Author Topic: Aflatoxin - Hepatitis B - Liver Cancer - Genetic Warfare - Eugenics  (Read 36426 times)

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Offline TahoeBlue

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Aflatoxin - Hepatitis B - Liver Cancer - Genetic Warfare - Eugenics

Has anyone noticed that a lot more people are dying from Liver and Pancreatic cancer?

Example:
http://topnews.net.nz/content/2211-apple-welcomes-official-return-steve-jobs
Apple welcomes the official return of Steve Jobs
...
Mr. Jobs had said in January that he would have to undergo treatment for pancreatic cancer - an ailment from which he had suffered earlier also. He then had described the treatment as pretty simple.
However, a week later, Jobs said that the problem was more complex than what he initially thought, and he would have to take time off work.  Fortunately, now he has been given an "excellent prognosis" by the doctors, after he underwent a liver transplant surgery in the US.

http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/impacts/aflatoxin.cfm
Aflatoxin & Liver Cancer

For almost four decades, NIEHS-funded scientists have conducted research on the role in promoting liver cancer of aflatoxin, a naturally occurring toxin produced by mold. Their discovery of the genetic changes that result from aflatoxin exposure have led to a better understanding of the link between aflatoxin and cancer risk in humans. These discoveries are also being used in developing cancer prevention strategies.

http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/impacts/images/aflatoxin.jpg


Aflatoxin exposure occurs primarily through the diet. Aflatoxins grow on whole grains such as corn, rice, and wheat, as well as on peanuts, almonds, walnuts, sunflower seeds, and spices such as black pepper and coriander. Aflatoxins can contaminate these food products during processing, storage, or transport when conditions are favorable for mold growth.

NIEHS-funded scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology were among the first to show that exposure to aflatoxin can lead to liver cancer. Their research also demonstrated that aflatoxin’s cancer-causing potential is due to its ability to produce altered forms of DNA called adducts. Researchers now use the levels of these DNA adducts in blood and urine as sensitive biomarkers of aflatoxin exposure in humans.

NIEHS-funded researchers at The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health have applied these exposure biomarkers to study of the interaction between exposure to the hepatitis B virus and Aflatoxin in promoting the development of liver cancer. Their data show that when people who test positive for the hepatitis B virus are also exposed to aflatoxin in the diet, their risk for developing liver cancer is about 60 times that of unexposed individuals. This increase in cancer risk is much greater than that observed with either aflatoxin or hepatitis B virus alone.

The Johns Hopkins University researchers are also the first to test the effectiveness of chlorophyllin, a derivative of chlorophyll that is used as an over-the-counter dietary supplement and food colorant, in reducing the risk of liver cancer in aflatoxin-exposed individuals. Studies conducted in Qidong, People’s Republic of China, showed that consumption of chlorophyllin at each meal resulted in a 55% reduction in the urinary levels of aflatoxin-related DNA adducts. The researchers believe that chlorophyllin reduces aflatoxin levels by blocking the absorption of the compound into the gastrointestinal tract. The results suggest that taking chlorophyllin, or eating green vegetables that are rich in chlorophyllin, may be a practical and cost-effective way of reducing liver cancers in areas where aflatoxin exposures are high.

In an effort to identify the genetic underpinnings of liver cancer, the Johns Hopkins University team has discovered mutations in a critical cancer gene, known as p53, in the serum of individuals who later were diagnosed with the disease. This discovery may eventually lead to new strategies for the detection, prevention, and treatment of liver disease in susceptible individuals.

Evidence of Genetic Warfare? More on the Mycotoxin: aflatoxin

http://www.springerlink.com/content/h551733616g572xt/

Mycotoxins are mold poisons; aflatoxins are the best known and most widely studied mycotoxins. The contamination of foods and feeds with aflatoxin can have serious consequences for human and animal health.

In general, aflatoxin exposure is most likely to occur in the developing countries where food handling and storage processes are suboptimal, where malnutrition is widespread, and where few regulations exist to protect the exposed populations. Depending on dose and other variables, aflatoxins can be mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressive. Fundamental studies on the genetics, biosynthesis and molecular biology of aflatoxin producing fungi may offer insights into controlling this serious agricultural problem.

http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3403300013.html
...
Aflatoxins were first discovered in England in 1960 when more than 10,000 turkeys and ducks died within a few months. The disease contracted by these animals was called Turkey X disease and its cause was traced to Aspergillus flavus contamination of peanut meal that had originated in Brazil. The toxin was named for the short hand of its causative agent: A. fla.

Aflatoxins are the most toxic, naturally occurring carcinogens known. Aflatoxin B1 is an extremely hepatocarcinogenic compound, causing cancer of the liver in humans. Aflatoxin B1 exposure results in both steatosis (an accumulation of fat) and necrosis (cell death) of liver cells. Symptoms of aflatoxicosis are gastrointestinal including vomiting and abdominal pain. Other symptoms can include convulsions, pulmonary edema, coma and eventually death. Aflatoxins also pose a threat to developing fetuses and they are transferred from mother to infant in breast milk. Aflatoxins B1, G1 and M1 are carcinogenic in animals.

Aflatoxin poisoning occurs from ingestion of crops that have been infested with Aspergillus spp. or from eating animal products from animals that have ingested these crops. High concentrations of aflatoxins are most often found in plants with very nutritive seeds such as maize, nuts and cereal grains in Africa and rice in China and Southeast Asia. In the United States, peanuts are routinely tested for aflatoxin concentrations, and contamination has also occurred in corn, rice, and cereal grains.
...
Evidence exists that Iraq used aflatoxins in biological weapons. In December of 1990, Iraq produced 2,200 liters of aflatoxin, 1,580 liters of which were used in biological warheads. In particular, 16 R400 bombs and 2 Al Hussein (SCUD) warheads were filled with the toxin.

What was Sadam thinking about?

http://nabc.ksu.edu/content/factsheets/category/Aflatoxin

In 1989, Saddam Hussein ordered the government of Iraq to begin production of aflatoxin as an economic biological/chemical weapon. The methods used by Iraqi scientists at the Salman Pak facility were crude; Aspergillus was grown on wet rice and the final product was reportedly highly impure. According to UNSCOM estimations, 2200 L of aflatoxin were produced. Some of this material was reportedly loaded into missiles, though this allegation has never been proven as no aflatoxin was found after the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the United States. The presumption is that the aflatoxin was destroyed.8


http://ocw.jhsph.edu/courses/publichealthtoxicology/PDFs/Lecture12_Kensler.pdf
Eat and Die

“The Poison in the Corn”—Aflatoxin

Aflatoxicoses
 Acute lethal toxicity
 Immune suppression
 Hemorrhagic anemia syndrome
 Hepatotoxicity
 Teratogenicity
 Carcinogenicity

Iraq's Biological Weapons The Past as Future?
 Between 1985 and April 1991, Iraq developed anthrax, botulinumtoxin, and aflatoxin for biological warfare; 200 bombs and 25 ballistic missiles laden with biological agents were deployed by the time Operation Desert Storm occurred. …Despite the Gulf War defeat, the Iraqi biological warfare threat has not been extinguished. …

Aflatoxin—A Human Carcinogen

Incidence of Liver Cancer (HCC)
 589,000 deaths in 1999 (WHO)
 HCC is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide
 >80% of HCC occurs in the developing world
 >400 million HBV carriers worldwide

Aflatoxin B1 binds to DNA at the guanine base in liver cells, corrupting the genetic code that regulates cell growth, thereby leading to formation of tumors.

Major Risk Factors for Liver Cancer
 Hepatitis viruses (HBV, HCV)
 Aflatoxins
 Alcohol
 Oral contraceptives
 Iron overload
 Vinyl chloride
 Nutritional imbalances

Dietary Staples in Qidong (China) Consistently Contaminated with Aflatoxins
 Soy Sauce
 Rice
 Peanuts
 Maize

Evidence of bio-warfare against africa... I need to research this more, I'd never heard of this...
New term: GENETIC WARFARE


http://www.amp.org/newsletters/nl1002.PDF
Assoc of Molecular Pathology
Oct 2002
SPECIAL FEATURE
SUBTLE BIOLOGIC WEAPONS
...
In the last century several nations sponsored programs designed to kill generations of people through the application of biologic toxins to foodstuffs.

One example was an effort to “weaponize” aflatoxin, a by-product of the metabolism of aspergillus fumigatus. The goal of this program was to contaminate maize, a staple food in sub-Saharan Africa. Aflatoxin will induce DNA adducts and is a promotor of hepatocellular carcinoma in individuals coincidentally infected with hepatitis B. This program was aimed at developing a potential weapon directed against the younger generation who were not yet exposed to hepatitis.

Military experts researching these programs refer to them as evidence of genetic warfare....
...

