud, Robert

A fiftieth anniversary is an appropriate occasion to recall the first great influenza pandemic of the antibiotic age – one that caused more than a million deaths worldwide. The ‘Asian flu’ identified in China in February 1957 reached Britain that autumn, where it killed, directly and indirectly, more than 16,000 people, and possibly as many as 40,000.

More dangerous than the influenza itself was a secondary infection that caused a sometimes fatal pneumonia and confronted doctors with rich evidence of the growing resistance of bacteria to the hitherto triumphant penicillin. Even while the world was celebrating the miraculous discovery and deep impact of this new wonder drug and others like it, they were being used in ways that vitiated their effects by encouraging the breeding of resistant organisms.

To modern ears, the phrase ‘antibiotic age’ may sound archaic, but half a century ago it expressed some of the revolutionary hopes for the years after the Second World War. The writer Peter Vansittart would later recall in his autobiography In the Fifties (1995) that, along with Fascism, mass unemployment and (soon) colonialism, the threat from germs seemed to have been routed. Fear of infectious disease appeared a thing of the past. The plague epidemics of the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries, the outbreaks of cholera in the nineteenth century, even the influenza epidemic that followed the First World War, are part of Britain’s ‘island story’, but now pioneering sociologists of medicine reported that the enduring human experience of infectious disease had apparently been superseded. A major textbook of the day, Macfarlane Burnet’s Natural History of Infectious Disease (2nd edition, 1953), celebrated ‘the virtual elimination of infectious disease as a significant factor in social life’. These attitudes were underpinned by dramatic change in the doctor’s surgery: carbuncles were now easily treated with antibiotics, pneumonia could be cured within a few days, even tuberculosis was tamed.

Antibiotics have been credited with being the major factor in ending the risks consequent on infection. Penicillin, the first, was introduced during the Second World War. It was followed by the anti-tuberculosis drug streptomycin and then by a host of powerful and widely effective members of the ‘golden horde’ of tetracycline drugs. Through the 1950s other important families of antibiotics were quickly identified. It can be argued that too much importance was attributed to this one piece of new technology. In wealthier countries at least, social factors such as improved housing and nutrition were responsible for a long-term decline in the threat from diseases such as tuberculosis. Nonetheless, antibiotics complemented these factors, both by reducing the dangers of infection and by providing reassurance in the certainty of a cure.

With time, of course, such confidence came to seem facile. The 1980s witnessed the terror of AIDS, followed by ‘flesh-eating viruses’, CJD, SARS and avian flu. Bacteria resistant to antibiotic treatment came to infest hospitals and communities; the management of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), the latest fear, became a political issue in the 2005 general election, and policy-makers have openly discussed the implications of a ‘post-antibiotic’ age.

The dramatic shift in narrative from the post-war celebration of victory to fear of defeat in our own times might be compared to a Greek tragedy. Indeed, Aristotle’s defining characteristics of a ‘complex tragedy’ – the turning point (peripiteia) and the moment of the hero’s awareness (anagnoresis) – have their counterparts in this most modern of dramas. The 1957 epidemic can surely serve as the turning point, and the years since the mid-1990s be portrayed as the point of awareness by the general public.

The Asian flu proved highly infectious, one in six of the British population sharing the symptoms of a high fever, generally short lasting, and aching joints. More working time was lost to the illness in the first two weeks of October than to all the strikes in 1956. With miners laid low, production of coal fell by one-and-a-half million tons. The press reported that the infection was gripping schools and incapacitating naval vessels: in September, two ships and two submarines had to be excused from a major NATO exercise because their crews had fallen ill. According to The Times of October 8th, half the boys at Eton were sick.

Despite a brief high fever, with a temperature quickly topping 39ºC (102ºF), the symptoms were generally quite mild, and the treatment of aspirin, plenty to drink and bed rest usually proved effective. The British Medical Association discouraged advertisements that urged patients to call their doctor. A vaccine, given by two injections at a three-week interval, was available in limited quantities only, to such priority cases as medical and welfare staff. The Queen was given a course before visiting North America that year.

For a proportion of the epidemic’s victims – small as a percentage of the whole, but nonetheless large in actual numbers of people – the illness was far from trivial. The degree of suffering was much higher among the elderly, the infirm and the very young, and in many cases they succumbed, not to the influenza itself, but to pneumonia caused by a recently characterized bacterium resistant to all antibiotics, Staphylococcus aureus 80/81. This germ could produce an enzyme, penicillinase, that destroyed the penicillin molecule. Not just powerful against medicine, the bacterium was also virulent in its attack on humans.

Staphylococcal pneumonia proved fatal to more than a quarter of patients who contracted the infection, normally after entering hospital suffering from influenza. Its effects were rapid: within three days, the victims turned blue and asphyxiated. In America, childhood deaths from pneumonia had declined radically through the 1950s; now figures showed a brief upsurge. For those who wished to see, the fragility of the antibiotic age had been exposed.

Even before the flu epidemic, Staph. aureus had posed the major bacterial threat to the curative powers of antibiotics. The species had been named in 1884 to denote its golden colour and resemblance to a bunch of grapes. For all their attractive appearance and poetic name, the germs had long been recognized as a danger in hospitals. Indeed it was the effect of penicillium mould on a staph. culture that led Alexander Fleming to recognize the mould’s potential power and ultimately led to the isolation and use of penicillin.

At first, Staph. aureus was almost universally susceptible to penicillin. However, antibiotic-resistant strains of the bacterium took the place of those that could not much more quickly than was the case with other susceptible species – a bacteriologist at London’s Hammersmith Hospital noticed in 1948 that the character of a Staph. aureus population had shifted from predominantly susceptible to generally immune to penicillin within just two years. One immune strain of the bacterium in particular, Staph. aureus  80/81, spread rapidly in the 1950s to infect hospitals across the world.

Staph. aureus 80/81 did not just cause pneumonia in influenza sufferers, it also infected the skin of newborn children. At that time infants born in hospital were kept separate from their mothers in large crèches, within which infection spread easily. About one in ten contracted a skin infection, usually very slight, which they then passed on to the breasts of their nursing mothers. The number could be higher: a South Wales hospital reported that one in six of its newborn infants suffered from some skin infection or conjunctivitis. The wounds of surgical patients, protected by bandages that needed frequent changing, could also be infected. A 1958 American conference was told that between 5 and 9 per cent of clean wounds would become infected with staphylococci.

The ‘antibiotic age’, while providing more tools for medicine, was putting more pressure on individual doctors and on facilities worldwide. A Swedish physician who addressed the British Medical Association in 1964 talked not just of the triumph of technology but also of a demand vastly exceeding supply of medical care. The results of this growth in demand were rushed doctors’ appointments or an ever higher turnover of patients through hospital beds. Antibiotics could be used effectively in response, as patients swiftly departed surgeries armed with a prescription or drugs were used to manage hospital infection. Poorly managed use, however, could lead to the natural selection of resistant strains that made the antibiotics sometimes ineffective.

The press became aware of the threat from Staph. aureus 80/81 in January 1958. The file of the Standing Medical Advisory Committee, now in the National Archives, is full of the press clippings assembled by civil servants at the time. On January 12th, following a report from the Public Health Laboratory Service, the Sunday Express gave high prominence to the closure of wards. Next day, the Daily Mail and Daily Telegraph both dealt with the threat of staphylococci, while the Daily Herald spoke of a ‘Mystery Germ X’. On January 21st, more soberly but with the same theme, the Standing Medical Advisory Committee warned about the dangerous spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

These bacteria were clearly not just a British problem. In October 1958, the US Surgeon General told a public health conference that ‘every man and woman here knows that the stakes in this national problem are truly awful.’ He also acknowledged that British scientists were among the world leaders in identifying and managing the threat. At the Central Public Health Laboratory in Colindale, north London, a widely used technique for identifying bacteria had been devised during and after the war. Robert Williams, director of Colindale’s streptococcus, staphylococcus and air hygiene laboratory, was at the centre of an international network of analysts supported by the World Health Organization.

The analysts came to the same conclusion. In the antibiotic age, standards of cleanliness had been allowed to slip. This was a salutary lesson. In 1963 the Royal Society of Health organized a conference entitled ‘The Prevention of Hospital Infection’. Mrs D. Sissons, nursing tutor at the Royal Liverpool Children’s Hospital, suggested that nurses

should not be afraid to go to a houseman and say, ‘What are you doing with that mask half hanging off? Why are you walking over to outpatients with theatre clothes on? Are doctors sterile and nurses not?’ People would say they were old dragons, but she herself was proud of being one. Was it not clear to everyone, professional and lay, that they had a patient’s life in their hands, and that strict discipline should be restored? Absolute authority should be given to the matron or medical superintendent, not to a lay person.

Mrs Sisson’s message went down well. Dr Jackson of Ashton under Lyme complained: 

The level of infection in the ward had gone up because the beds were never cooled, the wards were never properly cleaned, and the time was reached three times in a year when that exploded – there was widespread infection and the place had to be closed ... Hospitals now were composed of sergeant-majors and very few leaders, and they should go back to the people who were really intimately concerned with the question of ward infection.

But if the 1957 flu crisis dealt a clear warning to public health specialists that antibiotics by themselves could not protect against widespread infection, the public remained unaware that a turning point had been reached. A study of the American press conducted forty years later for the Office of Technology Assessment highlights the public’s continuing faith in antibiotics in the 1950s. While the threats of Staph. Aureus 80/81 provoked professional disquiet, the general press coverage was neither political nor outraged, presenting the epidemic of virulent and resistant Staph. aureus not as a political problem, but as a professional challenge. To use the expression of John Sheehan, a leading antibiotics chemist, if bacteria could be ‘wily’, so could chemists.

Coincidentally, just as the 1957 influenza pandemic was beginning, chemists working for the Beecham Company had discovered how to brew the ‘trunk’ of penicillin on to which they could attach branches to produce novel antibiotics. Within three years they went from scientific to medical breakthrough, and in 1960 Beecham launched methicillin, whose structure made it immune to the destructive enzyme produced by Staph. aureus 80/81. Methicillin seemed to demonstrate that chemists could outsmart bacteria.

