Author Topic: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté  (Read 45887 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline TahoeBlue

  • Global Moderator
  • Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 19,881
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #40 on: August 29, 2009, 12:54:21 pm »
Quote
Genetic information from the British 1958 Birth Cohort

http://www.wtccc.org.uk/
Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium

WTCCC1
The Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium (WTCCC) is a group of 50 research groups across the UK which was established in 2005. The WTCCC aims were to exploit progress in understanding of patterns of human genome sequence variation along with advances in high-throughput genotyping technologies, and to explore the utility, design and analyses of genome-wide association (GWA) studies.


The WTCCC has substantially increased the number of genes known to play a role in the development of some of our most common diseases and has to date identified approximately 90 new variants across all of the diseases analysed. As well as confirming many of the known associations, some 28 in total, the WTCCC has also identified many novel variants that affect susceptibility to disease. A link to the diseases studied in WTCCC1 can be found here: [link]

The WTCCC aims to complete the initial survey of common variation for association to disease, and to examine the replicated association signals detected through resequencing and fine-mapping. The WTCCC will also carry out a major experiment to address the genome-wide measurement of copy number variation (CNV) within the 19,000 (tbc) samples tested in phase one (16,000 disease samples and 3,000 common controls) and additional samples from breast cancer. Further information

WTCCC2
In recognition of the success of the WTCCC and to capitalise on the success of the GWA approach, a further round of GWA studies were funded in April 2008.
These include 15 WTCCC-collaborative studies and 12 independent studies be supported totalling approximately 120,000 samples. Many of the studies represent major international collaborative networks that have together assembled large sample collections.

WTCCC2 will perform genome-wide association studies in 13 disease conditions: Ankylosing spondylitis, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, glaucoma, ischaemic stroke, multiple sclerosis, pre-eclampsia, Parkinson's disease, psychosis endophenotypes, psoriasis, schizophrenia, ulcerative colitis and visceral leishmaniasis.

WTCCC2 will also investigate the genetics of reading and mathematics abilities in children and the pharmacogenomics of statin response. Over 60,000 samples will be analysed using either the Affymetrix v6.0 chip or the Illumina 660K chip.

The WTCCC2 will also genotype 3,000 controls each from the 1958 British Birth cohort and the UK Blood Service control group, and the 6,000 controls will be genotyped on both the Affymetrix v6.0 and Illumina 1.2M chips.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline maelstrom

  • Member
  • *
  • Posts: 39
Slideshow on History of Pandemics:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/6822433/pandemics


See pg 24 on the 1918 flu - "people aged 20-40 were its victims rather than the old and weak. This remains a mystery up to this day! (Well, when something is manufactured, that would make for a mystery wouldn't it? Someone must start focusing on the EUGENICS side of these events. Since they write in their books all about how they use eugenics, this needs to be taken more seriously!)


So, didn't they say this current flu is that same demographic?

the spanish flu cut down young people in their prime. this is called a "cytokine storm" now, when the immune system overreacts and the lungs fill with puss. it seems to affect people with strong immune systems.

yes, they said this flu has the danger of being like that one in cytokine response. in fact, that was the major element of the hype intended for the medical community.

this is another example of a very poor cover story for the laboratory flu, a failed bioweapon, because they are pushing for CHILDREN to be vaccinated first. children were not the high risk group in 1918. the cover story is so bad you have to think it is intentionally bad, designed to be seen through by the simplest, most indoctrinated and least educated viewer in existence. the mainstream news cover story is clearly a hoax, everyone can see it.

why? what is going on?

three possibilites spring to mind immediately:

1. psychological warfare technique: present two mutually exclusive but seemingly true actualities to induce confusion, chaos and lethargy in the enemy.

2. the people behind this effort are total failures. their bioweapon fizzled, their follow-up is below par, their next installment will be a dud.

3. the flu dem-panic is designed to draw attention away from something else, and can be turned on and off like a switch at the proper moment.

JTCoyoté

  • Guest
the spanish flu cut down young people in their prime. this is called a "cytokine storm" now, when the immune system overreacts and the lungs fill with puss. it seems to affect people with strong immune systems.

yes, they said this flu has the danger of being like that one in cytokine response. in fact, that was the major element of the hype intended for the medical community.

this is another example of a very poor cover story for the laboratory flu, a failed bioweapon, because they are pushing for CHILDREN to be vaccinated first. children were not the high risk group in 1918. the cover story is so bad you have to think it is intentionally bad, designed to be seen through by the simplest, most indoctrinated and least educated viewer in existence. the mainstream news cover story is clearly a hoax, everyone can see it.

why? what is going on?

three possibilites spring to mind immediately:

1. psychological warfare technique: present two mutually exclusive but seemingly true actualities to induce confusion, chaos and lethargy in the enemy.

2. the people behind this effort are total failures. their bioweapon fizzled, their follow-up is below par, their next installment will be a dud.

3. the flu dem-panic is designed to draw attention away from something else, and can be turned on and off like a switch at the proper moment.

To your three points -- this is the essence of obfuscation and I would suggest that it may be a little of all three -- we cannot drop our guard for a moment -- we need to keep our eye on the news blotter, for anything and everything that could possibly be pushed by during this time.

With Congress legalizing FEMA facilities on a national basis, this does not bode well for America, and they are doing it right now.

--Oldyoti

"The mind once enlightened
cannot again become dark."

 ~Thomas Paine
Common Sense

Offline TahoeBlue

  • Global Moderator
  • Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 19,881
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #43 on: August 30, 2009, 07:08:02 pm »
Interesting article from "Suburban Emergency Management Project" SEMP.US ?

The Suburban Emergency Management Project (SEMP) originated in 2001 with a grant from the Grace A. Bersted Foundation, which provides assistance to organizations in the suburban counties surrounding Cook County, Illinois. Margaret R. O'Leary, M.D., M.B.A., former chair of the M.B.A. program and the Executive M.B.A. for Physicians and Health Care Executives program at Benedictine University (Lisle, IL), served as principal investigator for the grant.

The First 72Hours: A Community Approach to Disaster Preparedness.

http://www.semp.us/publications/biot_reader.php?BiotID=642
Similarities of Mild Flu Pandemic 1957-58 to 2009 Flu Pandemic
Biot Report #642: August 16, 2009 

Well known physician and epidemiologist D.A. Henderson (born 1928) and his associates at the Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center have recently published “Public health and medical responses to the 1957-58 influenza pandemic,” which concludes that the 1957-1958 influenza pandemic was a “transiently disturbing event for the population, albeit stressful for schools and health clinics and disruptive to school football.” (1) Furthermore, it shares characteristics in common with the 2009 H1N1 strain influenza pandemic. The influenza A virus causing the 1957-1958 influenza pandemic was an H2N2 strain.

Henderson’s article does not say the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic will be mild this autumn—it might take a nasty course—“but we would be ill-served,” he writes, “if we did not consider past experience.” (2) “Interestingly,” he says, “the 1957-58 Asian influenza (H2N2) pandemic bears many similarities to the 2009 pandemic in its epidemiologic behavior.” For example,

Both arose early in the year and spread widely during the spring.
Both outbreaks substantially abated over the early summer months in the northern hemisphere and caused major epidemics in the southern hemisphere, which is the traditional seasonal pattern.
Both outbreaks to date have similar reported clinical presentations and transmission patterns.
Both outbreaks caused hospitalization of patients having underlying medical conditions.
Both outbreaks’ reported case-fatality rates have been low, similar to those observed during seasonal influenza epidemics. (2-3)

Emergence and Spread of the H2N2 Novel Influenza Virus Strain of 1957
In February 1957, the new Asian influenza virus (H2N2) emerged somewhere in China and spread to Hong Kong, as first reported in a New York Times article dated April 17, 1957. (4) From Hong Kong, the flu moved through eastern Asia (e.g., Singapore and Malaya) and the Middle East during April, May and June, and on to 20 countries, including the United States in June 1957. (5) The flu struck South America and Africa in July and August 1957. In the U.S., the first cases of “Asian flu” were in military camps on the east and west coasts and in other institutional settings, such as children’s summer camps, migrant worker barracks, and conference centers. (6-14)

The illness was described in one outbreak (Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana) as “sudden in onset and marked by high fever, malaise, headache, generalized myalgia, sore throat, and cough.” (3) The outbreaks tended to be over in only about four weeks.