Today, the proliferation of genetic engineering technology is a major concern toward the development of subtle biologic weapons. Simple, commonplace and inexpensive, the availability of technology to create harmful new organisms undetectable as biologic weapons is now a major focus of defense research.

 Interestingly, the food industry, with the advent of genetically modified plants, is a place where the natural experiments are measured against what could be the more nefarious use of such technology.

Ronald McGlennen
Ronald McGlennen, M.D.
e-mail: [email protected]

http://www.circleoneglobal.com/aflatoxin_africa.htm

About 250,000 hepatocellular carcinoma-related deaths occur annually in parts of sub-Saharan Africa due to aflatoxin ingestion... About half of all cancer deaths in Guangxi, China were due to primary hepatocellular carcinoma from aflatoxin...

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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http://www.hivandhepatitis.com/hep_c/news/2009/031309_b.html
U.S. Liver Cancer Rate Triples, but Survival Improves

Over the course of years or decades, chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) can progress to advanced liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a form of primary liver cancer. HCC is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide.

As people who were infected years ago have progressed to advanced stages of disease, the incidence of liver cancer has risen in the U.S. But survival is improving, likely due to more widespread screening, early treatment, and improvements in therapy, according to a study published in the February 17, 2009 advance online edition of the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Sean Altekruse and colleagues from the National Cancer Institute analyzed age-adjusted trends in HCC incidence using U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registries from 1975 through 2005. Age-specific rates were examined for birth cohorts born between 1900 and 1959. Age-adjusted incidence and cause-specific survival rates from 1992 through 2005 were analyzed according to race/ethnicity, disease stage, and treatment. Liver cancer mortality rates were also examined.

Results

Age-adjusted HCC incidence rates tripled between 1975 and 2005, increasing from 1.6 to 4.9 cases per 100,000 persons.

 On an annual basis, the HCC incidence rate rose by 4.3% per year.

 In all racial/ethnic groups combined, the HCC rate was about 3 times higher in men compared with women.

 HCC incidence rates increased in each 10-year birth cohort from 1900 through the 1950s.

 HCC incidence rates increased in all racial/ethnic groups.

Between 1992 and 2005, HCC among Asians and Pacific Islanders -- a group with a high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B -- increased by 17%.

 Asians/Pacific Islanders continued to have the highest HCC incidence rate, but their annual increase was smaller (1.0%) compared with other racial/ethnic groups (5.0% for American Indians/Alaska natives, 4.9% for blacks, 4.6% for whites, 4.0% for Hispanics).

Between 2000 and 2005, the HCC rate increased markedly among black, Hispanic, and white middle-aged men (aged 50-59), likely reflecting an increase in HCV infections in the 1960s and 1970s.

 The overall annual change in the HCC mortality rate was 1.6% per year.

Asians/Pacific Islanders had the highest HCC mortality rate, but experienced an annual decrease of 0.9% over time, while annual mortality rates rose for other racial/ethnic groups (1.3% for blacks, 1.7% for Hispanics and whites).

 Between 1992 and 2004, 2-year to 4-year HCC survival rates doubled, coinciding with more patients being diagnosed with early-stage, localized HCC.

 Prognosis especially improved among patients with localized HCC who received treatment, with the 1-year survival rate increasing from 65% in 1992 to 83% in 2004.

 However, recent overall 1-year survival rates remained below 50%.

"HCC incidence and mortality rates continue to increase, particularly among middle-aged black, Hispanic, and white men," the investigators concluded.

They stated that "Screening of at-risk groups and treatment of localized-stage tumors may contribute to increasing HCC survival rates in the United States," but added that, "More progress is needed."

3/13/09

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15508102

Primary liver cancer: worldwide incidence and trends.

Estimates from the year 2000 indicate that liver cancer remains the fifth most common malignancy in men and the eighth in women worldwide. The number of new cases is estimated to be 564,000 per year, including 398,000 in men and 166,000 in women.

In high-risk countries, liver cancer can arise before the age of 20 years, whereas, in countries at low risk, liver cancer is rare before the age of 50 years. Rates of liver cancer in men are typically 2 to 4 times higher than in women.

The incidence of primary liver cancer is increasing in several developed countries, including the United States, and the increase will likely continue for some decades. The trend is a result of a cohort effect related to infection with hepatitis B and C viruses, the incidence of which peaked in the 1950s to 1980s.

In selected areas of some developing countries, the incidence of primary liver cancer has decreased, possibly as a result of the introduction of hepatitis B virus vaccine. The geographic variability in incidence of primary liver cancer is largely explained by the distribution and the natural history of the hepatitis B and C viruses. The attributable risk estimates for the combined effects of these infections account for well over 80% of liver cancer cases worldwide. Primary liver cancer is the first human cancer largely amenable to prevention using hepatitis B virus vaccines and screening of blood and blood products for hepatitis B and C viruses.

http://www.livercancertreatment.org/diagnosing/statistics.asp
Statistics of Liver Cancer

General Liver Cancer Statistics
Primary cancers of the liver or hepatocellular cancers have historically been quite uncommon in the United States, in contrast to the Far East where it is the most common cancer. However, the incidence per hundred thousand lives in the USA has essentially doubled in the last decade alone from 1.4 to 2.5. This rate is climbing because of the rapid increase in the number of people in the population with HCV (Hepatitis C Virus).

The actual increase in numbers of people with new onset HCV is only now about 25,000 per year, according to the CDC, but, in the fifteen or so years preceding the discovery of the HCV in 1989, this annual incidence of new cases reached 200,000 per year. Therefore, we now have a population of perhaps more than 2.9 million people in the USA who have had HCV for long enough to suffer the longterm sequelae of hepatic injury including cirrhosis, liver failure requiring liver transplantation, and HCC’s. HCV has passed HBV as the most important cause of HCC in the USA.

Who is Affected by Liver Cancer?
The largest group of patients in whom aggressive local therapies can really help many patients and cure some is the group with colorectal cancer. Each year in the United States about 150, 000 patients develop cancer of the colon or rectum. Around fifty percent of these patients will either have a cancer that has already spread to the liver or they will come back in future years with metastatic cancer to the liver. When the cancer spreads only to the liver, as is the case in about half of these patients, there are a number of treatment options. Resection of the cancer in the liver is the best choice in many patients. Ablation with cold or heat helps many more. Other modalities that are used in these patients include the hepatic artery infusion pump, portal vein embolization, internal radiation with yttrium spheres, external beam radiation, and systemic chemotherapy.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Mike Philbin

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if we plot ALL DISEASES (natural and engineered) on an Atlas in such a way we'll find that we a) might be at the mercy of a weakened gene line in in-bred societies like Japan where liver disease is rife but b) might be at the mercy of local murder tactics for example AIDS in Africa etc.....

though I don't like to admit this (it's totally illogical) but it looks like they're trying more than ever to KILL EVERY LAST ONE OF US.  I still don't see how Eugenics helps the Global Elite. Anyway, debate on...

Offline TahoeBlue

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http://www.modernghana.com/news/212984/1/research-promises-end-to-aflatoxin-contamination-a.html

Research promises end to aflatoxin contamination and reduction in $1.2bn global trade losses
By Godwin Atser
Press Release | Sun, 26 Apr 2009

Researchers at the Ibadan-based International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, the African Agricultural Technology Foundation, Kenya, and the United States Department for Agriculture have demonstrated the ability of natural Nigerian fungi to reduce the concentrations of aflatoxins in maize and, as a result, reduce global trade losses estimated at $1.2bn.

The researchers through a partnership have created a safe natural biological method of eliminating aflatoxin contamination of food crops, IITA says today.

Aflatoxins are chemical poisons produced mainly by the fungus Aspergillus flavus in maize, groundnuts, cassava, and yam chips. These toxins are also potent causes of cancer and suppress the immune system causing humans and animals to be more susceptible to diseases.

Besides, aflatoxins are also non-tariff barriers to international trade since agricultural products that have more than permissible levels of contamination are rejected in the global market.

Though losses faced by the global economy are estimated at $1.2bn, African economies lose about $450m annually to aflatoxin contamination.

Aflatoxin is a silent killer. It undermines human health and stunts the growth of children but is not often visible on the corn when purchased. says Dr. Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, IITA Pathologist at a meeting organized by the AATF in collaboration with IITA. The meeting, which ended on Friday, examined the prospects of a biological method for drastically reducing aflatoxin contamination.

On-station field trials of the biocontrol method in Zaria, Ikenne, Mokwa and Ibadan showed 50 to 99% reductions in aflatoxin contamination of maize.

Under the biocontrol, native strains of Aspergillus flavus that do not produce aflatoxins (called atoxigenic strains) can be applied in order to alter the fungal community on crops and throughout an area so that maize becomes less contaminated with aflatoxins. When applied appropriately, these native atoxigenic strains competitively exclude aflatoxin producers.

This competitive exclusion principle of biological control will be used as a new type of aflatoxin intervention strategy to mitigate the negative effect of aflatoxins on human health and trade in Kenya and Nigeria.