The benefits of the new drug could be dramatic. When Elizabeth Taylor contracted staphylococcal pneumonia on the movie set of Cleopatra, methicillin saved her. Nonetheless, the decline of the Staph. aureus 80/81 threat was not entirely due to the deployment of a single medicine; it was perhaps fading in any case. Moreover, it took just two years, from the drug’s launch, for the dangers of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) to become very apparent, after the death of an infected child at the Queen Mary’s Children’s Hospital in Roehampton.

This death from MRSA in 1962 coincided with the emergence of a new questioning of authority that would have an ironic consequence for the control of antibiotic use. That same year the British physician Maurice Pappworth issued a warning that the public were being used as unwitting ‘human guinea pigs’ in medical experimentation, and the scandal of the foetal abnormalities caused by the drug thalidomide became widely publicized. New anxieties spurred the foundation of the Patients’ Association and the early signs that the public was growing more sceptical of the goodwill of the medical profession and indeed of the drug companies.

This increased scepticism did not, however, temper the demand for drugs and medical treatment. It seems instead to have made doctors more cautious about resisting the expectations they believed patients brought into the surgery – of an antibiotic prescription on the way out. Whatever patients actually wanted (a complex question in itself), many doctors felt it necessary to earn trust by giving an antibiotic prescription.

MRSA and other threatening bacteria such as the antibiotic-resistant pneumococcus did not become widespread until the 1980s. In the intervening years, the anxieties of an earlier age had been forgotten, but confidence in the power of technology to beat bacteria had also declined. After a brief, and often unrewarding, enthusiasm for the promise of genomics and of robots in finding new and potent agents, the development of new antibiotics attracted rather less commitment from the pharmaceutical companies than half a century earlier. The late 1990s did, however, see intense anxiety about excessive use of antibiotics, with much greater emphasis being put on the management of antibiotic use. New forms of collaboration between doctor and patient were explored, by which patients themselves shared the decision if and how to medicate. Such attempts to alter contemporary experience remind us that we are living within, and consciously engineering, our own historical narratives. In reflecting on the experience of 1957 and the threat of Staph. aureus 80/81 we experience the turning point in the story of antibiotics, one of the iconic projects of the modern era. 
Robert Bud is the author of Penicillin: Triumph and Tragedy (Oxford University Press, 2007).
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Sane, just ignore the PM I just sent you. This explains it.

Influenza A virus subtype H2N2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H2N2


H2N2 is a subtype of the species influenzavirus A (sometimes called bird flu virus). H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the Asian Flu strain (now extinct in the wild), H3N2, and various strains found in birds. It is also suspected of causing a human pandemic in 1889.[1][2]


[edit]
Russian flu
See Influenzavirus A subtype H1N1#Russian flu for the 1977-1978 Russian flu

Some believe that the 1889 - 1890 Russian flu was caused by the influenzavirus A virus subtype H2N2, but the evidence is not conclusive. It is the earliest flu pandemic for which detailed records are available.[3] "The 1889 pandemic, known as the Russian Flu, began in Russia and spread rapidly throughout Europe. It reached North America in December 1889 and spread to Latin America and Asia in February 1890. About 1 million people died in this pandemic."[4]

[edit]
Asian flu

The "Asian Flu" was a category 2 flu pandemic outbreak of avian influenza that originated in China in early 1956 lasting until 1958. It originated from mutation in wild ducks combining with a pre-existing human strain.[5] The virus was first identified in Guizhou.[6] It spread to Singapore in February 1957[7], reached Hong Kong by April, and US by June. Death toll in the US was approximately 69,800.[5] Estimates of worldwide deaths caused by this pandemic varies widely depending on source; ranging from 1 million to 4 million, with WHO settling on "about 2 million".

Asian Flu was of the H2N2 subtype (a notation that refers to the configuration of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins in the virus) of type A influenza, and an influenza vaccine was developed in 1957 to contain its outbreak.

The Asian Flu strain later evolved via antigenic shift into H3N2 which caused a milder pandemic from 1968 to 1969.[8]

Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) clearly arose through reassortment between human and avian viruses, the influenza virus causing the 'Spanish flu' in 1918 appears to be entirely derived from an avian source (Belshe 2005)." [9]

[edit]
Test kits

From October 2004 to February 2005, approximately 3,700 test kits of the 1957 H2N2 virus were accidentally spread around the world from the College of American Pathologists (CAP). CAP assists laboratories in accuracy by providing unidentified samples of viruses; private contractor Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, U.S., chose the 1957 strand instead of one of the less deadly avian influenza virus subtypes. "CAP spokesman Dr. Jared Schwartz said Meridian knew what the virus was but believed it was safe. In selecting it, the company had determined that the virus was classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) agent, which meant it could legally be used in the kits. [...] Before the problem came to light, the CDC had made a recommendation that the H2N2 virus be reclassified as a BSL-3 agent, Gerberding said. She promised to speed up the reclassification. The CDC determines the classifications in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health. In BSL-3 labs, agents are handled with equipment designed to prevent any airborne contamination and resulting respiratory exposure."[10] The 1957 H2N2 virus is considered deadly and the U.S. government called for the vials containing the strain to be destroyed.

"CDC officials reported on 21 April that 99% of the samples had already been destroyed. News reports on 25 April said the last samples outside the United States had been destroyed at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, after they were found at the Beirut airport. Earlier reports said H2N2 samples were sent to 3,747 labs under CAP auspices and to about another 2,700 labs certified by other organizations. All but about 75 labs that received the CAP samples were in the United States."[11]

"In the United States, there is no government regulation over the 1957 flu strain. In fact, federal officials at the CDC do not even know how many U.S. laboratories keep this deadly strain in their viral libraries."[12]


Umm....probably the same reason why we have over 36 level IV biolabs on U.S. soil right now.

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Sane, just ignore the PM I just sent you. This explains it.

Umm....probably the same reason why we have over 36 level IV biolabs on U.S. soil right now.

"In the United States, there is no government regulation over the 1957 flu strain. In fact, federal officials at the CDC do not even know how many U.S. laboratories keep this deadly strain in their viral libraries."

Influenza A virus subtype H2N2
http://www.reference.com/browse/Asian_flu?jss=0

H2N2 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the Asian Flu strain (now extinct in the wild), H3N2, and various strains found in birds. It is also suspected of causing a human pandemic in 1889.
Russian flu
See Influenza A virus subtype H1N1#Russian flu for the 1977-1978 Russian flu
Some believe that the 1889 - 1890 Russian flu was caused by influenza A virus subtype H2N2, but the evidence is not conclusive. It is the earliest flu pandemic for which detailed records are available. In 1889 it "began in Russia and spread rapidly throughout Europe. It reached North America in December 1889 and spread to Latin America and Asia in February 1890. About 1 million people died in this pandemic.
Asian flu
The "Asian Flu" was a category 2 flu pandemic outbreak of avian influenza that originated in China in early 1956 lasting until 1958. It originated from mutation in wild ducks combining with a pre-existing human strain. The virus was first identified in Guizhou. It spread to Singapore in February 1957, reached Hong Kong by April, and US by June. Death toll in the US was approximately 69,800. Estimates of worldwide infection rate varies widely depending on source, ranging from 1 million to 4 million.

Asian Flu was of the H2N2 strain (a notation that refers to the configuration of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins in the virus) of type A influenza, and a influenza vaccine was developed in 1957 to contain its outbreak.

The Asian Flu strain later evolved via antigenic shift into H3N2 which caused a milder pandemic from 1968 to 1969.

Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained Avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) clearly arose through reassortment between human and avian viruses, the influenza virus causing the 'Spanish flu' in 1918 appears to be entirely derived from an avian source (Belshe 2005)."
Test kits
From October 2004 to February 2005, some 3,700 test kits of the 1957 H2N2 virus were accidentally spread around the world from the College of American Pathologists (CAP). CAP assists laboratories in accuracy by providing unidentified samples of viruses; private contractor Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, U.S., chose the 1957 strand instead of one of the less deadly avian influenza virus subtypes. "CAP spokesman Dr. Jared Schwartz said Meridian knew what the virus was but believed it was safe. In selecting it, the company had determined that the virus was classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) agent, which meant it could legally be used in the kits. [...] Before the problem came to light, the CDC had made a recommendation that the H2N2 virus be reclassified as a BSL-3 agent, Gerberding said. She promised to speed up the reclassification. The CDC determines the classifications in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health. In BSL-3 labs, agents are handled with equipment designed to prevent any airborne contamination and resulting respiratory exposure. The 1957 H2N2 virus is considered deadly and the U.S. government called for the vials containing the strain to be destroyed.

"CDC officials reported on April 21 that 99% of the samples had already been destroyed. News reports on April 25 said the last samples outside the United States had been destroyed at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, after they were found at the Beirut airport. Earlier reports said H2N2 samples were sent to 3,747 labs under CAP auspices and to about another 2,700 labs certified by other organizations. All but about 75 labs that received the CAP samples were in the United States.

"In the United States, there is no government regulation over the 1957 flu strain. In fact, federal officials at the CDC do not even know how many U.S. laboratories keep this deadly strain in their viral libraries.
Sources
Further reading

Pandemic preparedness: lessons learnt from H2N2 and H9N2 candidate vaccines
Interim CDC-NIH Recommendation for Raising the Biosafety Level for Laboratory Work Involving Noncontemporary Human Influenza Viruses
New Scientist: Bird Flu
Pandemic-causing 'Asian flu' accidentally released
Persistence of Q strain of H2N2 influenza virus in avian species: antigenic, biological and genetic analysis of avian and human H2N2 viruses
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

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H2N2
http://www.lumrix.net/medical/pandemics/h2n2.html


H2N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus(bird flu virus). H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the Asian Flu strain (now extinct in the wild), H3N2, and various strains found in birds.

