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***THE MAIN BOARDS - Welcome to the Prison Planet Educational Forum and Library*** => PhD Investigative Reports (only for the hardcore) => Topic started by: TahoeBlue on July 29, 2011, 03:04:26 pm

Title: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on July 29, 2011, 03:04:26 pm
http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/182689/20110719/human-neanderthal-genome-project-neanderthals-human-evolution-ice-age-archaic-lineages-neandertal-ad.htm
Non-Africans Carry Neanderthal DNA

By IB Times Staff Reporter | July 19, 2011 2:06 AM EDT

How are we able to survive in harsh and cold regions? The answer lies in our genes, which may have come from Neanderthals.

People outside Africa are found to be carrying some of the human X chromosomes originating from Neanderthals, according to a latest study.

The study confirmed a long-held belief that our human ancestors came into contact with Neanderthals. The question on everyone's mind has always been whether the physically stronger Neanderthals, who possessed the gene for language and may have played the flute, were a separate species or could have interbred with modern humans. The answer is yes and the two lived in close association.

An analysis of more than 6,000 X-chromosomes from all inhabited continents supports earlier contention that a mosaic of lineages of different time depths and different geographic provenance could have contributed to the genetic constitution of modern humans.
...

This confirms recent findings suggesting that the two populations interbred," says Damian Labuda of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Montreal and the CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center.

Neanderthals, whose ancestors left Africa about 400,000 to 800,000 years ago, were evolved in what is now mainly France, Spain, Germany and Russia, and are thought to have lived until about 30,000 years ago.

Meanwhile, early modern humans left Africa about 80,000 to 50,000 years ago.

"In addition, because our methods were totally independent of Neanderthal material, we can also conclude that previous results were not influenced by contaminating artifacts," Labuda said


http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1987568,00.html
Study: Neanderthal DNA Lives On in Modern Humans

By Jennifer Pinkowski Thursday, May 06, 2010

Correction Appended: May 8, 2010

A decade after scientists first cracked the human genome, researchers announced in the May 7 issue of Science that they have done the same for Neanderthals, the species of hominid that existed from roughly 400,000 to 30,000 years ago, when their closest relatives, early modern humans, may have driven them to extinction.

Led by ancient-DNA expert Svante Pääbo of Germany's Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, scientists reconstructed about 60% of the Neanderthal genome by analyzing tiny chains of ancient DNA extracted from bone fragments of three female Neanderthals excavated in the late 1970s and early '80s from a cave in Croatia. The bones are 38,000 to 44,000 years old.

...

The gene flow of Neanderthal DNA into early human DNA was found in only one direction: from Neanderthals to us. The study found no early modern human DNA in the Neanderthal genome. It is not clear whether interbreeding happened a few times among small populations or frequently among large populations; the genetic remnants would look the same with current technology. The Neanderthal DNA appears in the modern human genomes randomly, suggesting it offers no evolutionary benefit and is merely a genetic relic.

...

The fact that they found it across the board says that the evidence must be very widespread across modern humans," says Erik Trinkaus, an anthropologist at Washington University in St. Louis, Mo., who has long argued that the human fossils he has studied in France, Romania, the Czech Republic and other places show mixed ancestry. "If you can find evidence [of Neanderthals] after 30,000 years of [human] genetic shifting, then it must have been pretty important or prominent then." Trinkaus speculates that the genetic flow between Neanderthals and early modern humans might have been as high as 10% to 20%
...Whatever our mixing, it is human uniqueness that has also been revealed by the sequencing. By comparing the Neanderthal genome with those of modern humans, the team identified a small number of genetic changes that were newly evolved in modern humans. Some of the changes may have arisen as a result of genetic drift, but others seem to have been positively selected for — meaning they swept through populations rapidly, possibly because they gave us some advantage.

The genes in which some of the changes occurred play a role in cognitive and physical development — such as cranial features, skin pigmentation and how we metabolize energy. The study's authors don't yet know what the specific changes signify, but in living people, mutations in some of the genes related to cognitive development contribute to conditions such as Down syndrome, schizophrenia and autism.
...
Title: Re: Some people are Neanderthal's - DNA
Post by: TahoeBlue on July 29, 2011, 03:20:08 pm
Even the Smithsonian Institute is getting in on the action: [ Are you a red head? ]

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/genetics/ancient-dna-and-neanderthals
Ancient DNA and Neanderthals

(http://humanorigins.si.edu/sites/default/files/images/landscape/6.6.2-10_map_KC_Neanderthal_l.jpg)
...
Further mtDNA sequences confirmed sequence differences between Neanderthals and modern humans. Researchers compared Neanderthal mtDNA to that of modern humans from different geographic regions. If Neanderthals had interbred with modern humans in Europe, then researchers would have expected to find more similarities between Neanderthals and Europeans than between Neanderthals and other modern humans. However, Neanderthals were equidistant from modern human groups, which is consistent with genetic separation between modern humans and Neanderthals. However, this does not explicitly disprove admixture because interregional gene flow between modern humans could have swamped the Neanderthal contribution to Europeans (Relethford 2001).

Researchers have also studied ancient DNA from anatomically modern Homo sapiens from Europe dating to the same time period as the Neanderthals. Material from two Paglicci Cave, Italy individuals, dated to 23,000 and 25,000 years old, was sequenced. The Paglicci Homo sapiens mtDNA sequences were different from all Neanderthal mtDNA sequences but were within the range of variation for modern human mtDNA sequences (Caramelli et al. 2003). Mitochondrial DNA from the Paglicci specimens as well as other ancient humans fit within the range of modern humans, but the Neanderthals remain consistently genetically distinct. This shows that early anatomically modern Homo sapiens were not very different genetically from current modern humans, but were still different from Neanderthals. Though this evidence does not disprove the idea of Neanderthal and modern human admixture, it shows that moderns and Neanderthals did not have more genetic similarities during the Pleistocene that were subsequently lost. If interbreeding did occur, Neanderthal mtDNA sequences could have been lost due to genetic drift.
...
One Million Base Pairs of the Neanderthal Sequence

Svante Pääbo’s team from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany announced the sequencing of one million base pairs of nuclear DNA of a Neanderthal specimen in 2006 (Green et al. 2006). After a long search for specimens with a sufficient amount of undamaged DNA to sequence and for the ones with the least evidence of contamination, they focused on Vindija 80, a Neanderthal discovered in Croatia in 1980 that is approximately 38,000 years old.

They estimated that 7.9% of the changes in human DNA compared with that of the chimpanzee occurred after the split with Neanderthals. They dated the split between the ancestors of modern humans and Neanderthals to 465,000 to 569,000 years ago. They also found that the effective population size of the Neanderthals was small. Their success in sequencing this amount of DNA indicated that a large-scale project to sequence the Neanderthal genome is possible.
...
Red-Headed Neanderthals

Ancient DNA has been used to show aspects of Neanderthal appearance. A fragment of the gene for the melanocortin 1 receptor (MRC1) was sequenced using DNA from two Neanderthal specimens from Spain and Italy, El Sidrón 1252 and Monte Lessini (Lalueza-Fox et al. 2007). Neanderthals had a mutation in this receptor gene that has not been found in modern humans. The mutation changes an amino acid, making the resulting protein less efficient. Modern humans have other MCR1 variants that are also less active resulting in red hair and pale skin.

The less active Neanderthal mutation probably also resulted in red hair and pale skin, as in modern humans.

The specific MCR1 mutation in Neanderthals has not found in modern humans (or occurs extremely rarely in modern humans). This indicates that the two mutations for red hair and pale skin occurred independently and does not support the idea of gene flow between Neanderthals and modern humans. Pale skin may have been advantageous to Neanderthals living in Europe because of the ability to synthesize vitamin D.
Title: Re: Some people are Neanderthal's - DNA
Post by: TahoeBlue on July 29, 2011, 03:33:34 pm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal
...

Neanderthal cranial capacity is thought to have been as large as that of a Homo sapiens, perhaps larger, indicating their brain size may have been comparable, as well.

In 2008, a group of scientists created a study using three-dimensional computer-assisted reconstructions of Neanderthal infants based on fossils found in Russia and Syria, showing that they had brains as large as modern humans' at birth and larger than modern humans' as adults.[8] O

On average, the height of Neanderthals was comparable to contemporaneous Homo sapiens. Neanderthal males stood about 165–168 cm (65–66 in), and were heavily built with robust bone structure. They were much stronger than Homo sapiens, having particularly strong arms and hands.[9] Females stood about 152–156 cm (60–61 in) tall.[10]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cro-Magnon
The Cro-Magnon ( /kroʊˈmæɡnən/; French [kʁomaɲɔ̃]) were the first early modern humans (early Homo sapiens sapiens) of the European Upper Paleolithic. The earliest known remains of Cro-Magnon-like humans are radiometrically dated to 35,000 years before present.

Cro-Magnons were robustly built and powerful. The body was generally heavy and solid with a strong musculature. The forehead was straight, with slight browridges and a tall forehead.[1]

Cro-Magnons were the first humans (genus Homo) to have a prominent chin.

The brain capacity was about 1,600 cc (100 cubic inches), larger than the average for modern humans.[2]

The Cro-Magnons were long limbed and adult males would often reach 6 feet 3 inches (190 cm).[
...
The term "Cro-Magnon" soon came to be used in a general sense to describe the oldest modern people in Europe
...
Current scientific literature prefers the term "European Early Modern Humans" (or EEMH), instead of "Cro-Magnon". The oldest definitely dated EEMH specimen[6] with a modern and archaic (possibly Neanderthal) mosaic of traits is the Cro-Magnon Oase 1 find,[7] which has been dated back to around 45,000 calendar years before present.
...
Several works on genetics, blood types and cranial morphology indicate that the Basque people may be part descendents of the original Cro-Magnon population.[26]

A 2006 study of Basque DNA has shown a 1% incidence of mtDNA haplogroup U8a dated to the time of Cro-Magnon but noted that the low incidence of this ancestry and recent gene flow from neighbouring populations means the current Basque population cannot be considered reliable examples of the physical charactertics of Cro-Magnon
Title: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on November 19, 2013, 03:58:02 pm
Lord of the Rings’-type world

http://www.nature.com/news/mystery-humans-spiced-up-ancients-rampant-sex-lives-1.14196
Mystery humans spiced up ancients’ rampant sex lives

Genome analysis suggests interbreeding between modern humans, Neanderthals, Denisovans and a mysterious archaic population.
Ewen Callaway
 19 November 2013

New genome sequences from two extinct human relatives suggest that these ‘archaic’ groups bred with humans and with each other more extensively than was previously known.

The ancient genomes, one from a Neanderthal and one from a different archaic human group, the Denisovans, were presented on 18 November at a meeting at the Royal Society in London. They suggest that interbreeding went on between the members of several ancient human-like groups living in Europe and Asia more than 30,000 years ago, including an as-yet unknown human ancestor from Asia.

“What it begins to suggest is that we’re looking at a ‘Lord of the Rings’-type world — that there were many hominid populations,” says Mark Thomas, an evolutionary geneticist at University College London who was at the meeting but was not involved in the work.
...
Most surprisingly, Reich said, the new genomes indicate that Denisovans interbred with another extinct population of archaic humans that lived in Asia more than 30,000 years ago, which is neither human nor Neanderthal
...
The meeting was abuzz with conjecture about the identity of this potentially new population of humans. “We don’t have the faintest idea,” says Chris Stringer, a paleoanthropologist at the London Natural History Museum, who was not involved in the work. He speculates that the population could be related to Homo heidelbergensis, a species that left Africa around half a million years ago and later gave rise to Neanderthals in Europe. “Perhaps it lived on in Asia as well,” Stringer says.

(http://www.mygen.com/images/Alsace_Hun_Deformed_Skull.jpg)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on November 19, 2013, 07:09:13 pm
The photo of the skull is a twin of ancient Egypt's Pharaohs/royalty, also found in South America among others geographical areas.
Scientists, mainstram, attributed this to the banding of the skull from infancy causing it to expand.
 Those who question contemporary theories (the public word of the mountain) are not given much attention as per the norm.
 I question everything, HEY-why not?
 Biblical accounts of giants roaming the earth is in the book, not many have disputed this.
No rant, but I do remember a guy saying there are more mystery's on this earth than in all the heavens.
 Just to mention, there are super wealthy who collect ancient art, who have isolated discovery's that would open the eyes of the G.P,- (what they consider the ignorant masses). They pay enormous sums of money to search/secure historical artifacts and have for centuries. The scale of information the *COLLECTORS have is beyond our comprehension.  The Vatican vaults for example have a couple of details we will never be privy to.
 OK, a rant.. Human nature-has it been altered though the millenniums, most certainly technology , lifestyles etc. But the down and basic nature of mankind is one thing that has not evolved, hidden a tad better,- the elites feeding ground is the nature of mankind.
  Mass manipulation is historic, a elite science.
 
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on November 20, 2013, 10:31:43 am
http://www.livescience.com/41244-deformed-skull-burial-in-france.html
Deformed, Pointy Skull from Dark Ages Unearthed in France
By Tia Ghose, Staff Writer   |   November 15, 2013

(http://www.mygen.com/images/Alsace_Hun_Deformed_Skull.jpg)
A woman's deformed skull was found in one of the tombs, which dates to around 1,650 years ago. (~360AD)

...
The necropolis, found in the Alsace region of France, contains 38 tombs that span more than 4,000 years, from the Stone Age to the Dark Ages

(http://www.mygen.com/images/alsace-france-map.png)

http://www.livescience.com/41245-images-deformed-skulls-tombs-france.html
...
they found 18 tombs from either the late Roman period or the early Dark Ages, about 1,650 years ago. One of the tombs held a woman, likely an aristocrat, who had a deformed, flattened forehead.

"The deformation of the skull with the help of bandages (narrow strips of cloth) and small boards is a practice coming from central Asia," Lefranc said in an email. "It was popularized by the Huns and adopted by many German people."

In those times, the deformed, alienlike skull was a privilege reserved for the aristocracy.
...
The wealthy lady's tomb also contained gold pins, belts known as chatelaines, pearls, a comb made of a stag antler, and a bronze mirror that likely came from the Caucasus region or central Asia, he said.

The team speculates that the 1,650-year-old graves held mercenary soldiers from the East and their families, who were employed by the Roman Army during the waning days of the Roman empire.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_cranial_deformation
...
Intentional head moulding producing extreme cranial deformations was once commonly practised in a number of cultures widely separated geographically and chronologically, and so was probably independently invented more than once. It still occurs today in a few places, like Vanuatu.

Early examples of intentional human cranial deformation predate written history and date back to 45,000 BC in Neanderthal skulls, and to the Proto-Neolithic Homo sapiens component (12th millennium BC) from Shanidar Cave in Iraq.[1][2] It occurred among Neolithic peoples in Southwest Asia

The earliest written record of cranial deformation dates to 400 BC in Hippocrates' description of the Macrocephali or Long-heads, who were named for their practice of cranial modification.[4]

In the Old World, Huns[5] and Alans[6] are also known to have practised similar cranial deformation. In Late Antiquity (AD 300-600), the East Germanic tribes who were ruled by the Huns, adopted this custom (Gepids, Ostrogoths, Heruli, Rugii and Burgundians). In western Germanic tribes, artificial skull deformations have rarely been found

The New international encyclopaedia, Volume 9    (http://books.google.com/books?id=Em4NAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA138&lpg=PA138&dq=Burgundians+longheads&source=bl&ots=ruclWYboYr&sig=wb8o7BaACD2CgcROUfkt53zAVHY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ARyNUrHRI4bN2QXvhoCADg&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Burgundians%20longheads&f=false)
...
In blood the French combine many races—prehistoric Teutonic blond longheads, Alpine or Celtic shortheads, and Mediterranean brunette longheads.

The stature of conscripts is given as 1.646 meters, and the general cranial index at 83.4, ranging from 75 to 88. But anthropometric characteristics -have to be studied with caution, since the tall light-complexioned type, with blue or gray eyes, predominates in the north;
the short-headed brunette type, marked by dark eyes and low stature, prevails in the middle and south;
and the Mediterranean type, brunette, dark-eyed and short, occurs in parts adjoining Italy and Spain.

The southern French may be called "Iberio-Celtic" and the northern French "Teuto-Celtic," the language of both being Italic.

A retrospect of French ethnology includes:
(1) the modern period of racial coalescence since the Crusades, embracing also nationality and speech;
(2) incursions of Saracens (arrested by Charles Martel, 732 A.D.), Burgundians, Franks (who gave their name to the country), and Visigoths, the last three being Teutons;
(3) the Roman conquest and all that it means in racial mixtures, no less than in sovereignty and speech;
(4) the earlier settlements of Belgian longheads, Celts, or Gauls, and Aquitanian and Ligurian brunettes;
(5) Semitic and Felasgian settlements, made by Phoenician and Greek colonists, of little account, however, to the ethnologist;
(6) the peoples of the earliest Iron and the Bronze age, with a variety of skull types;
(7) the Neolithic authors of menhirs and dolmens, exhibiting intermixture of brachycephals and dolichocephals;
(8) the CroMagnon and the Neanderthal or "Spy man," Paleolithic contemporaries of the cave bear, mammoth, and reindeer, and, back of that, the rudest stone ages, when men are alleged to have lived with the mastodon and Elephas antiquus.

France has experienced in this long stretch of time and evolution of culture the whole range of climates in which man can exist, ranging from arctic to tropical, together with their fauna and flora.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alemanni
The Alemanni (also Alamanni, Alamani[1]) were a confederation of Suebian Germanic tribes located on the upper Rhine river. First mentioned by the Romans in 213, the Alemanni captured the Agri Decumates in 260, and later expanded into present-day Alsace, and northern Switzerland, establishing the German language in those regions.

In 496, the Alemanni were conquered by Frankish leader Clovis and incorporated into his dominions. The legacy of the Alemanni survives in the names of Germany in several languages.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landesmuseum_W%C3%BCrttemberg
Landesmuseum Württemberg

The Landesmuseum Württemberg (Württemberg State Museum) is the main historical museum of the Württemberg part of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. It emerged from the 16th-century “Kunstkammer” (art chamber) of the dukes, later kings, of Württemberg who resided in Stuttgart.

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d8/0511_Turmsch%C3%A4del_W%C3%BCrttembergisches_Landesmuseum_Stuttgart_anagoria.JPG/574px-0511_Turmsch%C3%A4del_W%C3%BCrttembergisches_Landesmuseum_Stuttgart_anagoria.JPG)
Turricephalus of a 30 to 40 year old Alamannic woman of the early 6th century

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baden-W%C3%BCrttemberg


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Die_Nibelungen

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brunhild
(http://www.mygen.com/images/siegfried-schon.png)

(http://www.mygen.com/images/399px-Brunhild_%28Postkarte%29%2C_G._Bussiere%2C_1897.jpg)

Brynhildr (also spelled Brunhild, Brünnhilde, Brynhild) is a shieldmaiden and a valkyrie in Germanic mythology, where she appears as a main character in the Völsunga saga and some Eddic poems treating the same events. Under the name Brünnhilde she appears in the Nibelungenlied and therefore also in Richard Wagner's opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen. She may be inspired by the Visigothic princess Brunhilda of Austrasia. The history of Brynhildr includes fratricide, a long battle between brothers, and dealings with the Huns. She is also known as Sigrdrífa, as written in the poem Sigrdrífumál.

http://www.bioanth.org/Dingwall/index.htm
http://www.bioanth.org/Dingwall/Dingwell.1931.Chapter.I.pdf

(http://www.mygen.com/images/Deformed_Skulls_Europe.jpg)

http://www.csen.org/aciaa_article/Eurasian%20Women%20Warriors3.htm
...
The Siberian Plateau: Pazyryk and Ukok Priestesses

Sergei Rudenko’s excavations of the great Pazyryk frozen burials, although robbed of precious metal objects that would have augmented our knowledge of these people’s belief systems, contained organic objects (materials normally lost) that provided remarkable insight into the elite and the chieftain rank. The Early Iron Age Pazyryks nomadized in a very small venue of high pastures in the southern Siberian Gorny Altai. Frozen in time by permafrost in great kurgans, the quantity of preserved wooden carvings, leather and felt saddlery, and various forms of textiles reveal, among others, previously unsuspected long-distant trade contact with the China, e.g., a Chinese mirror and embroidered silks, as well as with the Achaemenid Persian Empire, e.g., a tied wool carpet depicting Medes leading horses, a scene similar to one carved at Persepolis in southern Iran.[38]

         Although the Achaemenids chronicled Tigrahaudas, the Saka with pointed hats, the concept of a large headdress as a status marker originated centuries earlier and much farther to the west. In Anatolia, priestesses, Enareis,[39] and goddesses, as depicted in sculpture and on cylinder seals wore brimless high-headdresses called polos. Scythians may have assimilated this hat; females wear them as seen on gold plaques. The style and its underlying concept of status traveled east along the Silk Route or was introduced into western China by nomads coming from the north. A fifth century BCE desiccated priestess from the Subashi cemetery at the edge of the Taklimakan Desert wore a brimmed, high pointed headdress. Another from Tarim Basin was buried in an even more elaborated high hat with two points.[40]

         In 1995, the Russian archaeologist, Natalia Polsomak, made another remarkable find in the permafrost of the southern Siberian Ukok plateau.[41] The young woman the archaeologist excavated was about 25 years old when interred; she wore a caftan and full skirt, and an impressive conical hat three feet high that measured fully a third of the hollowed out log that served as her sarcophagus. The headdress was made of molded felt stretched over a wooden frame. Its decorations, carved from wood and covered with gold foil, were images of eight massive felines, representing either Tien Shan snow leopards or Siberian tigers, and the symbolic birds associated with the Tree of Life.[42] Tattooing on her torso, executed in Animal Style included winged snow leopards and on the left arm,[43] in zoomorphic juncture, a deer with griffin heads terminating the tines. A silver mirror in a red leather case lay beside her torso.