A student at a college in Ohio described the outbreak this way:

In the fall of 1957, I was a freshman at the College of Wooster in Wooster Ohio. For some reason, I took the flu shot for the first time. It may be that I was encouraged to do so by the school doctor. However, I was one of the few who did.


Asian flu vaccination, 1957.
Source: http://www.physorg.com/newman/gfx/news/hires/topfluexpert.jpg
accessed August 5, 2009.

Later that fall I was in class and began to have flu-like symptoms that were fairly mild; aches, temperature, and other symptoms. I returned to my dorm room and fell asleep without dinner. I slept until late morning, missing class and breakfast. I still had some mild symptoms, but the aches and elevated temperature were gone. I felt well enough to go to lunch and then on to my afternoon classes. I noticed that the dining room was not as full as usual. Later, in class, I also noticed a lot of students missing.

By the next day, I had no symptoms at all. However, there were even fewer students in the dining room and classrooms, and several professors were also missing. My girlfriend was quite sick and through her I learned that her roommates and a large number of dorm mates were in bed very ill, too. Eventually over 80% of the student body was “hospitalized” in the dorms. The few like me, who were not ill, began delivering meals, checking for students with serious symptoms, and making reports to the health center. The center staff made visits to the dorms on a regular basis, but depended on us “well ones” to point out those sick students who needed the most assistance. (15)

Another college student recalled his experience during the 1957-1958 influenza pandemic:

At the time of the pandemic I was in my second year at Juniata. Numerous classmates fell ill with influenza and classes were canceled for a week, but nearly all of the students remained on campus. Our medical care was provided by two nurses who operated a small dispensary on campus with approximately 25 beds. A local family physician visited daily. A number of students were hospitalized overnight for intravenous fluid (IV) therapy and others were kept overnight for temperature control. I was hospitalized overnight and received some IV therapy but then was able to return back to my dormitory.

The dining hall remained open and we continued to obtain our meals there, this probably contributed to the high incidence of infection which I believe resulted in a nearly universal student infection rate. None of us had received an influenza vaccine because of lack of availability at that time.

Reflecting back on that time, I think it was remarkable that the students remained on campus. We suffered no fatalities and most did not return to their homes to spread this illness throughout the local communities. (15)

National Public Health Leaders React to Anticipated Pandemic in Autumn 1957
Henderson, et al, describe the efforts of organizations, such as the Association of State and Territorial Health Officers, to develop strategies to address the epidemic. “At the time, there was uncertainty as to whether most epidemics would be delayed until the usual influenza season (perhaps December 1957-February 1958) or whether the virus might strike as it did once before (in 1918) in September.” (16) The organization urged home care for uncomplicated influenza cases to reduce the hospital burden and recommended limitations on hospital admissions. Closing schools and limiting public gatherings were not recommended as strategies to mitigate the pandemic’s impact, because they do not work.

Dr. Richard E. Shope of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, who first isolated Influenzavirus A from pigs, piped in, A second wave might be as disastrous as the epidemic in the fall of 1918, which killed millions of persons. He said he doubted antibiotics would satisfactorily combat the bacteria that would accompany a second influenza wave. [?] Although antibiotics are effective with childhood flu infections, he said, there is not sufficient proof that they will help adults.” [?] He continued, “Adults who have apparently missed infection in the first wave of Asian flu will be particularly susceptible if a second wave develops. [?]…He urged a widespread vaccination program. He added that those who had Asian flu during the first wave probably would be immune during the second one.” (17)

Even as Dr. Shope rattled his medical saber, the Asian influenza pandemic in the United States was “effectively complete.” (18) Vaccine production, greatly accelerated, did not produce vaccine in time to affect the course of the pandemic. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the vaccine during clinical trials was poor, between 53% and 60%. (Toss a coin to see whether the vaccine might work or not for a given recipient.) (19)

The vaccine is being produced at the Wright-Fleming Institute of Microbiology in England 1957. Source:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/1/newsid_3086000/3086843.stm
accessed August 5, 2009.

There was no significant impact on the U.S. economy, in spite of 45 million people (around 25% of the population), according to the Communicable Disease Center (now named the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) becoming infected with H2N2 in October and November 1957.

Morbidity and Mortality of the 1957-1958 H2N2 Novel Influenza Pandemic in the U.S.
Henderson, et al, provide the interesting information that 13 Influenza A epidemics occurred between 1934 and 1963. “All except the 1957-58 pandemic would…be characterized as being due to ‘seasonal influenza’ resulting from a genetic ‘drift of the virus. The 1957-58 epidemic was different in that the genetic character of the virus ‘shifted’ significantly, so that few in the population had residual immunity. The H1N1 viruses were supplanted by the H2N2 strain,” leading to increased susceptibility of  school-age children through young adults up to 35 or 40 years of age who lacked antibody to the new strain. (20)

The “excess number of” deaths caused by complicated influenza (influenza with pneumonia) between October 1957 and March 1958 was 19,000 individuals, say Henderson, et al. (19) The fatality rate for the 1957-58 Asian flu in the U.S. calculates to 19,000 divided by 45 million, or 0.04 percent. This compares to a fatality rate of 3 percent for soldiers (24,664 dead soldiers) in the U.S. army diagnosed with influenza between April 1, 1917 and December 31, 1919, as described elsewhere. (21)

Summary
The 1957-1958 H2N2 Influenza A pandemic was a 3-5 day febrile respiratory illness that landed large numbers of patients in clinics, doctors’ offices, and emergency departments, but relatively few of them were sick enough to require hospitalization. School absenteeism was high, but schools remained open unless the number of students and/or teachers was so low that closure made sense. The U.S. economy was not affected. The only major events that were canceled or postponed were high school and college football games, because of the number of afflicted players. Vaccine did not arrive in time to mitigate the outbreak. Furthermore, it only worked a little more than half the time it was administered. Henderson, who watched the pandemic from very close range, called it “a transiently disturbing event for the population, albeit stressful or schools and health clinics and disruptive to school football schedules.” He believes that the 2009 novel H1N1 influenza pandemic shares characteristics with the 1957-1958 influenza pandemic. 

The Henderson article is a tonic for this writer and other people somewhat fatigued by the preparedness behavioral epidemic afflicting the yammering U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security bureaucracies about the upcoming fall wave of the novel H1N1 pandemic influenza. Will it, like the 1957-1958 influenza pandemic, be a “transient disturbing event for the population,” as Henderson suggests?

D.A. Henderson, Brooke Courtney, Thomas V. Inglesby, Eric Toner, and Jennifer B. Nuzzo: “Public health and medical responses to the 1957-58 influenza pandemic.” Biosecurity Strategy, Practice, and Science. Volume 7, Number 3, 2009. Available at :
http://www.upmc-biosecurity.org/website/resources/publications/2009/2009-08-05-public_health_medical_responses_1957.html


http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/1/newsid_3086000/3086843.stm

By December 3,550 people had died from influenza in England and Wales - three times as many flu fatalities as in the corresponding period of 1956.
After the vaccine was made available deaths fell but a second wave of the virus in November saw fatalities rise again.

One hundred thousand deaths worldwide were attributed to Asian Flu - nearly 70,000 of them in the United States.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

  • Global Moderator
  • Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 19,881
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #44 on: August 30, 2009, 07:30:47 pm »
Quote
Dr. Richard E. Shope of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, who first isolated Influenzavirus A from pigs

Now isn't that interesting? and guess which virus he isolated? H1N1 WSN/33 a direct releative to 1918 swine flu.

Quote
The 1933 virus has significant homology with the 1918 pandemic strain and WSN/33 was actually isolated for the study of neurotropic disease caused by the 1918 pandemic strain.

http://www.recombinomics.com/News/04130502/H2N2_Recall.html
1957 H2N2 Pandemic Flu Recalled from Proficiency Kits
Recombinomics Commentary April 13, 2005


>> It was not immediately clear why the 1957 pandemic strain, which killed between 1 million and 4 million people - was in the proficiency test kits routinely sent to labs. It was a decision that Stohr described as "unwise," and "unfortunate."  That particular bug was "an epidemic virus for many years," Stohr said from the U.N. health agency's headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. "The risk is low but things can go wrong as long as these samples are out there and there are some still out there." The 1957 strain has not been included in the flu vaccine since 1968, and anyone born after that date has no immunity to it.<<
...
The recall of 1957 H2N2 raises issues related to WSN/33 in Korean swine.  Although H1N1 is still circulating in the current trivalent vaccine, WSN/33 was isolated in 1933 and is markedly different than the contemporary H1N1 in circulation.  Moreover, it has key mutations that would increase its virulence and broaden its tropism.  WSN/33 was isolated from mouse brain in 1940 and is missing a key glycosylation site on NA.  This mutation allows the virus to sequester plasminogen, which facilitates HA cleavage and allows the virus to enter a broad range of tissue types.  It is also lethal in mice, and contains a mutation in M2 that makes it resistant to antiviral ion channel blockers such as Amantadine and Rimantadine.