It is suspected of causing a human pandemic in 1889. [1][2] Inhaltsverzeichnis
1 Asian flu
2 Test kits
3 Sources
4 Further reading


Asian flu

The "Asian Flu" was a pandemicoutbreak of avian influenzathat originated in Chinain 1957and spread worldwide that same year, lasting until 1958. Estimates of worldwide casualty numbers vary widely, ranging from one million to four million people.

Asian Flu was of the H2N2 strain (a notation that refers to the configuration of the hemagglutininand neuraminidaseproteinsin the virus) of type A influenza, and a flu vaccinewas developed in 1957to contain its outbreak.

The Asian Flu strain later evolved via antigenic shiftinto H3N2which caused a milder pandemic from 1968to 1969.
Test kits

From October 2004to February 2005, some 3,700 test kits of the 1957H2N2 virus were accidentally spread around the world from the College of American Pathologists(CAP). CAP assists laboratories in accuracy by providing unidentified samples of viruses; private contractor Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, U.S., chose the 1957strand instead of one of the less deadly avian influenza virussubtypes. "CAP spokesman Dr. Jared Schwartz said Meridian knew what the virus was but believed it was safe. In selecting it, the company had determined that the virus was classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) agent, which meant it could legally be used in the kits. [...] Before the problem came to light, the CDChad made a recommendation that the H2N2 virus be reclassified as a BSL-3 agent, Gerberding said. She promised to speed up the reclassification. The CDC determines the classifications in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health. In BSL-3 labs, agents are handled with equipment designed to prevent any airborne contamination and resulting respiratory exposure." [3]The 1957H2N2 virus is considered deadly and the U.S. government called for the vials containing the strain to be destroyed.

"CDCofficials reported on April 21that 99% of the samples had already been destroyed. News reports on April 25said the last samples outside the United Stateshad been destroyed at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, after they were found at the Beirut airport. Earlier reports said H2N2 samples were sent to 3,747 labs under CAP auspices and to about another 2,700 labs certified by other organizations. All but about 75 labs that received the CAP samples were in the United States." [4]

"In the United States, there is no government regulation over the 1957flu strain. In fact, federal officials at the CDCdo not even know how many U.S. laboratories keep this deadly strain in their viral libraries." [5]
Sources
New Scientist: Bird Flu
Pandemic-causing 'Asian flu' accidentally released
Asian Lab Opens 'Accidental' Parcel With Deadly Flu
Persistence of Q strain of H2N2 influenza virus in avian species: antigenic, biological and genetic analysis of avian and human H2N2 viruses
Further reading
Pandemic preparedness: lessons learnt from H2N2 and H9N2 candidate vaccines
Interim CDC-NIH Recommendation for Raising the Biosafety Level for Laboratory Work Involving Noncontemporary Human Influenza Virusesde:Asiatische Grippe

es:Gripe asiática nl:Aziatische griep pt:Gripe asiática sv:asiaten zh:????
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/H2N2"

Categories: Influenza| Pandemics
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Article: ASIAN FLU SENT THOUSANDS HOME FROM SCHOOL IN 1957.(EDITORIAL)
Article from:The Kentucky Post (Covington, KY) Article date:August 25, 1997 Copyright
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-67850655.html

Byline: Jim Reis

The school year in 1957 - 40 years ago - began like any other with last-minute registrations, new school buildings and ''back to school'' sales. Within a month, however, school doors closed and thousands of children found themselves back at home.

The culprit was Asian flu.

A flurry of construction work preceded the start of the 1957 school year. Among the new school buildings either built, renovated or nearly completed were Ninth District in Latonia, Arnold Elementary in Newport, St. Pius in Edgewood, St. Ann in Covington, Mary Queen of Heaven in Boone County and Mary A. Goetz in Ludlow.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

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Article: Coping with the Asian flu: with no cure in sight our industry can only hope the malaise is not fatal.(Asian financial crisis)
Article from:Industrial Distribution Article date:July 1, 1999 Author: Copyright
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-55367502.html

With no cure in sight our industry can only hope the malaise is not fatal

Despite what you might read in the financial pages, the Asian flu isn't letting up and continues to affect the U.S. economy in a significant way. Last year, when the crisis first hit home, the American public was treated to an earful of publicity and fanfare regarding an overseas crisis nicknamed the "Asian flu."

Regardless of widespread coverage of failing hedge funds, rampant currency revaluations, and an emerging gray market of goods returning from overseas unsold, I don't think anyone saw the impact that the Asian flu was having on the U.S. - except for those companies ..
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

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AP Interview: WHO flu chief: World still ‘relatively early’ in swine flu pandemic
Bureau News
July 24th, 2009
http://blog.taragana.com/n/ap-interview-who-flu-chief-world-still-relatively-early-in-swine-flu-pandemic-119531/
AP Interview: Flu chief: Pandemic in early stages

GENEVA — The global swine flu epidemic is still in its early stages, even though reports of over 100,000 infections in England alone last week are plausible, the World Health Organization’s flu chief said Friday,


Keiji Fukuda, WHO’s Assistant Director-General for Health Security and Environment, told The Associated Press that given the size of the world’s population, the new H1N1 virus is likely to spread for some time.

WHO earlier estimated that as many as 2 billion people could become infected over the next two years — nearly one-third of the world population.

“Even if we have hundreds of thousands of cases or a few millions of cases … we’re relatively early in the pandemic,” Fukuda said in an interview at WHO’s headquarters in Geneva.

The global health agency stopped asking governments to report new cases last week, saying the effort was too great now that the disease has become so widespread in some countries.

Authorities in Britain say there were over 100,000 infections in England alone last week, while U.S. health officials estimate the United States has passed the 1 million case mark. Those figures dwarf WHO’s tally of 130,000 confirmed cases worldwide since the start of the outbreak last spring.

“We know that the total number of laboratory-confirmed cases is really only a subset of the total number of cases,” Fukuda said.

Fukuda, the former chief of epidemiology at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC, also said there must be no doubt over the safety of swine flu vaccines before they are given to the public.

Health officials and drug makers are looking into ways of speeding up the production of the vaccine before the northern hemisphere enters its flu season in the fall.

The first vaccines are expected in September and October, said Fukuda. Other vaccines will take until December or January before they are released onto the market — well into flu season when a further dramatic rise in swine flu cases is predicted.

“Everybody involved with the vaccine work, from manufacturers up to the regulatory agencies, are looking at what steps can be taken to make the process as streamlined as possible,” Fukuda said. “One of the things which cannot be compromised is the safety of vaccines.”

The search for an effective inoculation has taken on a new urgency as WHO announced that almost 800 people have died from the disease in the past four months. This is more than the H5N1 bird flu strain has killed in six years.

The CDC said Friday that — based on the experience of the 1957 flu pandemic — the number of Americans dying from swine flu over the next two years could range from 90,000 to several hundred thousand. That projection would drop if the vaccine campaign and other measures are successful, U.S. health officials said.

One question that scientists and health officials disagree on is whether pregnant women should be among the first to receive a vaccine — after health workers, who make up about 1-2 percent of the world population and are considered indispensable.

A report by WHO experts found that pregnant women appear to be “at increased risk for severe disease, potentially resulting in spontaneous abortion and/or death, especially during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.”

Several women and their children have died in recent weeks, though obesity may have played a role in some of the deaths, the report says.

“Pregnant women have emerged as one of the groups that we are concerned about as being at higher risk than other people in terms of having the possibility of developing severe illness,” said Fukuda.

But right now, WHO is holding back on recommending that pregnant women receive priority vaccinations. And the agency is not commenting on the contentious suggestion by British and Swiss health officials that women should consider delaying pregnancy if they can.

“WHO certainly has no recommendations on whether women should try to have children” now, Fukuda said.

The agency has been working hard to ensure that poor countries receive vaccines too, despite rich nations having pre-ordered most of the available stock. A WHO spokesman said Friday that two drug makers have pledged to donate 150 million doses of vaccine to poorer countries by the end of October.

“We’re working with a range of partners to secure more vaccine for developing countries,” WHO’s Gregory Hartl said.

Fukuda, who is effectively in charge of WHO’s pandemic response until mid-August while the agency’s Hong Kong-born Director-General Margaret Chan is on home leave, also addressed the possibility that the virus might mutate and become resistant to anti-viral drugs such as Tamiflu.

Four separate Tamiflu-resistant cases have been reported recently from Denmark, Japan, Hong Kong and Canada.

“We haven’t seen widespread emergence of resistance to the drug right now,” Fukuda said, but added “this is something we’re watching very carefully.”

It is inevitable that over a long enough period of time the swine flu virus will mutate, he said.

“Unfortunately we can’t predict in what direction,” he said.

____

Associated Press Writer Bradley S. Klapper in Geneva and Mike Stobbe in Atlanta contributed to this report.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

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HELLO MCFLY!

HELLO!

MCFLY!!!!


FROM 2005

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Scientists hunt thousands of vials of deadly flu virus sent across world

Strain not seen since 1957 could pose danger to laboratory staff
http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2005/apr/14/health.science
Sarah Boseley, Luke Harding and Suzanne Goldenberg
The Guardian, Thursday 14 April 2005 09.24 BST

Scientists in 18 countries are tracking down and destroying thousands of vials of a lethal virus which, if it escaped, could trigger the long-feared global flu pandemic, the World Health Organisation said yesterday.

The samples of virus H2N2, which caused 4 million deaths in the 1957 flu pandemic, were sent to more than 3,700 laboratories by a leading American medical institution several months ago.

Yesterday, it emerged that the potentially deadly distribution was discovered only through a combination of luck and human error at a laboratory in Vancouver, Canada. The original mistake was made in October last year in Northfield, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, home to the headquarters of the College of American Pathologists.

The college sends out standardised flu testing kits to labs around the world, each containing vials of different strains of flu virus to enable technicians to ensure that their own testing equipment and reagents are working properly. This time included with the modern strains of flu virus was the killer Asian flu known as H2N2.

The virus went to Bermuda, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Mexico, the Korean Republic, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Taiwan and labs in the US.