         The costume of this ancient priestess is paralleled by shamanic costumes worn into recent times by the Evenki, Ket, Ostyak, Tofa, and other Siberian taiga tribes. Elements of the deer (reindeer, moose, elk, or maral) were incorporated into a costume, e.g., an entire deer hide was used and strips of deer hide were sewn to dangle from the costume.[44] A mirror (or other shiny object) was frequently incorporated into the breastplate.[45] Depictions of birds combined with those of the deer augmented representation of shamans’ animal helpers. The shamans’ drum, made from a special wood, referred to the Tree of Life that grew in the center of the tribal or clan territory, the birthplace of the shaman’s deer-helper. The shaman believed that deer were winged [46] and could fly like swan. Birds and deer represented realistically or in zoomorphic juncture, were powerful and protective animal spirits; they also provided transportation for the shaman to fly to the Otherworld or Underworld in search of souls.

| - - -

The Ukok Plateau

Ukok Plateau is a remote and pristine grasslands area located in the heart of southwestern Siberia, the Altai Mountains region of Russia near the borders with China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia. The Pazyryk is the name of an ancient people who lived in the Altai Mountains on this plateau who are associated with some spectacular archeological findings, including mummies found frozen in the permafrost. Many ancient Bronze Age tomb mounds have been found in the area and have been associated with the Pazyryk culture which closely resembled that of the legendary Scythian people to the west. The term kurgan is in general usage to describe such log-barrow burials. Excavations of this site have continued to yield fascinating archaeological findings. One famous finding is known as the "Ice Princess" excavated by Russian archaeologist, Natalia Polosmak. Three tattooed mummies (c. 300 BC) were extracted from the permafrost of the Ukok Plateau in the second half of the 20th century

http://bruceleeeowe.wordpress.com/weird-sciences-home-page/ancient-and-lost-civilizations/inca-civilization/mummy/

Siberian Ice MaidenIn the summer of 1993, a team of Russian archaeologists led by Dr. Natalia Polosmak discovered the Siberian Ice Maiden in a sacred area known as the Pastures of Heaven, on the Pontic-Caspian steppe in the Altay Mountains near the Mongolian border. Mummified, then frozen by unusual climatic conditions in the fifth century B.C. along with six decorated horses and a symbolic meal for her last journey, she is believed to have been a shaman of the lost Pazyryk culture.

The maiden’s well-preserved body, carefully embalmed with peat and bark, was arranged to lie on her side as if asleep. She was young; her hair was still blonde; she had been 5 feet 6 inches tall. Even the animal style tattoos were preserved on her pale skin: creatures with horns that develop into flowered forms. Her coffin was made large enough to accommodate the high felt headdress she was wearing, which had 15 gilded wooden birds sewn to it. On a gold buckle retrieved from another tomb, a similar woman’s headdress intertwined with branches of the tree of life are depicted. Her blouse was originally thought to be made of wild “tussah” silk but closer examination of the fibers indicate the material is not Chinese but came from somewhere else, perhaps India. She was clad in a long crimson woolen skirt and white felt stockings.

Near her coffin was a vessel made of yak horn, and dishes containing gifts of coriander seeds: all of which suggest that the Pazyryk trade routes stretched across vast areas of Asia. Similar dishes in other tombs was thought to have held Cannabis sativa, confirming a practice described by Herodotus but after tests the mixture was found to be coriander seeds, probably used to disguise the smell of the body.

Her body was covered with vivid blue tattoos of mythical animal figures. The best preserved tattoos were images of a donkey, a mountain ram, two highly stylized deer with long antlers and an imaginary carnivore on the right arm. A man found with her (nicknamed “Conan”) was also discovered, with tattoos of two monsters resembling griffins decorating his chest and three partially obliterated images which seem to represent two deer and a mountain goat on his left arm. The Ice Maiden has been a source of controversy, as alleged improper care after her removal from the ice resulted in rapid decay of the body; and since the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Altai Republic has demanded the return of various “stolen” artifacts, including the Ice Maiden, who is currently stored in Novosibirsk in Siberia.

Two years after the discovery of the “Ice Maiden” Dr. Polosmak’s husband, Vyacheslav Molodin, found a frozen man, elaborately tattooed with an elk, with two long braids that reached to his waist, buried with his weapons.

http://sino-platonic.org/complete/spp240_sacred_display.pdf

(http://califia.us/Tarim/witcheshat/witchestiblock.jpg)

...

Bangles have also been found in excavations of Danube cultures. The ritual pit of the Lady — or priestess — of Tărtăria shows signs of a great honoring of this elderly woman. A Spondylus
gaederopus armlet was found in her ritual pit; just as with that belonging to the elderly woman from the Indus/Sarasvatī Valley, the bangle of the Lady of Tărtăria showed signs of having been deeply
worn — that is, worn throughout a lifetime.69 (Figure 51) This bangle may have been one sign of her office, rather than the customary ware of other women of the culture. Indeed, we postulate that this
may have been the first use of bangles/armlets.

(http://www.mygen.com/images/Subeshi_1.jpg)

 A like phenomenon is the transition of tall “witches’” or priestesses’ hats to bridal hats in Central Asia. (Figure 52) That is, the hats became generalized to ceremonial garb for young women, where before they were attached to what were probably priestesses in special female burials — for example in the Tarim Basin (Figure 53) and in the Altai Mountains (Figure 54);70 therefore, in like manner, perhaps the bangle was originally a marker of a priestess or shaman, exemplified by the spondylus shell bracelet found in the burial pit of the Lady of
Tărtăria. Later, the bangle would have become a more general marker for women in the Indus Valley and then in historic India.

http://penn.museum/documents/publications/expedition/PDFs/52-3/mair.pdf

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRq1Yu0vBjo
Rev. Don's Vlog for April 29, 2010 - The Witches of Subeshi

http://www.experienceproject.com/stories/Love-Shamans-The-Elders-Of-Humanity/2166317
ENORMOUS CONE HEADS OF PARACAS PERU
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=JnERUZNqwbc

http://www.ancient-origins.net/unexplained-phenomena-opinion-guest-authors/world-wide-mysterious-phenomena-elongated-skulls-00939
...
A correlation between deformation and the appearance of social classes has also emerged.  .  In many cultures, a deformed head was an indicator of increased social position.  Extending throughout Europe, a large number of elongated skulls have been discovered in ancient tombs.  These finds by themselves suggest that the interred individuals were viewed as having some kind of elevated social standing which warranted a more elaborate burial.  Parallel finds have been unearthed in Peru.  Some of the most ill-shaped heads were discovered in some of the largest and finest tombs side by side with skulls of normal size and proportion.  A chief or members of the royal family, for example, may exhibit increased deformation, while a priest, shaman or individuals with local eminence may display a less intense modification.  Thus, he who has the longest head was the most noble.  Studies into indigenous cultures like the Native American Chinooks of the Pacific Northwest relay that slaves were never permitted to practice this ritual.  The ancient Macrocephali people of Africa, of whom the word macrocephalic is derived, believed that men of low birth had no right to observe this custom.  This may explain in part why this modification was not equally employed by all members of a community.
...
In addition to the physical manipulation of the cranium, other measures were employed by many cultures to accentuate this modified form.  In some cultures, the hair was pulled back and braided, put into a bun or topknot to further accentuate the elongated shape of the head.  Pointed hats are also believed to have been worn to exaggerate the shape of the head.  The pointed hat that adorned the head of many of the Egyptian pharaohs is an example of this tradition.  In Egypt only the nobility were allowed to wear tall pointed hats symbolizing their elevated status.  The donning of pointed hats was not limited to Egyptian royalty.  Several conical brimless extremely long gold hats have been discovered in central Europe with the earliest one dating to about 1400 BCE.  These obviously were not worn by the common man.  In ancient Greece, slaves that were released from bondage were allowed to wear a pointed hat called a pileus.  Did this indicate their increased social status?  Early art also shows image after image of individuals wearing pointed hats.  Were they emulating this ancient tradition with their clothing?  Even today, the guest of honor at a birthday party will don a pointed hat to symbolize his importance.  Could this tradition be a remnant of a long forgotten past?

Why did people around the world begin this practice?  It has been concluded, especially with circumferential compression, that hats, bands or other apparatus was intentionally applied and was not the unintentional outcome to child rearing practices.  Unfortunately, the original meaning or ritual significance has essentially been lost and in many cases has been replaced by the blind following of an ancient tradition.  In the few traces of beliefs that have survived we do find a consistency and general theme which may reveal at least in part some of our ancestor's underlying motivations.  Many cultures believe that an elongated head indicates increased intelligence.  It was also thought to enhance one's beauty or was a trait to be admired.  Some cultures believe it will make them look fierce in war.
...
- See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/unexplained-phenomena-opinion-guest-authors/world-wide-mysterious-phenomena-elongated-skulls-00939#sthash.T86C1SUY.dpuf
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on November 20, 2013, 12:37:11 pm
http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/news/index.php?start_from=28

http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/news/index.php?subaction=showfull&id=1320077805&start_from=28&template=Headlines&#disqus_thread
(http://www.mygen.com/images/tworealms.jpg)

The Denisovans, mysterious cousins of the Neanderthals, occupied a vast realm stretching from the chill expanse of Siberia to the steamy tropical forests of Indonesia - suggesting the third human of the Pleistocene displayed a level of adaptability previously thought to be unique to modern humans.

Our first tantalising glimpse of the Denisovans came last year with DNA analysis of a bone and tooth found in a Siberian cave. The DNA was distinct enough from Neanderthals' to suggest tens of thousands of years of independent evolution.

Before they disappeared, the Denisovans found time to interbreed with Homo sapiens. As a result, 5 per cent of the Denisovan genome lives on - not in the inhabitants of Siberia but in Papua New Guineans, living thousands of kilometres to the south-east.
...
Across Asia in two waves

The genes of Denisovans in modern humans are helping to reveal how our species colonised Asia, Australia and the Pacific islands.

Mark Stoneking of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, found Denisovan DNA in modern humans living in east Indonesia, Polynesia, Australia and Papua New Guinea. People from mainland Asia and west Indonesia didn't have any though, suggesting they are descendants of a second wave of modern humans across Asia - this time without Denisovan interbreeding. He suspects modern humans settled in the Middle East and migrated eastwards twice.

Independent support comes from Eske Willerslev of the Natural History Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen. His team sequenced the genome of an Indigenous Australian and compared it with Han Chinese, European and African genomes. They calculated that the Indigenous Australians split from the others between 75,000 and 62,000 years ago. The Chinese and European populations split between 38,000 and 25,000 years ago. That, again, suggests two migrations across Asia.

To view the full article click here
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21128323.200-the-vast-asian-realm-of-the-lost-humans.html%3Cbr%20/%3E


http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2012/08/30/genome-mysterious-extinct-human-completed-scientists-say/
Genome of mysterious extinct human completed, scientists say
Published August 30, 2012

The genome of a recently discovered branch of extinct humans known as the Denisovans that once interbred with us has been sequenced, scientists said Thursday.

Genetic analysis of the fossil revealed it apparently belonged to a little girl with dark skin, brown hair and brown eyes, researchers said. All in all, the scientists discovered about 100,000 recent changes in our genome that occurred after the split from the Denisovans. A number of these changes influence genes linked with brain function and nervous system development, leading to speculation that we may think differently from the Denisovans. Other changes are linked with the skin, eyes and teeth.

"This research will help [in] determining how it was that modern human populations came to expand dramatically in size as well as cultural complexity, while archaic humans eventually dwindled in numbers and became physically extinct," said researcher Svante Pääbo at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.

Future research may turn up other groups of extinct humans in Asia "in addition to Neanderthals and Denisovans," Pääbo told LiveScience.

Although our species comprises the only humans left alive, our planet was once home to a variety of other human species. The Neanderthals were apparently our closest relatives, and the last of the other human lineages to vanish.

However, scientists recently revealed another group of extinct humans once lived at the same time as ours. DNA from fossils unearthed in Denisova Cave in southern Siberia in 2008 revealed a lineage unlike us and closely related to Neanderthals. The precise age of the Denisovan material remains uncertain — anywhere from 30,000 to 80,000 years of age.

"The Denisovan genome is particularly close to my heart, because it was the first time that a new group of extinct humans was discovered and defined just from DNA sequence evidence and not from the morphology of bones," Pääbo said.

Denisovan genes unzipped

Now, based on only a tiny sample of genetic material from a finger bone, scientists have sequenced the complete genome of the Denisovans (pronounced deh-NEESE-so-vans), as they are now called.

To make the most of what little genetic material they had, the researchers developed a technique that unzipped the double strands of DNA in the bone, doubling the amount of DNA they could analyze. This enabled them to sequence each position in the genome about 30 times over, generating an extremely thorough genome sequence. [See Photos of Denisovan Fossils]

"We have very few errors in the sequences, even less errors than we often have when you sequence a person today," Pääbo said. "With just a few technical reservations, there is actually today no difference in what we can learn genetically about a person that lived 50,000 years ago and from a person today, provided that we have well-enough preserved bones."

Comparing the Denisovan genome with ours confirmed past research suggesting the extinct lineage once interbred with ours and lived in a vast range from Siberia to Southeast Asia. The Denisovans share more genes with people from Papua New Guinea than any other modern population studied.

In addition, more Denisovan genetic variants were found in Asia and South America than in European populations. However, this likely reflects interbreeding between modern humans and the Denisovans' close relatives, the Neanderthals, rather than direct interbreeding with the Denisovans, researchers said.

Denisovans began to diverge from modern humans in terms of DNA sequences about 800,000 years ago. Among the genetic differences between Denisovans and modern humans are likely changes that "are essential for what made modern human history possible, the very rapid development of human technology and culture that allowed our species to become so numerous, spread around the whole world, and actually dominate large parts of the biosphere," Pääbo said.
...
These current Denisovan findings have allowed the researchers to re-evaluate past analysis of the Neanderthal genome. They discovered modern humans in the eastern parts of Eurasia and Native Americans actually carry more Neanderthal genetic material than people in Europe, "even though the Neanderthals mostly lived in Europe, which is really, really interesting," Reich said.

The researchers would now like to upgrade the Neanderthal genome to the quality seen with the Denisovan genome. The genetic techniques they used could also be employed in forensic investigations, and in analyzing other fossil DNA, said researcher Matthias Meyer, also at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

The scientists detailed their findings online today in the journal Science.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altai_Mountains

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/Altai%2CTienschan-Orte.png)

The Altai Mountains (Altay Mountains) are a mountain range in East-Central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters. The northwest end of the range is at 52° N and between 84° and 90° E (where it merges with the Sayan Mountains to the east), and extends southeast from there to about 45° N and 99° E, where it gradually becomes lower and merges into the high plateau of the Gobi Desert.
...
The Altai mountains were home to the Denisovan branch of hominids who were contemporaries of Neanderthals and of Homo Sapiens (modern humans), descended from Hominids who reached Asia earlier than modern humans. The Denisova hominin, dated to 40,000 years ago, was discovered in the Denisova Cave of the Altai mountains in southern Siberia in 2008.

Knowledge of the Denisovan humans derives primarily from DNA evidence and artifacts, as no complete skeletons have yet been recovered. DNA evidence has been unusually well preserved because of the low average temperature in the Denisova caves.

The Altai Mountains have been identified as being the point of origin of a cultural enigma termed the Seima-Turbino Phenomenon[8] which arose during the Bronze Age around the start of the 2nd millennium BC and led to a rapid and massive migration of peoples from the region into distant parts of Europe and Asia.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seima-Turbino_Phenomenon
Seima-Turbino refers to burial sites dating around 1500 BC found across northern Eurasia, from Finland to Mongolia.

The buried were nomadic warriors and metal-workers, travelling on horseback or two-wheeled chariots. These nomads originated from the Altai Mountains.[1] The culture spread from these mountains to the west.[2] Although they were the precursor to the much later Mongol invasions, these groups were not yet strong enough to attack the important social sites of the Bronze Age.[3]
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on November 20, 2013, 01:30:17 pm


http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110809/full/476136a.html
Ancient DNA reveals secrets of human history
Modern humans may have picked up key genes from extinct relatives.
 Ewen Callaway

(http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110809/images/Map950.jpg)
...
The past months have seen a swathe of discoveries, from details about when Neanderthals and humans interbred, to the important disease-fighting genes that humans now have as a result of those trysts
...
In December last year, Pääbo's team released the genetic blueprint of another population of ancient humans — unlike ourselves or the Neanderthals — that was based on DNA recovered from a 30,000–50,000-year-old finger bone found in a cave in Denisova in southern Siberia2. Palaeoanthropologists call these groups archaic humans, distinguishing them from modern Homo sapiens, which emerged in Africa only around 200,000 years ago.

Pääbo is amazed at how quickly the Neanderthal genome has been mined. At a genomics meeting last year, for example, Cory McLean, a graduate student at Stanford University in California, was scheduled to talk immediately after Pääbo presented the Neanderthal genome. Inspired, McLean had trawled through the just-released genome in the days before his talk. He discovered that Neanderthals, like humans, lacked a stretch of DNA that orchestrates the growth of spines on the penises of other primates, and promptly presented the find just after Pääbo presented his3.

Since then, scientists have fleshed out the details of one of the biggest surprises from the Neanderthal genome: humans living outside Africa owe up to 4% of their DNA to Neanderthals. One explanation might be that humans migrating out of Africa mated with Neanderthals, probably resident in the Middle East, before their offspring fanned out across Europe and Asia.
...
More than genes

The denizens of Denisova also bred with contemporary humans, according to Pääbo and Reich's analysis2. But the only traces of their DNA to be found in modern humans were in residents of Melanesia, thousands of miles away from Denisova, suggesting that the Denisovans had once lived across Asia. In 2008, Pääbo's team set up a lab in Beijing to screen fossils that might contain Denisovan DNA, in the hope of learning more about them and their interactions with modern humans. Currently, the bone that yielded the Denisovan genome, and a single molar from the same cave, are their only known fossil remains, but other archaic human fossils from Asia could bear traces of this group.

Most of the Neanderthal genome was sequenced from bones found in Vindija cave, Croatia. Most of the Neanderthal genome was sequenced from bones found in Vindija cave, Croatia.Max Planck Inst. Evol. Anthropol.

Even before the Neanderthal genome made its debut in May 2010, scientists had argued that humans may have acquired not just DNA from archaic humans, but useful traits too. Human gene variants linked to brain development and speech were proposed as candidates, only to be scotched after closer inspection of the Neanderthal genome. However, a study presented at a Royal Society symposium in London in June suggests that humans owe important disease-fighting genes to Neanderthals and Denisovans. Interbreeding endowed humans with a 'hybrid vigour' that helped them colonize the world, said Peter Parham, an immunogeneticist at Stanford University School of Medicine, California, at the symposium.
...
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on November 22, 2013, 03:31:30 pm
More and more evidence that modern man came out of Siberia !!!  

http://www.nature.com/news/americas-natives-have-european-roots-1.14213
Americas’ natives have European roots
The oldest known genome of a modern human solves long-standing puzzles about the New World's genetic heritage.
Ed Yong
20 November 2013

(http://www.nature.com/polopoly_fs/7.13861.1384970881!/image/1.14213_Mal%27ta-burial-photo.jpg_gen/derivatives/landscape_630/1.14213_Mal%27ta-burial-photo.jpg)


The remains of a boy from palaeolithic Siberia — shown here in a burial reconstruction at the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg — revealed that he had European genes

The 24,000-year-old remains of a young boy from the Siberian village of Mal’ta have added a new root to the family tree of indigenous Americans. While some of the New World's native ancestry clearly traces back to east Asia, the Mal’ta boy’s genome — the oldest known of any modern human — shows that up to one-third of that ancestry can be traced back to Europe.

The results show that people related to western Eurasians had spread further east than anyone had suspected, and lived in Siberia during the coldest parts of the last Ice Age.

“At some point in the past, a branch of east Asians and a branch of western Eurasians met each other and had sex a lot,” says
....
Genetically, this individual had no east Asian resemblance but looked like Europeans and people from west Asia,” says Willerslev
...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mal'ta-Buret'_culture

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7f/Irkutsk_in_Russia.svg/320px-Irkutsk_in_Russia.svg.png)

The Mal'ta-Buret' culture is an archaeological culture of the Upper Paleolithic (ca. 18,000 to 15,000 BP) on the upper Angara River in the area west of Lake Baikal in the Irkutsk Oblast, Siberia, Russian Federation. The type sites are named for the villages of Mal'ta (Мальта), Usolsky District and Buret' (Буреть), Bokhansky District.

Mal'ta consists of semi-subterranean houses that were built using large animal bones to assemble the walls, and reindeer antlers covered with animal skins to construct a roof that would protect the inhabitants from the harsh elements of the Siberian weather. Much of what is known about Mal'ta comes from Russian archaeologist Mikhail Gerasimov. Known in the anthropological community primarily for his contributions to a process called forensic sculpture (the recreation of the face of an individual from skeletal remains), Gerasimov first achieved fame for his excavation of Mal'ta in 1927
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: JohnBFTOR on November 22, 2013, 08:35:23 pm
... and to think I thought this thread was about our current 'fearless' leaders.  ::)   I'm still trying to figure out just exactly what they are.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on November 22, 2013, 09:56:12 pm
... and to think I thought this thread was about our current 'fearless' leaders.  ::)   I'm still trying to figure out just exactly what they are.