Sequences from swine on farms in South Korea were deposited at GenBank October 24, 2004 and the WHO has been investigating the sequences for the past six months.  They are expected to issue a report announcing the halt of efforts to prove or disprove the existence of the reported viruses with WSN/33 genes in Korean swine. 

Remarkably, after 6 months there still has not been positive data generated to prove or disprove the existence of the reported virus.

If these viruses are in swine in South Korea, they would raise serious public health concerns.  How they moved from a lab to Korean farms would also be a major concern, since either an accident or bioterrorism could have significant consequences.

WHO's failure to generate positive data to confirm or refute the existence of WSN/33 genes in pigs on farms in Korea is cause for concern.

http://www.recombinomics.com/News/12040402/1933_2004_H1N1.html
1933 Human Sequences in 2004 H1N1 Korean Swine Isolates

Recombinomics Commentary December 4, 2004

Recombinomics Commentary
December 4, 2004


The swine sequences release by GenBank this week would appear to be cause for concern.  Six of the isolates were from swine in South Korea and they have both reassorted and recombined genes (between a common Korean avian, H9N2 sequences and genes virtually identical to WSN/33). 

This is of significant concern because WSN/33 is a neurotropic component of WS/33, the first human influenza virus isolated. 

WSN/33 was obtained from serial passages of WS/33 in mouse brains in 1940.  It is lethal in mice and is H1N1 so it should also readily infect humans.  The N in WSN has lost a glycosylation site and binds plasminogen to facilitate HA cleavage. 

Two of the swine isolates are H1N1 and they have the same alteration which abolishes the glycosylation site. These two isolates, A/swine/Korea/S10/2004 and A/swine/Korea/S109/2004 have 7 WSN/33 genes.  Only PB2 is related to Korean H9N2 isolates.  4 other swine isolates are H9N2 and have 3-5 WSN/33 genes.

It would seem that swine shedding H1N1 virus from 1933 would pose a serious health threat. 

The 1933 virus has significant homology with the 1918 pandemic strain and WSN/33 was actually isolated for the study of neurotropic disease caused by the 1918 pandemic strain.

It seems that people born after 1933 would have limited immunity to the H1N1 virus isolated from the swine in South Korea in 2004
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

  • Global Moderator
  • Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 19,881
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #45 on: August 30, 2009, 08:12:13 pm »
Interesting but searching does not give us much about Dr. Richard E. Shope and BW programs

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Shope
Richard Shope was the discoverer of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. He first isolated Influenzavirus A from pigs in 1931.[1]

^ Shope, R.E. (1931), "Swine Influenza I. Experimental Transmission and Pathology", Journal of Experimental Medicine 54 (3): 349–359, doi:10.1084/jem.54.3.349,
http://www.jem.org/cgi/reprint/54/3/349.pdf 

http://theinfounderground.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=4&t=5896&start=60

http://educate-yourself.org/cn/stefanlankaviralfraudexposed04may09.shtml
suppressed and slandered?...and then, as Hirst points out (1961), the favored type of flu research was "dropped" in the mid-1950s. ?? At this time Dr. Richard E. Shope, hog cholera/flu expert, was in charge of Ft. Detrick's biowar program...

His grandson speaks:
http://askmagazine.nasa.gov/pdf/pdf25/NASA_APPEL_ASK25s_communicating.pdf
...
I grew up in a family of renowned virologists. As a child, I sloshed through central New Jersey fields and
woods with my grandfather (Richard E. Shope) and galumphed through barnyards with my father
(R. E. Shope, Jr .) as they went virus hunting. For me, it was a grand time of swatting mosquitoes and filling my quota of  laughter and wonder, enjoying the company of my actively curious namesakes. I would ride with my grandfather to his laboratory at the Rockefeller Institute in New York City and look out the window at the East River or marvel at his honorary degrees while he fiddled with his centrifuges.

On different occasions I would visit my father’s virology lab at the University of Minnesota Veterinary
College in St. Paul
as he checked the results of his viral cultures in Petri dishes and made the rounds to check on the experimental animals.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

  • Global Moderator
  • Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 19,881
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #46 on: August 30, 2009, 08:56:35 pm »
Please excuse this off slightly topic digression...But to show the connections... hopefully it will come back to 1957 and H2N2

Quote
Dr. Richard E. Shope and BW programs

The Plum Island - Deitrick - Dr. Richard E. Shope - Dr Robert Shope (son) and Erich Traub - PaperClip Connection

http://www.mail-archive.com/[email protected]/msg00538.html
...
6.********* It is interesting to note that the Third Reich’s biological warfare program had the cover name of “Cancer Research Program.” (In RFA#16—available from Spitfire—as well as FTR#’s 16, 73, we look at the National Cancer Institute’s Special Viral Cancer Research Program and the evidence suggesting that the project was actually a front for the continuation of biological warfare research.

Erich Traub appears to have been involved with the projects related to the SVCRP.) “ . . . Everybody seemed willing to forget about Erich Traub’s dirty past—that he played a crucial role in the Nazis’ ‘Cancer Research Program,’ the cover name for their biological warfare program, and that he worked directly under SS Reichsfuhrer Heinrich Himmler. They seemed willing to overlook that Traub in the 1930’s faithfully attended Camp Sigfried. In fact, the USDA liked him so much, it glossed over his dubious past and offered him the top scientist job at the new Plum Island Laboratory—not once, but twice. Just months after the 1952 public hearings on selecting Plum Island, Doc Shahan dialed Dr. Traub at the naval laboratory to discuss plans for establishing the germ laboratory and a position on Plum Island.” (Ibid.; p. 10.)
...

8.********* The push to employ Traub as the director of Plum Island involved professional recommendations that omitted his work for the Third Reich: “The letters supporting Traub to lead Plum Island came in from fellow Plum Island founders. ‘I hope that every effort will be made to get him. He has had long and productive experience in both prewar and postwar Germany,’ said Dr. William Hagan, dean of the Cornell University veterinary school, carefully dispensing with his wartime activities. The final word came from his dear American friend and old Rockefeller Institute boss Dr. Richard Shope, who described Traub as ‘careful, skill, productive and very original’ and ‘one of this world’s most outstanding virologists.’ Shope’s sole reference to Traub at war: ‘During the war he was in Germany serving in the German Army.’” (Idem.)

9.********* Traub declined the offer to lead the lab. There is considerable evidence that he was involved with biological warfare research at Plum Island. “Declining the USDA’s offer, Traub continued his directorship of the Tubingen laboratory in West Germany, though he visited Plum Island frequently. In 1960, he was forced to resign as Tubingen’s director under a dark cloud of financial embezzlement. Traub continued sporadic lab research for another three years, and then left Tubingen for good--a scandalous end to a checkered career. In the late 1970’s, the esteemed virologist Dr.Robert Shope, on business in Munich, paid his father Richard’s old Rockefeller Institute disciple a visit. The germ warrior had been in early retirement for about a decade by then. ‘I had dinner with Traub one day—out of old time’s sake—and he was a pretty defeated man by then.’ On May 18, 1985, the Nazis’ virus warrior Dr. Erich Traub died unexpectedly in his sleep in West Germany. He was seventy-eight years old.” (Ibid.; pp. 10-11.)

http://www.rumormillnews.com/cgi-bin/archive.cgi/noframes/read/82306
...
Carroll reports that Yale (Yale Arbovirus Research Unit, or YARU) worked closely with Plum Island on Rift Valley fever virus. Carroll also reports that the future head of YARU (Shope) had worked with Ft. Detrick in its human experimentation program, Operation Whitecoat.

Whitecoat experiments included injecting humans with Rift Valley fever virus (the virus is reported to be 30% fatal) to develop and test vaccines against the virus.