Dr. Peter Cotty of the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, who collaborated with IITA on the project, says natural populations of Aspergillus flavus consist of toxigenic strains that produce copious amounts of aflatoxin and atoxigenic strains that lack this capacity. He explains that competitive exclusion works by applying selected native atoxigenic strains to out-compete and exclude aflatoxin-producers during colonization of grains and thereby reducing levels of aflatoxin contamination. There are several atoxigenic strains native to Nigeria that are useful for reducing aflatoxins.

Bandyopadhyay says atoxigenic strains can be directed at reducing aflatoxin contamination in several crops throughout an area simultaneously.

Manipulation of the composition of fungal communities (i.e., replacing high aflatoxin-producers with their cousins that do not produce aflatoxins) so that high aflatoxin-producers are less common, is a viable approach for reducing aflatoxin contamination throughout all crops grown in a target area, he says.

According to Bandyopadhyay, atoxigenic strains for use in biocontrol have been identified for use in Kenya and Nigeria by USDA-ARS and IITA. On April 24th a group of stakeholders including farmers, government officials, the food and feed industry and NGOs expressed the desire to convert this technology into the reality of a readily available product for producing safer maize in Nigeria where this technology will be used for the first time in Africa.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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There are U.S. permissable "tolerance  limits" to aflatoxin :
U.S. = 0.5 μg/L.
EU   = 0.05 μg/L   10 times less Gee, what do the Europeans know?

Quote
However, the level of aflatoxin M1 in 96.4% samples was below the US tolerance limit of 0.5 μg/L. Only 3% samples showed AFM1 concentration higher than the US maximum limit. The 99.4% samples exceeded the European Union limit, i.e. 0.05 μg/L.


http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T6S-4NR188X-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=945460842&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=0b602114fa017275767f57f8f69fd1ed

A study on contamination of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk in the Punjab province of Pakistan

Abstract
Raw milk samples from fourteen districts of the Punjab province, Pakistan, were analyzed for the contamination of aflatoxin M1.

The analysis was carried out by using immunoaffinity columns and Fluorometer. All of the samples analyzed were found contaminated with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1).

However, the level of aflatoxin M1 in 96.4% samples was below the US tolerance limit of 0.5 μg/L. Only 3% samples showed AFM1 concentration higher than the US maximum limit. The 99.4% samples exceeded the European Union limit, i.e. 0.05 μg/L.

Seasonal effect was also studied on the presence of AFM1 concentration in milk. The data were analyzed statistically by applying ANOVA. The results urge the need to impose a maximum permissible limit for AFM1 levels in milk and milk products in Pakistan. This study, which is the first one of its nature on aflatoxin M1 in Pakistan, suggests a regular monitoring of AFM1 in milk and milk products in the country.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Related: Tylenol and liver disease... Think of the combined action of alfatoxin exposure - Hepatitis - Acetominophen (Tylenol)

http://abcnews.go.com/Health/PainManagement/story?id=7955370&page=1
FDA Scrutinizes Acetaminophen's Liver Risk
Concerns Over Unintentional Overdose Hazards May Change Drug's Labeling
By DAN CHILDS
June 29, 2009

Acetaminophen is the most commonly used painkiller in the country and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration will scrutinize its safety record today in the shadow of concerns that people taking too much of it are damaging their livers.

Research has shown that hundreds of Americans each year experience acute liver failure as a result of taking acetaminophen -- widely known under the brand name Tylenol -- and about 100 people die annually from overdosing on the painkiller, either intentionally or unintentionally.

Although researchers have found that the drug is safe if taken at recommended levels, its prevalence in a variety of pain relievers, fever reducers and cough medicines as a somewhat hidden ingredient means patients don't realize they are taking several drugs that all contain acetaminophen.

Moreover, combining the medication with alcoholic beverages increases the risk of liver damage
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline phasma

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  • Have a H.A.A.R.P.Y DAY !
if we plot ALL DISEASES (natural and engineered) on an Atlas in such a way we'll find that we a) might be at the mercy of a weakened gene line in in-bred societies like Japan where liver disease is rife but b) might be at the mercy of local murder tactics for example AIDS in Africa etc.....

though I don't like to admit this (it's totally illogical) but it looks like they're trying more than ever to KILL EVERY LAST ONE OF US.  I still don't see how Eugenics helps the Global Elite. Anyway, debate on...

Nope. You have said this before, and i have to agree, i cannot see how killing everyone furthers their cause, who would do all the jobs they didnt want to do?
Who would produce their fuel / electricity / etc etc  ?
However - the way things are going it does indeed appear as though they are trying to get rid of a huge number of us !
Completely illogical as you say. Unless they are trying to fix things so only a certain percentage (or type) of person will survive ???
Things are not what they appear to be: nor are they otherwise - Surangama Sutra

Offline TahoeBlue

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Remember, Hepatitis C is a "NEW" virus - linked closely with the "discovery" of AIDS/HIV....
In review Hepatitis in combination with Aflatoxin exposure increases liver cancer chances by 60 times

See why Rockefeller wants you dead: American Eugenics Plans of Action

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_C

History
In the mid 1970s, Harvey J. Alter, Chief of the Infectious Disease Section in the Department of Transfusion Medicine at the National Institutes of Health, and his research team demonstrated that most post-transfusion hepatitis cases were not due to hepatitis A or B viruses. Despite this discovery, international research efforts to identify the virus, initially called non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANBH), failed for the next decade.

In 1987, Michael Houghton, Qui-Lim Choo, and George Kuo at Chiron Corporation, collaborating with Dr. D.W. Bradley from CDC, utilized a novel molecular cloning approach to identify the unknown organism.[42] In 1988, the virus was confirmed by Alter by verifying its presence in a panel of NANBH specimens.

In April of 1989, the discovery of the virus, re-named hepatitis C virus (HCV), was published in two articles in the journal Science. [43][44]
...
In 2000, Drs. Alter and Houghton were honored with the Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research for "pioneering work leading to the discovery of the virus that causes hepatitis C and the development of screening methods that reduced the risk of blood transfusion-associated hepatitis in the U.S. from 30% in 1970 to virtually zero in 2000."[47]

In 2004 Chiron held 100 patents in 20 countries related to hepatitis C and had successfully sued many companies for infringement. Scientists and competitors have complained that the company hinders the fight against hepatitis C by demanding too much money for its technology.[46]


http://life.nctu.edu.tw/~ylyang/Virology%2017.pdf
HCV was discovered in 1989 by investigators at Chiron, Inc.

•Portions of the HCV genome were isolated by screening cDNA expression libraries made from RNA and DNA from chimpanzees infected with serum from a patient with post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis.

Number of Infections

•Worldwide1
Up to 3.0% of the world's population has been infected with HCV
–There may be more than 150 million chronic carriers of HCV


•U.S.2
– 35,000 new HCV cases each year
3.9 million infected individuals
2.7 million chronic carriers
...
The development of vaccines has been slowed. Even when available, vaccines will not alleviate the problems
faced by millions of chronic HCV carriers worldwide.

...
Primary Modes of Transmission
• Blood
transfusion of blood and blood products; transplant of organs
the sharing of needles among intravenous drug users
inadequately sterilized instruments
tattooing, and body piercing

• Sexual Contacts
there is a marginal risk of HCV transmission involved in regular sexual contact, and that this risk increases noticeably in the case of an HCV-infected individual with multiple partners. The reasons behind this discrepancy are not known.

Vertical Transmission
Mother-to-infant transmission. The risk has typically been less than 5%, unless the mother is co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There has been no association between HCV transmission and breast-feeding.

Nosocomial Infections
disinfection and sterilisation techniques are inadequate, and contaminated equipment is shared among patients
...
http://www.lasvegassun.com/blogs/news/2008/feb/27/hepatitis-outbreak-springs-endoscopy-center-nevada/
Hepatitis C outbreak springs from Endoscopy Center of Nevada; 40,000 at risk
February 27, 2008

Southern Nevada Health District officials announced today they have identified six cases of hepatitis C, five of which stemmed from procedures occurring on the same day that involved anesthesia at the Endoscopy Center of Nevada.

Following a joint investigation with the Nevada State Bureau of Licensure and Certification (BLC) and with consultation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the health district determined that unsafe injection practices related to the administration of anesthesia medication might have exposed patients to the blood of other patients.

The health district is recommending 40,000 patients who had procedures requiring injected anesthesia at the clinic between March 2004 and January 11, 2008, contact their primary care physicians or health care providers to get tested for hepatitis C as well as hepatitis B and HIV.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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This is for rabbits but we are pretty close... also studies show similar effects for milk-cows and pigs
These are toxic effects but you can imagine lifetime exposure would have similar effects.

http://homepage.mac.com/mattocks/morfz/myco.html
Mold and Mycotoxins in Rabbit Feed
...
2. What are the symptoms of mycotoxin poisoning (mycotoxicosis)?