(http://robsmovievault.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/9-23-09-the-lord-of-the-rings-the-two-towers-gollum.jpg)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: JohnBFTOR on November 22, 2013, 10:03:54 pm
(http://robsmovievault.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/9-23-09-the-lord-of-the-rings-the-two-towers-gollum.jpg)

Well, it does seem to posses a little Obummer and W DNA I have to admit.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: Valerius on November 22, 2013, 10:08:52 pm
If they were able to breed, then they were all humans. That's the definition of a species.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on December 04, 2013, 01:22:20 pm
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/05/science/at-400000-years-oldest-human-dna-yet-found-raises-new-mysteries.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&smid=tw-nytimes&_r=0
At 400,000 Years, Oldest Human DNA Yet Found Raises New Mysteries
By CARL ZIMMER
Published: December 4, 2013

Scientists have found the oldest DNA evidence yet of humans’ biological history. But instead of neatly clarifying human evolution, the finding is adding new mysteries
...

The fossil, a thigh bone found in Spain, had previously seemed to many experts to belong to a forerunner of Neanderthals. But its DNA tells a very different story. It most closely resembles DNA from an enigmatic lineage of humans known as Denisovans. Until now, Denisovans were known only from DNA retrieved from 80,000-year-old remains in Siberia, 4,000 miles east of where the new DNA was found.
...

Hints at new hidden complexities in the human story came from a 400,000-year-old femur found in a cave in Spain called Sima de los Huesos (“the pit of bones” in Spanish). The scientific team used new methods to extract the ancient DNA from the fossil.

“This would not have been possible even a year ago,” said Juan Luis Arsuaga, a paleoanthropologist at Universidad Complutense de Madrid and a co-author of the paper.

Finding such ancient human DNA was a major advance, said David Reich, a geneticist at Harvard Medical School who was not involved in the research. “That’s an amazing, game-changing thing,” he said.

Since the 1970s, Spanish scientists have brought out a wealth of fossils from the cave dating back hundreds of thousands of years. “The place is very special,” said Dr. Arsuaga, who has found 28 nearly complete skeletons of humans during three decades of excavations.

Based on the anatomy of the fossils, Dr. Arsuaga has argued that they belonged to ancestors of Neanderthals, which lived in western Asia and Europe from about 200,000 to 30,000 years ago.

When Dr. Meyer and his colleagues drilled into the femur, they found ancient human DNA inside, just as they had hoped.

“Our expectation was that it would be a very early Neanderthal,” Dr. Meyer said.

But the DNA did not match that of Neanderthals. Dr. Meyer then compared it to the DNA of the Denisovans, the ancient human lineage that he and his colleagues had discovered in Siberia in 2010. He was shocked to find that it was similar.

“Everybody had a hard time believing it at first,” Dr. Meyer said. “So we generated more and more data to nail it down.”

The extra research confirmed that the DNA belonged on the Denisovan branch of the human family tree.

The new finding is hard to reconcile with the picture of human evolution that has been emerging in recent years based on fossils and ancient DNA. Denisovans were believed to be limited to East Asia, and they were not thought to look so Neanderthal-like.
...
Dr. Meyer is hopeful that he and his colleagues will be able to get more DNA from the Spanish fossil, as well as other fossils from the site, to help solve the puzzle they have now stumbled across. “It’s extremely hard to make sense of,” Dr. Meyer said. “We still are a bit lost here.”
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on December 20, 2013, 12:55:02 pm
http://www.mpg.de/7666848/neandertal_genome_project
Neandertal genome project reaches its goal

Researchers compile definitive list of the DNA sequence changes that make us human
December 18, 2013

An international research team led by Kay Prüfer and Svante Pääbo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has determined a high-quality genome sequence of a Neandertal woman. The genome allows detailed insights into the relationships and population history of the Neandertals and other extinct hominin groups. The results reveal that gene flow among such groups was common but generally of low magnitude. It also provides a definitive list of the DNA sequence changes that distinguish modern humans from our nearest extinct relatives.


In 2006, Svante Pääbo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, initiated a project to sequence the Neandertal genome. In 2010, this project which is funded by the Max Planck Society produced a draft genome sequence which revealed that Neandertals had contributed genes to people who today live outside Africa. It also resulted in the discovery of a new group of extinct humans, the Denisovans, who were related to Neandertals and who contributed genes to present-day people in Oceania. The project has now culminated in the production of a high-quality Neandertal genome sequence where each position has been sequenced on average 50 times over. The unique portion of the genome that was reconstructed is of a quality at least as high as that of genomes sequenced from present-day people.

The toe bone used to produce the sequence was found in 2010 by a team of Russian archaeologists, led by Anatoli Derevianko and Michael Shunkov of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in Denisova Cave in Southern Siberia, and is approximately 50,000-year-old. The high-quality Neandertal genome refines and extends our understanding of how Neandertals are related to present-day people and to other extinct groups. According to the researchers’ new estimates the fraction of Neandertal-derived DNA in the genomes of people outside Africa varies between approximately 1.5 to 2.1 percent. The new data also shows that approximately 0.2 percent of the genomes of mainland Asians and Native Americans is of Denisovan origin.

With the high quality sequences of both a Neandertal and a Denisovan, it is for the first time possible to look for signs of interbreeding among extinct hominin groups. This reveals that Neandertals contributed at least 0.5 percent of their DNA to the Denisovans. In addition, the Denisovan genome differs from the Neandertal genome in that it contains about 2.7 to 5.8 percent of the genome of an unknown archaic hominin. “This ancient population of hominins lived prior to the separation of Neandertals, Denisovans and modern humans”, says Kay Prüfer. “It is possible that this unknown hominin was what is known from the fossil record as Homo erectus. Further studies are necessary to support or reject this possibility.”

When analyzing the genome the researchers noticed that the parents of the Neandertal individual must have been closely related to each other. “We performed simulations of several inbreeding scenarios and discovered that the parents of this Neandertal individual were either half siblings who had a mother in common, double first cousins, an uncle and a niece, an aunt and a nephew, a grandfather and a granddaughter, or a grandmother and a grandson”, says Montgomery Slatkin, a population geneticist at the University of California at Berkeley who led some of the analyses of the genome. Further analyses suggest that the population sizes of Neandertals and Denisovans were small and that inbreeding may have been more common in Neandertal groups than in modern populations.

Using the high-quality Neandertal genome the Leipzig team has now established a definitive genome-wide catalog of sites where present-day human genomes all carry the same nucleotide but differ from the Neandertal, Denisovan and great ape genomes.

“This list of simple DNA sequence changes that distinguish all humans today from our nearest extinct relatives is comparatively short”, says Svante Pääbo, director at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. “It is a catalog of the genetic features that sets all modern humans apart from all other organisms, living or extinct. I believe that in it hide some of the things that made the enormous expansion of human populations and human culture and technology in the last 100,000 years possible”.



http://www.mpg.de/7637951/hominin_from_sima_de_los_huesos
Oldest hominin DNA sequenced
Max Planck researchers sequence the mitochondrial genome of a 400,000-year-old hominin from Spain
December 04, 2013

Using novel techniques to extract and study ancient DNA researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have determined an almost complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a 400,000-year-old representative of the genus Homo from Sima de los Huesos, a unique cave site in Northern Spain, and found that it is related to the mitochondrial genome of Denisovans, extinct relatives of Neandertals in Asia. DNA this old has until recently been retrieved only from the permafrost.

Sima de los Huesos, the “bone pit”, is a cave site in Northern Spain that has yielded the world’s largest assembly of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils, consisting of at least 28 skeletons, which have been excavated and pieced together over the course of more than two decades by a Spanish team of paleontologists led by Juan-Luis Arsuaga. The fossils are classified as Homo heidelbergensis but also carry traits typical of Neandertals. Until now it had not been possible to study the DNA of these unique hominins.

Matthias Meyer and his team from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have developed new techniques for retrieving and sequencing highly degraded ancient DNA. They then joined forces with Juan-Luis Arsuaga and applied the new techniques to a cave bear from the Sima de los Huesos site. After this success, the researchers sampled two grams of bone powder from a hominin thigh bone from the cave. They extracted its DNA and sequenced the genome of the mitochondria or mtDNA, a small part of the genome that is passed down along the maternal line and occurs in many copies per cell. The researchers then compared this ancient mitochondrial DNA with Neandertals, Denisovans, present-day humans, and apes.

From the missing mutations in the old DNA sequences the researchers calculated that the Sima hominin lived about 400,000 years ago. They also found that it shared a common ancestor with the Denisovans, an extinct archaic group from Asia related to the Neandertals, about 700,000 years ago. “The fact that the mtDNA of the Sima de los Huesos hominin shares a common ancestor with Denisovan rather than Neandertal mtDNAs is unexpected since its skeletal remains carry Neandertal-derived features”, says Matthias Meyer. Considering their age and Neandertal-like features, the Sima hominins were likely related to the population ancestral to both Neandertals and Denisovans. Another possibility is that gene flow from yet another group of hominins brought the Denisova-like mtDNA into the Sima hominins or their ancestors.


Our results show that we can now study DNA from human ancestors that are hundreds of thousands of years old. This opens prospects to study the genes of the ancestors of Neandertals and Denisovans. It is tremendously exciting” says Svante Pääbo, director at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

“This unexpected result points to a complex pattern of evolution in the origin of Neandertals and modern humans. I hope that more research will help clarify the genetic relationships of the hominins from Sima de los Huesos to Neandertals and Denisovans” says Juan-Luis Arsuaga, director of the Center for Research on Human Evolution and Behaviour. The researchers are now pursuing this goal by focusing on retrieving DNA from more individuals from this site and on retrieving also nuclear DNA sequences.


[ earlier this year: ]

Researchers Publish Improved Neanderthal Genome

http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/wireStory/german-researchers-publish-full-neanderthal-genome-18764654
Researchers Publish Improved Neanderthal Genome
 By FRANK JORDANS Associated Press

BERLIN March 19, 2013 (AP)

Researchers in Germany said Tuesday they have completed the first high-quality sequencing of a Neanderthal genome and are making it freely available online for other scientists to study.
 
The genome produced from remains of a toe bone found in a Siberian cave is far more detailed than a previous "draft" Neanderthal genome sequenced three years ago by the same team at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.
 
"The genome of a Neanderthal is now there in a form as accurate as that of any person walking the streets today," Svante Paabo, a geneticist who led the research, told The Associated Press in an email
...

http://www.eva.mpg.de/neandertal/index.html

A high-quality Neandertal genome sequence

The genome sequence was generated from a toe bone discovered in Denisova Cave in southern Siberia in 2010.  The bone is described in Mednikova (Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia 2011. 39: 129-138).
 
DNA sequences were generated on the Illumina HiSeq platform and constitute an average 50-fold coverage of the genome. 99.9% of the 1.7GB of uniquely mappable DNA sequences in the human genome are covered at least ten times.
Contamination with modern human DNA, estimated from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, is around 1%.
 
...

(http://www.mygen.com/images/2013-03-19_figure.jpg)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on January 03, 2014, 11:43:15 am
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G3J89Io28qM
Unfrozen Caveman Lawyer! SNL Best of Phil Hartman! The late Phil lives on in these sketches!
(http://www.bennadel.com/resources/uploads/unfrozen_caveman_lawyer_on_coldfusion.jpg)

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-25465102
Neanderthals could speak like modern humans, study suggests
By Melissa Hogenboom
Science reporter, BBC News
20 December 2013

An analysis of a Neanderthal's fossilised hyoid bone - a horseshoe-shaped structure in the neck - suggests the species had the ability to speak.

This has been suspected since the 1989 discovery of a Neanderthal hyoid that looks just like a modern human's.

But now computer modelling of how it works has shown this bone was also used in a very similar way.

(http://news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/63621000/jpg/_63621607_face_colouradjust.jpg)
...
Neanderthals were stockier and shorter than modern humans, with no chin and backwards sloping foreheads. They are not regarded as direct human ancestors but DNA analysis has revealed that between 1% and 4% of the Eurasian human genome seems to come from Neanderthals
...
"The authors themselves are understandably cautious in drawing strong conclusions, but I think that their work clearly supports the contention that speech and language is an old feature of our lineage going back at least to the last common ancestor that we shared with the Neanderthals," Dr Dediu told BBC News.
...
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: worcesteradam on January 03, 2014, 11:47:26 am
If they've got the genomes of these creatures then with modern technology they may be able to bring them back to life
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on January 03, 2014, 03:12:32 pm
Youtube -SNL - First man to dance! AKA Caveman dance  (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WcS8CcqPJcI)

Unfrozen Caveman Lawyer!  (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G3J89Io28qM)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on January 03, 2014, 04:03:15 pm
If they've got the genomes of these creatures then with modern technology they may be able to bring them back to life

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YI0qWiwFZLs
Neanderthal and Denisovan Genomes/Human and Ape Stem Cells

(Visit: http://www.uctv.tv)
 Comparisons of Human and Ape Stem Cells (Alysson Muotri);
The Neandertal and Denisovan Genomes (Ed Green) Series: "CARTA - Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny" [7/2011] [Science] [Show ID: 21955]

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JXWx0MHQVO4
Comparison of Neanderthal, Cro-Magnon and Modern Human Skulls

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/about-us/news/2012/august/denisovan-dna-suggests-a-dark-complexion-and-interbreeding113697.html
Denisovan DNA suggests a dark complexion and interbreeding
...
Scientists have reconstructed the whole genetic code, or genome, of a group of ancient humans called Denisovans. They interbred with our species and the DNA results suggest they had dark hair, eyes, and skin, the journal Science reports.

In 2010, scientists from the Max Planck Institute in Germany announced the new human group based on DNA evidence from a finger bone fossil found in Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains, Siberia.

That first DNA was obtained from mitochondria, tiny power structures in each human cell that contain their own DNA. Now, many of the same team have used a new approach and have sequenced chromosomal DNA (the DNA of the cell nucleus which contains most genes) from the same finger bone fossil.

'They were able to reconstruct the whole genome to a quality matching that obtained for living humans,' says Professor Chris Stringer, human origins expert at the Natural History Museum.

http://www.sci-news.com/genetics/science-denisovan-neanderthal-viruses-human-dna-01558.html
Denisovan, Neanderthal Viruses Discovered in Human DNA

Nov 20, 2013 by  Sci-News.com
Scientists from the University of Oxford and Plymouth University, both in UK, have found evidence of Neanderthal and Denisovan viruses in DNA of modern humans.

In 2012, researchers from Albert Einstein College of Medicine identified remnants of 14 ancient viruses in the genome sequences of Neanderthal and Denisovan fossils

[ http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822%2812%2900469-1 ]

, dating back about 40,000 years ago. But they failed to find remnants of these viruses, belonging to the HML2 retrovirus family, in the human reference genome sequence.

In a new study, Oxford University researcher Dr Gkikas Magiorkinis with colleagues compared Neanderthal and Denisovan data to genetic data from modern-day cancer patients and managed to identify remnants of one Neanderthal and seven Denisovan viruses.

The discovery will enable scientists to investigate possible links between HML2 retroviruses and modern diseases including HIV and cancer.
...
Combining evolutionary theory and population genetics with cutting-edge genetic sequencing technology, the scientists will test if these viruses are still active or cause disease in modern humans.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2519637/


Published online 2008 June 18.  doi:  10.1128/JVI.00751-08
PMCID: PMC2519637

Hypermutation of an Ancient Human Retrovirus
by APOBEC3G

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome, but all are remnants of ancient retroviral infections and harbor inactivating mutations that render them replication defective. Nevertheless, as viral “fossils,” HERVs may provide insights into ancient retrovirus-host interactions and their evolution
...
Retroviruses can become endogenous when they infect germ line cells, or their progenitors, which subsequently constitute the gametes that give rise to viable progeny.

Thereafter, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) behave much like other host genomic DNA elements; they are inherited in a Mendelian manner and can become fixed or lost in the host population depending on their effect on the reproductive fitness of the host (40). As the presence of active, replication-competent proviruses in a host genome is most likely to be deleterious to host fitness through insertional mutagenesis, cytopathic virus production, ectopic recombination, and alteration of host gene transcription by viral promoters, endogenous retroviruses are often transcriptionally silenced
...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endogenous_retrovirus

The replication cycle of a retrovirus entails the insertion ("integration") of a DNA copy of the viral genome into the nuclear genome of the host cell. Most retroviruses infect somatic cells, but occasional infection of germline cells (cells that produce eggs and sperm) can also occur. Rarely, retroviral integration may occur in a germline cell that goes on to develop into a viable organism.

This organism will carry the inserted retroviral genome as an integral part of its own genome - an "endogenous" retrovirus (ERV) that may be inherited by its offspring as a novel allele. Many ERVs have persisted in the genome of their hosts for millions of years.

However, most of these have acquired inactivating mutations during host DNA replication and are no longer capable of producing virus. ERVs can also be partially excised from the genome by a process known as recombinational deletion, in which recombination between the identical sequences that flank newly integrated retroviruses results in deletion of the internal, protein-coding regions of the viral genome
...
The majority of ERVs that occur in vertebrate genomes are ancient, inactivated by mutation, and have reached genetic fixation in their host species. For these reasons, they are extremely unlikely to have negative effects on their hosts except under unusual circumstances.
...
Researchers continue to look at a possible link between HERVs and schizophrenia, with the additional possibility of a triggering infection inducing schizophrenia
...
Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) proviruses comprise a significant part of the human genome, with approximately 98,000 ERV elements and fragments making up nearly 8%.[30] According to a study published in 2005, no HERVs capable of replication had been identified; all appeared to be defective, containing major deletions or nonsense mutations

| - - - - - -

http://www.nature.com/news/2006/061031/full/news061030-4.html
News
Ancient human virus resurrected
Virus from distant past may throw light on role of retroviruses in cancer.
2006/10/30

Researchers in France have recreated a 5-million-year-old virus whose remains are now found littered across the human genome. The ancient virus could help us to understand how these genetic remnants contribute to cancer.

The virus is of a type called a retrovirus, which can insert copies of its genetic material into our own DNA. These viruses probably infected eggs and sperm of our primate ancestors many millions of years ago, and pasted numerous copies of their genetic material into the genome. The relics of these copies in human DNA are called human endogenous retroviruses, or HERVs.
...
Now Thierry Heidmann at the Gustav Roussy Institute in Villejuif and his colleagues, have brought one of these retroviruses back to life. They call it Phoenix, for the mythical bird reborn from its own ashes.

"It's a Jurassic Park kind of experiment to resurrect an old virus," says John Coffin who studies retroviruses at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts. "It's just kind of cool."

Rising from the ashes

Heidmann's team focused on a particular type of retrovirus that infected human cells less than 5 million years ago and left a legacy of some 30 copies of itself in the modern human genome.
...
The team then used the DNA of two existing HERVs as a backbone and engineered specific mutations into it, to build a duplicate of the original Pheonix. They inserted it into human cells to see what it would do.

The ancestral virus was able to copy itself and manufacture new virus particles, they found. And these particles could infect fresh cells and copy and paste its genes into these cells' genome.
...
Dangerous infection

The team also found hints that some of the HERVs in our genomes might still be infectious. They spliced together parts of three HERVs — a process that could occur spontaneously in a cell — and found that they could also produce infectious viruses. Heidmann says that the human genome may even harbour as-yet undiscovered HERVs that are naturally infectious.
...
The group also engineered the virus so that it can only copy itself once and cannot proliferate out of control. "It's not impossible that it could turn out to be a pathogen but I think it's very unlikely," agrees Coffin.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on January 03, 2014, 07:32:19 pm
If they've got the genomes of these creatures then with modern technology they may be able to bring them back to life

Yep - killer retro viruses!

Now Thierry Heidmann at the Gustav Roussy Institute in Villejuif and his colleagues, have brought one of these retroviruses back to life. They call it Phoenix, for the mythical bird reborn from its own ashes.

"It's a Jurassic Park kind of experiment to resurrect an old virus," says John Coffin who studies retroviruses at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts. "It's just kind of cool."

(http://www.mygen.com/images/5669da7516d91bafc48e638e64d279fd.jpg)

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2006-10/cshl-prs103006.php
Public release date: 30-Oct-2006

Contact: Maria Smit
[email protected]
 516-422-4127
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Phoenix rising: Scientists resuscitate a 5 million-year-old retrovirus

VILLEJUIF, France (Tues., Oct. 31, 2006) -- A team of scientists has reconstructed the DNA sequence of a 5-million-year-old retrovirus and shown that it is able to produce infectious particles.

The retrovirus--named Phoenix--is the ancestor of a large family of mobile DNA elements, some of which may play a role in cancer. The study, which is the first to generate an infectious retrovirus from a mobile element in the human genome, is considered a breakthrough for the field of retrovirus research. The findings are reported in Genome Research.

"Phoenix became frozen in time after it integrated into the human genome about 5 million years ago," explains Dr. Thierry Heidmann, lead investigator on the project. "In our study, we've recovered this ancestral state and shown that it has the potential for infectivity."
...

Genome Research ( www.genome.org ) is an international, continuously published, peer-reviewed journal published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Launched in 1995, it is one of the five most highly cited primary research journals in genetics and genomics.