YARU also had worked on WNV. According to Carroll:

"Dr. Robert Shope's Yale Arbovirus Research Unit (YARU) across Long Island Sound held twenty-seven different strains of West Nile virus in its New Haven, Connecticut, freezers until 1995, when he moved to the University of Texas and took his strains with him. YARU and Plum often trafficked in viruses, most notably the dangerous Rift Valley fever virus in 1977. Had Dr. Shope shared West Nile virus reference samples with his friend Plum Island director Dr. Roger Breeze--the island laboratory being the only official location where foreign animal germs like West Nile virus are supposed to be studied?"
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

  • Global Moderator
  • Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 19,881
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #47 on: August 30, 2009, 11:33:15 pm »
A very interesting Obit... One of their own has fallen...  Connections to  H2N2  Plum Island : Robert E. Shope : Col. Robert Traub and her first husband, the well-known rickettsiologist, Bennett Elisberg

Quote
Between 1955 and 1961, she served at the US Army Medical Research Unit in Kuala Lampur, where she worked with the famous entomologist Col. Robert Traub and her first husband, the well-known rickettsiologist, Bennett Elisberg.

Pat became interested in the role of viruses in fevers of unknown origin and respiratory tract infections in a laboratory that was at the forefront of studies on tropical disease ecology.

Also engaged in the stimulating research environment in Kuala Lampur at the time were the late Robert E. Shope and C. E. Gordon Smith, both of whom would become legendary figures in arbovirus research and tropical medicine.

In 1957 Pat, Ben Elisberg and their colleagues made  what probably was one of the first isolations of the H2N2 Asian influenzaA pandemic strain,

http://www.springerlink.com/content/n8561537117165r0/
http://www.springerlink.com/content/n8561537117165r0/fulltext.pdf

Obituary In Memoriam
Patricia AnnWebb (1925–2005)

Patricia AnnWebb, M.D., a unique figure in the field of medical virology, died on January 24th 2005 at
the age of 79 years. For many years, she served as a distinguished career officer in the US Public Health
Service (USPHS). She made important contributions to our knowledge of arboviruses and viral hemorrhagic
fevers
, serving the USPHS in multiple challenging overseas assignments in the tropics. PatriciaWebb will be remembered as an inquisitive, tough and exacting scientist-physician by the many young virologists she inspired to fulfill careers exploring emerging viral diseases.

Pat was born in Cambridge, England on April 5, 1925. Her father, Robert A.Webb, M.D. was an American-born and educated (Johns Hopkins) pathologist who became a renowned Professor of Pathology at the University of Oxford, interested in the pathogenic role of bacteria, such as Listeria; he was a close associate of Howard Florey. Patricia, her sister and brother were dispatched to the United States during the Blitz (1940). In 1945, Patricia graduated when only 20 years old from Agnes Scott College in Decatur, Georgia, and went on to medical school at Tulane University, graduating in 1950. After a rotating internship at St. Joseph’s Mercy Hospital, Pontiac Michigan, she completed residency training in pediatrics (1951–53) at Kern General Hospital, Bakersfield, California.

In the summer of 1952, Pat was deeply influenced by the occurrence of one of the largest epidemics of arboviral encephalitis in the history of the United States. Hundreds of children were hospitalized with western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE), the highest attack rate being in infants <1 year of age. One of Pat’s first publications described the clinical features of these pediatric WEE cases.

This was her initial foray into the field of arbovirology in an ecological setting that would be the focus of attention of arbovirus research for decades to come. Pat’s subsequent career was spent in a variety of research positions in US Government laboratories studying viral infections.

Between 1955 and 1961, she served at the US Army Medical Research Unit in Kuala Lampur, where she worked with the famous entomologist Col. Robert Traub and her first husband, the well-known rickettsiologist, Bennett Elisberg.

Pat became interested in the role of viruses in fevers of unknown origin and respiratory tract infections in a laboratory that was at the forefront of studies on tropical disease ecology.

Also engaged in the stimulating research environment in Kuala Lampur at the time were the late Robert E. Shope and C. E. Gordon Smith, both of whom would become legendary figures in arbovirus research and tropical medicine.

In 1957 Pat, Ben Elisberg and their colleagues made  what probably was one of the first isolations of the H2N2 Asian influenzaA pandemic strain,

but their deliberate attempts to establish the isolate and prepare a lyophilized sample that could be sent for international characterization were overshadowed by a creative Singapore virologist who dispatched the virus to England in inoculated eggs kept viable under a brood hen.

In 1961, Pat began a long and distinguished career in the USPHS, assigned initially to the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH). Working with Robert Chanock and Karl Johnson, she explored the role of rhinoviruses in human respiratory diseases.

In 1962–63 Pat and Karl Johnson (who became Patricia’s second husband) began a remarkable series of endeavors in tropical virology at the NIH’s Middle America Research Unit (MARU) in Panama. This era of virological exploration began with an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever in the remote Beni Department of northeastern Bolivia. Field and laboratory studies of the causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Machupo virus, expanded into a broadly based program aimed at elucidating the natural history, experimental biology, and virion characterization of rodent-borne viruses in the neotropics.

Young scientists assigned to MARU and strongly influenced by Pat and Karl included some of today’s leaders in the field of hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis: C.J. Peters, T.Walton, R. Tesh, and G. Eddy. Pat and Karl also engaged collaborators among the leading virologists of the day – G.H. Bergold, J. Casals, W. Rowe, W. Rawls, C. Mims, E. Traub, and F.A. Murphy. During this period, Machupo virus was shown to be morphologically and antigenically related to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, an observation that led to the
creation of a new family of viruses (the Arenaviridae). This finding significantly expanded current scientific thinking about zoonotic viruses.

Pat went on to discover and describe a number of other new neotropical arenaviruses. She was particularly interested in the role of rodent hosts in perpetuating arenavirus infections.Wild rodents were brought to the laboratory for detailed studies on pathogenesis (a particularly unusual, risky, and difficult endeavor). The mechanisms underlying chronic infection and excretion of virus, the role of host genetics in controlling infection, and the adverse effects of infection on the host mediated by immune responses and damage to reproductive organs were subjected to intensive scrutiny.

Work on Machupo and other arenaviruses was undertaken in the 1960s using primitive but effective means of laboratory biocontainment. However, field work in the affected area of Boliviawas treacherous, and several MARU investigators, including Karl developed Machupo disease. Pat also developed and survived a severe infection with Machupo virus, probably acquired from Karl. In 1969, Karl and Pat jointly were awarded the prestigious Gorgas Medal for their contributions to medical virology in Latin America.

The Gorgas Medal citation reads: “By their worthy contributions to the knowledge of viral diseases of tropical America, Drs. Johnson and Webb have demonstrated outstanding ability in the field of preventive
medicine. Their research efforts were instrumental in controlling the 1963 outbreak of Bolivian
hemorrhagic fever . . . . Their dedicated service is evidence of a deep concern for the improved
health of the peoples of Latin America.” Their contributions to science were also elaborated
in the popular press.

When MARU was closed in 1975, Pat and Karl moved to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta. This move ushered in a new era of research on hemorrhagic fevers,  particularly Lassa fever inWest Africa and Ebola virus in Zaire.

Pat was the operational force in the Special Pathogens laboratory in Atlanta, supporting field research and epidemiological activities in Africa. The scene surrounding the initial isolation and identification of Ebola virus was described in Richard Preston’s book, The Hot Zone. Samples from a dying nun with hemorrhagic fever in Yambuku, Zaire arrived at CDC in October 1976. Pat opened the box to find that “the tubes had cracked and broken during shipment . . . the package was sticky with blood”.

With minimum regard for her personal safety, Pat collected barely enough residual material to initiate virus isolation attempts in Vero cells. Within a few days she noted cytopathic effects, and provided Fred Murphy with material for electron micrographic examination.The image shocked them all -a filovirus similar to Marburg.However, Pat showed by immunofluorescence that it was an antigenically distinct new agent.

Sierra Leone was the epicenter of Lassa virus activity in West Africa, and CDC established a field station at Kenema in the East of the country to study the epidemiology, diagnosis, transmission and clinical features of the disease. In 1978, Pat succeeded Joe McCormick as director of the Kenema field station.

As in Panama and Atlanta, Pat’s organizational skills and meticulous approach in the laboratory were critical to success, and she especially enjoyed the application of laboratory methods to field work. With McCormick and Karl Johnson, she carried out clinical studies under extremely difficult circumstances, demonstrating the effectiveness of an antiviral drug (ribavirin) in the treatment of severe Lassa virus infection.