The symptoms are wide-ranging and similar to more well-known ailments. Mycotoxins may cause:

Gastrointestinal problems (slowdown, delayed stomach emptying, stasis/colic, hemorrhages of the large intestine, shock, reduced gastric and small intestine flow, necrosis of the GI tract, severe bloating, impaction, shutdown without blockage, refusal to eat, weight loss, increased water consumption, vomiting, enteritis).

Internal bleeding, hemorrhages or bruising.

Stomach ulcers, mouth sores.

Kidney damage (nephrotoxicity).

Liver damage (liver lipidosis, hepatic lesions/fibrosis/swelling, degenerative changes and dystrophy).
Central nervous system problems (twitches, wobbling, convulsions, seizures, paralysis, spasms, tremors, incoordination, depression, headache).


Immunosupression (increased susceptibility to multiple bacterial and viral infections).

Cancer (tumorigenesis).

Eye problems (discharge, corneal ulcers, keratitis).

Lung problems (pneumonia, lung lesions, pulmonary fibrosis, hemorrhages, respiratory distress, bleeding).

Glandular problems (hypertrophy of the adrenal cortex glands).

Reproductive organ problems (impaired ovarian function, cystic ovarian degeneration development, reproductive disorders, vaginal prolapse).

Heart problems (damaged heart muscle, tachycardia).

Skin problems (skin rash, ulcerations, lesions, burning sensation, sloughing of skin, photosensitization).

Bone marrow and spleen problems (depletion/irreversible damage/necrosis of the myelopoietic cells in bone marrow and in splenic red pulp).

Blood abnormalities (decrease in blood coagulation, hematocrit and white blood cell count, leukopenia, calcium-phosphorus imbalance).

Rectal prolapse.

Vascular system (increased vascular fragility, hemorrhage into body tissues, or from lung).

Caustic effects on mucous membranes.

Since few veterinarians are trained in toxicology, mycotoxicosis is usually misdiagnosed.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Famous Hepatitis C Victims

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_people_with_hepatitis_C

Pamela Anderson hepatitis C after sharing a tattoo needle
Linda Lovelace hepatitis C from a blood transfusion
Ken Watanabe hepatitis C from a blood transfusion
Gregg Allman
Natalie Cole drug use
David Crosby hepatitis C. A liver transplant restored his health
Marianne Faithfull
Freddy Fender hepatitis C in 2000, he received a liver transplant in 2004
Chet Helms SF rock music scene in the 1960s. interferon treatment for hepatitis C when he suffered a stroke
Dusty Hill ZZtop diagnosed in 2000
Naomi Judd 1991 after being diagnosed with hepatitis C
Phil Lesh hepatitis C in 1992 and received a liver transplant in 1998.
Steven Tyler  Aerosmith. In September 2006 interferon treatment
Mickey Mantle
Allen Ginsberg many years with hepatitis C
Ken Kesey  Died of liver cancer, caused by hepatitis C
Evel Knievel He underwent a liver transplant in 1999 after nearly dying of hepatitis C, which he believed he had contracted from a blood transfusion after one of his many violent crashes
James Earl Ray Died of liver disease due to hepatitis C
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Aflatoxin - Hepatitis B - Liver Cancer - Genetic Warfare - Eugenics
« Reply #10 on: July 02, 2009, 03:36:20 pm »
I started this thread in connection to documentation that aflotoxin's might be used in combination with Hepatitis infection as a Eugenic's bio-weapon (60x more effective). Since Hepatitis C infections were unknown  prior to the 1970's we need to investigate further. Maybe this will all lead back to the Hep_B vaccine trials of Gay Men in New York, yaThink? It also goes back to the contaminated Blood supply conspiracy of the 1960-1990's which refused to heat blood to kill off viruses, more on that later.

http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/oct252006/996a.pdf
Origin of hepatitis C virus
CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 91, NO. 8, 25 OCTOBER 2006
C. D. PODURI Department of Biotechnology/ Bioinformatics, Jaypee University of Information
Technology, Waknaghat, Dumehar Bani PO, Kandaghat 173 215, India

Jumping of viruses from one host to another is an explanation for emergence of
viruses previously not documented in the new host
. Of course, availability and development of advanced sensitive technologies aid in the discovery of the previously undiscovered viruses.
...
Additionally,
 the possibility of HCV being a bio-warfare agent cannot be ruled out completely.

http://www.janis7hepc.com/History%20of%20HepC.htm
Unfortunately, onset of acute HCV infection is rarely recognized; in 80% or more of instances, persons with chronic HCV infection do not recall ever having had an illness resembling acute hepatitis.
...
A Brief History of Hepatitis C

It is impossible to really know the origins of hepatitis C since there are no stored blood samples to test for the virus that are older than 50 years

1960-1970's

Scientists developed blood tests to identify hepatitis B (1963) and hepatitis A (1973), but many of the blood samples taken for post-transfusion illness tested negative for hepatitis A and hepatitis B.

Given that the mode of transmission (blood transfusion) was the same, scientists classified the unidentified cases as non-A, non-B hepatitis. It is now believed that approximately 90-95% of cases previously classified as non-A, non-B were actually hepatitis C.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Aflatoxin - Hepatitis B - Liver Cancer - Genetic Warfare - Eugenics
« Reply #11 on: July 03, 2009, 03:14:22 pm »
Scientist says Hepatitis C is 5 time more deadly then Hep B. And what is Hepatitis D?

http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2009/06/18/2003446487
Hepatitis C raises risk of liver cancer, expert warns

CAUTION: Michael Lai of the Academia Sinica said that risks are high given the lack of a vaccine for hepatitis C, with medication only effective in 50 percent of cases
By Meggie Lu STAFF REPORTER
Thursday, Jun 18, 2009, Page 2

Contrary to previous findings, people with hepatitis C are five times as likely to develop liver cancer as those with hepatitis B, a leading researcher said yesterday.

Speaking at the 12th Society of Chinese Bioscientists in America (SCBA) International Symposium, Michael Lai (賴明詔), vice president of Academia Sinica, said that combined with heavy drinking, the risk level rises to 10 times.

Lai made the statement during the presentation of his latest paper, "A journey through RNA viruses: From coronavirus to hepatitis C virus replication and pathogenesis."

Nicknamed “the father of coronavirus,” Lai yesterday also received the SCBA Lifetime Achievement Award, the highest SCBA honor.

Hepatitis is a common illness of the liver, which affects millions of people in Asia. While the prevalence of hepatitis C in Taiwan is 2 percent, it is higher for hepatitis B.

“There are hepatitis A, B, C, D and E; While hepatitis A and E are acute, B, C and D are chronic liver diseases,” said Lai, who is also the president of National Cheng Kung University.

In the past, up to 90 percent of the nation's liver cancer cases were caused by hepatitis B, but this has been reversed since the development of the hepatitis B vaccine, he said.

“In southern Taiwan, more than half of liver cancer cases are induced by hepatitis C,” Lai said.

“Because the disease does not yet have a vaccine and medication is also only effective in 50 percent of cases, it is very important that we work on developing a hepatitis C vaccine,” he said.

Lai added that the probability of hepatitis C patients getting liver cancer was much higher than those with hepatitis B.

“While the amount of time that the hepatitis C virus is found in the human body is usually shorter — because whereas most hepatitis B patients contract the virus in early childhood, many hepatitis C patients get the disease later in life — those with hepatitis C are five times as likely as their counterparts to develop liver cancer,” he said.

The risks of people with hepatitis C contracting liver cancer could rise another two-fold — or 10 times more than the risk level for people with hepatitis B — if they are heavy drinkers or consume a large amount of high-fat foods, Lai said.

Hepatitis C sufferers should therefore abstain from alcohol and engage in routine liver function checks every four months, he said.

“Many people in the south go to local pharmacies to receive 'nutrient injections,' an effort to give their livers supplements,” Lai said.

“However, this kind of behavior may only make their conditions worse,” he said.
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Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Aflatoxin - Hepatitis B - Liver Cancer - Genetic Warfare - Eugenics
« Reply #12 on: July 03, 2009, 11:07:12 pm »
More on Aflatoxin outbreaks:

http://www.reuters.com/article/domesticNews/idUSN166858320071016
Toxic mold aflatoxin found in Iowa and S.Dakota corn
Tue Oct 16, 2007 1:19pm EDT

CHICAGO (Reuters) - Farmers in northwestern Iowa and southeastern South Dakota have found aflatoxin, a mold that can cause cancer in humans if consumed in large amounts, in their recently harvested corn, said a researcher at Iowa State University and a county extension agent on Tuesday.

With several parts of the Midwest having gone through a scorching summer, more farmers in the Corn Belt may find aflatoxin, said Don White, professor of crop sciences at the University of Illinois.

"We've had the environment for it," he said. "I would think there are going to be scattered pockets."