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press is an internationally renowned publisher of books, journals, and electronic media, located on Long Island, New York. It is a division of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, an innovator in life science research and the education of scientists, students, and the public. For more information, visit www.cshlpress.com.

| - - - -

http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/32990/title/Ancient-Viruses-Wreak-New-Havoc/
Ancient Viruses Wreak New Havoc

Viral DNA in mice genomes may lead to cancer in immune-compromised animals.
By Beth Marie Mole | October 24, 2012

Fragments of ancient viruses buried in the genomes of mammals and other vertebrates typically lay dormant but can awaken in immune-compromised mice and may cause cancers, according to a new study published today (October 24) in Nature. The trigger for the resurrection of such viruses, known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), could be other microbes, which are unfettered in such immune-compromised mice.

“This study provides a link between exposure to other microbes—commensals or even pathogens—and activation of endogenous retroviruses, which in mice leads to cancer,” said senior author George Kassiotis, an immunologist at The National Institute of Medical Research in the United Kingdom. But other researchers are skeptical of the connection.

ERVs are the broken remains of ancient retroviral infections, in which fragments of viral RNA are reverse-transcribed into DNA and become part of the host genome, where they collect mutations that prevent them from forming new viruses.  In healthy mice, such viral DNA is not typically transcribed, but Kassiotis and his team of researchers found that mice genetically incapable of producing antibodies had increased expression of genes from certain ERVs in macrophages—enough to actually recombine and start assembling viruses. Those new viruses carried a mix of genes from two ERVs, each of which was incapable of replicating on its own, but together formed a replicating, infectious virus.

Though researchers had suspected that ERVs could reactivate and recombine, the study provides direct evidence of such an event, says immunologist David Markovitz of the University of Michigan, who was not involved with the study. “It’s extremely interesting that the mice activate or reactive their expression of ERVs in the absence of antibodies,” he said, “and that [the researchers] saw corrections in mutated genes that actually leads to replication of virus.”
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on January 05, 2014, 11:49:47 am
http://www.nature.com/news/ancient-european-genomes-reveal-jumbled-ancestry-1.14456#/ref-link-1
Ancient European genomes reveal jumbled ancestry

Mysterious peoples from the north and Middle Easterners joined prehistoric locals.
Ewen Callaway
02 January 2014

Newly released genome sequences from almost a dozen early human inhabitants of Europe suggest that the continent was once a melting pot in which brown-eyed farmers encountered blue-eyed hunter-gatherers.

Present-day Europeans, the latest work shows, trace their ancestry to three groups in various combinations: hunter-gatherers, some of them blue-eyed, who arrived from Africa more than 40,000 years ago; Middle Eastern farmers who migrated west much more recently; and a novel, more mysterious population whose range probably spanned northern Europe and Siberia
...

The work also adds a few twists to the prehistory of Europe. Previous archaeological and genetic studies suggested that most of today’s Europeans are descended from Middle Eastern farmers who interbred with local hunter-gatherers in some regions and displaced these early residents in others.

Krause’s team concludes that a third population contributed to the gene pool of contemporary Europeans.

This group, which the authors call ancient northern Eurasians, may have lived at high latitudes between Europe and Siberia until a few thousand years ago. Traces of this population were also detected in the genome of a 24,000 year-old Siberian child  [ http://www.nature.com/news/americas-natives-have-european-roots-1.14213 ] . Published online last month, the boy’s genome suggests that northern Eurasians interbred with the ancestors of Native Americans as well as with Europeans 3.

Diverse migrations

A comparison of the new data with genetic sequencing of present-day individuals shows that the current residents of various European countries are composites of these three groups. Scots and Estonians, for instance, have more northern Eurasian ancestry than any other modern European population sampled, whereas Sardinians are more closely related to Eastern farmers than are other Europeans.
....
Lalueza-Fox declined to discuss his team’s work, but he cautions against making too many assumptions about the peopling of Europe using just a handful of ancient genomes from a single time period. “It’s going to be lots of different migrations and movements,” he says. “There’s going to be plenty of room for investigation in the next few years.”

| - - - -

http://www.theapricity.com/forum/showthread.php?105677-7-000BP-Iberian-hunter-gatherer-La-Brana-1-had-blue-eyes

7,000BP Iberian hunter gatherer La Brana-1 had blue eyes

(http://www.mygen.com/images/europe_light_eyes_map_by_arminius1871-d4bh3vy.jpg)

On top is a map of light eyes in Europe. According to the Spanish article 8,000 year old(other's say 7,000 year old) hunter gatherer La Brana-1 from northern Spain had blue eyes. Making the theory that the first person with blue eyes was a European farmer who lived 6,000-10,000ybp seem very unlikely( That theory is accepted as fact or most likely by many Eye color Wikipedia). This is more evidence for what i and others have hypothesized. That modern European paleness(skin, hair and eye color) descends from Paleolithic-Mesolithic European hunter gatherers not Neolithic farmers. I think more pigmentation genes from pre historic European hunter gatherer's will defend a opinion some people including myself have. That most European hunter gatherer's had light colored eyes and hair. The main reason I think this is because of who their closest modern relatives are.

 I just read an article from Eurogenes with brand new information about a 7,000 year old Iberian hunter gatherer La Brana-1(click here http://eurogenes.blogspot.com/2013/12/brana-1-had-blue-eyes.html  ). The author Davidski says "the genome of La Brana 1 has now been fully sequenced, and the more comprehensive new data not only back up the initial findings, but also suggest that this individual had blue eyes".

 He said a paper should be published in the next few weeks and he expects to see La Brana-1's Y DNA haplogroup. He said the same about ancient Pontiac steppe DNA(click here) 4 weeks ago. Davidski is told around when the a publication will come out by the scientist's or by reporters.


http://eurogenes.blogspot.com.au/2013/12/ancient-human-genomes-suggest-three.html

Ancient North Eurasian (ANE): this is the twist in the tale, a component based on a previously reported 24,000 year old Upper Paleolithic forager from South Central Siberia, belonging to Y-DNA R*, and known as Mal'ta boy or MA-1.

This component was very likely present in Southern Scandinavia since at least the Mesolithic (see the summary of SHG below), but only seems to have reached Western Europe after the Neolithic. In Europe today it peaks among Estonians at just over 18%, and, intriguingly, reaches a similar level among Scots.

However, numbers weren't given for Finns, Russians and Mordovians, who, according to one of the maps, also carry very high ANE, but their results are confounded by more recent Siberian admixture (see the discussion on the European outliers below). The ANE meta-population includes Mal'ta boy as well as a late Upper Paleolithic sample from Central Siberia, dubbed Afontova Gora-2 (AG2).

http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2013/12/europeans-neolithic-farmers-mesolithic.html

Europeans = Neolithic farmers, Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and "Ancient North Eurasians" (etc.)
December 24, 2013

(http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-fc2W-6tR-HA/Urigqts3hwI/AAAAAAAAJbg/hqZiV1TOGgc/s1600/europe.png)
...
It seems that the estimates go all the way to "almost pure" Early European farmer ancestry but "West European Hunter-Gatherer" and "Ancient North Eurasian" ancestry isn't found unmixed in any modern populations.


http://dna-explained.com/category/neanderthal/
2013’s Dynamic Dozen – Top Genetic Genealogy Happenings
Posted on December 28, 2013   
...

If I were to characterize this year of genetic genealogy, I would call it The Year of the SNP, because that applies to both Y DNA and autosomal.  Maybe I’d call it The Legal SNP, because it is also the year of law, court decisions, lawsuits and FDA intervention.  To say it has been interesting is like calling the Eiffel Tower an oversized coat hanger.
...

Ancient DNA

This has been a huge year for advances in sequencing ancient DNA, something once thought unachievable.  We have learned a great deal, and there are many more skeletal remains just begging to be sequenced.  One absolutely fascinating find is that all people not African (and some who are African through backmigration) carry Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA.  Just this week, evidence of yet another archaic hominid line has been found in Neanderthal DNA and on Christmas Day, yet another article stating that type 2 Diabetes found in Native Americans has roots in their Neanderthal ancestors. Wow!

Closer to home, by several thousand years is the suggestion that haplogroup R did not exist in Europe after the ice age, and only later, replaced most of the population which, for males, appears to have been primarily haplogroup G.  It will be very interesting as the data bases of fully sequenced skeletons are built and compared.  The history of our ancestors is held in those precious bones.

http://dna-explained.com/2013/01/10/decoding-and-rethinking-neanderthals/

http://dna-explained.com/2013/07/04/ancient-dna-analysis-from-canada/

http://dna-explained.com/2013/07/10/5500-year-old-grandmother-found-using-dna/

http://dna-explained.com/2013/10/25/ancestor-of-native-americans-in-asia-was-30-western-eurasian/

http://dna-explained.com/2013/11/12/2013-family-tree-dna-conference-day-2/

http://dna-explained.com/2013/11/22/native-american-gene-flow-europe-asia-and-the-americas/

http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/05/400000-year-old-dna-from-spain-sequenced/

http://www.thegeneticgenealogist.com/2013/10/16/identifying-otzi-the-icemans-relatives/

http://cruwys.blogspot.com/2013/12/recordings-of-royal-societys-ancient.html

http://cruwys.blogspot.com/2013/02/richard-iii-king-is-found.html

http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/22/sequencing-of-neanderthal-toe-bone-reveals-unknown-hominin-line/

http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/26/native-americans-neanderthal-and-denisova-admixture/

http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2013/12/ancient-dna-what-2013-has-brought

...
(http://dnaexplained.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/decod-neanderthal-1.png)

On January 9, 2013, PBS ran a wonderful documentary, Decoding Neanderthals, about Neanderthals, what we have recently discovered about them, and what it means to us as humans. There has been a lot of discussion about this topic spurred by both the 23andMe and the Geno2.0 tests that provide a percentage of Neanderthal to participants. Geno2.0 also provides a percentage of Denisovan.

| - - - - -

http://www.livescience.com/9578-common-ancestor-blue-eyes.html
One Common Ancestor Behind Blue Eyes
January 31, 2008

People with blue eyes have a single, common ancestor, according to new research.

A team of scientists has tracked down a genetic mutation that leads to blue eyes. The mutation occurred between 6,000 and 10,000 years ago. Before then, there were no blue eyes.

"Originally, we all had brown eyes," said Hans Eiberg from the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine at the University of Copenhagen.

http://www.occupycorporatism.com/blue-eyes-originated-10000-years-ago-in-the-black-sea-region/
Blue Eyes Originated 10,000 Years Ago in the Black Sea Region
April 15, 2012

A team of researchers from Copenhagen University have located a single mutation that causes the mysterious phenomenon of blue eyes. And all blue eyed people are genetically related to a person who lived in the Black Sea region sometime between 6 – 10,000 years ago.

The research was published in the Journal of Human Genetics. A mutation in a gene called OCA2 came into being nearly 8,000 years ago. It can be definitively traced back to an ancestor from the Black Sea. Dr. Hans Eiberg claims that before this time, every human being had brown eyes. “A genetic mutation affecting the OCA2 gene in our chromosomes resulted in the creation of a ‘switch,’ which literally ‘turned off’ the ability to produce brown eyes,” Eiberg said.

When blue-eyed peoples from Jordan, Denmark and Turkey were examined, their genetic difference was traced back to the maternal lineage according to Eiberg’s team. The brown melanin pigment is still dominant. However, following the last Ice Age, Europeans developed this rare mutation that differentiated them from the rest of the human race.

Ninety-five percent of Europeans in Scandinavian countries have blue eyes. They are also found to have a greater range of hair and skin color - See more at: http://www.occupycorporatism.com/blue-eyes-originated-10000-years-ago-in-the-black-sea-region/#sthash.dHwN1IQZ.dpuf
...
“The question really is, ‘Why did we go from having nobody on Earth with blue eyes 10,000 years ago to having 20 or 40 percent of Europeans having blue eyes now?” John Hawks of the University of Wisconsin-Madison said. “This gene does something good for people. It makes them have more kids.” - See more at: http://www.occupycorporatism.com/blue-eyes-originated-10000-years-ago-in-the-black-sea-region/#sthash.dHwN1IQZ.dpuf

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OdSZHe4Nze8&feature=player_embedded
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on January 05, 2014, 02:31:29 pm
Hi Tahhoe.
             It's intriguing isn't it. More mystery on this earth than in all the heavens, some guy said.
             There are some very wealthy individuals who are clandestine *collectors, it is reasonable to consider they may know much more about the history / mystery's of this earth than we could possibly imagine.
              Science allows us to scratch the surface of their established philosophy, they don't however  go the whole nine yards, this in effects limits the knowledge of the commoner, we are not privy to the what they may consider to be entirely their own property not to be public..
              An example would be the vaults of the Vatican, top secret..eyes only, the Governments, the high brows, and the ELITE collectors.
              Another example many people are not aware of though it couldn't remain hidden(a secret)...:
The underground city at Derinkuyu has 18 stories that descend far into the Earth. Sophisticated shafts, some as long as 180 feet, provide ventilation to the complex’s multitude of residences, communal rooms, tunnels, wine cellars, oil presses, stables and chapels.
The city also has numerous wells to provide fresh water.  So many, that most scholars agree that Derinkuyu could have easily supported as many as 20,000 people.Built in 600 to 800 B.C. To think our renown archaeologists didn't know of this until 1969 is ludicrous.
  No big deal as it wasn't mentioned on MSM along as is GAGA..           Seriously we haven't truly been informed have we.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on January 10, 2014, 01:09:25 pm
http://www.nature.com/news/archaeology-the-milk-revolution-1.13471
Archaeology: The milk revolution

When a single genetic mutation first let ancient Europeans drink milk, it set the stage for a continental upheaval.
Andrew Curry
31 July 2013


In the 1970s, archaeologist Peter Bogucki was excavating a Stone Age site in the fertile plains of central Poland when he came across an assortment of odd artefacts. The people who had lived there around 7,000 years ago were among central Europe's first farmers, and they had left behind fragments of pottery dotted with tiny holes. It looked as though the coarse red clay had been baked while pierced with pieces of straw.
...

The mystery potsherds sat in storage until 2011, when Mélanie Roffet-Salque pulled them out and analysed fatty residues preserved in the clay. Roffet-Salque, a geochemist at the University of Bristol, UK, found signatures of abundant milk fats — evidence that the early farmers had used the pottery as sieves to separate fatty milk solids from liquid whey. That makes the Polish relics the oldest known evidence of cheese-making in the world 1.
...

Strong stomachs

Young children almost universally produce lactase and can digest the lactose in their mother's milk.

But as they mature, most switch off the lactase gene. Only 35% of the human population can digest lactose beyond the age of about seven or eight (ref. 2). “If you're lactose intolerant and you drink half a pint of milk, you're going to be really ill. Explosive diarrhoea — dysentery essentially,” says Oliver Craig, an archaeologist at the University of York, UK. “I'm not saying it's lethal, but it's quite unpleasant.”

(http://www.nature.com/polopoly_fs/7.11661.1375182095!/image/lactase-hotspots2.jpg_gen/derivatives/fullsize/lactase-hotspots2.jpg)

Most people who retain the ability to digest milk can trace their ancestry to Europe, where the trait seems to be linked to a single nucleotide in which the DNA base cytosine changed to thymine in a genomic region not far from the lactase gene. There are other pockets of lactase persistence in West Africa (see Nature 444, 994–996; 2006), the Middle East and south Asia that seem to be linked to separate mutations 3 (see 'Lactase hotspots').
...

http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052970203806504577178902881506254
Of Culture and Cows: What We Teach Our Genes
January 28, 2012

Human beings, we tend to think, are at the mercy of their genes. You either have blue eyes or you do not (barring contact lenses); no amount of therapy can change it. But genes are at the mercy of us, too. From minute to minute, they switch on and off (i.e., are actively used as recipes to make proteins) in the brain, the immune system or the skin in response to experience. Sunbathing, for example, triggers the expression of genes for the pigment melanin.

...
The new study, of 5,000-year-old bones from the Basque region of Spain, catches this evolutionary event in the act, finding that just 27% of individuals were then lactose tolerant, much lower than today. Concepción de la Rúa of Spain's University of the Basque Country and her fellow authors conclude that the genetic change most probably happened after cattle domestication, at a time "when fresh milk consumption was already fully adopted as a consequence of a cultural influence." Here we have genes at the mercy of culture.

Could blue eyes be another example of the same phenomenon—"culture-gene co-evolution"? Thanks to the work of the appropriately named (and blue-eyed) Danish geneticist Hans Eiberg and his colleagues, we now know that the chief mutation that causes blue eyes is a single letter change, from A to G, at the 26,039,213rd position on chromosome 15, within a gene called HERC2.

HERC2 has no effect on eye color, but it contains an unexpressed segment of DNA that is needed for the switching on of a nearby gene called OCA2, as demonstrated by newly published work by Robert-Jan Palstra and others at Erasmus University in the Netherlands. The mutation that causes blue eyes reduces the expression of OCA2 and hence reduces pigment concentration. Paler eyes look bluer.

Why did this mutation become so common somewhere around the shores of the Baltic sea around 6,000 years ago? The answer may lie in the fact that the date coincides with the arrival of agriculture in the area. When people began relying heavily on a diet of bread at such a northern latitude, they probably became chronically deficient in vitamin D, for bread is generally low in vitamin D.

This wouldn't matter in a lower latitude, because the body can synthesize vitamin D if exposed to ultraviolet sun rays. But in northern Europe, diseases related to vitamin D deficiency, such as rickets, would have become common. Any individual who had a genetic mutation that lightened his or her skin (and eyes) would absorb more sunlight, boosting health and the ability to survive and breed. Paleness was selected.

When Nordic people started depending more on bread than on fish, they got less vitamin D from their diet. As a result, they got paler, improving the capacity of their skin to generate this crucial nutrient just from scarce sunlight. How they lived changed, in effect, how they looked.


http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/07/125-missing-human-ancestor/shreeve-text
The Case of the Missing Ancestor
DNA from a cave in Russia adds a mysterious new member to the human family.
By Jamie Shreeve
Photograph by Robert Clark
(http://s.ngm.com/2013/07/missing-human-ancestor/img/denisovan-cave-460v.jpg)

In the Altay Mountains of southern Siberia, some 200 miles from where Russia touches Mongolia, China, and Kazakhstan, nestled under a rock face about 30 yards above a little river called the Anuy, there is a cave called Denisova. It has long attracted visitors. The name comes from that of a hermit, Denis, who is said to have lived there in the 18th century. Long before that, Neolithic and later Turkic pastoralists took shelter in the cave, gathering their herds around them to ride out the Siberian winters. Thanks to them, the archaeologists who work in Denisova today, surrounded by walls spattered with recent graffiti, had to dig through deep layers of goat dung to get to the deposits that interested them. But the cave’s main chamber has a high, arched ceiling with a hole near the top that directs shimmering shafts of sunlight into the interior, so that the space feels holy, like a church.

...
The green stone bracelet found earlier in Layer 11 had almost surely been made by modern humans. The toe bone was Neanderthal. And the finger bone was something else entirely. One cave, three kinds of human being. “Denisova is magical,” said Pääbo.

“It’s the one spot on Earth that we know of where Neanderthals, Denisovans, and modern humans all lived.”

All week, during breaks in the conference, he kept returning alone to the cave. It was as if he thought he might find clues by standing where the little girl may have stood and touching the cool stone walls she too may have touched.
...

http://www.sciencenewsline.com/articles/2013121820370017.html
Neanderthal Genome Shows Early Human Interbreeding, Inbreeding  
Published: December 18, 2013. By University of California - Berkeley
http://www.berkeley.edu  

(http://www.sciencenewsline.com/news/images2/2013121820370017w.jpg)
...

The comparison shows that Neanderthals and Denisovans are very closely related, and that their common ancestor split off from the ancestors of modern humans about 400,000 years ago. Neanderthals and Denisovans split about 300,000 years ago.

Though Denisovans and Neanderthals eventually died out, they left behind bits of their genetic heritage because they occasionally interbred with modern humans. The research team estimates that between 1.5 and 2.1 percent of the genomes of modern non-Africans can be traced to Neanthertals.

Denisovans also left genetic traces in modern humans, though only in some Oceanic and Asian populations. The genomes of Australian aborigines, New Guineans and some Pacific Islanders are about 6 percent Denisovan genes, according to earlier studies. The new analysis finds that the genomes of Han Chinese and other mainland Asian populations, as well as of native Americans, contain about 0.2 percent Denisovan genes.

The genome comparisons also show that Denisovans interbred with a mysterious fourth group of early humans also living in Eurasia at the time. That group had split from the others more than a million years ago, and may have been the group of human ancestors known as Homo erectus, which fossils show was living in Europe and Asia a million or more years ago.

"The paper really shows that the history of humans and hominins during this period was very complicated," said Slatkin, a UC Berkeley professor of integrative biology. "There was lot of interbreeding that we know about and probably other interbreeding we haven't yet discovered."
...