In Vancouver, British Columbia, technicians ran a sample from the panel containing H2N2 under the same flume hood as a sample from a patient - a practice that would not be allowed in many laboratories because of the risk of contamination, Frank Plummer, director of the National Microbiological Laboratory said.

The patient sample became contaminated. "The panel sample has very very high level of virus," Canada's chief public health officer, David Butler-Jones, said. "There was enough that it gave a low-level positive result in the patient sample."

Mr Plummer went on to reveal that the patient in Vancouver was not suffering flu symptoms, and the test was administered as a matter of routine. The sample then was forwarded to the national laboratory - again a matter of pure chance as regional facilities generally send only 25% of their samples for the more detailed analysis capable of identifying the flu strain as the deadly H2N2. "There is certainly a kind of irony here," Mr Plummer said yesterday, "but it is a happy sort of error."

The result - indicating the presence of H2N2 in a human for the first time in nearly 40 years - triggered an investigation. The patient was retested and found not to have H2N2, and the source of the contamination was traced to the panel on March 26.

Klaus Stohr, who heads the World Health Organisation's influenza programme, said the virus could cause a global flu outbreak. "It was an unwise decision to send it out," he said.

Asian flu did its deadliest work in 1957, until populations began to develop immunity to it and vaccines were developed. The strain lingered until 1968, vanishing as the next pandemic arrived - Hong Kong flu, or H3N2.

This means that people born after 1968 have not developed immunity to H2N2.

John Oxford, a professor of virology at the Queen Mary School of Medicine in London, said this could pose a problem to the labs that received the testing kits: "You tend to give this kit to the youngest, most unqualified person because it is all very simple," he said. "That young person is the most susceptible. Anyone younger than 36 or 37 would have no immunity."

The WHO said there was no need to panic: "It is a risk, but it is considered low. It should not lead to a big scare," Dr Stohr said. Professor Oxford agreed, but said that if labs knew they were dealing with H2N2, they would treat it with greater respect than other strains. "It is a potential pandemic virus," he said. "If somewhere in the world it gets out, it will be on our doorstep tomorrow morning."

The kits were usually sent out in the ordinary mail, he added. "We are allowed to send viruses in the post as long as they are wrapped in absorbent paper."

Some labs may not have thought the arrival of H2N2 remarkable, he said. "Most labs would say, 'Oh yes, an old fashioned virus'. But at the cutting edge of influenza, there is already uncertainty about H2N2 and discussions about it and the feeling that it might turn into a pandemic and we should be careful."

There were two pieces of good news, he said: that this would make labs more careful of H2N2 and that the British government had stockpiled the drug Tamiflu, which works against this strain.

Canada may have been the first country to have realised the potential danger, because they are particularly on the alert and prepared for emerging diseases after the Sars outbreak. After the discovery, the Public Health Agency of Canada alerted the WHO, which instructed all laboratories to seek out and destroy all stocks of H2N2 received in testing kits from the American college.

Yesterday, the four European countries to have received the virus - Germany, France, Belgium and Italy - moved swiftly to destroy it. Health officials in Germany said the US company had supplied six laboratories with the virus in the states of Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg and Rheinland-Palatinate. The labs destroyed the samples yesterday, officials said, after a directive from the country's health ministry.

Susanne Glassmacher, a spokeswoman for the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin, said: "The risk for the general population is very slight. The labs that got the H2N2 virus are used to dealing with dangerous virus samples. These are experienced diagnostic laboratories and they don't always know what they are getting. They are always pretty careful."

According to health officials in Europe, the laboratories had been expecting to receive the far more common strain of modern flu virus H3N2. It was not clear last night whether the laboratories were aware before the alert was issued that the samples contained the far more dangerous 1957 H2N2 strain.

According to the WHO, four countries had destroyed all their stocks - Canada, Hong Kong, Singapore and Korea, while Taiwan was moving quickly. In America, where the bulk of the virus samples were sent, Julie Geberding, director of the Centres for Disease Control, said most laboratories had destroyed their samples.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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WTF COUNTRY DO WE LIVE IN?

RUSSIAN NUKE SHIP MISSING?

ANYONE HAVE A "Get out of Armaggedon free"  letter for this planned false flag?

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


1957 letter for "designated key personnel" to escape mass destruction
http://www.boingboing.net/2008/12/05/1957-letter-for-desi.html
Posted by Mark Frauenfelder, December 5, 2008 11:56 AM | permalink



John Ptak, dealer in rare science books says:
This letter, written in 1957 by Colonel Leslie S. Moore of the U.S. Biological Weapons Program at Fort Detrick, Maryland, to a member (whose name I've removed) of the A.S. "(Atmospheric Sciences") division, was basically a get-out-of-hell-free card for its bearer in the case of devastating nuclear attack.

"In the event of a mass destruction attack on Fort Detrick with the resulting loss of Biological Warfare physical facilities, it is anticipated that it will be necessary to re-establish the BW activities at some other location."

"In order to accomplish this in the most expeditious manner, the availability of certain designated personnel...is deemed essential."

The "letter serves as notification that you have been selected as a member of this group which is to be evacuated" to get the biological weapons program up and running again. As you can read in the clickable version of the document, there are directions about what top do and when to do it. There is no mention of family. My read is that this is Endgame stuff, end of civilization as we know it, and that this was the Darwinian sweep of necessary people. Or is it Dr. Strangeloveian? I get the two confused.

Suffice to say that Fort Detrick, which had been established in 1943 (constructing and delivering anthrax bombs by 1944) as Camp Detrick, already had a fairly full career before it was up-named to "Fort" in 1956. It was the recognized home/collecting node for the American Chemical and Biological Weapons programs until Richard Nixon, of all people, disbanded that capacity at Detrick in 1969.
Read the rest at John's blog.

Two Minutes to Doomsday: "Get out of Hell Free" Card, 1957. Armageddon and All That...
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Offline Unintelligable Name

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They're constantly losing virus samples, and constantly putting it in the news...

What gives...

Definately trying to convince us we live in an unstable and volitile world.

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They're constantly losing virus samples, and constantly putting it in the news...

What gives...

just keep an eye on H2N2 reports.

But not for nothing, please show me another report like this:

"Scientists in 18 countries are tracking down and destroying thousands of vials of a lethal virus which, if it escaped, could trigger the long-feared global flu pandemic, the World Health Organisation said yesterday.  The samples of virus H2N2, which caused 4 million deaths in the 1957 flu pandemic, were sent to more than 3,700 laboratories by a leading American medical institution several months ago."


AND

"In the United States, there is no government regulation over the 1957 flu strain. In fact, federal officials at the CDC do not even know how many U.S. laboratories keep this deadly strain in their viral libraries."

concerning such a deadly strain.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline codemonkey70

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BEEP BEEP!!! ALERT ALERT!!!Information Overload via Sane posting.  :D

Seriously though, this is priceless information. Good job gathering all of this info!!! There are so many twists and turns in this "flu" business its kinda hard to keep it all sorted out.

Like Chemicalrain I also wonder what the deal is with the leakage of information on this. is it truly to keep folks on edge, or is it  to desensitize folks to it??
A coward is much more exposed to quarrels than a man of spirit.
Thomas Jefferson

Offline Dig

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BEEP BEEP!!! ALERT ALERT!!!Information Overload via Sane posting.  :D

Seriously though, this is priceless information. Good job gathering all of this info!!! There are so many twists and turns in this "flu" business its kinda hard to keep it all sorted out.

Like Chemicalrain I also wonder what the deal is with the leakage of information on this. is it truly to keep folks on edge, or is it  to desensitize folks to it??

there i no leakage of info, i had to research this shit, then after sociostudent pointed out something i missed i researched more.


these are a gathering of many different articles over a 20 year span. i just put it together in this thread. they are not talking about h2n2 publicly.

they keep saying h1n1 of h5 or h3.

but h2n2 is the fricking killer and it seems to be so easily distributed via "mixups" and "chemtrailing" and "4,000 vials accidently shipped" and "exploding packages", etc.

4 million people died of it AND IT MOSTLY KILLED CHILDREN!!!!!! [notice how children are the first to get the vaccine?]


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Watch this to see one possible way to distribute it.

I would guess Battelle would be involved:

It took me forever to get it online. So please repost everywhere. Watch download and burn.
Thanks.


Lisa


http://www.megavideo.com/?v=J7JXPTGY

http://www.zshare.net/video/6110874965647f6e/

http://thepiratebay.org/torrent/5060030/Toxic_Skies_(2008)_-_Eng

The megavideo is still converting its on the site but taking forever.
The zshare is working now to watch and download.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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Bio-ILLogical 'Mistake'  Shipment Of H2N2  More Suspicious
http://www.clickitnews.com/ubbthreads/postlist.php?Cat=&Board=emergingdiseases
From Patricia Doyle, PhD
[email protected]
4-16-5

 Hello, Jeff - I have been monitoring every medical and news site as well as CDC, WHO, American College of Pathologists, and Meridian Bioscience etc to see what those involved in the "mistake" intend to do. Namely, wouldn't you think that execs over at Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, OH would want heads to roll and those involved to be fired? No comment from Meridian - and their executives are alllegedly 'traveling' and cannot be reached for comment? In this day and age of cell phones?
 
I don't believe for one minute that the 1957 A H2N2 Asian flu vials were sent by mistake. They knew.
 
When are we going to stop the sending of highly pathogenic agents via Fed Ex, UPS, DHL, etc? Aren't there medical transport services that handle BSL3/4 and other infectious samples? Employees at companies like Fed Ex, UPS, USPS, etc, have NO idea what is in the parcels they are handling. The public needs to demand this type of activity cease.
 
What about the alleged 'missing vials'? I don't believe that bunk, either. Did FedEx, UPS, DHL, etc ALL suddenly stop using TRACKING NUMBERS? If I order a dress of article from overseas, I can always track that parcel. We can all do the same with parcels from US, as well. I know where my package is during every step of its journey. So, how can we say now, 5 months or so after the October mailing, that Lebanon and Mexico cannot find their samples? It's BS.
 
You bet this stuff is gone missing...and now that they all know what it is, it's even MORE likely to stay 'missing' - probably in the hands of rogue labs around the world.
 