Farmers in southeast Nebraska found a few loads of corn in three counties with aflatoxin in late September, with no new cases reported lately, said Tamra Jackson, plant pathologist at the University of Nebraska.

The extension office in Plymouth County, Iowa, has received 20 to 25 reports from farmers, with levels mostly between 20 and 100 parts per billion. The highest level found was 600 parts per billion, said Joel DeJong, extension field agronomist.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration limits aflatoxin for food or animal feed to 20 parts per billion. Countries importing U.S. corn often demand even lower limits.

In addition to Iowa, the nation's top corn producing state, aflatoxin has been found in neighboring Union County in South Dakota. Both areas suffered high temperatures and a drought this summer, which favor the development of the toxin.

Aflatoxin is a byproduct of a fungus that grows on corn, peanuts and other crops. Consuming aflatoxin in large amounts can cause liver cancer in humans or kill animals.

In 2005, the FDA found that 76 dogs died after eating Diamond Pet Food made at the company's Gaston, South Carolina, plant.

The Farmers Cooperative Co, which has three grain elevators in northwest Iowa, has rejected about 25 to 30 percent of the corn brought in for having more than 20 parts per billion of aflatoxin, said general manager Roger Price.

"The harvest is barely started here," he said. "The fact that it's on everyone's radar screen is very positive." The last time aflatoxin was found in the Iowa corn crop was in 2005, when it affected the southeast corner of the state. "It was probably more widespread in 2005 than it is this year," said Charles Hurburgh, professor of agriculture at Iowa State. The toxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus, thrives in hot days and nights with temperatures near 90 degrees Fahrenheit (32 degrees Celsius).

http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Liver+cancer+and+aflatoxin:+new+information+from+the+Kenyan+outbreak-a0140487297

Liver cancer and aflatoxin: new information from the Kenyan outbreak.


Chronic low-level exposure to aflatoxins, particularly aflatoxin [B.sub.1], is associated with increased risk of developing liver cancer, impaired immune function, and malnutrition. Acute high-level exposure, which is less common, causes early symptoms of diminished appetite, malaise, and low fever. Later symptoms, including vomiting, abdominal pain, and hepatitis, signal potentially fatal liver failure.

The Kenyan outbreak followed a poor harvest of maize that had been damaged and made susceptible to mold by drought. Furthermore, to guard against theft of the meager harvest, people stored the maize in their homes, which were warmer and moister than the granaries where it was usually stored. From January to June 2004, 317 people sought hospital treatment for symptoms of liver failure, and 125 died. Health officials ruled out viral liver diseases; suspecting acute aflatoxin poisoning, they examined maize samples and found aflatoxin [B.sub.1] concentrations as high as 4,400 parts per billion (ppb), 220 times the Kenyan limit for food.
...
Researchers conducted a case-control study using records for 40 patients (cases) who had been hospitalized with acute jaundice during late May and early June and 80 randomly selected controls. (Jaundice is a nonspecific symptom of liver damage.)
...
Maize from patients' homes contained significantly higher amounts of aflatoxin (with a geometric mean of 354.5 ppb) compared to control households (with a geometric mean of 44.1 ppb).
...
 Forty-four percent of the patients tested positive for hepatitis B, compared to 7% of controls.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Aflatoxin - Hepatitis B - Liver Cancer - Genetic Warfare - Eugenics
« Reply #13 on: July 03, 2009, 11:39:42 pm »
Article on long term exposure of moderate to low aflatoxin concentrations:

http://www.aflatoxin.info/health.asp
IMPORTANCE OF AFLATOXINS IN HUMAN AND LIVESTOCK HEALTH
Ananth S Bommakanti, and Farid Waliyar.
...
Chronic Toxicity 
This is due to long term exposure of moderate to low aflatoxin concentration.

The symptoms include decrease in growth rate, lowered milk or egg production, and immuno suppression. There is some observed carcinogenecity, mainly related to aflatoxin B1. Liver damage is apparent due to the yellow color that is characteristic of jaundice, and the gall bladder becomes swollen. Immuno-suppression is due to the reactivity of aflatoxins with T-cells, decrease in Vitamin K activities, and a decrease in phagocytic activity in macrophages. These immuno suppressive effects of aflatoxins predispose the animals to many secondary infections due to other fungi, bacteria and viruses. (Robens et al 1992, Mclean 1995)
 
Aflatoxin and Hepatitis 
Many experiments conducted in different areas especially in China and in the African countries, have shown high incidence of hepatitis B virus infection where dietary exposure to aflatoxins was prevalent. Subsequent research proved that both aflatoxins and hepatitis B virus act synergistically in the etiology of liver cancer (Montesano et al 1997, Groopman et al 1996.)
 ...

Aflatoxin and Human health 
Aflatoxicoses in humans was reported in many countries like India, China, Thailand, and several African countries. In African and Asian countries, where environmental condition favor the aflatoxin contamination, threat to human health from aflatoxins is quiet high. Studies on aflatoxin exposure and incidence of liver cancer by Groopmann and Wild(1994-2001) in places like China and West Africa showed that the situation was alarming. (Aspen cancer conference, 2001).

Studies relating to aflatoxin exposure of humans in India are not being done actively. However, this problem is present and may break loose at any time in near future, as incidence of aflatoxin contamination in foods and feeds is very common.
 
Aflatoxin and children 
Foetal and childhood environment, including the nutritional status of the pregnant mother and the infant, are considered critical for growth and risk of disease in earlier life. Mal-nourishment is one of the common problems in developing countries. Apart from these, they are also exposed to high levels of mycotoxins. Aflatoxins are the major among these. It has been proved that these aflatoxins are immunogenic, teratogenic, and they retard the growth among experimental animals.

In the developing countries like India and China, the environmental conditions favor their production. High exposure of these aflatoxins occurs through out these regions. A study in West Africa showed a significant correlation among the aflatoxin exposure and stunted growth in children who are exposed to aflatoxin right for neonatal stages ( Gong et al 2002). Apart from that due to the capacity of aflatoxins to cross the placental barrier, can cause genetic defects at foetal stages itself (Maxwell et al 1998 ).
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Aflatoxin - Hepatitis B - Liver Cancer - Genetic Warfare - Eugenics
« Reply #14 on: July 04, 2009, 12:01:02 am »

CIA statement that was given to presidential advisory committee on persian gulf war veterans' illnesses on 1 may 96 (excerpts regarding Aflatoxin)

http://www.fas.org/irp/gulf/cia/960702/74916_01.htm

070296_cia_74916_74916_01.txt

to facilitate electronic access, this document has been reformatted to eliminate information that does not pertain to gulf war illness issues or that is classified. a copy of this redacted document, in original format, is available on request.

the following text is the cia statement that was given to presidential advisory committee on persian gulf war veterans' illnesses on 1 may 96. it provides our interim response from ongoing analysis of information related to gulf war illnesses.
...
regarding unusual agents: we have looked at all the biological and chemical agents attributed to iraqis programs and have found none designed to cause the most common long-term symptoms exhibited by ill gulf war veterans.

however, we have an incomplete understanding of some iraqi agents.
we include with our submission a table of the biological agents declared by iraq, symptoms known to be caused by these agents, and possible iraqi intentions for use of these agents. as you will see, all of these agents were intended to cause rapid death or incapacitation--with the possible exception of aflatoxin.

the only documented effect of aflatoxin in humans is production of liver cancer months to years after it is ingested. effects of aerosolized aflatoxin are unknown.

unscom has iraqi statements and documents that indicate that alfatoxin was looked at for its long term carcinogenic effects  and that testing also showed that large concentrations of it caused death within days.

we have no information that would make us conclude that iraq used aflatoxin or that it was released in the atmosphere due to bombing.
...
aflatoxin is known to cause liver cancer but no acute pathogenic effects have yet been determined.
...
possible iraqi intent

iraq has admitted to researching, producing, and weaponizing aflatoxin in aerial bombs and missile warheads.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Aflatoxin - Hepatitis B - Liver Cancer - Genetic Warfare - Eugenics
« Reply #15 on: July 05, 2009, 01:44:29 pm »
Interferon makes you suicidal:

http://www.apha.org/NR/rdonlyres/49CD5CEC-BB19-4049-A59C-64AB0B929223/0/4183APHABestPracAdhComorb.pdf

Substance Abuse -HIV HVC -Psychiatric Disorders
S. A. Stewart, Ph.D. A.R.N.P. A. A. Jani, M.D., M.P.H.

Treatment for HVC
1.alpha interferon or pegylatedinterferon
2.ribavirin
Treatment with interferon is strongly associated with severe depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts.
...
Treatment for HCV is associated with severe depression

http://bioinfo.bact.wisc.edu/themicrobialworld/Hepatitis.html

Viral Hepatitis

Table: Summary of the Five Types of Viral Hepatitis
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hepatitis A is caused by Hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A can affect anyone. In the U.S., hepatitis A occurs in situations ranging from isolated cases of disease to widespread epidemics.