Pat spent the last years of her career (1981–1988) at CDC’s Division of Vector-Borne Viral Diseases in Fort Collins CO, where she worked closely with the division director, Tom Monath, on arbovirus problems. In 1982, Colorado was struck by a major epizootic of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) disease, affecting horses, cattle, pigs and a few humans. The Colorado epizootic led to a series of important papers by Pat and colleagues showing that VSV transmission between domesticated animals occurred principally by the agency of mechanical vectors such as stable flies.

About this time, and not long after the unfolding of the HIV epidemic in the US, some members of the scientific community suggested that HIV transmission between humans could also be effected by blood-feeding insects. Pat took charge of an investigation in which mosquitoes and bedbugs were inoculated with or orally fed HIV. She showed experimentally that the risk of biological and mechanical transmission by insects was vanishingly small. The work was particularly dangerous due to the use of fine needles for inoculating insects.

In 1988 Pat retired to England and Scotland, living a quiet life with her beloved Labrador retrievers. She retained a keen interest in science and had a huge appetite for books. When Pat’s health began to fail, she moved back to the US to be closer to her two sons. Whether the challenge was hemorrhagic fevers or AIDS, Pat approached her work with enthusiasm, imagination, and precision. She was quick to laugh, particularly at herself. She brooked no fools, had an acerbic wit, and her work was characterized by consummate organization and careful documentation. She also cared deeply for people, and took particular interest in those who were less fortunate than her. She had a love and compassion for both animals and people, and after retirement worked tirelessly for conservation groups and Amnesty International.

All of us who knew her and worked with her consider ourselves fortunate to have had Pat as a colleague and as a friend. She left an indelible impression on all who knew her. Dr. Webb is survived by her sister, Jill Chance, two sons, Peter and Michael, and two grandchildren Colin and Aaron.

Thomas P. Monath MD
Karl M. Johnson MD
Acambis Inc., Cambridge, MA
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

  • Global Moderator
  • Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 19,881
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #48 on: August 31, 2009, 01:36:36 pm »
Quote
Between 1955 and 1961, she served at the US Army Medical Research Unit in Kuala Lampur, where she worked with the famous entomologist Col. Robert Traub and her first husband, the well-known rickettsiologist, Bennett Elisberg.

Pat became interested in the role of viruses in fevers of unknown origin and respiratory tract infections in a laboratory that was at the forefront of studies on tropical disease ecology. Also engaged in the stimulating research environment in Kuala Lampur at the time were the late Robert E. Shope and C. E. Gordon Smith, both of whom would become legendary figures in arbovirus research and tropical medicine.

In 1957 Pat, Ben Elisberg and their colleagues made  what probably was one of the first isolations of the H2N2 Asian influenzaA pandemic strain,

This story gets stranger and stranger . .. There is Erich Traub the ex-Nazi paperclip guy working on BW in the forties and fifties and then there is this Robert Traub the flea specialist who happens to be one of the first to "Discover" H2N2 in 1957 with his pals and is also best friends with fellow flea lover Rothschild...
And lets not forget the Father and Son team of Richard E Shope and Robert Shope discoverer's of swine flu and others.


http://www.nytimes.com/1997/01/05/us/robert-traub-an-entomologist-is-dead-at-80.html
Robert Traub, an Entomologist, Is Dead at 80
By FORD BURKHART
Published: Sunday, January 5, 1997

Dr. Robert Traub, a medical entomologist who compared fleas from distant times and places and saw in them clues to the mysteries of evolution and continental drift, died on Dec. 21 at the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Md. He was 80 and lived in Bethesda.
...
Working in the rain forests of Asia for the United States Army, Dr. Traub sought ways to help soldiers avoid diseases borne by chiggers and other insects. In the 1950's he commanded the Army's research laboratory in Kuala Lumpur, in what is now Malaysia. He let chiggers bite him so he could contract typhus to test an experimental cure. The cure worked. He retired as a colonel in 1962 and joined the University of Maryland.

Dr. Traub was so devoted to the fleas that he amassed one of the world's two best collections of them, said his frequent collaborator, Miriam Rothschild of Peterborough, England, who is a noted flea authority herself and oversees the world's other great flea archive, at the Natural History Museum in London. Dr. Traub and Ms. Rothschild together wrote a definitive work, ''The Rothschild Collection of Fleas: The Ceratophyllidae'' (Cambridge University Press, 1983).
...
Dr. Traub was named honorary curator of fleas for the Smithsonian Institution in Washington on his retirement from teaching at Maryland.

Robert Traub was born in Manhattan, received a B.S. in biology from City College in 1938, an M.S. in medical entomology from Cornell in 1939, and, after service in the Army, a doctorate in the same field from the University of Illinois in 1947.

From 1962 to 1983, he was a professor of medical microbiology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore.
...
In his basement at his death, he had 200 unknown types of fleas in storage, awaiting study and description.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

  • Global Moderator
  • Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 19,881
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #49 on: August 31, 2009, 04:38:48 pm »
Quote
Also engaged in the stimulating research environment in Kuala Lampur at the time were the late Robert E. Shope and C. E. Gordon Smith, both of whom would become legendary figures in arbovirus research and tropical medicine.

Who was Dr. C.E. Gordon Smith?  Well I can't find alot yet....

http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/54/2/281.pdf
...
The decade of the 1970s saw changes, in structure and direction, throughout the London School, when C.E. Gordon Smith (1924-1991) began a period of nearly 20 years as its Dean. A former Reader in Virology at the School, he presided as Dean over a programme of major restructuring, both at the beginning of the 1970s, and again towards the end of his tenure in the late 1980s, when the Reid Committee's  recommendations were being put into effect under himself and his successor as Dean, from 1989 to 1995, Richard Feachem.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_School_of_Hygiene_and_Tropical_Medicine
The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM or the "London School") is a constituent college of the University of London, specialising in public health and tropical medicine. Founded by Sir Patrick Manson in 1899, London School is a research-led postgraduate centre of excellence in public health, international health and tropical medicine.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health

Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases

The Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (ITD) was formed in August 1997 and encompasses all of the laboratory-based research in the School as well as that on the clinical and epidemiological aspects of infectious and tropical diseases. It is currently headed by Simon Croft, who is Professor of Parasitology.

There is close interaction between scientists in different research teams. The Department has strong overseas links which provide a basis for field studies and international collaborations in developed and developing countries. Funding for research in the Department comes from around 45 funding organizations and agencies. Major funders of research include the Department for International Development, Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, BBSRC, GlaxoSmithKline and the Commission of European Communities.

The School was founded in 1899 by Sir Patrick Manson as the London School of Tropical Medicine and located at the Albert Dock Seamen's Hospital in the London Docklands.[5] Manson was a physician who worked in the Far East in the 1860s-1880s, where he encountered tropical diseases and was frustrated by his lack of knowledge. On his return to London, among other roles, he was appointed Medical Advisor to the Colonial Office. He believed that doctors should be trained in tropical medicine, to treat the many British citizens who were dying of tropical diseases that could have been treated if colonial doctors knew more about these diseases. The original School was established as part of the Seamen's Hospital Society, it has its origins in the hospital ships which were docked on the Thames at Greenwich.

Deans of the School
Professor Gordon Smith from 1970 to 1989
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

sociostudent

  • Guest
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #50 on: August 31, 2009, 08:38:09 pm »
This story gets stranger and stranger . .. There is Erich Traub the ex-Nazi paperclip guy working on BW in the forties and fifties and then there is this Robert Traub the flea specialist who happens to be one of the first to "Discover" H2N2 in 1957 with his pals and is also best friends with fellow flea lover Rothschild...


So, we know that the Rockefeller Institute was pretty active in this research, and now we throw a rothschild or two in there, and what we have is a true globalist conspiracy, right? No left-right paradigm games, no b.s.--just psychopathic former nazis who's kids were charged with the globalist ideal to cull the population?

Offline TahoeBlue

  • Global Moderator
  • Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 19,881
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #51 on: September 01, 2009, 12:29:14 pm »
So, we know that the Rockefeller Institute was pretty active in this research, and now we throw a rothschild or two in there, and what we have is a true globalist conspiracy, right? No left-right paradigm games, no b.s.--just psychopathic former nazis who's kids were charged with the globalist ideal to cull the population?