This is one time we can honestly say our arrogance is coming back to us tenfold. Wait until Fall and people start getting sick - and dying - with this strain of flu.
 
And, as usual, no one will ever be held accountable...
 
Patty
 
Patricia A. Doyle, PhD
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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2001: Slepushkin V A; Staber P D; Wang G; McCray P B; Davidson B L
http://www.biomedexperts.com/Abstract.bme/11273782/Infection_of_human_airway_epithelia_with_H1N1_H2N2_and_H3N2_influenza_A_virus_strains
Infection of human airway epithelia with H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza A virus strains.
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 2001;3(3):395-402.

Three subtypes of influenza A virus cause human disease: H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2. Although all result in respiratory illness, little is known about how these subtypes infect differentiated airway epithelia. Therefore, we assayed A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/Japan/305/57 (H2N2), and X31 (H3N2) influenza virus strains for binding and infection on fully differentiated primary cultures of airway epithelia isolated from human bronchus, grown on semiporous filters at an air-liquid interface. In this model system, viral infectivity was highest when virus was applied to the apical versus the basolateral surface; Japan was most infectious, followed by PR8. The X31 strain showed very low levels of infectivity. Confocal microscopy and fluorescence-resonance energy transfer studies indicated that Japan virus could enter and fuse with cellular membranes, while infection with X31 virions was greatly inhibited. Japan virus could also productively infect human trachea explant tissues. These data show that influenza viruses with SAalpha2,3Gal binding specificity, like Japan, productively infect differentiated human airway epithelia from the apical surface. These data are important to consider in the development of pseudotyped recombinant viral vectors for gene transfer to human airway epithelia for gene therapy.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

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http://www.infowars.com/us-air-force-study-proposed-2009-influenza-pandemic-in-1996/

"Technology could not solve some old problems, as in 2009, when an influenza pandemic struck in southern China, then rapidly spread worldwide.17 Three hundred-thirty million people were affected and over thirty million died.18 No one ever determined if the virus was a natural mutation or bioengineered.19 Many feared the latter."

http://www.fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2025/af/a-f-5.htm

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No honest investigation into accidental global release of Spanish Flu virus
http://www.NaturalNews.com/z008227_H2N2_influenza_Spanish_Flu.html
by Mike Adams, the Health Ranger, NaturalNews Editor Originally published June 4 2005

What if a terrorist acquired a deadly strain of influenza that had killed millions of people in the past? What if that terrorist were able to replicate that virus, obtain the names and addresses of organizations all around the world, and distribute it across the world? What if that became headline news, and everybody found out about it? You would think that law enforcement officials might be interested, right? You'd think that somebody would investigate how this deadly strain of influenza got shipped to all of these organizations around the world...

In reality, that's not what would happen at all. Such a hypothetical event actually occurred, except it wasn't a terrorist. It was a research company that claimed to have "accidentally" distributed all of these samples of the deadly H2N2 influenza strain, which is most famous for killing millions of people around the world in 1957. It was called the "Spanish Flu" at the time, although that name is not technically accurate.

This company took this deadly virus and replicated it, then put it in kits that were part of an everyday influenza identification testing kit. They overnighted these kits through postal mail or courier services to over 4,000 destinations around the world in many different countries. When this became headline news, however, nobody was interested in finding out whether this was a crime. Nobody thought, "Why is this happening?" Nobody raised the alarm and said, "You know what, this is a threat to human health." This is a deadly virus and people born after 1957 have no immunity whatsoever to this virus. This means you could re-release this old H2N2 influenza strain into today's population, and you could observe the same kill rate experienced back in 1957. You could see the same mess all over again with millions of people dying worldwide.

As if all of these viruses aren't dangerous enough on their own -- for example, Marburg in Angola and the bird flu virus in Southeast Asia -- we actually have companies replicating these deadly strains and distributing them, just to make sure that they're in everybody's labs all over the world.

It gets worse. Some of these shipments were lost. They don't even know where they are! They claim now that virtually all of these shipments have been destroyed, but how do we know? Even then, shouldn't somebody be held responsible for distributing this deadly virus? You could be charged with federal crimes if you were caught with this kind of material. If you sent it out to somebody, who knows how many years you'd do in prison for a stunt like that. In this country, we've been arresting people for putting white powder in envelopes and sending them to Congressmen, claiming it was anthrax. Anthrax doesn't even approach the kill rate of something like H2N2. And as far as I can see, nobody's really being held responsible for this.

This is not a minor issue. This is not "Oops, we just released a level-4 biological agent into the wild. We sent it to 4,000 destinations in over a dozen different countries, and we can't really find 10 percent of those any more. We don't know where they are, and nobody does." To me, this all sounds a little suspicious. If anybody else had pulled a stunt like this, they would have the FBI, the CDC, and the World Health Organization descending upon them instantly. This research company, however, appears to have undergone no such scrutiny. Where are the answers to the really important questions in this matter? How did they get their hands on H2N2? Shouldn't this be a controlled viral specimen? Aren't there restrictions on who has this stuff? Can anybody just order H2N2, H5N1, or any of the other influenza strains that have killed people over the years? Can we just go out and buy this stuff on the internet? Apparently, yes. That's what these people did. Over 4,000 customers bought this kit. They said, "Take my credit card and send me some level 4 biological agents."

It all just strikes me as a little bizarre. What if one of these vials broke open in the shipment? What if a FedEx driver broke one of these containers, contracted the virus, and it suddenly started replicating in that person? It could have been any courier, but what if they then came into contact with other people? Suddenly, you'd have a carrier, and the virus would be spreading. We would have the Spanish Flu all over again.

That scenario is not at all out of the realm of possibility, especially when the virus sample has been sent to 4,000 destinations. If you play the odds long enough, nature is going to clobber you. Nature will survive and viruses, of course, are not even living. A virus is just basically a pattern of DNA. It doesn't have to be alive to be dangerous. The fact that these were "dead" samples did not make it safer for all of us.

Here's another interesting fact in all of this. This deadly strain of influenza was only discovered accidentally by one of the labs that had received this shipment. It took some real detective work for them to figure out they had this deadly influenza strain in this kit. In other words, the research company that was sending these kits out wasn't even aware that they were doing it. They most likely would never have been aware of it if one of their customers hadn't alerted them. There was no mechanism in place to test these outgoing kits. There was no safety net. They could have been shipping these off to anybody, and it could have continued for years. Who knows how many samples would have been out there in the wild?

As a nation, we are frequently worried about the wrong things. For example, we're spending all this money on the fight against terrorists, and we're in Iraq fighting a war, and it seems like every decade we do it again. However, we've got people right here in the United States who are replicating these deadly strains of influenza and shipping them out into the wild. To me, that’s a much bigger threat than any terrorist, real or imagined. I don't mean to minimize the whole international situation, but if one virus like this gets out and the right person contracts it, you'd have a pandemic on your hands. You'd have an outbreak. And you can't fight a pandemic with bullets.

It wasn't too long ago that President Bush signed an order giving the government the right to quarantine air travelers who may be infected with things like the bird flu, or any other infectious disease. Here's the scenario: You've suddenly got H2N2 out in the wild, you've got Marburg going crazy over in Angola, you've got the bird flu virus all over in Korea right now, and you suddenly get people flying back to America exhibiting some upper respiratory symptoms. They get taken off the plane and quarantined, because they're a threat to everyone else in this country. If this gets any worse, or if H2N2 actually gets out into the wild and starts infecting people, we're going to have a lot of people quarantined. You'd better not get sick, because they're going to take you away. Seriously, that's what the order dictates. They're going to take you away and quarantine you for the good of everyone else in society.

I actually agree with that policy. I think that if you are in charge of the safety of a population, you have to make that kind of decision. You cannot let a pandemic just keep growing and spreading. If you're in charge of the CDC, or the World Health Organization, or the US Government, you have to quarantine people who appear to be a threat to public health. But what it means for us in terms of our freedoms is that they're being trampled on. Again, you'd better not get sick, since there are so many infectious disease agents out there now that people are getting increasingly paranoid. You could be pulled off of a plane, you could be pulled out of a line at some kind of a checkpoint, you could be quarantined, and you'd have no say about it. You wouldn't get an attorney, and you'd be quarantined by force. If you resist, you could quickly see firearms being pointed in your face. Gunpoint is the ultimate application of government willpower.

The Spanish Flu should have been over and done with in 1957. We shouldn't have to revisit it again. We've got enough dangerous stuff going around anyway. We've got superbugs in the hospitals. We've got people breeding superbugs in their own kitchens and bathrooms because they're using these antibacterial soaps that actually encourage the creation of resistant bacteria strains. We've got the bird flu virus now becoming a potentially serious threat. We've got Marburg over in Angola, which has a kill rate of anywhere from 90 to 98 percent, depending on how you work the math and which reports you believe. Hopefully, these illnesses will never show up over in North America, Australia, or Europe, but their existence is frightening enough. We don't have to be adding to it by doing nature's job of replicating these dangerous strains. Nature does that well enough on its own. It doesn't need our help.

Modern medicine: doing more harm than good
I want to drive home the point that our current medical research system in this country is absolutely insane. It has lost its mind even beyond the fact that researchers keep claiming they'll find cures for cancer if we only give them another couple of billion dollars. That's completely absurd, by the way. Aside from that fact, and the whole "cure con," as I call it, we have these organizations actually creating threats to our lives.

It's not just the pharmaceutical companies I'm talking about here, although their products are very dangerous for human health. (Let's face it, prescription drugs are killing twice as many Americans every year as the total number of Americans who died in the Vietnam War. This is a statistic from the Journal of the American Medical Association.) You've also got organized medicine killing three-quarters of a million people in the United States each year. That figure is from the "Death By Medicine" research document. In addition, you've got companies like this viral research lab blatantly increasing our risk. They're just rolling the dice, folks. They're rolling the dice with your life on the line. Perhaps this time we'll get lucky. Perhaps they'll find all of these missing vials and destroy them. Even if they do, it's just a lucky narrow escape. If you keep betting against nature, if you keep pushing the odds, sooner or later they're going to come up snake eyes. Sooner or later, nature is going to find a way to make that virus replicate in the wild. We'll only have ourselves to blame.