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tevSkylmvXk
PBS Nova Decoding Neanderthals 720p HD

http://archaeology.about.com/od/domestications/a/plant_domestic.htm
...
Plant Domestication
 
Plant Where Domesticated Date
Fig trees Near East 9000 BC
Emmer wheat Near East 9000 BC
Foxtail Millet East Asia 9000 BC
Einkorn wheat Near East 8500 BC
Barley Near East 8500 BC
Chickpea Anatolia 8500 BC
Bottle gourd Asia 8000 BC
Rice Asia 8000 BC
Potatoes Andes Mountains 8000 BC
Beans South America 8000 BC
Squash (Cucurbita pepo) Central America 8000 BC
Maize Central America 7000 BC
Water Chestnut Asia 7000 BC
Perilla Asia 7000 BC
Burdock Asia 7000 BC
Broomcorn millet East Asia 6000 BC
Bread wheat Near East 6000 BC
Manioc/Cassava South America 6000 BC
Chenopodium South America 5500 BC
Date Palm Southwest Asia 5000 BC
Avocado Central America 5000 BC
Cotton Southwest Asia 5000 BC
Bananas Island Southeast Asia 5000 BC
Beans Central America 5000 BC
Chili peppers South America 4000 BC
Amaranth Central America 4000 BC
Watermelon Near East 4000 BC
Olives Near East 4000 BC
Cotton Peru 4000 BC
Pomegranate Iran 3500 BC
Hemp East Asia 3500 BC
Cotton Mesoamerica 3000 BC
Azuki Bean East Asia 3000 BC
Coca South America 3000 BC
Sago Palm Southeast Asia 3000 BC
Squash (Cucurbita pepo ovifera ) North America 3000 BC
Sunflower Central America 2600 BC
Rice India 2500 BC
Sweet Potato Peru 2500 BC
Pearl millet Africa 2500 BC
Marsh elder (Iva annua) North America 2400 BC
Sorghum Africa 2000 BC
Sunflower North America 2000 BC
Saffron Mediterranean 1900 BC
Chenopodium China 1900 BC
Chenopodium North America 1800 BC
Chocolate Mexico 1600 BC
Coconut Southeast Asia 1500 BC
Rice Africa 1500 BC
Tobacco South America 1000 BC
Eggplant Asia 1st century BC
Vanilla Central America 14th century AD

http://archaeology.about.com/od/dterms/a/domestication.htm

Animal  - Where Domesticated Date
Dog undetermined ~14-30,000 BC?
Sheep Western Asia 8500 BC
Cat Fertile Crescent 8500 BC  [ that's wrong, cats were never domesticated  - but they are good mousers ]
Goats Western Asia 8000 BC
Pigs Western Asia 7000 BC
Cattle Eastern Sahara 7000 BC
Chicken Asia 6000 BC
Guinea pig Andes Mountains 5000 BC
Taurine Cattle Western Asia 6000 BC
Zebu Indus Valley 5000 BC
Llama and Alpaca Andes Mountains 4500 BC
Donkey Northeast Africa 4000 BC
Horse Kazakhstan 3600 BC
Silkworm China 3500 BC
Bactrian camel Southern Russia 3000 BC
Honey Bee Near East or Western Asia 3000 BC
Dromedary camel Saudi Arabia 3000 BC
Banteng Thailand 3000 BC
Water buffalo Pakistan 2500 BC
Duck Western Asia 2500 BC
Yak Tibet 2500 BC
Goose Germany 1500 BC
Mongoose? Egypt 1500 BC
Reindeer Siberia 1000 BC
Turkey Mexico 100 BC-AD 100
Muscovy duck South America ~AD 100
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on January 11, 2014, 12:19:02 pm
http://archaeology.org/issues/116-1401/features/top10/1581-nevada-winnemucca-lame-rock-carvings
North America’s Oldest Petroglyphs

Winnemucca Lake, Nevada
By ERIC A. POWELL
Tuesday, December 10, 2013

(http://archaeology.org/images/JF2014/Top_10/Lake-Winnemucca-petroglyphs-Top-10.jpg)

The analysis of carbonate that crusted over petroglyphs when they were covered by the waters of Winnemucca Lake in Nevada indicates that the rock carvings are at least 10,000  years old, making them the oldest in North America.

Paleoindians are often thought of as pioneering explorers or expert mammoth hunters. But new dating of geometric rock carvings in Nevada’s Winnemucca Lake basin now suggests they were also accomplished artists.

A team led by University of Colorado paleoclimatologist Larry Benson was able to date the carbonate crust that covers the petroglyphs. Benson concluded that the artwork must have been created more than 10,000 years ago, before the carvings were submerged beneath the lake’s higher waters and covered in carbonate. “We knew they were old,” he says. “We just didn’t know they were that old.” According to Benson, it’s possible that paleoartists made the carvings as early as 15,000 years ago.

Just what those artists meant to depict is unclear. Some of the petroglyphs may represent clouds and lightning, others are diamond- shaped, and there are some patterns that might represent trees. Whatever the inspiration for the carvings, the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, which owns the Winnemucca Lake basin, considers them sacred to this day.

http://hyperallergic.com/79044/researchers-discover-the-oldest-petroglyphs-in-north-america/

Petroglyphs in western Nevada have been identified as the oldest of their kind in North America. Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder conducted a study that dates the rock carvings to between 10,500 and 14,800 years ago.

(http://www.mygen.com/images/Sfig3.a.jpg)

Two images trace the shapes of some of the petroglyphs more clearly and show their relative size (click to enlarge)
...
The rock carvings previously thought to be the oldest in the US are located near in Oregon near Long Lake. There’s no estimated date for those, but one of the panels was carved at least 6,700 years ago, which is when a nearby volcano buried it in ash.

By comparison, the oldest known rock art in the world was carved some 37,000 years ago — and it’s a depiction of a vulva.

http://hyperallergic.com/51498/oldest-rock-art-depicts-vulva/
Archeologist Uncovers Oldest Rock Art, Exclaims “Oh , A Vulva”
by Hrag Vartanian on June 6, 2012

It should be no surprise that early humans decorated their surroundings with symbols of fertility, so the discovery that the oldest rock art ever found in Europe depicts a vulva isn’t exactly making waves. But the discover is more than noteworthy consider it is reputedly “the oldest evidence of any kind of graphic imagery.”

(http://www.mygen.com/images/Bloc-K-vulve-640.jpg)

(http://www.mygen.com/images/map_france-abri-castanet-320.jpg)

The new discovery, uncovered at a site called Abri Castanet in France, consists mainly of circular carvings most likely meant to represent the vulva. The carvings were etched into the ceiling of a now-collapsed rock shelter about 37,000 years ago, researchers reported Monday (May 14) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Who were these early artists? They were a group called the Aurignicians, a group from Africa that lived roughtly 45,000 to 35,000 years ago and eventually replace the Neanderthals.

http://www.karstworlds.com/2012/05/cave-women-in-different-light.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurignacian
The Aurignacian culture (/ɔrɪɡˈneɪʃən/ or /ɔrɪnˈjeɪʃən/) is an archaeological culture of the Upper Palaeolithic, located in Europe and southwest Asia. It lasted broadly within the period from ca. 45,000 to 35,000 years ago (about 37,000 to 27,000 years ago on the uncalibrated radiocarbon timescale; between ca. 47,000 and 41,000 years ago using the most recent calibration of the radiocarbon timescale[1]). The name originates from the type site of Aurignac in the Haute-Garonne area of France.
...
This sophistication and self-awareness led archaeologists to consider the makers of Aurignacian artifacts the first modern humans in Europe. Human remains and Late Aurignacian artifacts found in juxtaposition support this inference

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/32/Aurignacian_culture_map-en.svg/500px-Aurignacian_culture_map-en.svg.png)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: iamc2 on January 11, 2014, 12:40:30 pm
In my opinion all the activity on planet earth: prior to Noah's Flood: was conducted by 'Fallen Angels.'

and they did have technology and could build what ever they desired: These Were GIANTS back in that day!

 Question? if Ancient Aliens came to earth and are watching us? and are here to HELP MANKIND?

 Well! they are doing a terrible job.

 And now I say; "You outer space entities are doing a lousy job: and Now you are unemployed."

 I do not need your demonic nonsense: so go back to Outer-Space/ or is it the inter dimension from Hell?

(the only mystery human is a person that does not understand themselves!)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on January 11, 2014, 01:41:59 pm
Ok, what about retroviruses attaching to the male Y chromosome? Inquiring minds wanted to know!
turns out yes - HERV's have been attaching to the Y-chromosome as far back as 10 million years ago ... hmmmm

Now what is interesting in the ol' days genetic mutation by "gamma" radiation was supposedly what caused all the great differentiation , but what we see here is that retro-viruses implanting themselves into the genome creates much more .... and an intelligent being could devise a retro virus that wouild have specific targets in dna ....
 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20703239
Human endogenous retrovirus K14C drove genomic diversification of the Y chromosome during primate evolution.
...

http://www.experts.scival.com/kanazawa/pubDetail.asp?t=pm&id=78649510670&o_id=1&n=KAZUHIRO+SUGIMOTO&u_id=626
Human endogenous retrovirus K14C drove genomic diversification of the Y chromosome during primate evolution

Ho-Su Sin; Eitetsu Koh; Dae-Soo Kim; Miho Murayama; Kazuhiro Sugimoto; Yuji Maeda; Atsumi Yoshida; Mikio Namiki
(Profiled Authors: MIKIO NAMIKI; YUJI MAEDA)
Journal of Human Genetics. 2010;55(11):717-725.


Abstract

The male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) has accumulated a higher density of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related sequences when compared with other regions of the human genome.

Here, we focused on one HERV family, HERV-K14C that seemed to integrate preferentially into the Y chromosome in humans. To identify every copies of HERV-K14C in the human genome, we applied computational screening to map precisely the locus of individual HERV-K14C copies. Interestingly, 29 of all 146 copies were located in Y chromosome, and these 29 copies were mostly dispersed in the palindromic region. Three distinct HERV-K14C-related transcripts were found and were exclusively expressed in human testis tissue.

Based on our phylogenetic analysis of the solitary LTRs derived from HERV-K14C on the Y chromosome we suggested that these sequences were generated as pairs of identical sequences. Specifically, analysis of HERV-K14C-related sequences in the palindromic region demonstrated that the Y chromosomal amplicons existed in our common ancestors and the duplicated pairs arose after divergence of great apes approximately 8-10 million years ago. Taken together, our observation suggested that HERV-K14C-related sequences contributed to genomic diversification of Y chromosome during speciation of great ape lineage. © 2010 The Japan Society of Human Genetics All rights reserved.


....


Human endogenous retrovirus K14C drove genomic diversification of the Y chromosome during primate evolution.   (http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&ved=0CDIQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.researchgate.net%2Fpublication%2F45630134_Human_endogenous_retrovirus_K14C_drove_genomic_diversification_of_the_Y_chromosome_during_primate_evolution%2Ffile%2Fd912f5139bba16a6ed.pdf&ei=cJrRUonSD8nKsQSf-4KoCA&usg=AFQjCNEEi8ZhGf7PbC4SVR6O2SziAeWKlA&bvm=bv.59026428,d.b2I)


Abstract
The male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) has accumulated a higher density of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related sequences when compared with other regions of the human genome.

Here, we focused on one HERV family, HERV-K14C that seemed to integrate preferentially into the Y chromosome in humans.

To identify every copies of HERVK14C in the human genome, we applied computational screening to map precisely the locus of individual HERV-K14C copies. Interestingly, 29 of all 146 copies were located in Y chromosome, and these 29 copies were mostly dispersed in the palindromic region. Three 10 distinct HERV-K14C-related transcripts were found and were exclusively expressed in human testis tissue.

Based on our phylogenetic analysis of the solitary LTRs derived from HERV-K14C on the Y chromosome we suggested that these sequences were generated as pairs of identical sequences. Specifically, analysis of HERV-K14C-related sequences in the palindromic region demonstrated that the Y chromosomal amplicons existed in our common ancestors and the 15 duplicated pairs arose after divergence of great apes approximately 8-10 million years ago.

Taken together, our observation suggested that HERV-K14C-related sequences contributed to genomic diversification of Y chromosome during speciation of great ape lineage.
...

Several distinct families of HERVs exist in the human genome.6,7

The majority of HERVs 50 inserted into primate genome after the divergence of New World and Old World monkeys and were subjected to several amplification events during primate evolution. 8,9 When HERVs integrate into a host genome, they generate a form of the viral genome, including a 5’ LTR (long terminal repeats) - gag (capsid protein) - pol (viral enzyme) - env (envelope protein) -3´LTR, deleterious mutations during evolution.

Nevertheless, some HERV-related sequences are actively expressed and able to influence the host genome. For instance, the envelope protein of one of the most abundant families, HERV-W, serves an important function in the morphogenesis of the placenta in human.11 Not only the coding regions of HERVs contribute to transcriptome
60 diversity; the LTRs contain transcription factor binding sites, hormone response elements, and polyadenylation signals that influence the host genome.

Many reports demonstrate that HERV sequences regulate expression of functional genes near the site of integration.12-14

An ancient member of HERV-K family entered the genome in the Old World monkey lineage but HERV-K recurrently amplified and expanded during primate evolution.15

Some of HERV-K 65 members are present only in chimpanzees and humans, indicating a relatively recent integration event within in the last five to eight million years.16

The solitary HERV-K LTR sequences, rather than the full-length retrovirus, give rise to the genetic variants found in some human individuals.17,18 In addition, the amplification of HERV-K elements within the human lineage causes insertion polymorphism in the human genome.


http://vir.sgmjournals.org/content/80/4/835.full.pdf
Journal of General Virology (1999), 80, 835–839. Printed in Great Britain

A human endogenous retrovirus-like (HERV) LTR formed more than 10 million years ago due to an insertion of HERV-H LTR
into the 5« LTR of HERV-K is situated on human chromosomes 10, 19 and Y

...
A chimeric long terminal repeat (LTR) containing the whole LTR of a human endogenous retrovirus like element of the H family (HERV-H) inserted downstream of the core enhancer region of the 5« LTR of a HERV-K retroelement was detected and sequenced in the human 19p12 locus, known to be enriched with genes encoding zinc finger proteins.

Similar chimeras were also detected in human chromosomes 10 and Y in human–hamster hybrid cells containing individual human chromosomes.
This finding was interpreted as evidence of transpositions of the chimera in the genome. PCR analyses detected the chimera in the genomes of chimpanzee and gorilla, but not in that of orangutan.

These data demonstrate that the chimera appeared in the primate germ cells more than 10 million years ago, before divergence of the human/chimpanzee and the gorilla lineages. The combination of the two LTRs forms a new regulatory system that can be involved in nearby gene expression.


http://jmg.bmj.com/content/37/10/752.full.pdf
Divergent outcomes of intrachromosomal recombination on the human Y chromosome:
male infertility and recurrent polymorphism

Abstract
The Y chromosome provides a unique opportunity to study mutational processes within the human genome, decoupled from the confounding effects of interchromosomal
recombination. It has been suggested that the increased density of certain dispersed repeats on the Y could account for the high frequency of causative
microdeletions relative to single nucleotide mutations in infertile males
.

Previously we localised breakpoints of an  AZFa microdeletion close to two highly homologous complete human endogenous retroviral sequences (HERV), separated
by 700 kb. Here we show, by sequencing across the breakpoint, that the microdeletion occurs in register within a highly homologous segment between the HERVs.

Furthermore, we show that recurrent double crossovers have occurred between the HERVs, resulting in the loss of a 1.5 kb insertion from one HERV, an event underlying the first ever Y chromosomal polymorphism described, the 12f2 deletion.

This event produces a substantially longer segment of absolute homology and as such may result in increased predisposition to further intrachromosomal recombination.

Intrachromosomal crosstalk between these two HERV sequences can thus result in either homogenising sequence conversion or a microdeletion causing male
infertility. This represents a major subclass of AZFa deletions.
...

Human endogenous retroviral sequences (HERV) are a major subclass of dispersed repeats, accounting for about 1% of the human genome.5 The remnants of ancient germ cell retroviral infections that have been multiply transposed after their original integration, partial and complete HERV proviral sequences are widely distributed throughout the genome.6

The degree of sequence divergence between superfamilies of HERV varies markedly and is thought to correlate with the time since major waves of amplification.7 Until now HERV sequences have not been associated with pathogenic illegitimate recombination.

The human Y chromosome has been recently shown to contain certain dispersed repeats, including Alu and HERV sequences, at a significantly higher frequency than the autosomes.8 It has been suggested that deletions mediated by this higher frequency of dispersed repeats may be the major mode of pathogenic mutation on the Y chromosome.9 It has also been suggested that the history of inversions on the Y chromosome that characterized its divergence from the X also results from this higher density of repeats.
...

The first Y linked polymorphism was discovered in 1985, by probing restriction enzyme digests of genomic DNA with a 2.3 kb BglII fragment from the p12f clone.20 From Southern hybridisations of TaqI and EcoRI digests it was hypothesised that a deletion of roughly 2 kb was the event underlying the polymorphism. The Y chromosomal lineage defined by the 12f2 deletion is of interest for studies of prehistoric migrations and is found at highest frequencies (greater than 25%) in Middle Eastern, southern European, North African, and Ethiopian populations.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymorphism_(biology)

In polyphenism, an individual's genetic make-up allows for different morphs, and the switch mechanism that determines which morph is shown is environmental.

In genetic polymorphism, the genetic make-up determines the morph.

| - - - -

X HERV-K only a million years ago ....  

http://www.pnas.org/content/101/6/1668.full.pdf
Human endogenous retrovirus K solo-LTR formation and insertional polymorphisms: Implications for human and viral evolution

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are a potential source of genetic diversity in the human genome. Although many of these elements have been inactivated over time by the accumulation of deleterious mutations or internal recombination leading to solo-LTR formation, several members of the HERV-K family have been identified that remain nearly intact and probably represent recent integration events.

 To determine whether HERV-K elements have caused recent changes in the human genome, we have undertaken a study of the level of HERV-K polymorphism that exists in the human population. By using a high-resolution unblotting technique, we analyzed 13 human-specific HERV-K elements in 18 individuals.

We found that solo LTRs have formed at five of these loci. These results enable the estimation of HERV solo-LTR formation in the human genome and indicate that these events occur much more frequently than described in inbred mice. Detailed sequence analysis of one provirus shows that solo-LTR formation occurred at least three separate times in recent history.

An unoccupied preintegration site also was present at this locus in two individuals, indicating that although the age of this provirus is estimated to be 1.2 million years, it has not yet become fixed in the human population.
...

Discussion
By using a high-resolution hybridization method, we have found that the HERV-K family of endogenous retroviruses is quite polymorphic in the human population.

Of the 24 proviruses detected by our probe, only the more recently integrated elements, namely those that were found to be human-specific, contain polymorphic loci. Four such human-specific elements, including two that were identified in ref. 11, are apparently not yet fixed in the human population, as evidenced by the presence
of unoccupied preintegration sites in the genomes of some individuals
.

One of these elements, HERV-K115, is very rare in the population and, therefore, most likely represents a more recent integration event. The remaining polymorphic elements have undergone solo-LTR formation at some point after their integration, and these solo-LTR alleles exist at different frequencies in the human population, perhaps reflecting their time of formation.

The time that it would take for a neutral allele to reach fixation in the human population is 800,000 years, or 4N generations, given an effective population size of 10,000 and a generation time of 20 years (20). Therefore, in the absence of selection, a solo LTR that has formed within the last 800,000 years will not yet be fixed.


http://jvi.asm.org/content/79/19/12507

Genomewide Screening Reveals High Levels of Insertional Polymorphism in the Human Endogenous Retrovirus Family HERV-K(HML2):
Implications for Present-Day Activity

ABSTRACT

The published human genome sequence contains many thousands of endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) but all are defective, containing nonsense mutations or major deletions.

Only the HERV-K(HML2) family has been active since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees; it contains many members that are human specific, as well as several that are insertionally polymorphic (an inserted element present only in some human individuals).

Here we perform a genomewide survey of insertional polymorphism levels in this family by using the published human genome sequence and a diverse sample of 19 humans.

We find that there are 113 human-specific HERV-K(HML2) elements in the human genome sequence, 8 of which are insertionally polymorphic (11 if we extrapolate to those within regions of the genome that were not suitable for amplification).

The average rate of accumulation since the divergence with chimpanzees is thus approximately 3.8 × 10−4 per haploid genome per generation. Furthermore, we find that the number of polymorphic elements is not significantly different from that predicted by a standard population genetic model that assumes constant activity of the family until the present.

This suggests to us that the HERV-K(HML2) family may be active in present-day humans.

Active (replication-competent) elements are likely to have inserted very recently and to be present at low allele frequencies, and they may be causing disease in the individuals carrying them. This view of the family from a population perspective rather than a genome perspective will inform the current debate about a possible role of HERV-K(HML2) in human disease

| - - - -

one hundred thousand years HERV K-106 - All humans have it - which is also to say none that were infected survived without it entering the dna ie  we are all the survivors

http://sciencelife.uchospitals.edu/2011/10/11/the-viruses-hidden-within-us/
...

Previously, the youngest HERVs were estimated to be 800,000 years old. For a recent paper in the journal PLoS ONE that explored how recently HERVs were actually circulating as viruses, Aashish Jha, a University of Chicago graduate student in the Department of Human Genetics and former member of Douglas Nixon‘s lab at UCSF, looked for recent integrations into the human genome. Using a genome browser at UCSC, Jha and colleagues tracked all the human-specific, full-length HERVs at a particular place in the human genome. Interestingly, one HERV called k106 didn’t fit the normal timeline.

“It looked interesting because it did not have any mutations in its LTRs,” Jha said.

This was an unusual find, as the age of most HERVs insures at least a few mutations that would aid in dating it. Using genetic information from 51 ethnically diverse individuals, Jha and colleagues were able to estimate that the k106 HERV integrated between 92 and 100 thousand years ago, making it one of the youngest HERVs ever identified.