1957 - US Army Medical Research Unit in Kuala Lampur - Col. Robert Traub,  Robert E. Shope, C. E. Gordon Smith , Pat Webb, Ben Elisberg made one of the first isolations of the H2N2 Asian

Richard Shope was the medical chief of the Army's Ft. Detrick bioweapons program from 1951 to 1959. (Robert Shope's Dad)

They just "happen" to be there all together johnny on the spot, to "Discover" this "New" and "Novel" form of H1N1 which we call H2N2 before the epidemic started. I can't help but believe they released it.  Robert had worked at Deitrick (with his dad) and like his dad, was an expert in pig cholera (H1N1) and was also connected to Erich Traub and Plum Island.
Richard Shope is also associated with Project Whitecoat testing infectious diseases on servicemen starting in 1954.
So Dad sends his son "something" to distribute in far off Malasia that spreads to SE Asia, China.  Gordon Smith was basically and American Brit (like Pat Webb) and was of "The London School" and associated with the Wellcome Trust, which just happens to fund the 1958 Birth Cohort (why not 1956 or 57 or 59 or 60?). They were prepared and ready for something big. Also during this time period were the Nuclear above ground tests which forever changed the C14 content in humans.

Even the scientists are surprised that H1N1 virtually dissapeared from humans in the wake of H2N2
So was this a Global Biological "Warfare" Experiment in 1957?

see:
Historical Perspective — Emergence of Influenza A (H1N1) Viruses
http://nejm.highwire.org/cgi/reprint/361/3/279.pdf

NEJM -- Historical Perspective -- Emergence of Influenza A (H1N1) Viruses (web version)
http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/NEJMra0904322

http://scienceblogs.com/notrocketscience/upload/2009/06/from_spanish_to_swine_-_how_h1n1_kicked_off_a_91-year_pandem/Swineflugenealogy.jpg

The Persistent Legacy of the 1918 Influenza Virus
http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/extract/361/3/225

[In 1954 -  United States Army Medical Unit, Fort Detrick - Project Whitecoat - Army's code name for a series of germ warfare studies conducted on about 2,300 Seventh-day Adventist servicemen from 1954  to 1973]

Extinction of Human H1N1 Virus (1957)
Influenza A (H1N1) abruptly disappeared from humans in 1957 and was replaced by a new reassortant virus that combined genes from the H1N1 strain and an avian virus. This new influenza A (H2N2) strain contained three new segments
from the avian source and maintained the other five segments from the H1N1 strain of 1918 lineage. 17 After this pandemic subtype emerged, human influenza A (H1N1) was not detected again until 1977. 18
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

sociostudent

  • Guest
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #52 on: September 06, 2009, 01:41:41 am »
Hey Tahoe, remember when we were talking about the use of detergents to enhance the virulence of biological agents?

The River, p. 555
...Some time after our meeting, I recalled the strange feeling I had had at the beginning of the interview, when [Stanley] Plotkin had been telling me about his arrival at the Wistar Institute in August 1957. I recalled that Joseph Pagano had also spoken about working on anthrax vaccines in his early days at the Wistar. Further reading demonstrated that during the fifties, anthrax--Like the Venezuelan Equine Ecephalitis Virus Koprowski had stumbled upon in Rio--was one of the major preoccupations of the U.S. Army Chemical Corps because of its potential as a biological warfare agent. I decided to see when Plotkin or Pagano had published anything on the subject.
 What I found was rather shocking. First I came across an article by Stanley Plotkin and others on an epidemic of inhalation anthrax, that, as the title revealed, was "the first in the twentieth century". Philip Bracyman, the lead author, and Plotkin were listed as being from the Anthrax Investigations Unit, CDC, Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, and the work had been supported by a contract with the U.S. Army Chemical Corps, based at Fort Detrick.
 The revelation that with Koprowski taking over the directorship of the Wistar, the institute began accepting contracts from the principal biowarfare unit of the U.S. Army was an unexpected discovery. So was the realization that this was perhaps what Plotkin had meant when he spoke about the "opportunity... to do some research while fulfilling a military obligation." But what was really striking was the content of that research.
 Plotkin's article revealed that on August 27, 1957, a man from a goat har-processing plant at a mill in Manchester, New Hampshire, fell sick with inhalation anthrax. During the next two months, there were eight further cases of anthrax at the mill, four involving inhalation anthrax and four cutaneous anthrax. The latter group survived, but four of the five inhalation cases died.
 Cutaneous anthrax is a moderately rare and not especially dangerous skin disease affecting those who handle animal hair or its derivatives. During the previous sixteen years, there had been 136 cases of cutaneous anthrax at the mill, which turned goat hair and wool from southern Asia into lining material for suits. Only one case had been fatal. By contrast, there had been no previous cases of inhalation anthrax at the mill--and only 23 isolated cases had been reported in the world medical literature since 1900.
 ...It is written in typical Plotkin style, and one suspects that he may have been responsible for much of the work.The introduction states that the outbreak "presented an unusual opportunity to study both the epidemiology of this disease, and the effectiveness of an anthrax vaccine that had been given to some of the workers several months before the epidemic." A later article by the same authors reveals that 300 of the manchester mill's 630-odd employees volunteered to be vaccinated with this live anthrax vaccine, although the remainder refused. Beginning in May 1957, approximately half of the 300 were vaccinated with three primary injections at fortnightly intervals, while the other half received 3 injections of a placebo.
 The vaccinees had been due to receive three booster shots at six monthly intervals, but the anthrax outbreak in August caused the trial to be terminated. Of the five cases of inhalation anthrax, four had not particapted in the vaccine program, while the fifth had received only the placebo. Although the abandonment of the Manchester trial did not allow statistically valid conclusions to be made about the vaccine efficacyk, calculations that also incorporated data from other mills where earlier vaccine trials had been staged led the authors to conclude that the vaccine was 92.5% effective...

(In the source documents, it says, "The vaccine had been prepared at Fort Detrick, where the injection of six hundred scientific personnel had apparently demonstrated its suitability for human use. G.G. Wright, et al, 'Studies on Immunity in Anthrax V. Immunizing activity of Alum-Precipitated Protective Antigen', J. Immunol., 1954, 73, 387-391")

 But what had caused the unprecedented epidemic? The authors concluded that one particular batch of black goat hair from India might have been responsible...Furthermore, the epidemiologists noted that detergents used for scouring the hair had been shown to enhance the virulence of anthrax spores, and that a new detergent had come into use during this period.
 It is striking that these papers about the Manchester outbreak do not contain a single reference to the extraordinary coincidence whereby the first inhalation anthrax epidemic of the century occurred within three months of an experimental trial of a live anthrax vaccine...

...The first inhalation anthrax victim in Manchester fell ill on the same morning that a new detergent replaced the traditional scouring agents of soap and soda ash, but he was working in a different part of the mill from where the new detergent had been introduced. Nonetheless, the authors comment that "an hypothesis which presents itself is that this particular batch [of goat hair] contained an unusual number of highly-virulent anthrax spores to which was added for most of the epidemic a virulence-enhancing substance (the scouring agent)".
 The only reference to the implications for biowarfare research in these two lengthy reports comes in a single sentence at the conclusion of one of them, which reads: "The potential civil defense problem posed by anthrax aerosols is also emphasized."


sociostudent

  • Guest
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #53 on: September 06, 2009, 01:58:15 am »
For some reason, chemtrails don't seem so innocuous when you read that last part.

sociostudent

  • Guest
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #54 on: September 06, 2009, 02:19:52 am »
Hey Tahoe, remember when we were talking about the use of detergents to enhance the virulence of biological agents?