Vaccines: a channel for spreading infectious disease?
This kind of behavior is a good demonstration of why I don't trust companies that are replicating and distributing these dangerous infectious agents. This is why I don't trust vaccine companies at all. I never get vaccinated, and I don't recommend vaccination for anybody. I think the science behind vaccinations is bad. The mercury content of vaccines is toxic. There is a clear link to autism in children, and I think that a lot of vaccines have been contaminated with various strains of infectious disease over the years. In fact, there's strong evidence that some of the outbreaks we've seen in North America in the past were actually caused by mass vaccination programs.

When you see incidents such as the "accidental" mass distribution of H2N2, it becomes all the more believable. These companies really don't know what they're doing. They don't have adequate safety measures in place. It's being operated like a fast food chain -- "Here's your order. Maybe it's everything you ordered, maybe not. Move on through the drive-thru, there are people behind you." This is the kind of attitude that obviously must be going on at these research labs. It's unacceptable, because we're playing with the lives of millions of people.

Some may say, "It's okay, because it was an accident. This company didn't mean to send that out. It was an accident." Do you think that excuse would fly with a terrorist? Do you think they would say, "Oh, I didn't mean to fly into that building. It was an accident!" Do you think that would be accepted? "We didn't mean to release sarin gas into the subway. That was a complete accident. We had no intention to do that." That excuse wouldn't be acceptable!

A complete lack of leadership and responsibility
It shouldn't matter who it came from. It doesn't matter what their intentions were. What matters is what effect they had. Whose lives did they put at risk through their actions and through their lack of responsibility? It's the same lack of responsibility that we see across modern medicine here in the United States, especially in the pharmaceutical industry and medical research institutions. There's a disturbing lack of responsibility, ethics, and basic understanding of human or animal rights. There's even a lack of recognizing the individuality of human beings. It appears they're living in another world, where they think their actions have no consequences. They think they can just do anything they want, ship out anything they want, and forget about quality control. These are all just various strains of infectious disease. Let's send them out anyway, and we'll worry about it later. That must be the attitude that's taking place. It can only be sloppy quality control and a frightening disregard for human life that allowed something like this to happen.

Personally, I think somebody needs to be nailed for this. Somebody should be held responsible, and we deserve an explanation of more than just saying, "It was an accident. Oops! We just sent out a deadly strain of influenza." I don't buy that. There is more to this story; there's a reason why this happened. There had to be a chain of mistakes all the way through the organization, a chain that could have been stopped by somebody speaking up, or somebody doing their job correctly, or somebody just doing the right thing. There wasn't a whistleblower here. So this situation happened, putting us all at risk. That is unacceptable. We should demand a better explanation than "oops!"

What's to stop them from doing it again? What's to stop another company from doing it? How do we know that other strains aren't being shipped out right now? H2N2 is only one strain among many. You've got H5N1 today, and you've got all kinds of influenza strains from the past, such as the 1929 flu, which was a huge killer. How do we know that these are being contained right now? How do we know that the institutions that claim to be researching these actually have safety measures in place? How do we know that? We don't really.

All we know is what the press tells us, which doesn't seem to be the whole story by any stretch of the imagination. Even if a deadly strain WERE accidentally released, and people were starting to get infected, you can bet the CDC and White House would force mainstream newspapers to keep the lid on the news. Why? They don't want to cause a panic. So even if this virus were in the wild right now, you couldn't count on the mainstream media to tell you the truth about it. Washington would be, "balancing truth with public safety," as they say. Or, perhaps, balancing truth with corporate profits.

Don't trust any "official" news on infectious disease. The official news is shaped to minimize panic and control the public, not to impart accurate information to individual citizens. And I'm willing to be we'll never get the true story about this global release of H2N2 by a lab that can only says, "Oops."

We got lucky this time. But when you're dealing with infectious disease, you can only thumb your nose at nature so many times.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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1: Avian Dis. 2007 Mar;51(1 Suppl):264-8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17494563
Adaptation of influenza A/Mallard/Potsdam/178-4/83 H2N2 virus in Japanese quail leads to infection and transmission in chickens.
Sorrell EM, Perez DR.

University of Maryland, College Park, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Medicine, 8075 Greenmead Drive, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

To assess the potential of quail as an intermediate host of avian influenza, we tested the influenza A/Mallard/ Potsdam/178-4/83 (H2N2) virus to determine whether through adaptation a mallard strain can replicate and transmit in quail, as well as other terrestrial birds. After five serial passages of lung homogenate a virus arose that replicated and transmitted directly to contact cage mates. To test whether adaptation in quail led to interspecies transmission, white leghorn chickens were infected with the wild-type (mall/178) and quail-adapted (qa-mall/178) viruses. The results show that mall/178 H2N2 does not establish an infection in chickens nor does it transmit, while qa-mall/178 H2N2 infects and transmits to contact chickens causing clinical signs like depression and diarrhea. Completed sequences indicate six amino acid changes spanning four genes, PB2, PB1, HA, and NP, suggesting that the internal genes play a role in host adaptation. Further adaptation of qa-mall/178 in white leghorn chickens created a virus that replicated more efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Sequence analysis of the chicken-adapted virus points to a deletion in the neuraminidase stalk region.

PMID: 17494563 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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http://www.infowars.com/us-air-force-study-proposed-2009-influenza-pandemic-in-1996/

"Technology could not solve some old problems, as in 2009, when an influenza pandemic struck in southern China, then rapidly spread worldwide.17 Three hundred-thirty million people were affected and over thirty million died.18 No one ever determined if the virus was a natural mutation or bioengineered.19 Many feared the latter."

http://www.fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2025/af/a-f-5.htm

best thing about the image is the last two words for theevent of 2010.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Unintelligable Name

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best thing about the image is the last two words for theevent of 2010.

By itself, yeah. World Government cannot exist anyway, it's an absurdity. The NWO is on a mission destined to fail.

Offline jofortruth

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Slideshow on History of Pandemics:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/6822433/pandemics


See pg 24 on the 1918 flu - "people aged 20-40 were its victims rather than the old and weak. This remains a mystery up to this day! (Well, when something is manufactured, that would make for a mystery wouldn't it? Someone must start focusing on the EUGENICS side of these events. Since they write in their books all about how they use eugenics, this needs to be taken more seriously!)


So, didn't they say this current flu is that same demographic?
Don't believe me. Look it up yourself!

Anti_Illuminati

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I don't have time to copy and paste all of this, so I'll just provide the links (except for an abstract):

http://www.uniprot.org/citations/15380362

Lindstrom S.E., Cox N.J., Klimov A.

Phylogenic analysis of all gene segments of human H2N2 viruses isolated from 1957 to 1968 was undertaken to better understand the evolution of this virus subtype. Human H3N2 viruses isolated from 1968 to 1972 were also examined to investigate genetic events associated with their emergence in humans and to identify the putative H2N2 ancestral virus. All gene segments of human H2N2 viruses demonstrated divergent evolution into two distinct clades (I and II) among late H2N2 isolates. All gene segments of 1968 H3N2 viruses that were retained from human H2N2 viruses were most similar to clade I H2N2 genes. However, genes of both clades were found among H3N2 isolates of 1969-1971. Unique phylogenic topologies reflected multiple reassortment events among late H2N2 or H3N2 viruses that resulted in a variety of different genome constellations. These results suggest that H2N2 viruses continued to circulate after 1968 and that establishment of H3N2 viruses in humans was associated with multiple reassortment events that contributed to their genetic diversity.

http://lib.bioinfo.pl/auid:3206139

http://conventus.de/nmtemp/media/26249/virologie_abstract_ev.pdf

http://nmji.in/archives/Volume_19_2_March_April2006/selected_summaries/Human_flu.htm

http://www.cbcb.umd.edu/~niranjan/papers/NagarajanKingsfordBIBM08.pdf

http://www.cbcb.umd.edu/~niranjan/reassortment.shtml

http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19224

http://www.virologyj.com/content/6/1/69

Offline RemixNinja

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just keep an eye on H2N2 reports.



Setting a Google news alert right now.

Offline jofortruth

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Don't believe me. Look it up yourself!

Offline RemixNinja

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"In the United States, there is no government regulation over the 1957 flu strain. In fact, federal officials at the CDC do not even know how many U.S. laboratories keep this deadly strain in their viral libraries."


The above quote is one of the scariest things I have read on this board.  The government regulates or tries to regulate firearms, Internet, transportation, water, food, farming, drugs, gambling, families, et cetera, but it does not regulate the deadly H2N2?!?!

Offline Dig

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Read this part of "Ecoscience" by Holdren:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/18940611/Eco-Science-Ten-Epidemics-and-Climate

jo!

ecoscience is a coloring book!

MSNBC told me so!

Nothing to see here, move along...
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Anti_Illuminati

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The above quote is one of the scariest things I have read on this board.  The government regulates or tries to regulate firearms, Internet, transportation, water, food, farming, drugs, gambling, families, et cetera, but it does not regulate the deadly H2N2?!?!

In Jay Rockefeller's world, the Internet is more deadly than H2N2 and the 1918 super flu, weaponized ebola, weaponized polio, weaponized smallpox, weaponized anthrax, and black holes that could potentially be generated at CERN.

Offline Unintelligable Name

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In Jay Rockefeller's world, the Internet is more deadly than H2N2 and the 1918 super flu, weaponized ebola, weaponized polio, weaponized smallpox, weaponized anthrax, and black holes that could potentially be generated at CERN.

Today, tomorrow the deadliest thing in the world will be people without microchips, or private citizens with firearms.

angndon

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Here are some interesting tidbits

First...remember when Indonesia was sending avian flu samples to WHO? (read below)

From 2005
http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/influenza/avianflu/news/may2705avflu.html
Indonesian pigs have avian flu virus; bird cases double in China
 In Indonesia, Chairul Nidom, a virologist at Airlangga University's tropical disease center in Surabaya, Java, was conducting independent research earlier this year. He tested the blood of 10 apparently healthy pigs housed near poultry farms in western Java where avian flu had broken out, Nature reported. Five of the pig samples contained the H5N1 virus.