Good personal hygiene and proper sanitation can help prevent hepatitis A. Vaccines are also available for long-term prevention of hepatitis A virus infection in persons 12 months of age and older. Immune globulin is available for short-term prevention of hepatitis A virus infection in individuals of all ages.

Hepatitis B is a serious disease caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hepatitis B can cause lifelong infection and serious damage to the liver resulting in cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. Hepatitis B vaccine is available for all age groups to prevent hepatitis B virus infection.
 
Hepatitis C is caused by Hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is found in the blood of persons who have the disease. HCV is spread by contact with the blood of an infected person.

Hepatitis D is caused by Hepatitis D virus (HDV), a defective virus that needs the Hepatitis B virus to exist. HDV is found in the blood of persons infected with the virus.

Hepatitis E, caused by the Hepatitis E virus (HEV),  is transmitted in much the same way as Hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis E, however, does not occur often in the United States.
 ...

HCV disease is another type of serum hepatitis inasmuch as, like HBV, it is transmitted by blood and blood products. In fact, persons at risk for HVC hepatitis might be at risk for infection by HBV (as well as HIV). Transmission occurs when blood from an infected person enters the body of a person who is not infected. HCV is spread through sharing needles when shooting drugs, through needle sticks or sharps exposures on the job, or from an infected mother to her baby during birth. HCV can be spread by sex, but this is rare. Most infections are due to illegal injection drug use. HCV infection is the leading indication for liver transplant.

An estimated 3.9 million (1.8%) Americans have been infected with HCV, of whom 2.7 million are chronically infected. Chronic infection occurs in 55-85% of the infected persons. Chronic liver disease occurs in 70% of chronically-infected persons and accounts for a 1-5% mortality rate among infected persons.

HCV-positive persons should be evaluated for liver disease. Interferon and ribavirin are two drugs licensed for treatment of persons with chronic hepatitis C. Interferon can be taken alone or in combination with ribavirin. Combination therapy using pegylated interferon and ribaviran is currently the treatment of choice. Combination therapy can eliminate the virus in 50% of persons infected with HCV genotype 1, and up to 80% of individuals infected with HCV genotypes 2 and 3.

There is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C.

Let be sure to spread this around:

http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/foodestablishments/pdf/HepC.pdf

SUBJECT: FOOD EMPLOYEE INFECTED WITH HEPATITIS C VIRUS
Applicable Texas Food Establishment Rules (TFER) Sections:
Section 229.163(d) Disease or Medical Condition
Question: Can a food employee cook food if he/she is infected with the hepatitis C virus?

Response:
The TFER requires exclusion of a food employee if the food employee is diagnosed with any of four specific infectious agents: Salmonella typhi, Shigella spp., Escherichea coli 0157:H7 or other enterohemmorhagic E. coli, and hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis C virus is not included because the disease is not normally transmitted through food. There is no requirement that prevents a food employee from working if he/she is infected with the hepatitis C virus.

Support:
The pathogens that are specified in the food employee exclusion requirement, Salmonella typhi, Shigella spp., Escherichea coli 0157:H7 or other enterohemmorhagic E. coli, and the hepatitis A virus, can all be spread by the fecal-oral route of transmission. An infected food employee can transmit these pathogens to consumers through the contamination of food or food utensils.

Although hepatitis A virus is well-documented as a foodborne disease, hepatitis C virus is not included in the list of exclusion pathogens. Hepatitis C virus is a bloodborne pathogen and is primarily transmitted by injection.

The National Disease Center for Infectious Diseases states in the "Viral Hepatitis A - Fact Sheet" that the virus' mode of transmission is fecal-oral and it is spread in food or waterborne outbreaks. The document also specifies good hygiene and sanitation as means of prevention. Both of these practices are critical in food establishments and are targeted as a means to prevent foodborne illness.

Hepatitis D is a strange one too:

http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/delta/2005/

Hepatitis D Virus

Introduction
History
In 1977, an Italian doctor named Mario Rizzetto discovered a new nuclear antigen in the liver cells of patients infected with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). The antigen was thought to be a new protein encoded by HBV, and it was labeled as the delta antigen. Subsequent research on chimpanzees, however, indicated that this antigen was derived from a new virus, named the Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV).

Classification
HDV is the only virus in the genus, Deltaviridae. HDV is not classified into a viral family because it is a unique virus dependent on HBV. HDV is a co-infection of HBV. The envelope of HDV particles contains the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The production and transmission of HDV is entirely dependent on HBV to provide HBsAg. Thus, HDV is considered a satellite virus of HBV. Unlike a classical satellite virus, however, HDV does not share sequence similarity with HBV, and it can replicate independently of HBV.

There are at least three HDV genotypes: I, II, and III. HDV isolates of Genotype I have been reported in every part of the world, and the pathogenesis of Genotype I infections varies from fulminant hepatitis to asymptomatic chronic liver disease. The milder HDV II genotype is found primarily in Asia, including Japan, Taiwan, and Russia. Some sequences from Taiwan and the Okinawa islands have been assigned to a subtype of Genotype II, called Genotype IIB. HDV genotype III has been isolated only in northern South America (Peru, Venezuela, and Columbia) and is associated with severe acute hepatitis. Furthermore, HDV genotype I is the only genotype found in some locations, including Europe and North America. Multiple genotypes have been detected in Africa and in Asia.

Mixed infections of genotypes I and II or II and IIb have been reported in Taiwan. Furthermore, 15 of 22 recently characterized African sequences formed new lineages and the other 7 are scattered within genotype I. Therefore, recent work has indicated that the current classification of HDV into only three genotypes is incomplete.

Outcomes
The outcome of disease depends on whether HDV is contracted as a co-infection or a superinfection.

Co-infection: Co-infection occurs when both HDV and HBV are contracted simultaneously. This results in acute HDV and HBV infection. Depending on the relative amounts of HBV and HDV, one or two episodes of hepatitis occurs. Co-infections of HDV and HBV are usually acute and self-limiting infections. HBV/HDV co-infections cause chronic HDV infections in less than 5% of co-infected patients. Although clinical symptoms disappear, fatigue and lethargy may persist for weeks or months.

Superinfection: Superinfection occurs when chronic HBV carriers are infected with HDV. This leads to severe acute hepatitis and chronic Hepatitis D infection in 80% of the cases. Superinfection is associated with the fulminant form of viral hepatitis. Fulminant viral hepatitis, the most severe form of acute disease, is about ten times more common in HDV infections than in the other types. It is characterized by hepatic encephalopathy that is manifested by changes in personality, disturbances in sleep, confusion, difficulty concentrating, and sometimes abnormal behavior and coma. The mortality rate of fulminant hepatitis is about 80%. Chronic hepatitis D infection progresses to liver cirrhosis in about 60-70% of patients. Cirrhosis takes about 5-10 years to develop, but can appear two years after the onset of infection. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurs in chronically infected HDV patients with the same frequency as in patients with ordinary HBV. Overall, the mortality rate for HDV infections lies between 2% and 20%, values ten times greater than the mortality rates for HBV.



Epidemiology

Hepatitis Delta Virus infections are found worldwide, but the prevalence varies in different geographical areas. Anti-HDV antibodies are found in 20-40% of HBsAg carriers in Africa, the Middle East, and Southern Italy. HDV infection in the United States is relatively uncommon, except in drug addicts and hemophiliacs, who exhibit prevalence rates of 1-10%. Homosexual men and health care workers are at high risk for contracting HBV, but are surprisingly at low risk for HDV infection for unclear reasons. Additionally, HDV infection is uncommon in the large population of HBsAG carriers in Southeast Asia and China. Additional high-risk groups for contracting HDV include hemodialysis patients, sex contacts of infected individuals, and infants born to infected mothers (rare). Worldwide, over 10 million people are infected with HDV.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Aflatoxin - Hepatitis B - Liver Cancer - Genetic Warfare - Eugenics
« Reply #16 on: July 05, 2009, 02:06:55 pm »
Have you ever heard of Typhoid Mary?

Here is a Hepatitis C - Typhoid Mary:

infectious silent chronic HCV carriers
Note that this woman had no reason to have HCV, yet had it. The HCV infection she had put off NO anti-bodies that could be used to screen her blood. She donates blood and the recipents come down with HCV.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10919211

Discovery of a chronic HVC infection without seroconversion in a blood donor in France during 28 months

ETS Bretagne, Rennes, France.

The HCV-RNA screening technique developed by the French Fractionation and Biotechnology Laboratory singled out in March 1998 a case of positive HCV-RNA viremia in a blood donor without any anti-HCV antibody.

That donor was a 46-year-old woman who had made 54 donations of blood products from 1988 to 1997. She had no history of blood transfusion, no history of hepatitis and no life-style risk factor.