This time period is exactly the time modern humans were emerging,” Jha pointed out, “So someone was infected and, given that it was a small population size, it rapidly became fixed in the genome. Then humans moved out of Africa…so even though the virus is new we find it fixed in every human population.”


Having identified this recently integrated, human-specific HERV, it’s possible to gain insight on the ways HERVs have affected the course of our development. LTRs flanking HERVs contain signals that control when and where genes are turned on and off. Placing these viral signals in front of host genes could impact how and when they are expressed and, in some cases, lend an advantage to the individuals possessing it.

“There are multiple ways they [affect evolution],” Jha said.

...

the identification of recent integrations such as k106 – the first HERV identified as having integrated after the rise of modern man – will help us understand some leaps in our evolution as well as the threats that may be contained within our own cells.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16024218
The distribution of the endogenous retroviruses HERV-K113 and HERV-K115 in health and disease

Abstract


The human endogenous retroviruses HERV-K113 and HERV-K115 are full-length proviruses but unusual in being found in only a proportion of the population. Here, we study the geographic distribution of these HERVs and their prevalence in autoimmune disease. The frequency of HERV-K113 and HERV-K115 in 174 individuals from Africa was 21.8 and 34.1%, respectively, compared to 4.16 and 1% in 96 people in the United Kingdom (p < 0.001). Prevalence in Yemen (n = 56) was 8 and 7.14% and in Papua New Guinea (n = 54) 0% for both. In the United Kingdom, HERV-K113 was found in 15.6% of 96 Sjögren's syndrome patients (p < 0.01) and 11.9% of 109 multiple sclerosis patients (p < 0.05). No increase in prevalence in either disease was seen with HERV-K115. These data suggest that both viruses are recently integrated and/or under positive evolutionary selection pressure. HERV-K113 may be a genetic risk factor for some types of autoimmunity.

http://www.internalmedicinenews.com/index.php?id=2049&type=98&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=11775&cHash=da03e20e36
Out of Africa: Retrovirus Linked to Autoimmunity
By: NANCY WALSH
06/15/05

BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND — A newly identified human endogenous retrovirus that is much more prevalent in Africa than in other parts of the world may place its carriers at risk for certain autoimmune diseases, David Moyes, Ph.D., said at the joint meeting of the British Society for Rheumatology and the German Society for Rheumatology.

Patients with autoimmune diseases often have elevated antibody levels to certain structural proteins of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), suggesting a possible role for these viruses in autoimmune disease, Dr. Moyes said.

Until recently it was thought that HERVs were ubiquitous and fixed in the population, having been incorporated into the genome before the initial wave of human migration out of Africa some 200,000 years ago. But two of these viruses, HERV-K113 and HERV-K115 are now known to vary widely in prevalence across different populations. “This means that both viruses are likely to have been incorporated into the genome during more recent human evolution and that both could potentially induce an autoimmune response,” he said.

The mean prevalence of HERV-K113 identified by polymerase chain reaction testing in a sample of 174 subjects from Kenya, Malawi, and Côte d'Ivoire was 21.8%, compared with 4.2% in a sample of 96 subjects from the United Kingdom, said Dr. Moyes of the Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Imperial College, London.

Similarly, HERV-K115 was present in 34% of subjects from Africa and in only 1% of those in the United Kingdom.

“When you move off the African continent to the Arabian peninsula the prevalence drops off markedly. Neither virus was detected in any of 54 samples from Papua New Guinea,” he said.

“Because of the possibility that one or both of these retroviruses could be involved in autoimmune disease, we went on to analyze their prevalence in two U.K. disease cohorts,” Dr. Moyes said.

...
Increases in these diseases were not associated with K115, however, which is a defective virus. “Both are full length proviruses, but HERV-K113 is a complete virus that has open reading frames and can fully express all its genes. HERV-K115 has a single deletion that prevents the expression of the Pro/Pol genes,” he said.

http://imn.gcnpublishing.com/fileadmin/content_pdf/imn/archive_pdf/vol38iss12/71098_main.pdf
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: iamc2 on January 11, 2014, 10:28:07 pm
In my opinion all the activity on planet earth: prior to Noah's Flood: was conducted by 'Fallen Angels.'

and they did have technology and could build what ever they desired: These Were GIANTS back in that day!

 Question? if Ancient Aliens came to earth and are watching us? and are here to HELP MANKIND?

 Well! they are doing a terrible job.

 And now I say; "You outer space entities are doing a lousy job: and Now you are unemployed."

 I do not need your demonic nonsense: so go back to Outer-Space/ or is it the inter dimension from Hell?

(the only mystery human is a person that does not understand themselves!)

" The only Mystery Human is a person that does not understand themselves."


 When knowledge is never lived: then wisdom is never attained: the more information you think you have: most of the time it will become useless and clueless: Use your life to understand that knowledge will become wisdom; and only when you understand this, will you have lived a life which became wisdom! This wisdom lets you understand that the only mystery human is not you! Think about that!
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on January 18, 2014, 02:16:52 pm
(http://www.mygen.com/images/Fenrir.b.jpg)

You fed the wolf--when others would not, you took his troth---when tied was he, your hand took the wolf---when you bound the outlaw, so one handed god---they call you. (http://www.englatheod.org/tiwesbede.htm)

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140116190137.htm
Genomes of Modern Dogs and Wolves Provide New Insights On Domestication

Jan. 16, 2014 — Dogs and wolves evolved from a common ancestor between 9,000 and 34,000 years ago, before humans transitioned to agricultural societies, according to an analysis of modern dog and wolf genomes from areas of the world thought to be centers of dog domestication.

The study, published in PLoS Genetics on January 16, 2014, also shows that dogs are more closely related to each other than wolves, regardless of geographic origin. This suggests that part of the genetic overlap observed between some modern dogs and wolves is the result of interbreeding after dog domestication, not a direct line of descent from one group of wolves.

This reflects a more complicated history than the popular story that early farmers adopted a few docile, friendly wolves that later became our beloved, modern-day companions. Instead, the earliest dogs may have first lived among hunter-gatherer societies and adapted to agricultural life later.

"Dog domestication is more complex than we originally thought," said John Novembre, associate professor in the Department of Human Genetics at the University of Chicago and a senior author on the study. "In this analysis we didn't see clear evidence in favor of a multi-regional model, or a single origin from one of the living wolves that we sampled. It makes the field of dog domestication very intriguing going forward."
...

"One possibility is there may have been other wolf lineages that these dogs diverged from that then went extinct," he said. "So now when you ask which wolves are dogs most closely related to, it's none of these three because these are wolves that diverged in the recent past. It's something more ancient that isn't well represented by today's wolves."
...
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on January 18, 2014, 02:34:19 pm
(http://www.mygen.com/users/outlaw/images/Hogback_StThomas_Brompton_Yorkshire.jpg)

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/08/130827-mesolithic-european-hunter-gatherers-domesticated-pigs/
European Hunter-Gatherers Had Domesticated Pigs Earlier Than Thought

Presence of porkers reveals new information about culture in northern Germany.

Bentheim Black Pied pigs, an endangered domestic breed, are raised in Laer, Germany. New evidence suggests that ancient people in Germany had domestic pigs earlier than thought

By Ker Than for National Geographic
Published August 27, 2013

Domesticated pigs were present in northern Germany around 4600 B.C., some 500 years earlier than previously thought, new fossil and DNA evidence reveals.

[ http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/130827/ncomms3348/full/ncomms3348.html ]

The finding, detailed in this week's issue of the journal Nature Communications, is significant because the people living in that part of Europe at the time were Mesolithic hunter-gatherers who primarily lived off of wild game.

These people, known as the Ertebølle culture, kept domesticated dogs as hunting companions, but it would be several hundreds of years before they began raising animals and crops for food.

One hypothesis for how the Ertebølle came to acquire the pigs is that they traded for them with their farmer neighbors to the south.

"It would have been hard [for the hunter-gatherers] not to be fascinated by the strange-looking spotted pigs owned by farmers living nearby," study co-author Greger Larson, an archeologist at Durham University in the UK, said in a statement.

"It should come as no surprise that the hunter-gatherers acquired some eventually, but this study shows that they did very soon after the domestic pigs arrived in northern Europe."


What's New?

Using DNA analysis and tooth morphology comparison techniques, the scientists analyzed the bones and teeth of 63 pigs found at Ertebølle settlements in northern Germany.

The results showed that some of the pigs were domesticated animals that had both Near Eastern and European ancestry and which were similar to pigs bred by Neolithic farmers living in central Europe.

...
What's Next?

Krause-Kyora said the team plans to take advantage of next-generation DNA sequencing methods to create a complete genome of the ancient domesticated pigs for comparison with those of modern pig breeds.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on January 18, 2014, 03:08:22 pm
http://leherensuge.blogspot.com/2008/04/aurignacian-origins.html
Aurignacian origins

The development and arrival of Aurignacian culture to Europe was maybe a definitory moment. Most likely it was carried by the oldest Homo sapiens ever to step in the continent and these are our ancestors, at least our ancestors with the oldest roots here (others may have arrived later on).

Which are the exact origins of this culture seems to have arisen some scholarly disputes and the last word may not have been said yet. But the last years have provided some interesting papers that seem to be largely coincident. I'm mentioning three of them here:
...

3. P. Mellars: Archeology and the Dispersal of Modern Humans in Europe: Deconstructing the 'Aurignacian' (2006): For Mellars Aurignacian originates in Ahmarian (Near East), being Bachokirian an intermediate step. He also suggests two routes for the penetration of Aurignacian in Europe.

But more interestingly, Mellars reveals that recent studies allow for much more precise calibration of existing radiocarbon dates, pushing the arrival of Aurignacian to Europe back by some 5,000 years. Aurignacian colonists would therefore have arrived to most of Europe, roughly 42-41,000 years BP (calibrated) or, in other terms, some 40-39,000 years BCE.

He also provides a nice map:
(http://www.mygen.com/images/aurignacianog6.jpg)

Giant Caucasoid Mummies
For reference - Göbekli Tepe:  (Temple/Shrine Complex). - Oldest know civilized site found in Turkey - est 12000 years old - no explanation...


Dated at around 9,500 BC, these stones are 5,500 years older than the first cities of Mesopotamia (http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/turkeygobekli.htm)

Description - As there is no evidence of habitation; the structures are interpreted as temples.
After 8000 BC, the site was abandoned and purposely covered up with soil.

It consists of at least 20 underground rooms that contain a number of T-shaped stone pillars that are 8 feet tall and weigh about 7 tons. The pillars are engraved with images of animals, including leopards, snakes and spiders....This is not a place where people lived. It's as far away from water as you can get in this region
...
So far, 40-odd standing stones (two to four metres high) have been dug out. They are T-shaped and arranged in enclosed circles, which cover several hundred square metres. However, a broken, half-quarried stone has been found in a limestone bed about a kilometre from the main site. It is nine metres long, and was obviously intended to join the pillars at Gobekli: so there may be other stones, as yet unearthed, that are this big. Geomagnetic surveys imply that there are at least 250 more standing stones buried at the site.

(http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/Images/countries/Turkish%20pics/gobeklidisc1.gif)

http://www.archaeology.org/0811/abstracts/turkey.html
The World's First Temple  Volume 61 Number 6, November/December 2008 
by Sandra Scham 

(http://www.archaeology.org/0811/abstracts/thumbnails/turkey2.gif)
It is likely the megaliths at the Neolithic site of Göbekli Tepe in Turkey once supported roofs. Archaeologists have found floors constructed of burnt lime and clay within the stone circles--the earliest such floors ever discovered. (Haldun Aydingün)

Turkey's 12,000-year-old stone circles were the spiritual center of a nomadic people

...

[ Notiice: The EARLIER structures are MORE COMPLEX ]

Excavations have revealed that Göbekli Tepe was constructed in two stages. The oldest structures belong to what archaeologists call the early Pre-Pottery Neolithic A period, which ended around 9000 B.C.

Strangely enough, the later remains, which date to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period, or about 8000 B.C., are less elaborate.

The earliest levels contain most of the T-shaped pillars and animal sculptures

http://www.templestudy.com/2008/10/22/the-first-and-oldest-temple-in-the-world-gobekli-tepe/

http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/arqueologia/gobekli_tepe04.htm
(http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/imagenes_arqueo/gobekli_tepe04_01.jpg)

http://www.andrewcollins.com/page/news/News_vi_EQ12%20_1_May2009.htm
...
That Gobekli Tepe was constructed a full 7,000 years before either the Great Pyramid or Stonehenge is mind numbing in its implications for the history of human capability. More disturbing still is that the descendents of those Watchmen, or Watchers, who built Gobekli Tepe went on to construct further megalithic complexes.

As these went on they became cruder and cruder, until the early Neolithic peoples of southeast Turkey were simply erecting uncut standing stones or slabs either in circles or in lines. Much of the finesse of Gobekli Tepe and its contemporaries (Karahan Tepe and Nevali Cori, for instance) was lost, tending to suggest that these people were losing the impetus to create more complex structures. Despite this, we can see here the foundation of the megalithic culture, who then spread, c. 7000-5000 BC, from Upper Mesopotamia carrying with them the technologies and sciences of the Neolithic age, including an understanding of plant domestication in order that the world could settle into a more sedentary life style, away from its previous course of constant hunter-gathering.

(http://www.andrewcollins.com/db_GobekliTepe_Urfa-Region9.jpg)

http://www.articlesafari.com/2011/01/gobekli-tepe-aryan-settlement113/

Göbekli Tepe is the oldest human-made place of worship yet discovered. Until excavations began, a complex on this scale was not thought possible for a community so ancient. The massive sequence of stratification layers suggests several millennia of activity, perhaps reaching back to the Mesolithic. The oldest occupation layer (stratum III) contains monolithic pillars linked by coarsely built walls to form circular or oval structures. So far, four such buildings, with diameters between 10 and 30m have been uncovered. Geophysical surveys indicate the existence of 16 additional structures.

(http://www.mygen.com/images/gobekli-tepe-man-182x300.jpg)

Only a few of human figures have been recovered so far. The man is the worlds oldest statue, the 13,500 year old, 2m tall Balıklıgöl Statue. Stratum II, dated to Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) (7500–6000 BC), has revealed several adjacent rectangular rooms with floors of polished lime, reminiscent of Roman terrazzo floors. The most recent layer consists of sediment deposited as the result of agricultural activity.


(http://www.mygen.com/images/gobekli-tepe-3.jpg)
...
The archaeologists estimate that up to 500 persons were required to extract the 10–20 ton pillars (in fact, some weigh up to 50 tons) from local quarries and move them 100 to 500m to the site.


http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/turkeygobekli.htm

Göbekli Tepe:  (Temple/Shrine Complex).

This is the site of the worlds currently known oldest shrine or temple complex in the world, and the planet's oldest known example of monumental architecture. It has also produced the oldest known life-size figure of a human.

Compared to Stonehenge, Carnac or the Pyramids of Egypt, these are relatively humble megaliths. None of the circles excavated (four out of an estimated 20) are more than 30 meters across. What makes the discovery remarkable are both the exquisite and intricate carvings of boars, foxes, lions, birds, snakes and scorpions, and their age. Dated at around 9,500 BC, these stones are 5,500 years older than the first cities of Mesopotamia

Description  - As there is no evidence of habitation; the structures are interpreted as temples. After 8000 BC, the site was abandoned and purposely covered up with soil. (1)  It is thought that the hill top was a site of pilgrimage for communities within a radius of roughly a hundred miles. The tallest stones all face southeast,

In the Jan. 18 issue of the journal 'Science', German archaeologist Klaus Schmidt is interviewed about his work at the 11,000-year-old site of Gobekli Tepe ("navel hill") in Turkey.

According to Andrew Curry, the author of the Science article, Gobekli Tepe is situated on the most prominent hilltop for miles around. It consists of at least 20 underground rooms that contain a number of T-shaped stone pillars that are 8 feet tall and weigh about 7 tons. The pillars are engraved with images of animals, including leopards, snakes and spiders.

This is not a place where people lived. It's as far away from water as you can get in this region. Instead, it's a place of ceremony. And, according to Schmidt, it's "the first manmade holy place."

| - -- - -

The earlier humans (EMH - Early Modern Human ( don't use "Cro-Magnon" anymore) had BIGGER BRAINS and were stronger ( they like to say "more robust" )   According to Prof. Brian Fagan the term "European Early Modern Humans" EEMH is no longer used but rather Anatomically Modern Human (AMH) is preferred
   

http://phys.org/news187877156.html
Cro Magnon skull shows that our brains have shrunk
Mar 15, 2010 by Lisa Zyga

(PhysOrg.com) -- A new replica of an early modern human brain has provided further evidence for the theory that the human brain has been shrinking. The skull belonged to an elderly Cro Magnon man, whose skeleton is called Cro Magnon 1. The entire skeleton was discovered in 1868 in the Cro Magnon cave in Dordogne, France, and has since become one of the most famous Upper Palaeolithic skeletons. Using new technology, researchers have produced a replica of the 28,000-year-old brain and found that it is about 15-20% larger than our brains.

To produce the brain replica, called an endocast, the scientists first digitally scanned the interior of the empty skull. The images revealed the impression left by the brain on the neurocranium, which was then transformed into a 3D image. Software was then used to fabricate the brain endocast.

The researchers, including anthropologist Antoine Balzeau of the French Museum of Natural History, said that an initial assessment of Cro Magnon 1's skull supported the theory that brains have grown slightly smaller over the past tens of thousands of years, reversing an earlier trend toward larger brains.

The finding doesn’t suggest that humans today are less intelligent than earlier humans. Although previous studies have found a very small relationship between brain size and intelligence, many other factors affect brain intelligence.

For instance, different parts of the brain have different functions. The researchers found that the Cro Magnon brain appears to have had a smaller cerebellum - the brain region linked to motor control and language - than our brains today. The researchers explain that this finding shows that some parts of the brain are more “compressible” than others, while other regions seem to provide a benefit by growing larger.

Although scientists don’t know for sure why our overall brains are shrinking, some researchers hypothesize that our brains are becoming more efficient as they grow smaller. Having a large brain comes at a cost, so smaller brains have an advantage since they enable the body to use the extra energy for other purposes. On the other hand, perhaps a large skull had certain advantages for earlier people. One idea is that Cro Magnons needed large skulls because of the difficulty in chewing their food, which included lots of meat such as rabbits, foxes, and horses. Since our food has become easier to eat, we don’t need such large skulls or jaws. Another theory is that the high infant mortality rate in earlier times meant that young humans had to be physically robust (with large heads) to survive their early years.

http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/cromagnon.html

Fossil Hominids: Cro-Magnon Man
Cro-Magnon 1 Discovered by workmen in 1868 at Cro-Magnon, in the village of Les Eyzies in France. The estimated age of the site is 30,000 years. The site yielded 5 skeletons (3 adult males, an adult female, and a child) which had been buried there, along with stone tools, carved reindeer antlers, ivory pendants, and shells. The Cro-Magnons lived in Europe between 35,000 and 10,000 years ago. They are virtually identical to modern man, being tall and muscular and slightly more robust on average than most modern humans. They were skilled hunters, toolmakers and artists famous for the cave art at places such as Lascaux, Chauvet, and Altamira.

The skull at right is Cro-Magnon 1, is a male with a brain size of 1600 cc, some 200 cc larger than the average modern human.

If Cro-Magnons were modern humans, does that mean that modern humans are Cro-Magnons? Not really. Logically, many modern humans should be, since most modern Europeans are probably descended from them. But the term has no taxonomic significance and usually just refers to Europeans in a certain time range, even though other modern humans were living throughout much of the world at the same time.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomically_modern_humans
...
According to Prof. Brian Fagan the term "European Early Modern Humans" EEMH is no longer used but rather Anatomically Modern Human (AMH) is preferred

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cro-Magnon
...
Current scientific literature prefers the term European Early Modern Humans (EEMH), to the term 'Cro-Magnon,' which has no formal taxonomic status, as it refers neither to a species or subspecies nor to an archaeological phase or culture
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on January 18, 2014, 10:10:06 pm
http://planetsave.com/2010/11/04/modern-humans-emerged-in-east-asia-much-earlier-than-previously-thought/
Modern Humans Emerged in East Asia Much Earlier than Previously Thought
04/11/2010

A recently completed analysis of a 2007 discovery of human remains in Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave), South China, has revealed that modern humans (the first true homo sapiens) emerged outside of Africa far earlier than was previously thought. In fact, 60, 000 years earlier!

The fossil finds were rather modest: two molars and one partial, anterior mandible (front jaw fragment). The team (Wu Liu et al), using an improved U-Series (uranium isotope) dating technique, as well as comparisons to nearby animal fossil samples, were able to date the fossil fragments to >100, 000 bp (before the present).

...

An additional question amongst some anthropologists has been whether or not archaic forms of the genus homo (such as Neandertal; some have even suggested the more ancient Homo erectus) co-existed in the same regions with early modern humans (in Europe, these were the Cro-Magnon, or, European Early Modern Humans, EEMH). The question of interbreeding between EEMH and other species of Homo was hotly debated for many decades until the recent sequencing of the Neandertal genome, revealing genetic material in common (“hybridization”) with modern humans (but with key gene mutations at sites that control skeletal formation and hair pigment, amongst others).