The Indonesian government has since found similar results in the same region, Nature reported. Additional tests of 150 pigs outside the area were negative. However, the story said, lack of funding for surveillance and testing is a concern to Nidom, who said he has samples from 90 more pigs from Banten, but he can't afford to test them or to broaden his investigation.

"I think pigs pose a much greater threat of spreading the disease to humans than poultry," Nidom told Nature. Pigs are often described as a mixing vessel in which human and avian flu viruses can swap genetic information, which could lead to a hybrid virus with the ability to spread easily among people.


The Indonesian government sent a report to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) on May 23 that describes three surveys involving "purposive and pooled sampling" of pigs, with a total 187 samples.


If you remember....
Indonesia later stopped sending samples to WHO, but started back up again when a deal was struck between Indonesia and Baxter Pharmaceuticals. 

This means that Baxter's Avian flu samples likely already had the hybrid virus.

Offline Unintelligable Name

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Fits into the Airforce 'prediction.'

Run with it.

Offline TahoeBlue

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One of the outcomes (many years later) of the 1958 Influenza Epidemic was investigation of spikes in schizophrenia cases.... What I find interesting is that Tamiflu itself increases mental problems in children and there have been many recent studies conducted in the last few years of flu and Schizophrenia ...

Notice that some studies show NO such connection, while in the U.S. and Britain and Japan they DO.

http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/151/10/1496
Schizophrenia and prenatal exposure to the 1957 A2 influenza epidemic in Croatia

L Erlenmeyer-Kimling, Z Folnegovic, V Hrabak-Zerjavic, B Borcic, V Folnegovic- Smalc and E Susser
Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032.

The authors present data from the Republic of Croatia on schizophrenia rates in a birth cohort prenatally exposed to the 1957 A2 influenza epidemic and in comparison (unexposed) birth cohorts. The rate of schizophrenia did not differ significantly between the exposed and unexposed cohorts.

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0920996499000055
Prenatal exposure to the 1957 influenza pandemic and non-affective psychosis in The Netherlands
Schizophrenia Research, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 85-91 J.Selten

Abstract
Second-trimester exposure to the 1957 A2 influenza pandemic is a controversial risk factor for schizophrenia. Two earlier studies of the Dutch psychiatric registry failed to find an increased risk for exposed subjects, but diagnostic misclassification within the spectrum of non-affective psychoses has not yet been ruled out as an explanation for the negative findings. Using an enlarged data-set we examined not only whether second-trimester exposure to the epidemic is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia (ICD:295), but also whether it is associated with an increased risk of paranoid states (ICD:297) or other non-organic psychoses (ICD:298).

In this retrospective cohort study the risks of the above-mentioned disorders were compared for those exposed and unexposed to A2 influenza during the second trimester of fetal life. The risks for the exposed subjects were not significantly higher than the risks for the unexposed.

The power of the study to detect a significant increase in the risk of schizophrenia was sufficient. If the relative risk of a lifetime hospitalization for schizophrenia for second-trimester exposed subjects (born January–April 1958) is assumed to be 1.3, the power of the study would be 0.97 (alpha=0.05; one-tailed testing).

If the relative risk for subjects born five months after the peak of the epidemic (mid-February to mid-March 1958) is assumed to be 1.88, as reported for England and Wales, the power of the study would be close to 1.00. This was the largest study of its kind in Europe: 275 subjects were born in the period January–April 1958 and had a lifetime hospitalization for schizophrenia.

This study indicates that there is no relation between second-trimester exposure to the 1957 influenza pandemic and risk of non-affective psychosis in the Dutch population. It adds to a growing body of work which does not support an association between maternal influenza and schizophrenia.

http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/301/3/324

Contracting Schizophrenia - Lessons From the Influenza Epidemic of 1918-1919
Commentary by Stuart C. Yudofsky, MD  JAMA. 2009;301(3):324-326.
 Vol. 301 No. 3, January 21, 2009
...
In 1919, JAMA published a classic article by Karl A. Menninger on the association of influenza and psychoses in patients who were admitted to the Boston Psychopathic Hospital from September 15, 1918, through December 15, 1918, the apogee of this scourge in New England.2

Menninger's professional life was in transition in 1918 (as was the field of psychiatry in the era in which this paper was written): he was in the internship year between graduation from Harvard Medical School and founding the legendary Menninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas (with his father C. F. Menninger, MD). In this Classic, Menninger reported the clinical courses of 80 patients admitted to the psychiatric hospital with "mental disturbances" associated with influenza, of whom 16 were diagnosed with delirium, 25 with dementia praecox, 23 with "other types of psychosis," and 16 who were not able to be classified.2 It was the group of patients diagnosed with dementia praecox who captured Menninger's primary interest in this article2 and in others he published about this series of patients. In 1926, Menninger published a follow-up study of 50 patients diagnosed with dementia praecox (at Boston Psychopathic Hospital) after the 1918 influenza outbreak.3 To his surprise, 35 of these patients completely recovered within a 5-year follow-up period and 5 others showed improvement. He wrote, "The astonishing indication of these data is that the vast majority of cases regarded as ‘dementia praecox’ did not dement, but actually recovered," and concluded, "This would seem to indicate the need of new diagnostic criteria or new prognostic conceptions."3
...

Can Influenza "Cause" Schizophrenia? 

Although Menninger considered many avenues by which the Spanish Influenza of 1918 could lead to the development of dementia praecox, neither he nor any of his contemporary investigators raised the possibility that the influence of influenza on the etiology of schizophrenia could occur in utero.

Although this idea has been debated in the scientific literature, many studies have documented that schizophrenia occurs more frequently in children born in winter and early spring when viral infections are more prevalent.12 Among 25 investigations of the incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring of women who were thought to have contracted influenza during pregnancy, approximately 50% reported positive associations.13 Reliably documenting maternal influenza exposure in these studies has been challenging because viral exposure has been generally based on participants' self-reports of infection or on occurrences of influenza epidemics contemporaneous with their pregnancies. To counter this problem, Brown et al assayed for influenza antibodies in sera drawn from pregnant women whose children later developed schizophrenia, and compared these samples with ones from a matched control group of women whose children did not develop schizophrenia.14 The study population was derived from 170 cases judged to have schizophrenia or "schizophrenia spectrum disease" from a cohort of 12 094 live births enrolled in the California Child Health and Development Study.15

The results of the study by Brown et al14 revealed a dramatic 7-fold increase in the risk of schizophrenia among the offspring of women who were exposed to influenza during their first trimester of pregnancy. Further analysis suggested a 3-fold increase of risk in women who were exposed to influenza from the midpoints of their first and second trimesters.14

The finding that exposure to influenza during pregnancy may be an etiologic factor for schizophrenia may lead to new understanding of the pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of this devastating condition. For example, vaccinating women of childbearing age against influenza might help prevent some forms of schizophrenia. In carrying to fruition this remarkable line of research, the 90 years of progress in improving psychiatric diagnosis and classification since the original Menninger study2 have been as important as the advances in modern laboratory techniques used to assay the influenza antigens in the sera of the cohorts. It certainly seems reasonable to speculate that Kraepelin, Bleuler, and Karl Menninger would be excited by this progress and pleased with their seminal roles in the evolution of the diagnosis and classification of psychiatric disorders.


http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S000632239800359X
Schizophrenia and the influenza epidemics of 1957 in Japan
Biological Psychiatry, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 119-124
Y.Izumoto

Abstract
Background: We tested the hypothesis that the exposure to an influenza epidemic during the second trimester of gestation is associated with an increased risk of later development of schizophrenia.

Methods: There were three influenza epidemics (A/B mixed type, the first A2 type and the second A2 type) in 1957 in Kochi, Japan. We compared the risk of developing schizophrenia in birth cohorts exposed to these three influenza epidemics during gestation with that in birth cohorts not exposed. To identify subjects who had developed schizophrenia, we surveyed patients with schizophrenia who received medical care at all psychiatric institutions in Kochi prefecture.

Results: There is a pattern that schizophrenic births increase twice or more among female subjects who were exposed to each of three influenza epidemics in the fifth month of gestation. The increase in the female births exposed to the second A2 epidemic was significant (relative risk 2.86, 95% confidence interval 1.37–5.26). This pattern across the three epidemics was not observed in male subjects.

Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to an influenza epidemic during the second trimester increased the risk of later development of schizophrenia in female births.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline Dig

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Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic
http://www.infowars.com/personal-recollections-of-the-1957-h2n2-flu-pandemic/
JT Coyote
Infowars
August 28, 2009

The students in the farming community I grew up in were having a grade school “fair” in the fall of 1957. It was the beginning of fourth grade for me. We were setting up props for the weekend festivities, when parents and students would all attend. We were busy converting the 4 room school into a frontier town. It was all part of the run up to the Colorado statehood Centennial celebration and we chose an Old West theme. 1957 was the first year of school polio and smallpox shots, which we had all received a couple of weeks earlier. I remember that I wasn’t feeling well that day, but I didn’t want to miss the fun, yet by mid afternoon — let’s just say, I had to go home early that Friday.   
   
   
   Citizens line up for their vaccinations in the 1950s.
   


By Saturday morning I was running an incredible fever. I was in a constant state of vomiting and dry heaves, I couldn’t keep anything down, and for the longest time my only conscious moments were filled with fever, vomiting, and delirium. Within hours of one another, one by one, my brothers and sisters came down with the bug, though I have little conscious recollection of those first three days.

By Sunday my parents had also succumb. The only one who was still standing was my maternal grandmother, who while in her late teens, had survived the 1918 Spanish flu. Lucky for us she knew what to do and in her immunity, she nursed us all through the critical first few days of ordeal and the week of recovery. I also thank providence for the other two families that worked on the dairy farm. They had no grade school age children and were able to maintain the milking chores and other things necessary to keep the farm running. Yet within a week or two, one after another they all came down with flu as well. I know of people who were killed by this virus. There were some members of the Victory Grange, and the Tower Baptist Church, that we never saw again.