Clinical examination was normal. Liver tests (serum alanine amino transferases, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase , alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin , prothrombin and albumin) were normal. Total blood count was normal. Lymphocyte count was normal as well as in vitro functional analysis of lymphocytes (stimulation with different antigens).

All screening HCV Elisa tests and immunoblot System available on the French market were unable to detect anti-HCV antibodies. Quantification of serum HCV-RNA (Amplicor Monitor Roche) showed 294,000 copies/mL and HCV genotype 1b determination was performed using Innolipa assay.

Further examination of the HCV genotype by direct sequencing of the PCR product showed a classical 1b genotype sequence. The hemovigilance inquiry identified 25 labile products distributed since 1988.

Analyzing the records of the recipients that have so far been traced and identified revealed three periods: 1997 to 1995: three recipients were found to be positive for anti-HCV antibodies; two are now cured of hepatitis C. In one recipient, direct sequencing after specific PCR of the hypervariable region coding for the envelope domain showed 100% homology with the donor;

1993 to 1990: four recipients were identified and traced without contamination; in 1988: three of four blood product recipients were anti-HCV negative without HCV-RNA viremia. The forth carried anti-HCV antibodies and genotype 1b HCV-RNA but had a history of multiple surgery. Alter et al. [4] and Bush et al. [5] have previously suggested the possibility of a chronic, immunologically silent state of infection.

The case described herein, is the first evidence for this hypothesis. Indeed, the donor has not yet seroconverted 28 months after viremia was discovered. This blood donor was identified by HCV-RNA screening of plasma products. The identification of the same sequence in a recipient of blood from this donor clearly establishes the transmission of the virus by transfusion.

The prevalence of such cases of infectious silent chronic HCV carriers has to be determined and the mechanisms responsible for the absence of antibody production need to be clarified.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Aflatoxin - Hepatitis B - Liver Cancer - Genetic Warfare - Eugenics
« Reply #17 on: July 05, 2009, 06:34:02 pm »
And gee whiz Rockefeller U. and the  Gates Foundation is heavy into HCV research creating NEW strains of HCV:

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/25886.php
Researchers create infectious hepatitis C virus in a test tube
Article Date: 10 Jun 2005 - 0:00 PDT

A team of researchers led by scientists at The Rockefeller University has produced for the first time an infectious form of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in laboratory cultures of human cells. The finding, reported in the June 9 issue of Science Express, will allow scientists to study every stage of the HCV life cycle and develop drugs to treat this life-threatening disease that affects more than 170 million people around the world.
...

Lindenbach's and Rice's co-authors are Matthew J. Evans, Andrew J. Syder, Benno W? Timothy L. Tellinghuisen and Jane A. McKeating at Rockefeller; Christopher C. Liu and Richard O. Hynes at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Cancer Research, MIT; and Toshiaki Maruyama and Dennis R. Burton at The Scripps Research Institute.

This research was supported by the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, both part of the federal government's National Institutes of Health. Additonal support was provided by the Charles H. Revson Foundation (to Evans) and the German Science Foundation (to W?. Lindenbach is a recipient of the Howard Temin Award of the National Cancer Institute.

 http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/index.php?page=engine&id=491
Posted: March 27, 2006
  
Researchers show laboratory hepatitis C strain is also infectious in animal models

An important step in developing a treatment for viral diseases is for scientists to culture live viruses from infected patients, but the hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major cause of chronic and sometimes fatal liver disease, has proven to be particularly wily.

For many years scientists have struggled with an inability to efficiently culture HCV in the laboratory.

 Now, researchers at Rockefeller University have overcome several obstacles and successfully shown that a strain of HCV they created in the laboratory, which can efficiently be cultured in vitro, is also infectious in animals. The findings, reported in the March 7 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, will enable scientists to study the life cycle of HCV at the molecular level and develop better treatments for this disease.
 
The researchers, led by Brett Lindenbach at Rockefeller and Philip Meuleman at Ghent University in Belgium, used a cell-culture version of HCV, developed by Lindenbach and colleagues at Rockefeller, called HCVcc. HCVcc, which was the first infectious cell-culture version of hepatitis C, was used to infect two chimpanzees as well as mice bearing human liver grafts. The researchers found that in both the chimpanzees and the mice, hepatitis C infection lasted for as long as 15 weeks. Also, the infections raised in the mice could be passed to other mice. Samples of the test tube-cultured strain could be recovered from infected animals and was easily recultured in vitro, unlike most other strains of HCV isolated from infected animals or people.

“The ability to study a genetically defined virus in the test tube and in living animals allows us to completely dissect the HCV life cycle,” says senior author Charles Rice, Maurice R. and Corinne P. Greenberg Professor and head of the Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease at Rockefeller.
...

http://www.rockefeller.edu/research/abstract.php?id=143
Heads of Laboratories
Charles M. Rice, Ph.D.
Maurice R. and Corinne P. Greenberg Professor
Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease
E-mail: [email protected]ler.edu
...
A major roadblock in HCV antiviral development and vaccine research is establishing a small animal model where HCV replication, immunogenicity and pathogenesis can be studied. The Rice lab is working with an international consortium, funded by a Gates Foundation Grand Challenges grant, on methods to implant human liver cells and immune cells in mice. Success in creating such an animal model for HCV will have broad implications for developing vaccines for HIV, malaria and other uniquely human pathogens
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Aflatoxin - Hepatitis B - Liver Cancer - Genetic Warfare - Eugenics
« Reply #18 on: July 05, 2009, 09:12:11 pm »
Now your going to love this one:
Quote
found aflatoxin B1 in four of 13 caches of heroin that they analysed

http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg12316790.800-hiv-threat-lurks-in-heroin-fungus.html

HIV threat lurks in heroin fungus
26 August 1989

FUNGAL toxins that contaminate heroin may weaken the immune systems of heroin addicts, making them abnormally susceptible to the effects of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, and the hepatitis B virus. The researchers say that 'a hitherto unsuspected group of people are exposed to aflatoxins', and recommend further studies.

The warning appears in a report in the British Medical Journal (19 August, p 492) by Ralph Hendrickse and his colleagues at the Department of Tropical Paediatrics and International Child Health at the School of Tropical Medicine in Liverpool. They note that in Africa, where the fungal toxins are especially common in food, AIDS and hepatitis B are widespread. The toxins, called aflatoxins, are produced by a fungus, Aspergillus flavus, which thrives on stored grain and nuts.

Aflatoxin B1, the most toxic compound, is known to suppress the body's immune system and is linked with the onset of liver cancer. 'Heroin is produced in subtropical countries from plants and may be susceptible to contamination by aflatoxins,' say the researchers. They found aflatoxin B1 in four of 13 caches of heroin that they analysed, and in 9 samples of urine taken anonymously from 133 heroin addicts in London, Amsterdam and Liverpool.

In total, 27 of the urine specimens contained various aflatoxins. The researchers point out that people who eat food contaminated with the toxins destroy the compounds in the liver, but that this line of defence is bypassed if people inject the toxins directly into blood.


More on aflatoxin research being conducted :

http://www.globalenvision.org/library/6/1822
Purging Malawi's Peanuts of Deadly Aflatoxin

December 14, 2007

A toxic fungus growing on groundnuts is making trade difficult for some Sub-Saharan African countries and causing severe health problems for local communities.
...
The problem, according to Rodomiro Oritz, from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre, is that monitoring for toxins and enforcement of standards are rarely effective in the developing world, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Cost to Health

In developing countries such as Malawi, the best-quality foods tend to be exported, whereas poor-quality food — often contaminated with aflatoxins — is kept for local consumption.

Children exposed to aflatoxins can suffer from restricted growth and from immune suppression, making them more susceptible to HIV and malaria. Aflatoxins are also strongly associated with the development of liver cancer.

According to Charles Dzamalala, a pathologist at the University of Malawi, acute aflatoxicosis is widespread in developing countries.

The syndrome can be fatal and is characterized by vomiting, abdominal pain, pulmonary oedema, convulsions and coma, and damage to the liver, kidneys and heart.

"Conditions increasing the likelihood of acute aflatoxicosis in humans include limited availability of food, environmental conditions that favour fungal development in crops and commodities, and lack of regulatory systems for aflatoxin monitoring and control," he said.

In 2004 in Kenya, 300 people became ill after consuming aflatoxins, leading to the deaths of 125 people.


https://www.soph.uab.edu/index.php?q=epi/directory&facname=3282

Pauline Jolly PhD, MPH

Dr. Jolly received a Ph.D. in science education from Louisiana State University (1980) and a M.P.H. (1984) and Ph.D. (1989) in Immunology and Infectious Diseases from Johns Hopkins University.

Her laboratory research focuses on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of lentiviruses, especially of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), specifically in the area of immune responses to infection. Dr. Jolly also conducts research on the suppression of the immune system by aflatoxin and its effects on HIV disease progress in Ghana.