The overlap in dating of these Zhiren Cave finds with the older ones indicates that these two forms of hominid co-existed for thousands of years. Giving further support to this scenario, analysis showed that the jaw bone and teeth possessed a mixture of modern and archaic homo characteristics. The mandible is claimed to be distinct from that of any late, archaic human mandible, and that its morphology and “corpus robustness” place it closer to the late Pleistocene archaic humans.


http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/10/101025172924.htm
Modern Humans Emerged Far Earlier Than Previously Thought, Fossils from China Suggest

Oct. 28, 2010 — An international team of researchers, including a physical anthropology professor at Washington University in St. Louis, has discovered well-dated human fossils in southern China that markedly change anthropologists perceptions of the emergence of modern humans in the eastern Old World.
...

The discovery of early modern human fossil remains in the Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in south China that are at least 100,000 years old provides the earliest evidence for the emergence of modern humans in eastern Asia, at least 60,000 years older than the previously known modern humans in the region.

(http://images.sciencedaily.com/2010/10/101025172924.jpg)

Scientists have discovered early modern human fossil remains in the Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in south China that are at least 100,000 years old. (Credit: Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: Highland on January 20, 2014, 08:30:15 am
"Meanwhile, early modern humans left Africa about 80,000 to 50,000 years ago."

 Not sure about all that. They have been hiding away the bones of giants and elongated skulls with only two cranial plates or anything else that dose not fit into a creator less evolutionary-commune group idea of the world. You can grab some old pig bones make a claim that they are the missing link and get all your groupie evolutionary support ideas out worldwide. As with many animals the long skulls with only two cranial plates seem to appear on the earth and then die out without evolving.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnERUZNqwbc
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on January 20, 2014, 07:13:35 pm
 Ever get the feeling we are only scratching the surface of earths true history.
 You have but to look at any sanctioned public school history book to recognize the fairy tales they spin.
 
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on January 24, 2014, 07:59:54 am
The bible mentions giants roamed the earth to include  David killed the giant Goliath.
Seems to me humans don't cotton to the unexplained, different races etc.
 Can I make a guess here, either anomaly's, different races, were waked out or have gone into hiding. In short society creates a norm, if someone doesn't fit the general accepted appearance they may have been exterminated.
Long ago a left handed guy were looked at differently, or a redhead was a sign of of trouble as the legend of Judas was he had this hair color. Times are changing ( not much though), but back in those days being different in physical appearance was NOT socially accepted in the extreme.
  Different cultures, race, size, physical differences, religion, whatever- have been hit on by what is conceived as the Ole Norm..
Peruvian Skulls
These odd elongated skulls originate from Peru. They were excavated in Nazca - close to the mysterious Nazca lines. skeletal remains reveal that this race was extremely tall - up to nine feet in height. Similar skulls have been excavated in Mexico and are on display in museums. Some of the elongated skulls showed evidence of ancient brain surgery, suggesting an advanced knowledge and understanding of biology. Suggestions that the skulls were altered by a process of binding the skull in infancy, when the cranial bones are soft, encouraging them to grow into an un-natural shape, have been rejected. Cult examiner SC
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on February 11, 2014, 01:39:09 pm
Now what is interesting about "some" of the South American Elongated skulls, is they have definite anatomical difference - ie they are not a typical human,
now we may have dna proof


" ...
The cranial volume is up to 25 percent larger and 60 percent heavier than conventional human skulls, meaning they could not have been intentionally deformed through head binding/flattening.

They also contain only one parietal plate, rather than two. The fact that the skulls' features are not the result of cranial deformation means that the cause of the elongation is a mystery, and has been for decades.


http://www.sunnyskyz.com/good-news/545/DNA-Analysis-Of-Paracas-Elongated-Skulls-Released-The-Results-Prove-They-Were-Not-Human
DNA Analysis Of Paracas Elongated Skulls Released. The Results Prove They Were Not Human
February 6, 2014

(http://www.sunnyskyz.com/uploads/2014/02/ulta8-elongated.jpg)
...
Mr. Juan Navarro, owner and director of the local museum, called the Paracas History Museum, which houses a collection of 35 of the Paracas skulls, allowed the taking of samples from 5 of the skulls.

The samples consisted of hair, including roots, a tooth, skull bone and skin, and this process was carefully documented via photos and video. The samples were sent to the late Lloyd Pye, founder of the Starchild Project, who delivered the samples to a geneticist in Texas for DNA testing.  

The results are now back, and Brien Foerster, author of more than ten books and an authority on the ancient elongated headed people of South America, has just revealed the preliminary results of the analysis. He reports on the geneticist's findings:

"It had mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far. But a few fragments I was able to sequence from this sample indicate that if these mutations will hold we are dealing with a new human-like creature, very distant from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans."

The implications are huge. "I am not sure it will even fit into the known evolutionary tree," Foerster wrote. He added that if the Paracas individuals were so biologically different, they would not have been able to interbreed with humans.

The results need to be replicated and more analysis undertaken before final conclusions can be drawn.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: egypt on February 11, 2014, 02:36:22 pm
This is so amazing.

We share 93% worth of dna with chimpanzees.  Are these big heads the ones who (according to ancient Sumerian tablets) found a humanoid being to genetically alter in their image?  Even the Bible talks about this separately from the original creation of humankind like it was another event...

    Genesis 1:26
    Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.”
    Genesis 1:25-27 (in Context) Genesis 1 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations



According to translations of the cuneiform tablets from Ancient Sumeria, they wanted a worker race to do the gold mining.  So, they didn't want us as smart, and  we didn't get the big heads part,  I guess.

So, where did they come from?
Why did they leave and/or *are gone*?
Where did they go?
Will they come back?
Do they understand String Theory?
Were they the ones with the ability and sight to build those megalithic structures?
Did they like us?
Are they giant-like overall, or just big heads?

Wow what fun to have the technology to finally understand a few things.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on February 11, 2014, 02:57:15 pm
related thread:
Globalization and the plan for NWO > Project Blue Beam > Giant Caucasoid Mummies (http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=200370.0)

(http://www.mygen.com/users/ufo/images/pacal.jpg)

In plain sight: Mayan - Lord Pakal's Tomb

They always describe the skeleton as "tall"  never in exact terms and these are scientists!!! (yes, a seven foot man is "tall")
The greatest find in Mayan archeology cannot be explained.!!!
I have yet to find a single photo of Pakal's complete skeleton... Can't be shown?. Also described as "tall" without exact length... Inconsistant age - supposedly 80, but the skeletons teeth looks 40....

He does not fit!!! - so he cannot be shown - Oh BUT too famous to destroy or hide .....
I'll keep looking, but I defy you to find an exact description (or a photo) of his skeleton. They make a big deal about his teeth but no photographs!
the Mayan pyramid relics located in Palenque ..."king Pacal regarded as a god and is a giant monster with a height of about 7 ft."

(http://i47.tinypic.com/33lch86.jpg) (Pakal was Seven foot tall  Cone Head )
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on February 11, 2014, 03:32:12 pm

http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/radical-theory-of-first-americans-places-stone-age-europeans-in-delmarva-20000-years-ago/2012/02/28/gIQA4mriiR_story.html
Radical theory of first Americans places Stone Age Europeans in Delmarva 20,000 years ago

(http://www.washingtonpost.com/rf/image_404h/2010-2019/WashingtonPost/2012/02/29/Health-Environment-Science/Images/CHESAPEAKE0156.jpg)
Bonnie Jo Mount/Post -  Smithsonian Institute anthropologist Dennis Stanford, left, and University of Exeter archeologist Bruce Bradley examine knives from the last Ice Age.


By Brian Vastag,   Published: February 29, 2012 E-mail the writer
 

 When the crew of the Virginia scallop trawler Cinmar hauled a mastodon tusk onto the deck in 1970, another oddity dropped out of the net: a dark, tapered stone blade, nearly eight inches long and still sharp.

Forty years later, this rediscovered prehistoric slasher has reopened debate on a radical theory about who the first Americans were and when they got here.

Archaeologists have long held that North America remained unpopulated until about 15,000 years ago, when Siberian people walked or boated into Alaska and then moved down the West Coast.

But the mastodon relic found near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay turned out to be 22,000 years old, suggesting that the blade was just as ancient.

Whoever fashioned that blade was not supposed to be here.

Its makers probably paddled from Europe and arrived in America thousands of years ahead of the western migration, making them the first Americans, argues Smithsonian Institution anthropologist Dennis Stanford.

“I think it’s feasible,” said Tom Dillehay, a prominent archaeologist at Vanderbilt University. “The evidence is building up, and it certainly warrants discussion.”

At the height of the last ice age, Stanford says, mysterious Stone Age European people known as the Solutreans paddled along an ice cap jutting into the North Atlantic. They lived like Inuits, harvesting seals and seabirds.



The Solutreans eventually spread across North America, Stanford says, hauling their distinctive blades with them and giving birth to the later Clovis culture, which emerged some 13,000 years ago.

When Stanford proposed this “Solutrean hypothesis” in 1999, colleagues roundly rejected it. One prominent archaeologist suggested that Stanford was throwing his career away.
...
the core of Stanford’s case are stone tools recovered from five mid-Atlantic sites. Two sites lie on Chesapeake Bay islands, suggesting that the Solutreans settled Delmarva early on. Smithsonian research associate Darrin Lowery found blades, anvils and other tools found stuck in soil at least 20,000 years old.

Displaying the tools in his office at the National Museum of Natural History, Stanford handles a milky chert blade and says, “This stuff is beginning to give us a real nice picture of occupation of the Eastern Shore around 20,000 years ago.”

Further, the Eastern Shore blades strongly resemble those found at dozens of Solutrean sites from the Stone Age in Spain and France, Stanford says. “We can match each one of 18 styles up to the sites in Europe.”

In 2007, Lowery, who also teaches at the University of Delaware, was hired by a landowner to survey property on Tilghman Island, Md., at a place called Miles Point. Almost immediately, Lowery saw a chunk of quarzite jutting out of a shore bank. It was an anvil, heavily marked from repeated beatings, a clear sign that it was used to make stone tools. Lowery dated the soil layer holding the anvil and other stone tools with two methods, radiocarbon dating and a newer technique, optical stimulated luminescence. Both returned an age of at least 21,000 years.

“We were like, geez . . . what the hell is going on here?” Lowery said.

Another site, 10 miles south, Oyster Cove, yielded more Stone Age artifacts. Those too, came out of soil more than 21,000 years old.
...
(http://www.washingtonpost.com/rw/2010-2019/WashingtonPost/2012/03/01/Health-Environment-Science/Graphics/w-chesapeake.jpg)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solutrean
The Solutrean industry is a relatively advanced flint tool-making style of the Upper Palaeolithic, from around 22,000 to 17,000 BP.
...
Archaeologists Dennis Stanford and Bruce Bradley suggest that the Clovis point derived from the points of the Solutrean culture of southern France (19,000 BP) through the Cactus Hill points of Virginia (16,000 BP) to the Clovis point
...
 This would mean that people would have had to move from the Bay of Biscay across the edge of the Atlantic ice sheet to North America. Supporters of this hypothesis believe it would have been feasible using traditional Eskimo techniques still in use today


| - - - -

Penon woman:


http://ironlight.wordpress.com/2010/03/19/skull-may-prove-solutrean-hypothesis/

Skull May Prove Solutrean Hypothesis

March 19, 2010 by Ironlight

Does skull prove that the first Americans came from Europe?
 By Steve Connor Science Editor
 Tuesday, 3 December 2002

Scientists in Britain have identified the oldest skeleton ever found on the American continent in a discovery that raises fresh questions about the accepted theory of how the first people arrived in the New World.

Scientists in Britain have identified the oldest skeleton ever found on the American continent in a discovery that raises fresh questions about the accepted theory of how the first people arrived in the New World.

The skeleton’s perfectly preserved skull belonged to a 26-year-old woman who died during the last ice age on the edge of a giant prehistoric lake which once formed around an area now occupied by the sprawling suburbs of Mexico City.

Scientists from Liverpool’s John Moores University and Oxford’s Research Laboratory of Archaeology have dated the skull to about 13,000 years old, making it 2,000 years older than the previous record for the continent’s oldest human remains.

However, the most intriguing aspect of the skull is that it is long and narrow and typically Caucasian in appearance, like the heads of white, western Europeans today.

Modern-day native Americans, however, have short, wide skulls that are typical of their Mongoloid ancestors who are known to have crossed into America from Asia on an ice-age land bridge that had formed across the Bering Strait.

The extreme age of Peñon woman suggests two scenarios. Either there was a much earlier migration of Caucasian-like people with long, narrow skulls across the Bering Strait and that these people were later replaced by a subsequent migration of Mongoloid people.

Alternatively, and more controversially, a group of Stone Age people from Europe made the perilous sea journey across the Atlantic Ocean many thousands of years before Columbus or the Vikings

...

Robert Hedges, the director of Oxford’s Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, who also dated the age of the Turin shroud, carried out the radiocarbon analysis, which is accurate to within 50 years.

“We are absolutely, 100 per cent sure that this is the date,” Dr Gonzalez said. The study has been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication next year in the journal Human Evolution.

At 13,000 years old, Peñon woman would have lived at a time when there was a vast, shallow lake in the Basin of Mexico, a naturally enclosed high plain around today’s Mexico City, which would have been cooler and much wetter than it is today.
...
Dr Gonzalez found that the two oldest skulls analysed were both dolichocephalic, meaning that they were long and narrow-headed. The younger ones were short and broad – brachycephalic – which are typical of today’s native Americans and their Mongoloid ancestors from Asia.

The findings have a resonance with the skull and skeleton of Kennewick man, who was unearthed in 1996 in the Columbia River at the town of Kennewick in Washington state. The skull, estimated to be 8,400 years old, is also long and narrow and typically Caucasian.

James Chatters, one of the first anthropologists to study Kennewick man before it had been properly dated, even thought that the man may have been a European trapper who had met a sudden death sometime in the early 19th century.
...
Dr Gonzalez said that the identification of Peñon woman as the oldest known inhabitant of the American continent throws fresh light on the controversy over who actually owns the ancient remains of long-dead Americans.

“My research could have implications for the ancient burial rights of North American Indians because it’s quite possible that dolichocephalic man existed in North America well before the native Indians,” she said.

But even more controversial is the suggestion that Peñon woman could be a descendant of Stone Age Europeans who had crossed the ice-fringed Atlantic some 15,000 or 20,000 years ago.
...
Studies of the DNA of native Americans clearly indicated a link with modern-day Asians, supporting the idea of a mass migration across the Bering land bridge. But one DNA study also pointed to at least some shared features with Europeans that could only have derived from a relatively recent common ancestor who lived perhaps 15,000 ago – the time of the Solutreans.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNTXCMYjwEk
Solutreans Are Indigenous Americans
Published on Mar 15, 2012 

In the Ice Age Columbus DVD, fascinating new archaeological data and DNA research Discover's that Europeans discovered the Americas 17,000 years prior to the birth of Columbus. A high definition production, the film takes you on the journey of a determined family from southwestern France as they cross 3,000 miles of ocean. A drama DVD, which includes the risk of starvation and treacherous storms, shows these Europeans settling in what is now the Northeastern United States.


Contrary to the Ice Age Columbus,  traditional history tells us that European settlers discovered America about the time of the Renaissance. But revolutionary new archaeological data and the latest DNA research reveal that Europeans visited our shores far earlier -- some 17,000 years before Columbus was even born.

A drama DVD, filmed in glorious high definition, is a two-hour epic story, which follows an intrepid family of stone age hunters as they trek from their homeland in southwestern France, cross 3,000 miles of ocean and eventually make their first permanent settlement in what is today the northeastern U.S. As you will see in American history DVDs, they overcome starvation and storms along the way, with the help of a revolutionary weapons technology they would later be wiped out by the invading peoples of Asia. But awaiting the pioneers' arrival is a stark, empty continent, filled with a plethora of bizarre and lethal animals -- all brought to life by brilliant computer animation. The Ice Age Columbus DVD, firmly rooted in the latest scientific discoveries, is a compelling vision of the greatest migration in human history of Europeans returning to the land which once broke off of their own ethnic home lands of Europe.
...


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nyfw-kmI-pE
America's Stone Age Explorers - PRE Clovis Europeans / Solutreans

Published on Feb 25, 2013  

This is a PBS NOVA episode with Dennis Stanford of the Smithsonian. While they keep covering up the giant 7 - 12 feet skeletons found all over the nation, the Smithsonian has allowed their handled boys like Dennis Stanford to say CERTAIN things, such as just giving us a little sample of what they REALLY have from PRE Clovis America.

BOTH of the Americas tie into this also, as there was human habitation in the Americas at least 40 to 50,000 years ago and possibly even long before that ! NO ONE in their right educated mind thinks that Clovis were the "first" people in the Americas around only 8 to 10,000 BC. Evidence for human habitation in BOTH of the Americas is FAR OLDER than apx. 10,000 BC. See the university "black balled" work of geologist Virginia Steen Macintyre as to the REAL age of South American habitation.


http://vimeo.com/473625
Penon Woman III - 13,000 yr. old Caucasoid in Mexico
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on February 11, 2014, 04:53:11 pm
 Was the Neanderthal man Darwin injected into the equation -a species that was eventually exterminated?
 Apes were our ancestors ( evolution) was the theory , I ask you why are there still apes that haven't evolved.
 T did a great job bringing this up.
 8000 years BC man was creating objects that we, ( our high tech era ), would be hard pressed to accomplish.
 
Who was it that said "there are more mysterys on this earth than in all the heavens".

Collectors (clandestine type-very wealthy buggers)  & Goverments/ religous sects..etc. They have been around for centuries, grabbing everything money could buy, we are not privy to their secrets..
 Clandestine and covert operations garner the most intrigue, but the history of ... Throughout history, intelligence has been defined as the collection, culling, ... As the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome employed literate ... Mediterranean region, other civilizations utilized and contributed to the art of espionage.Espionage and Intelligence, Early Historical Foundations ...
www.faqs.org › Espionage Encyclopedia ›

 
 
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on February 12, 2014, 10:31:11 am
Clovis people didn't carve or paint much  -   Significant because Solutreans Carved and painted.  

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/06/090610-oldest-art-mammoth-picture.html
PHOTO: Oldest Art in Americas Found on Mammoth Bone?
(http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/06/images/090610-oldest-art-mammoth-picture_big.jpg)

June 10, 2009—The Americas' oldest known artist may have been an Ice Age hunter in what is now Florida, according to an anthropologist who has examined a 13,000-year-old bone etching.

The carved bone, which depicts a walking mammoth (detail of the bone at top), was found near Vero Beach in east-central Florida. (See a map of the region.)

The now exclusive area once hosted giant beasts and nomadic bands of Ice Age hunters, said Barbara Purdy, a professor emerita at the University of Florida.

"I literally went on the assumption that [the carving] was a fake," said Purdy, who was later convinced of its authenticity after the bone had passed a barrage of tests by University of Florida forensic scientists.

The examinations revealed that the light etching is not recent, and that it was made a short time after the animal died, according to Purdy.

Scientists also determined the 15-inch-long (38-centimeter-long) bone fragment (pictured in full at bottom) belonged to one of three animals: a mammoth, a mastodon, or a giant sloth—all of which died out at the end of the last ice age, between about 12,000 to 10,000 years ago.
...
Discoverer and local fossil hunter James Kennedy only recently noticed the image after dusting off the bone, which had sat under his sink for a few years.

"I had no idea it was this big of a fuss. [When I heard] there was nothing else like it in the Western Hemisphere, that's when my heart kind of stopped."

Purdy, the anthropologist, said, "This is the first glimpse of real art in the Western Hemisphere, and I think that's our starting point for something that might be found in the future if we start looking closely at these old bones."

John Gifford, an underwater archaeologist at the University of Miami, has studied Ice Age peoples in Florida.


| - - - - - -

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/06/22/mammoth-mastodon-bone-carving-florida-photo_n_882177.html

13,000-Year-Old Bone With Mammoth Or Mastodon Carving May Be First In Western Hemisphere (PHOTO)
First Posted: 06/22/11 01:20 PM ET
WASHINGTON (AP) -- Some of the earliest Americans turn out to have been artists.

(http://i.huffpost.com/gen/295438/MAMMOTH-MASTODON-BONE-CARVING-FLORIDA.jpg)

A bone fragment at least 13,000 years old, with the carved image of a mammoth or mastodon, has been discovered in Florida, a new study reports.

While prehistoric art depicting animals with trunks has been found in Europe, this may be the first in the Western Hemisphere, researchers report Wednesday in the Journal of Archaeological Science.

"It's pretty exciting, we haven't found anything like this in North America," said Dennis J. Stanford, curator of North American Archaeology at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, who was a co-author of the report.

They hunted these animals, Stanford explained, and "you see people drawing all kinds of pictures that are of relevance and importance to them."

"Much of the real significance of such finds is in the tangible, emotional connection they allow us to feel with people in the deep past," said Dietrich Stout, an anthropologist at Emory University in Atlanta, who was not part of the research team.

The bone fragment, discovered in Vero Beach, Fla., contains an incised image about 3 inches long from head to tail and about 1 3/4 inches from head to foot.
...