The River, p. 555
...Some time after our meeting, I recalled the strange feeling I had had at the beginning of the interview, when [Stanley] Plotkin had been telling me about his arrival at the Wistar Institute in August 1957. I recalled that Joseph Pagano had also spoken about working on anthrax vaccines in his early days at the Wistar. Further reading demonstrated that during the fifties, anthrax--Like the Venezuelan Equine Ecephalitis Virus Koprowski had stumbled upon in Rio--was one of the major preoccupations of the U.S. Army Chemical Corps because of its potential as a biological warfare agent. I decided to see when Plotkin or Pagano had published anything on the subject.
 What I found was rather shocking. First I came across an article by Stanley Plotkin and others on an epidemic of inhalation anthrax, that, as the title revealed, was "the first in the twentieth century". Philip Brachman, the lead author, and Plotkin were listed as being from the Anthrax Investigations Unit, CDC, Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, and the work had been supported by a contract with the U.S. Army Chemical Corps, based at Fort Detrick. (fixed  ;) )
 The revelation that with Koprowski taking over the directorship of the Wistar, the institute began accepting contracts from the principal biowarfare unit of the U.S. Army was an unexpected discovery. So was the realization that this was perhaps what Plotkin had meant when he spoke about the "opportunity... to do some research while fulfilling a military obligation." But what was really striking was the content of that research.
 Plotkin's article revealed that on August 27, 1957, a man from a goat har-processing plant at a mill in Manchester, New Hampshire, fell sick with inhalation anthrax. During the next two months, there were eight further cases of anthrax at the mill, four involving inhalation anthrax and four cutaneous anthrax. The latter group survived, but four of the five inhalation cases died.
 Cutaneous anthrax is a moderately rare and not especially dangerous skin disease affecting those who handle animal hair or its derivatives. During the previous sixteen years, there had been 136 cases of cutaneous anthrax at the mill, which turned goat hair and wool from southern Asia into lining material for suits. Only one case had been fatal. By contrast, there had been no previous cases of inhalation anthrax at the mill--and only 23 isolated cases had been reported in the world medical literature since 1900.
 ...It is written in typical Plotkin style, and one suspects that he may have been responsible for much of the work.The introduction states that the outbreak "presented an unusual opportunity to study both the epidemiology of this disease, and the effectiveness of an anthrax vaccine that had been given to some of the workers several months before the epidemic." A later article by the same authors reveals that 300 of the manchester mill's 630-odd employees volunteered to be vaccinated with this live anthrax vaccine, although the remainder refused. Beginning in May 1957, approximately half of the 300 were vaccinated with three primary injections at fortnightly intervals, while the other half received 3 injections of a placebo.
 The vaccinees had been due to receive three booster shots at six monthly intervals, but the anthrax outbreak in August caused the trial to be terminated. Of the five cases of inhalation anthrax, four had not particapted in the vaccine program, while the fifth had received only the placebo. Although the abandonment of the Manchester trial did not allow statistically valid conclusions to be made about the vaccine efficacyk, calculations that also incorporated data from other mills where earlier vaccine trials had been staged led the authors to conclude that the vaccine was 92.5% effective...

(In the source documents, it says, "The vaccine had been prepared at Fort Detrick, where the injection of six hundred scientific personnel had apparently demonstrated its suitability for human use. G.G. Wright, et al, 'Studies on Immunity in Anthrax V. Immunizing activity of Alum-Precipitated Protective Antigen', J. Immunol., 1954, 73, 387-391")

 But what had caused the unprecedented epidemic? The authors concluded that one particular batch of black goat hair from India might have been responsible...Furthermore, the epidemiologists noted that detergents used for scouring the hair had been shown to enhance the virulence of anthrax spores, and that a new detergent had come into use during this period.
 It is striking that these papers about the Manchester outbreak do not contain a single reference to the extraordinary coincidence whereby the first inhalation anthrax epidemic of the century occurred within three months of an experimental trial of a live anthrax vaccine...

...The first inhalation anthrax victim in Manchester fell ill on the same morning that a new detergent replaced the traditional scouring agents of soap and soda ash, but he was working in a different part of the mill from where the new detergent had been introduced. Nonetheless, the authors comment that "an hypothesis which presents itself is that this particular batch [of goat hair] contained an unusual number of highly-virulent anthrax spores to which was added for most of the epidemic a virulence-enhancing substance (the scouring agent)".
 The only reference to the implications for biowarfare research in these two lengthy reports comes in a single sentence at the conclusion of one of them, which reads: "The potential civil defense problem posed by anthrax aerosols is also emphasized."



JTCoyoté

  • Guest
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #55 on: September 07, 2009, 04:50:14 pm »
 In the 1950s, by whatever vehicle, whether it was inoculation or area spraying, something that was first film documented as being used upon the population of Nanking by the Japanese in the mid-1930s, they did spread the flu. They fostered a flu pandemic that attacked the digestive tract, produced an insanely high fever, and killed a lot of people.

They came through again with another, the Hong Kong flu in 1968, which I did not get except for minor symptoms after being inoculated into my active military service in January of that year. Again when the swine flu scare took hold in the early and mid-70s, it was the inoculation that made me ill. Both of these illnesses, came within two weeks of being inoculated... exactly the same as what happened to me in 1957 after the school's shots were given.

In the 1980s, the new scare was a virus that suppressed the immune system called AIDS... There eugenic hope was to suppress the mating urge in the baby boom humans.  This was foisted on the scene, as were condoms... as a birth control tactic, and worked pretty well... as far as a pandemic goes, AIDS was pretty much a failure... but for its intended purpose, along the use of condoms, and abortion... it succeeded.

Their latest foray into genetic manipulation, this new flu, requires three shots... what it will do is the most heinous thing that anyone could do to a living thing. This new flu, sensitizes the immune system in a way that a normal vaccine is supposed to, to recognize a complete genetic signature of the disease and eradicate it... this is and what this new one will do up to a point, but the immune cells are instructed to attack a partial read of the disease DNA as well... Thus when the genetic signature of the disease embeds itself into cells of the body, and attaches itself to the calls DNA, the immune system begins to attack the DNA combination and kills the host's own cells even those that have successfully defeated the disease and carry only the immunity factor in the DNA. This autoimmune reaction will be what kills people this time around...

Whether this scheme will fizzle like AIDS, kill 10s of millions like the Spanish flu, or just forever alter the genetic makeup of the surviving humans... we cannot tell... my suspicion is that it will produce the last scenario to some degree, and will spawn a whole litany of new destructive viruses in the process.

JTCoyoté

"I have always thought the actions of men
the best interpreters of their thoughts."

~John Locke

KarnEvil9

  • Guest
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #56 on: September 07, 2009, 05:06:06 pm »
I was only 2 in 1957 so I was isolated at home. But I did get those red measles in the early 60s that put me in a 3 day coma, they were all down in my esophagus and my temps reached 104 at one time. The doc told my mom all she could do was keep pouring ice water in me and giving me aspirin. When I came out of it, the doc said I would have the immune system from hell. I have never had a flu shot and the last time I had the flu was that awful Chinese/Hong Kong stuff in 1981. I'm telling everyone I know not to take the shot and to get outside and/or boost their intake of vitamin D.

sociostudent

  • Guest
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #57 on: September 08, 2009, 02:02:23 am »
I was only 2 in 1957 so I was isolated at home. But I did get those red measles in the early 60s that put me in a 3 day coma, they were all down in my esophagus and my temps reached 104 at one time. The doc told my mom all she could do was keep pouring ice water in me and giving me aspirin. When I came out of it, the doc said I would have the immune system from hell. I have never had a flu shot and the last time I had the flu was that awful Chinese/Hong Kong stuff in 1981. I'm telling everyone I know not to take the shot and to get outside and/or boost their intake of vitamin D.

I got strep throat at aged 16, and had the part-time job from Hell at a local dept. store (It rhymes with "Marget") and I ended up leaving it to get worse, and 2 weeks later, my skin broke out with all these red papules, and my tongue turned red, and my lymph nodes looked like they had just taken on a mind of their own entirely, lol. So I went to the doctor, and he immediately had me isolated and put on IV antibiotics--I had scarlet fever. I think at that point, I was just in so much pain and so tired my mind kind of turned off and I don't remember much. My fever was around 104 at that point.

I got better after the antibiotics started working, and the doc said I was lucky I didn't get rheumatic fever or something.

"Marget" fired me later for missing work due to the illness. No sh*t.

Offline TahoeBlue

  • Global Moderator
  • Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 19,881
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #58 on: February 24, 2010, 12:23:02 am »
SwRI - SFBR - Tom Slick - The Other Battelle - Only Private BSL-4

Tom Slick was the basis for many cartoon and adventure features in the late fifties (Sky King, Clutch Cargo). He searched for Bigfoot and the yeti.
Flew his own plane and convieniently died in 1962 when his plane disintegrated in flight over Montana... Also around the time of the JFK assassination...
Also being a cryptozoologist would be an excellent cover for travelling to many distant locales for the CIA...

Tom Slick's relationship with the CIA and saving the Dalai Lama. And yes he was a YALE man...

Also of interest was 1957-1958 was the beginning of the H2N2 Pandemic.... was Slick distributing the new novel H2N2 ? See: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté

http://www.cryptomundo.com/cryptozoo-news/slick-317/
...

Tom Slick (above, after his March 15, 1957, near-death accident in Nepal) was most famous, of course, for his expeditions in search of the Abominable Snowmen, the Yeti of the Himalayan Mountains.