Research Projects

Aflatoxin Ingestion and Health Effects in Ghana (Jolly, PI)
This project is funded by the United States Agency for International Development. The study is designed: (1) to determine aflatoxin B1 albumin adduct levels in blood and aflatoxin M1 levels in urine of study participants; (2) identify sociodemographic factors, food handling and consumption practices that determine high aflatoxin levels in participants; (3) examine the association between aflatoxin levels, cellular immune status, liver function and hepatitis B, hepatitis C, malaria and HIV infections; and (4) examine the association between aflatoxin and micronutrient levels (vitamin A and E, iron) in participants. These data will direct the design of appropriate interventions to reduce aflatoxin levels in people in the study area.

http://invictusmedia.net/inas/Aflatoxin%20and%20HIV-KCCR%20Presentation.ppt
Aflatoxin  consumption, Health Effects and HIV: a preliminary report of the St. Markus Hospital and five regions of Ghana August 9, 2004

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO),
the permitted level in food products of aflatoxin is zero parts per billion (0 ppb) for children, 20 ppb for adults and 55 ppb for animals.
Some  West African studies show populations consuming 100 ppb per day since they were born.

Aflatoxin is also indirectly absorbed by children through maternal milk. As a result, children’s immune systems are affected.  Found in contaminated cereals which are fed to growing children, have been found to cause growth stunting in children. ( Benin & Togo studies)

Combines with HBV to cause increased harm to the liver.
     A recent study done in Sudan, a clear dose response relationship was found between increased peanut butter consumption and increasing incidence of hepatocellulararcinoma in individuals without HBV infection ( Omer, RE. et al., 2004)

Omer found that of the cases demonstrated in  the study, 27-60% of all cases can be attributed to Aflatoxin exposure and 49-52% to HBV infection.

HIV- Ashanti Region Background

HIV prevalence in Ashanti Region estimated at 5 %.
St. Markus sees a total of 350 patients
68 of those patients are on ARV therapy.

Interactive effects of HIV and Aflatoxin are yet to be thoroughly documented.

Aflatoxin suppresses the immune system which in addition to HIV further exposes the body to opportunistic infections.

Likelihood of liver cancer is increased with increased regular intake of Aflatoxin and Hepatitis B.
 
Exacerbates the current effects of HIV and can be argued that it  leads to a faster progression to AIDS decreased quality of life of those infected
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Aflatoxin - Hepatitis B - Liver Cancer - Genetic Warfare - Eugenics
« Reply #19 on: July 13, 2009, 03:19:05 pm »
There has got to be something to this.
They are adament to give HBV vaccine to infants within 24 hours of birth.

http://www.who.int/immunization/GIN_January2009.pdf

HEPATITIS B IMMUNIZATION
30/01/2009 from Steven Wiersma, WHO/HQ:
Newborn hepatitis B immunization is a critical strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis B but must be implemented more fully according to new analyses published in the World
Epidemiological Record (WER) 28 November 2008, vol. 83, 48 (pp 429–440)

(http://www.who.int/wer/2008/wer8348/en/index.html) and Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)
November 21, 2008 / 57(46);1249-1252 (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5746a1.htm).

Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are a major cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer and are estimated to cause 620,000 deaths annually. Infants who become HBV-infected have a 90% risk of developing chronic HBV infection and when chronically infected, have a 25% risk of dying due to HBV infection. Hepatitis B vaccine administered to newborns within 24 hours of birth is up to 95% effective in preventing mother-to-infant HBV transmission.

Newborn hepatitis B vaccination also provides early pre-exposure protection to infants born to uninfected women during the first year of life when risk for developing chronic HBV infection is greatest.

[ this has got to be the biggest pile I've heard. ][/b] 

 In 2006, only 27% of infants born worldwide and 36% of infants born in countries with high prevalence (B8% prevalence) of chronic HBV infection received hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Aflatoxin - Hepatitis B - Liver Cancer - Genetic Warfare - Eugenics
« Reply #20 on: December 04, 2012, 12:40:22 pm »
bump- This article got "lost"

http://nationalhepatitiscinstitute.org/Data/Transmission/ISGContamination.htm
Baxter Agrees to Settle Hepatitis C Claims Related to Use of Immune Globulin

WESTPORT, Dec 22 2000 (Reuters Health) - Baxter Healthcare has agreed to the terms of a proposed class action settlement brought by individuals who contracted or were exposed to hepatitis C virus through use of Baxter's immune globulin therapy, Gammagard, between January 1, 1993 and February 24, 1994.

Financial terms of the settlement were not disclosed by Baxter or the plaintiffs' class counsel.  However, the Deerfield, Illinois medical products firm said that members of the class would receive financial compensation.

Baxter voluntarily withdrew the immune-boosting product from the market in February 1994 after receiving reports from more than 200 patients who claimed that they were infected with hepatitis C virus after using Gammagard.

In the November 1996 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, Dr. Joseph S. Bresee of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and colleagues reported on a study of nearly 300 patients who received immune globulin between March 1993 and February 1994.  As reported by Reuters Health, the researchers found that 11% of the patients who received Gammagard had contracted hepatitis C virus compared with none who received other products exclusively.

In may 1994 Baxter launched Gammagard S/D, whose manufacture includes an additional processing step that inactivates viruses such as hepatitis C.  There have been no reports of hepatitis C virus associated with Gammagard S/D, according to the company.

According to terms of the proposed settlement, patients who received Gammagard during the class action period could receive free test to determine whether they  have contracted hepatitis C virus.  Those who are infected with the virus are eligible to receive payments based on progression of the illness.  Those who did not contract the virus are also eligible for payment, according to Baxter.

John Evans of Specter, Specter, Evans & Manogue, the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania-based lead counsel for the plaintiff class, said that the settlement "...was designed with individual patients' needs in mind, providing financial relief based on specific medical symptoms of hepatitis C they may exhibit today or in the future."

Baxter noted that the estimated cost of the settlement will be covered by previously established financial reserves.  The settlement must receive approval from the judge overseeing the class action

Immune Globulin IVIG

Immune Globulin intravenous IVIG is a protein found in the plasma component of blood.  Plasma is collected and pooled by domestic fractionators such as Bayer Corporation, Baxter Corporation and American Red Cross.  Igiv is prepared as a sterile solution, contains no preservatives and is treated to prevent transmitting viruses.  The U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulates its preparation, distribution and use.

Immune globulin is used to treat primary immunodeficiency's. It is especially useful when high levels or elevation of circulating antibodies are desired.  Immune globulin comes in sterile solution or lyophilized powder and is administered intravenously.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Aflatoxin - Hepatitis B - Liver Cancer - Genetic Warfare - Eugenics
« Reply #21 on: December 17, 2012, 03:43:15 pm »
Douglas Dietrich - Battle of LA WWII - Yellow Fever Vaccine - Hep-B origins

http://www.livescience.com/20618-ancient-mummy-child-hepatitis.html
Ancient Mummy Child Had Hepatitis B
LiveScience Staff
Date: 29 May 2012

A mummified child in Korea whose organs were relatively well preserved has produced the oldest full viral genome description. A liver biopsy of the mummy revealed a unique hepatitis B virus (HBV) known as a genotype C2 sequence, which is said to be common in Southeast Asia.
 
The first discovery of hepatitis in a Korean mummy came in 2007. The new work provided more detailed analysis.
 
The research, announced today, was detailed in the May 21 edition of the scientific journal Hepatology.
 
Carbon 14 tests of the clothing of the mummy suggests that the boy lived around the 16th century during the Korean Joseon Dynasty. The viral DNA sequences recovered from the liver biopsy enabled the scientists to map the entire ancient hepatitis B viral genome.
 
Using modern-day molecular genetic techniques, the researchers compared the ancient DNA sequences with contemporary viral genomes disclosing distinct differences. The changes in the genetic code are believed to result from spontaneous mutations and possibly environmental pressures during the virus evolutionary process. Based on the observed mutations rates over time, the analysis suggests that the reconstructed mummy's hepatitis B virus DNA had its origin between 3,000 to 100,000 years ago.
 
Additional analysis of the ancient HBV genomes may be used as a model to study the evolution of chronic hepatitis B and help understand the spread of the virus, possibly from Africa to East-Asia. It also may shed further light on the migratory pathway of hepatitis B in the Far East from China and Japan to Korea as well as to other regions in Asia and Australia where it is a major cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer.
 
The study was done by researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Seoul National University and other institutions.
 
The hepatitis B virus is transmitted through the contact with infected body fluids, including from mothers to their babies, through sexual contact and intravenous drug abuse. There are over 400 million carriers of the virus worldwide, predominantly in Africa, China and South Korea, where up to 15 percent of the population are cariers of the virus, according to the World Health Organization.
 
In recent years, universal immunization of newborns against hepatitis B in Israel and in South Korea has lead to a massive decline in the incidence of infection.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5