There must be a reason why the authorities are not talking about this strain of flu — primary obfuscation perhaps, by the weak red herring H1N1, that’s my gut feeling. I say this because when the story first broke in 2004/2005, about the 3000 or so H2N2 (1957) flu test kits that were “accidentally” mailed all over the world, it suddenly disappeared from the media. I repeat the word accidentally with a “don’t you believe it” advisory, (”nudge, nudge,- wink, wink, – know what I mean, known what I mean.”)

To quote the reference source: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H2N2>

“From October 2004 to February 2005, approximately 3,700 test kits of the 1957 H2N2 virus were accidentally spread around the world from the College of American Pathologists (CAP) <http://www.cap.org/apps/cap.portal>. CAP assists laboratories in accuracy by providing unidentified samples of viruses; private contractor Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, U.S., chose the 1957 strand instead of one of the less deadly avian influenza virus subtypes. “CAP spokesman Dr. Jared Schwartz said Meridian knew what the virus was but believed it was safe. In selecting it, the company had determined that the virus was classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) agent, which meant it could legally be used in the kits. [...] Before the problem came to light, the CDC had made a recommendation that the H2N2 virus be reclassified as a BSL-3 agent, Gerberding said. She promised to speed up the reclassification. The CDC determines the classifications in
collaboration with the National Institutes of Health. In BSL-3 labs, agents are handled with equipment designed to prevent any airborne contamination and resulting respiratory exposure.”[10] <http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/…april1305labs.html> The 1957 H2N2 virus is considered deadly and the U.S. government called for the vials containing the strain to be destroyed.”

So just how many of these vials were actually destroyed? Do we know how many were opened and cultured? Well, the one thing we do know for sure is that they contained the BSL-3, deadly, live H2N2 virus. No need to dig up dead, obese, Inuit Eskimo women from which to extricate and resurrect the virus, all they had to do was ship out the existing 50 year old, culture test kits and allow the eugenics clinics to do what they do best… namely, culture, replicate, and distribute, the known killer, H2N2 (1957) avian flu virus.

I’ve had what they call the flu since then, a couple of days of achiness in the military in ‘68, and then again when I took the “mandatory” Air Force swine flu shot in 1972/73 and got sick from that. But again, just achy joints and muscles, a little nausea, and a fever for a few days, but nowhere near the 1957 flu. After 1973, I haven’t had the flu at all really, not even the most subtle symptoms. I seldom even have a cold beyond the sniffles, and achy joints, mostly now in my later years.


You would think that this latest scare, would bring the national media to mention the pandemic of 1957. After all, according to the WHO, (World Health Organization), it killed 2 million+ people world wide that year. Other credible sources say 4 million died. The official stats for the number of deaths in the United States during that pandemic is 70,000. I wonder if the folks who died that I knew, and folks in other out of the way rural areas in the country, and the world for that matter — were they counted in those statistics? Sources other than the WHO say that the number is more likely between 100,000 and 140,000 American deaths by flu in ‘57-’58…

This past Friday night there was a flyover above my home at about 8:30 in the evening. It happened again at just before midnight on Saturday, and then a third fly by — and I will never forget the exact time of this one, it was 2:09 AM Monday morning August 24th. The airplane was a twin-engine turbo prop that rumbled the house rafters as it went over. The valley where I live is about 9000 feet in elevation, about a mile wide and is rimed on opposite sides by 12,000 to 13,000 foot peaks. I could hear the aircraft feather its propellers on approach as it dropped down in a crop duster like swoop. It breezed across the valley in only a few seconds, then it powered back up into a climbing turn and disappeared over the reservoir. I should alert you to the fact that large twin engine aircraft flying at low altitude over our little valley in the wee hours of the morning, is as rare as snow storms in Pensacola Florida, yet it happened three times, in as many nights.

The reason I won’t forget the last flyover is this — in hopes of catching a glimpse of the noisy bird, I scurried out the front door onto the porch. I was immediately hit with a smell and taste that I can never forget. A sensation I have not experienced since the first time I tasted it. It was the taste and smell of that deathly ill three days I lived through, back in 1957.

I for one will not be surprised at all when they announce that what is taking people’s lives this time, will not be the H1N1 at all, but a variant of the H2N2 virus! — Still — why doesn’t the press even mention the 1957/58 H2N2 flu pandemic… seems curious, don’t you think?

–Oldyoti

“What we meant, in going for those redcoats was this –
we had always governed ourselves, and always meant to…
they, didn’t mean we should.”

– An old New England militia captain, after the battles of Lexington and Concord April 19, 1775
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline chris jones

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Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #38 on: August 28, 2009, 10:47:08 pm »
You f olks did your homework, great job.

BUMPED and Thank you.

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #39 on: August 29, 2009, 12:11:38 pm »
Another interesting thing happened in 1958 - The Bits began the Centre for Longitudinal Studies National Child Development Study (with followup Genetic informational studies by Wellcome Trust funded !).

http://www.b58cgene.sgul.ac.uk/
Genetic information from the British 1958 Birth Cohort
One million genetic variants and associated biomedical traits in a national sample of adults. Version 2.3, updated 5/9/2008

Welcome to this web presentation of genetic data derived from the British 1958 birth cohort DNA collection, a national research resource created with funding from the Wellcome Trust and the Medical Research Council.

Much of the information relates to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) but data on other forms of genetic variation, including HLA ("tissue type") will be included as they become available.

We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the cohort study team, survey workers, participating laboratories, biomedical collaborators, and depositors of genotype data in creation of this website.

Above all, we would like to express our sincere thanks to over 8,000 cohort members who participated in the 2002-2004 biomedical follow-up and gave written consent to use of their DNA for medical research.

This website does not contain any information relating to individual cohort members or their relatives. Scientists wishing to obtain samples from the DNA collection for non-commercial medical research purposes should complete an application form for consideration by our oversight committee.

http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/studies.asp?section=000100020003
NATIONAL CHILD DEVELOPMENT STUDY

The National Child Development Study (NCDS) is a continuing, multi-disciplinary longitudinal study which takes as its subjects all the people born in one week in England, Scotland and Wales in one week in March 1958.

NCDS has its origins in the Perinatal Mortality Survey. Sponsored by the National Birthday Trust Fund, this was designed to examine the social and obstetric factors associated with stillbirth and death in early infancy among the children born in Great Britain in that one week. Information was gathered from almost 17,500 babies.

NCDS was the second in a series of four such perinatal studies, the others being based on a week's births in 1946 and 1970, and on births in selected wards in 2000/01. Each has formed the basis of a continuing longitudinal study.

As the table below shows, following the initial birth survey in 1958, there have to date been seven attempts to trace all members of the birth cohort in order to monitor their physical, educational, social and economic development. These were carried out by the National Children's Bureau in 1965, 1969, 1974, and 1981; by the Social Statistics Research Unit, City University, in 1991; and by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies, IoE in 1999/2000 and 2004.

It is important to note that the birth cohort was augmented by including immigrants born in the relevant week in the target sample for the first three follow-ups (NCDS 1-3). This has implications for both the target and achieved samples in the table below, which indicates the target and achieved samples for each follow-up. These figures were revised between NCDS6 and NCDS7 in the light of an exercise conducted within CLS to examine the changes in the NCDS and BCS70 populations and samples over time.  This is available as a CLS Technical Report.
http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/core/documents/download.asp?id=209&log_stat=1

(see website for tables)
...
There are two ways in which the target and achieved samples can be conceptualised:

1. the longitudinal target sample consists of all those born (alive or dead) in Great Britain in that particular week in March 1958, until they die or permanently emigrate from Britain.  The longitudinal achieved sample is all those members of the longitudinal target sample who participate in a particular sweep (at least one survey instrument partially completed).

2. the cross-sectional target sample at a particular sweep consists of all those born anywhere in the world in that particular week in March 1958, and living in Britain at that sweep.   The cross-sectional achieved sample is all those members of the cross-sectional target sample who participate in a particular sweep (at least one survey instrument partially completed).

After the birth survey, anyone born abroad during that week who subsequently moved to Britain before the age of 16, may be included in the cross-sectional sample, but not the longitudinal one.  Immigrants were added for the sweeps NCDS1-3, but no subsequent attempts were made to include further members.

For a rigorous analysis of response rates, refer to the Technical Report.

In addition to the seven attempts to trace all members, contact was made in 1978 with the schools attended by members of the birth cohort at the time of the second follow-up in 1974 in order to obtain details of public examination entry and performance. Similar details were also sought from sixth-form colleges and further education colleges, etc where these were identified by schools.

For the birth survey, information was obtained from the mother and from medical records by the midwife. For the purposes of the first three NCDS surveys, information was obtained from parents (who were interviewed by health visitors), head teachers and class teachers (who completed questionnaires), the schools health service (who carried out medical examinations) and the subjects themselves (who completed tests of ability and, latterly, questionnaires).

The 1981 and later surveys differ, in that information was gathered by professional survey research interviewers.  In 1981 information was obtained from cohort members and from the 1971 and 1981 Censuses - from which variables describing area of residence were taken.  In the 1991 survey there was a professional interview with the cohort member, but self-completion questionnaires were also used to gather data from NCDS subjects and from husbands, wives, and cohabitees. In addition, for a random sample of one in three cohort members, information was collected for all natural or adopted children who were living with them. Data were gathered from the children themselves, and from their mother, or mother-figure (who might be the cohort member, or their spouse or partner), using a series of age-specific assessments of cognitive and behavioural development. These were supplemented by a mother interview, and by interviewer observations of mother-child interaction.  For the 1999-2000 sweep, information was obtained from cohort members by interviewer and self-completion, but using CAPI (Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing) for the first time.  The 2004 survey was administered by telephone.

During the collection of exam data in 1978 information was obtained only from the schools and colleges by postal survey.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5