In 1957, Tom Slick personally headed his first of many sponsored expeditions to Nepal in search of the Yeti, with Peter Byrne and Sherpa guides along for his deadly serious initial reconnaissance. From noting the timeline for Slick’s trek, remarkably, I discovered that Slick began his actual search in earnest in the Arun Valley on March 17, 1957.

On March 18th and 19th, 1957, the Government of Nepal issued press releases and answered reporters’ questions that they officially forbade all foreign mountaineers from “killing, injuring, or capturing a Yeti.” Slick’s party was allowed to carry guns for their self-defense. But they also had steel traps to capture a Yeti, and the new law was specifically targeted at Slick’s expedition

Especially interesting to me is a question I have never had fully answered: Was the character in the movie The Abominable Snowman of the Himalayas of the American Yeti hunter and exploiter “Tom Friend” (shown above next to the film’s Yeti body) based, in some part, on the real Texan Yeti hunter Tom Slick?

What was one of the other missions of Tom Slick’s 1957 expedition? Apparently, it may have been spying on the Chinese in Tibet. Certainly that was what the Russians thought.



This April 27, 1957, article (above) in The New York Times carried the claims that Tom Slick was behind an effort to subvert the Chinese and free Tibet. (It would be revealed years later that Tom Slick and his Slick Airways were working closely with the OSS and the CIA.)

Two years later, what date would the CIA pick to begin the exit of the Dalai Lama from Tibet? March 17, 1959. Who may have been helping with that trek? Tom Slick and Peter Byrne. Perhaps it was Tom Slick that picked the date, not the CIA?

Colonel Fletcher Prouty has written about this secret mission to Tibet. In 1955, Prouty was appointed the first “Focal Point” officer between the CIA and the Air Force for Clandestine Operations per National Security Council Directive 5412. He was Briefing Officer for the Secretary of Defense (1960-1961), and for the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Prouty, in his 1973 book about the CIA, Secret Team, writes: “This fantastic escape and its major significance have been buried in the lore of the CIA as one of those successes that are not talked about. The Dalai Lama would have never been saved without the CIA.”

On March 17, 1959, three groups, the Dalai Lama, his immediate family and senior advisors, escaped from Lhasa, Tibet.

John Prados writing in The Presidents’ Secret Wars: CIA and Pentagon Covert Operations Since World War II (New York: Morrow, 1986), notes: “Tenzin Gyatso [the Dalai Lama] was disguised as a common soldier of the guard…. The best information [about the fleeing Dalai Lama] came from the CIA…. The CIA was so well informed because it had furnished an American radio operator, who traveled with the Dalai Lama’s party…There may have been other CIA agents with the party as well.”

Who were these individuals? Who helped the Dalai Lama’s party get out of Tibet? None other than Peter Byrne, Tom Slick’s man in Nepal. He may forget it, but he told me so in 1988, when I was interviewing him about his years of work, overt and covert, with Tom Slick of San Antonio, Texas. I go into further details in my book, Tom Slick: True Life Encounters in Cryptozoology (Fresno: Linden Press, 2002).
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

  • Global Moderator
  • Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 19,881
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #59 on: June 17, 2018, 10:34:51 am »
bump ...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline JTCoyote

  • Member
  • *
  • Posts: 29
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #60 on: June 18, 2018, 05:02:12 pm »
As we are slowly figuring out, the CDC is not the Center for Disease Control at all, it is in fact the Center for Disease CREATION! This is the tax funded progenitor of purposefully engineered disease and death... I'm so very disgusted that this Nazi-esque quazi government program for population wide experimentation and debilitation has been allow to exist, let alone being tax funded all these decades.

JTCoyote

"I am one of those who do not believe
that a national debt is a national blessing,
but rather a curse to a republic; in as
much as it is calculated to raise around
the administration a moneyed aristocracy
dangerous to the liberties of the country."
~Andrew Jackson

Offline JTCoyote

  • Member
  • *
  • Posts: 29
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #61 on: June 19, 2018, 12:43:06 pm »
The latest mortality stats on "Disease X," the spreading strain of Avian Flu, is now 5000 dead, it was less than 300 a week ago... it's growing at an alarming rate... the "experts" are now revising the mortality rate at higher than 40%...

Remember this...

Survivors is a British post-apocalyptic fiction drama television series created by Terry Nation and produced by Terence Dudley at the BBC, that broadcast from 1975 to 1977. It concerns the plight of a group of people who have survived an apocalyptic plague pandemic, which was accidentally released by a Chinese scientist and quickly spread across the world via air travel. Referred to as "The Death", the plague kills approximately 4,999 out of every 5,000 human beings on the planet within a matter of weeks of being released.

Oldyoti

" 'Tis our true policy to steer clear of
permanent Alliances, with any portion
of the foreign world."
~George Washington
From his Farewell Address, Sept. 19, 1796

Offline TahoeBlue

  • Global Moderator
  • Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 19,881
Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
« Reply #62 on: June 19, 2018, 01:25:23 pm »
Re: WHO Admits Scientists are Engineering Super H5N1 Bird Flu Virus - Why?

https://www.infowars.com/disease-x-new-strain-of-bird-flu-kills-40-of-those-who-contract-100s-dead-in-china/
?DISEASE X?: New Strain Of Bird Flu Kills 40% Of Those Who Contract, 100s Dead In China
The strain, H7N9, circulates in poultry and has killed 623 people out of 1,625 infected in China ? a mortality rate of 38.3%.
Zero Hedge - June 16, 2018
...

| -- -

http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=90023.msg527932#msg527932
...
Bayer Avian Influenza Summit


http://www.622design.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/09/avianinfluenza-500x375.png

SPP -   http://www4.dr-rath-foundation.org/us/north_american_union.html

August 28, 2007

U.S. under U.N. law in health emergency
Bush's SPP power grab sets stage for military to manage flu threats
The Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America summit in Canada released a plan that establishes U.N. law along with regulations by the World Trade Organization and World Health Organization as supreme over U.S. law during a pandemic and sets the stage for militarizing the management of continental health emergencies.

The "North American Plan for Avian & Pandemic Influenza" http://www.spp.gov/pdf/nap_flu07.pdf was finalized at the SPP summit last week in Montebello, Quebec.

At the same time, the U.S. Northern Command, or NORTHCOM, has created a webpage dedicated to avian flu and has been running exercises in preparation for the possible use of U.S. military forces in a continental domestic emergency involving avian flu or pandemic influenza.
http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=14987
...
"unlike previous pandemic influenzas, this will be the first time in the history of humanity that we actually have an opportunity to plan in advance how we would respond to a global pandemic," said Army Lt. Col. (Dr.) Dan Bochicchio, vice chief surgeon of the National Guard Bureau.

Read article at worldnetdaily.com
http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=57369

... SPP Plan...
Canada, Mexico and the United States face a growing threat posed by the spread of avian influenza and the
potential emergence of a human influenza pandemic. The highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, which re-emerged
in Asia in late 2003, has already spread to Europe, the Middle East and Africa. While the virus has not yet
reached North America, the three countries must be prepared for the day when it—or some other highly
contagious virus—does.

That doc link is gone  - you can get it here:
The "North American Plan for Avian & Pandemic Influenza"

Zoning And Compartmentalization

In the event of an incursion of NAI virus into North American poultry, the three countries, as WTO Members,
must comply with Article 6 of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
(WTO SPS Agreement), including Article 6.2 which requires that WTO Members “shall, in particular,
recognize the concepts of pest- or disease-free areas and areas of low pest or disease prevalence.”


| - - -

https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/h7n9-influenza-vaccine-clinical-trials-begin
Thursday, March 15, 2018
H7N9 influenza vaccine clinical trials begin


Two new clinical trials testing an experimental vaccine to prevent influenza caused by an H7N9 influenza virus are now enrolling volunteers at sites across the United States. The Phase 2 studies, sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), will test different dosages of the inactivated influenza vaccine candidate (called 2017 H7N9 IIV) as well as different vaccination schedules. The studies also will evaluate whether an adjuvant boosts the immune responses of people receiving the vaccine.

H7N9 is an avian (bird) influenza virus first reported in humans in 2013 in China.
Since then, six waves of H7N9 infection have occurred in China, resulting in more than 1,500 cumulative human infections, according to the World Health Organization. No human cases of H7N9 influenza have been detected to date in the United States. Currently, the virus does not spread easily from person to person; rather, people typically become infected through direct exposure to infected poultry or contaminated environments.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5