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=rLV9A8P00bw
Paleolithic Giants in America (Solutrean / Clovis)
Uploaded on Feb 19, 2012 

Indian tribes from North America, Central America and South America have legends of white skinned or light skinned peoples living in the Americas in ancient times, and sometimes before the Indians themselves. For example, the Paiute of Nevada have a legend of "exterminating" a light skinned red haired tribe who spoke a different language than themselves. In this area, red haired, Caucasoid mummies have been found in caves. These remains have been determined Caucasoid by archaeologists and are over 9000 years old. The Aztec god Quetzalcoatl was considered to have a beard, light hair and white skin. Their legends stated that he came from across the oceans and taught the Aztecs how to farm and build. In South America, the white skinned tribe known as the Chachacoyas lived in Peru for thousands of years before being conquered and destroyed by the Inca in the late 1400's, approximately 10 years before the arrival of the Spanish Conquistadors. It should be noted that Red headed mummified remains exist in the Paracas region of Peru, and these remains have (HLA - Human Lymphocyte Antigens) markers commonly associated with Europeans.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: Donovan on February 12, 2014, 11:21:51 am

Just what those artists meant to depict is unclear. Some of the petroglyphs may represent clouds and lightning, others are diamond- shaped, and there are some patterns that might represent trees. Whatever the inspiration for the carvings, the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, which owns the Winnemucca Lake basin, considers them sacred to this day.

http://hyperallergic.com/79044/researchers-discover-the-oldest-petroglyphs-in-north-america/

Petroglyphs in western Nevada have been identified as the oldest of their kind in North America. Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder conducted a study that dates the rock carvings to between 10,500 and 14,800 years ago.

(http://www.mygen.com/images/Sfig3.a.jpg)

Two images trace the shapes of some of the petroglyphs more clearly and show their relative size (click to enlarge)


Umm, if those photos are real, then theres a shitload that needs explanation.

In Photo B, those for sure are benzene rings in a chemical structure:

(http://www.rsc.org/images/Armstrong_box_tcm18-144535.jpg)

(http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/images/stories/190_surfactants/20-surfactant_20_%2819%29.jpg)

(http://www.rsc.org/ej/NP/2006/b608956a/b608956a-u5.gif)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: Donovan on February 12, 2014, 11:52:47 am
Now that I have thought about it, I think it means this:

(http://s7.postimg.org/tmdcalhzv/ancient_chems.jpg)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on February 12, 2014, 01:30:29 pm
http://biblehub.com/daniel/12-4.htm
Daniel 12:4

But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.
...
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: endof on February 12, 2014, 01:37:09 pm
bloody hell i thought they went extinct.

thanks for the info.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on February 12, 2014, 02:27:21 pm
 The bible goes back about 2000 years, more accurately a bit less.
 According to the finds that have leaked   mankinds history is over 14,000 old.
 I'll bet a pint of my blood those in high places, elites, clandestine collectors, etc were well aware of this.
 This challenges the concepts we have been force fed.
 
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: Geolibertarian on February 12, 2014, 02:52:32 pm
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=enzaao300M0 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=enzaao300M0) (Secrets of Prometheus Film Leaked)

(http://www.scified.com/custom_img/prometheus1year.png)

(http://www.prometheus2-movie.com/images/prometheusmovie6812.jpg)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on February 15, 2014, 09:01:20 pm
Windover Bog Florida - Cacasoid skulls - 8000-10000 bc - mtdna Halogroup X - proto European - uh oh ...  
( Understand Caucasoid skulls are Proto-European - does Not mean Caucasian 

So you don't hear much about this major find anymore!!! The skulls are obviously Caucasoid - yet they are NEVER described as such!!! Also when they start looking at the mtDNA Halogroup X , which at first was considered proto European , the history correctors came along and found obscure places that would fit where halogroup X was also found, mucking up the works,,,,

I am also going to post in this thread the story of the Stone Age Atlantis in Europe - Doggerland !!!

(http://www.mygen.com/images/maternalmap.jpg)

)



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YW_qutaoYwY
Ancient Florida Bog Mummies
Published on Sep 23, 2012 
Caucasian  mummies were found in Florida's Windover Bog. The mummies dated to be over 7000 years old.



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZYZe7QfCPh0
Ancient CAUCASIAN Bog Mummies Found in Windover Florida - LABORATORY PROVEN EUROPEAN DNA
Published on Dec 9, 2013 

This clip is from a Science Channel documentary. The DNA tests performed here are European results, as the scientist says clearly on camera. These are not to be confused with the more world famous bog mummies in Europe, as these are from the state of FLORIDA. More than likely prehistoric in age as well. Location is Windover Bog.

http://www.gavinmenzies.net/Evidence/chapter-17-stone-age-sailors-%E2%80%93-the-%E2%80%9Cwindover-bog%E2%80%9D-people-of-florida/
Chapter 17 – Stone Age Sailors – The “Windover Bog” people of Florida
Posted on October 3, 2013   

The Windover bog cemetery was discovered in 1982 when a backhoe operator discovered human bones whilst digging in black peat from the bottom of a pond. DNA testing of the first sample piece showed an age of 7,330 years, plus or minus 100 years, and the second showed an age of 7210 years, plus or minus 100 years. DNA samples prove the bodies to be of European origin. Separate DNA studies corroborate European migrations to the Americas in 7000B.C. – notably the research by Maere Reidla regarding the X2 haplotype.


http://www.nbbd.com/godo/history/windover/
(http://www.nbbd.com/godo/history/windover/Skull.jpeg)

THE WINDOVER ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH PROJECT

When the 3-year-old died, her parents placed her favorite toys in her arms, wrapped her in fabric woven from fibers of native plants, and buried her body in the soft, muck bottom of a small pond. Some 7,000 years later, when a young archaeologist uncovered her tiny remains, the toys--a wooden pestle-shaped object and the carapace of a small turtle--were still cradled in her arms. Most remarkable was the state of preservation of the child's bones and her toys, and the remains of some 167 other individuals and numerous artifacts found in that small pond in Windover Farms subdivision. The pond is about one mile southeast of the intersection of Highway 50 and I-95 and just outside the Titusville city limits where, today, a child's favorite toy may be a model of the space shuttle.
...
TODAY     

The State of Florida allocated nearly a million dollars for excavation and preservation, but now, a wealth of information lies cataloged and boxed at Florida State University because the state cannot provide additional funds for research. Additional research could tell much about the native Americans who lived near a small pond 4,000 years before Christ was born and 2,000 years before the pyramids were built or ceramics came into existence

http://www.pbs.org/saf/1406/features/dna2.htm
Tracing the Genes
...

MtDNA mutates at a certain predictable rate - it's like a clock ticking, but with the clock recording every tick. So it's possible to judge when distant populations originally diverged, based on how different the mtDNA they have today is. If a group of people splits up, some going east and some going west, mtDNA mutations found in the east but not the west likely originated after the group diverged. Count up the mutations and - knowing the rate at which they would have occurred - you can figure out when the family tree branched off. "You literally have a genetic clock," explained Douglas Wallace, a professor of molecular medicine at the University of California, Irvine.

Scientists categorize mtDNA into a number of so-called haplogroups, based on their similarities and differences. You can think of them as like blood types - they don't affect the way you live, but they can be identified at the molecular level.

Map of various haplotypes

MitochondrialDNA (mtDNA) haplogroup testing led to the surprising hypothesis that some of the first Americans came from Europe thousands of years ago.
 

The conventional wisdom to explain the peopling of the Americas is that migrants crossed from northeast Asia to Alaska around 13,000 years ago to become the ancestors of today's Native Americans. But mtDNA analysis has revealed some unexpected links between Europe and North America. When scientists analyzed the mtDNA of a broad sample of living Native Americans, they found that about 97 percent had mtDNA from haplogroups A, B, C or D. These haplogroups are all present in modern day Siberia and Asia, so it makes sense that the forefathers of those Native Americans came from those regions. But the surprise was that about 3 percent of the Native Americans tested had mtDNA from a different haplogroup, called X. Some populations, such as the Ojibwa from the Great Lakes region, have a high concentration of X - 25 percent.

How did haplogroup X get to North America? Some X has been found in Mongolia, but it's definitely not common in modern Asia. It can, however, be found in about 4 percent of the present day European population. Genetic anthropologists suggest that the presence of X in North America points to an early migration westward from Europe. By looking at the various mutations within haplogroup X, scientists are able to use that "genetic clock" to estimate when those early Europeans would have arrived. Depending on how large a group they assume headed west, they come up with two time ranges - either between 36,000 and 23,000 years ago or between 17,000 and 12,000 years ago.

X definitely did not arrive in America with the European explorers of the last 500 years or so. European X and American X are different enough that scientists say they must have diverged thousands of years ago, long before the age of exploration introduced European genes to the New World. Scientists have also done some testing on pre-Columbian Native American skeletal remains from before 1300, and found haplogroup X in the same proportion it's present in modern Native American populations.

There's more work to do on mtDNA, in both the Americas and Asia. Critics argue that people with haplogroup X could have migrated eastward from Europe to Asia and then across the Beringia land bridge; their descendents in Asia could have subsequently died out [ yeah RIGHT that fixes it!]  , so we don't see their traces in modern populations. Scientists hope to answer this question by sequencing the Mongolian haplogroup X mtDNA to see if it's an intermediate form between European X and Native American X
 
8000 year old Proto-European - Dark Skinned Blue Eyed ,,,,

http://news.sciencemag.org/archaeology/2014/01/how-farming-reshaped-our-genomes
How Farming Reshaped Our Genomes
26 January 2014
 
(http://www.mygen.com/images/sn-blueeyed.jpg)
The face of a forager. This 8000-year-old hunter-gatherer found in a Spanish cave had dark skin and blue eyes.

Before farming began to spread across Europe some 8500 years ago, the continent’s occupants were hunter-gatherers. They were unable to digest starch and milk, according to a new ancient DNA study of a nearly 8000-year-old human skeleton from Spain. But these original occupants did already possess immune defenses against some of the diseases that would later become the scourge of civilization, and they apparently had dark skin. The findings are helping researchers understand what genetic and biological changes humans went through as they made the transition from hunting and gathering to farming.
...
One surprise is that the La Braña man had dark skin and blue eyes, a combination rarely seen in modern Europeans. Although today’s southern Europeans tend to be somewhat darker than their northern counterparts, they are still relatively light-skinned compared with Africans, an adaptation often linked to the need to absorb more sunlight and so produce adequate amounts of vitamin D. That this feature of the La Braña skeleton might have been widely shared and not just a one-off is also suggested by recent findings, as yet unpublished but posted online in preliminary form, that other European hunter-gatherers also had dark skin and blue eyes.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_TJH70aDctE
Racial Differences In Skull Shapes

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cephalic_index#Use_in_human_anthropology

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/56/PSM_V50_D602_World_cephalic_index_map.jpg)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on February 16, 2014, 12:05:40 pm
Doggerland - a land the size of California that existed during the Ice Age when the oceans were 200 feet lower , The People here FISHED and MADE BOATS , and they HUNTED, all 15-6.5 thousand years ago....

http://www.nextnature.net/2009/04/mapping-a-lost-world/
(http://www.mygen.com/images/doggerland_530.jpg)

Doggerland – Mapping a lost world

So you think climate change is new? So you think the flooding of landmass by the oceans is a new? So you must have not heard of the times when people walked from London to Amsterdam.

Doggerland is the name of a vast plain that joined Britain to Europe for nearly 12,000 years, until sea levels began rising dramatically after the last Ice Age. Taking its name from a prominent shipping hazard—
Dogger Bank—this immense landbridge vanished beneath the North Sea around 6000 B.C
...
According to Vince Gaffney, a landscape archaeologist at the University of Birmingham, UK, who along with his colleagues Simon Fitch and the late Ken Thomson, Gaffney established the mapping project to outline the terrain of Doggerland, the transformation of Doggerland in only a few thousand years from a harsh tundra into a fertile paradise, and eventually into the northern European landscape that we know today, “put human adaptability to the test”

Indeed, that may sound familiar in our times of  human caused climate change.

The image below shows a satellite photo of Western Europe as it was 10.000 years ago. No need to say this is a speculative re-engineered rendering, as there obviously were no satellites circling the globe at the time.

(http://www.mygen.com/images/2007_dogger_re-engineered_satelite_photo_530.jpg)

| - - - -

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2167731/Britains-Atlantis-North-sea--huge-undersea-kingdom-swamped-tsunami-5-500-years-ago.html

'Britain's Atlantis' found at bottom of North sea - a huge undersea world swallowed by the sea in 6500BC

Divers have found traces of ancient land swallowed by waves 8500 years ago
Doggerland once stretched from Scotland to Denmark
Rivers seen underwater by seismic scans
Britain was not an island - and area under North Sea was roamed by mammoths and other giant animals

Described as the 'real heartland' of Europe
Had population of tens of thousands - but devastated by sea level rises

By Rob Waugh
PUBLISHED: 18:32 EST, 2 July 2012

'Britain's Atlantis' - a hidden underwater world swallowed by the North Sea - has been discovered by divers working with science teams from the University of St Andrews.
Doggerland, a huge area of dry land that stretched from Scotland to Denmark was slowly submerged by water between 18,000 BC and 5,500 BC.
Divers from oil companies have found remains of a 'drowned world' with a population of tens of thousands - which might once have been the 'real heartland' of Europe.
A team of climatologists, archaeologists and geophysicists has now mapped the area using new data from oil companies - and revealed the full extent of a 'lost land' once roamed by mammoths.


The research suggests that the populations of these drowned lands could have been tens of thousands, living in an area that stretched from Northern Scotland across to Denmark and down the English Channel as far as the Channel Islands.
The area was once the ‘real heartland’ of Europe and was hit by ‘a devastating tsunami', the researchers claim.
The wave was part of a larger process that submerged the low-lying area over the course of thousands of years.

'The name was coined for Dogger Bank, but it applies to any of several periods when the North Sea was land,' says Richard Bates of the University of St Andrews. 'Around 20,000 years ago, there was a 'maximum' - although part of this area would have been covered with ice. When the ice melted, more land was revealed - but the sea level also rose.

'Through a lot of new data from oil and gas companies, we’re able to give form to the landscape - and make sense of the mammoths found out there, and the reindeer. We’re able to understand the types of people who were there.

'People seem to think rising sea levels are  a new thing - but it’s a cycle of Earth history that has happened many many times.'

Organised by Dr Richard Bates of the Department of Earth Sciences at St Andrews, the Drowned Landscapes exhibit reveals the human story behind Doggerland, a now submerged area of the North Sea that was once larger than many modern European countries. 

| - -- -

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mq_FBH36seI
Swedish divers unearth STONE AGE ATLANTIS under Baltic Sea
Published on Jan 27, 2014  

Divers in Sweden have discovered a rare collection of Stone Age artefacts buried beneath the Baltic sea...


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9EQbxjvvnPE&list=PL9414E767086EBB50
Stone Age Atlantis 1-7

Uploaded on Mar 14, 2011 

Stone Age Atlantis: Once, the idea of a lost world under the sea was the stuff of legend, but now scientists are rediscovering a sunken land and piecing together the lives of the people who lived there. In Northern Europe, a huge area known as Doggerland disappeared beneath the waves and has remained underwater ever since. But evidence of this lost land is starting to emerge. In this two-hour special, learn why archaeologists believe Stone Age Europeans lived on this land and pioneered an advanced culture.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4P9wQj6qX2I
Time Team Special 31 (2007) - Britain's Drowned World

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VbuOfz_M9ZM
Hidden Histories: Welcome to Doggerland!

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doggerland

Doggerland is a name given by archaeologists and geologists to a former landmass in the southern North Sea that connected the island of Great Britain to mainland Europe during and after the last Ice Age, surviving until about 6,500 or 6,200 BCE and then gradually being flooded by rising sea levels. Geological surveys have suggested that Doggerland was a large area of dry land that stretched from Britain's east coast across to the present coast of the Netherlands and the western coasts of Germany and Denmark.[2] Doggerland was probably a rich habitat with human habitation in the Mesolithic period
...
During the most recent glaciation, the Last Glacial Maximum that ended in this area around 18,000 years ago, the North Sea and almost all of the British Isles were covered with glacial ice and the sea level was about 120 m (390 ft) lower than it is today. After that the climate became warmer and during the Late Glacial Maximum much of the North Sea and English Channel was an expanse of low-lying tundra, extending around 12,000 BCE as far as the modern northern point of Scotland
...
At about 8000 BCE, the north-facing coastal area of Doggerland had a coastline of lagoons, saltmarshes, mudflats, and beaches, and inland streams and rivers and marshes, and sometimes lakes. It may have been the richest hunting, fowling and fishing ground in Europe available to the Mesolithic culture of the time
...
As sea levels rose after the end of the last glacial period of the current ice age, Doggerland became submerged beneath the North Sea, cutting off what was previously the British peninsula from the European mainland by around 6500 BCE
...
A recent hypothesis is that much of the remaining coastal land, already much reduced in size from the original land area, was flooded by a megatsunami around 6200 BC (approximately 8200 BP), caused by a submarine landslide off the coast of Norway known as the Storegga Slide.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HEQRKL-uQzc
Vince Gaffney on Doggerland
Uploaded on Jan 26, 2011 

Professor Vince Gaffney of Ancient History, Classics and Archaeology (AHCA) at the University of Birmingham discusses his research into Doggerland.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wlMq5Mx2miw
Dogger Bank Expedition; discovery of a new wilderness

Published on Apr 2, 2013 

Dogger Bank Expedition; discovery of a new wilderness Bescherm een wrak (Protect a wreck) is a Dutch initiative to protect shipwrecks in the North Sea.
Dutch website: www.beschermeenwrak.nl
International platform about ghostfishing: www.ghostfishing.org Documentary made by Dutch underwater filmmaker Klaudie Bartelink

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q2jkqcEeIlY
Storegga Slide Tsunami
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on April 03, 2014, 01:19:00 pm
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140403095415.htm
Homo Brains and Teeth Are an “Evolutionary Paradox”

GRANADA, SPAIN—Researchers from the University of Granada have shown that the shrinking of the teeth of primates from the genus Homo is linked to their increase in brain size, even though a growing brain would require more food.

“We have established that they are two opposing evolutionary trends that have been linked for 2.5 million years, when our first ancestors within the Homo genus first appeared on the evolutionary stage,” Juan Manuel Jiménez Arenas told Science Daily. Arenas credits higher amounts of animal food in the diet for the increase in brain size, which in turn fostered social and cultural development.


'Homo' is the only primate whose tooth size decreases as its brain size increases
Date: April 3, 2014
Source: University of Granada

Summary:
Scientists have discovered a curious characteristic of the members of the human lineage, classed as the genus Homo: they are the only primates where, throughout their 2.5-million year history, the size of their teeth has decreased in tandem with the increase in their brain size

The key to this phenomenon, which scientists call "evolutionary paradox," could be in how Homo's diet has evolved. Digestion starts first in the mouth and, so, teeth are essential in breaking food down into smaller pieces. Therefore, the normal scenario would be that, if the brain grows in size, and, hence, the body's metabolic needs, so should teeth.

However, in the case of Homo, this has not been the case, according to scientists in an article recently published in the journal BioMed Research International. The main author of the study, researcher Juan Manuel Jimenez Arenas, from the University of Granada's Department of Pre-History and Archaeology, points out that, "This means that significant changes must have occurred in order to maintain this trend."
...
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on April 03, 2014, 09:34:47 pm
 Hi T.
          There has been what humans in general consider anomalies, different that is. One example is giants of the old testament, skeletons confirm their existence. Enlarged skulls of a natural formation not binded, advanced technology, be it astral intelligence or monuments erected or ancient artifacts that would be quite impossible to duplicate with our present tech.
  Human nature fears, what is not the ole norm, I'll be to a buck to a dime the vast majority or races that didn't fit in to what the norm were eliminated of sought refuge, far away for human civilization.
  An opinion, they were wiped out or well hidden.. Far to many facts dispute the accepted, propagandised dialogue.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on April 29, 2014, 12:33:26 pm
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2614780/How-FARMERS-fitter-athletes-Human-strength-speed-peaked-7-300-years-ago-declining-rapidly.html
How modern humans have become WEAKLINGS compared with our ancient ancestors who could outrun and outlift today's top athletes

Human leg bones have grown weaker since farming was invented
Scientists found bone structure declined after agriculture emerged
Male farmers 7,300 years ago had legs of cross-country runners
But just 3,000 years later, they had legs comparable to 'sedentary' students

By Sara Malm and Ellie Zolfagharifard
Published: 06:10 EST, 28 April 2014 | Updated: 07:45 EST, 28 April 2014


Mo Farah would have had some tough competition from ancient farmers living 7,300 years ago.

Scientists claim if they were to cross paths, our ancestors would have been capable of outrunning some of the world’s most talented athletes.  

That's according to recent research by Cambridge University which reveals just how far our fitness has fallen in just a couple of millennia

‘Even our most highly trained athletes pale in comparison to these ancestors of ours,’ Dr Colin Shaw told Outside Magazine. ‘We’re certainly weaker than we used to be.’

The study looked at skeletons dating back to around 5,300 BC with the most recent to 850 AD - a time span of 6,150 years.

It then compared the bones to that of Cambridge University students, and found the leg bones of male farmers 5,300 BC were just as good as those of highly-trained cross-country runners.

But just 3,000 years later, the study found our ancestors had leg bone structures closer to that of the Netflix-watching generation.

When our ancestors made the transition from hunter-gatherer societies to agricultural ones, their lower limb strength and overall mobility decreased.

Men were most affected by the change, which suggested a reduction in mobility and loading. In other words, they were covering less distance on foot and carrying out lighter physical tasks.

‘My results suggest that, following the transition to agriculture in central Europe, males were more affected than females by cultural and technological changes that reduced the need for long-distance travel or heavy physical work,’ said lead researcher Alison Macintosh, from the department of archaeology and anthropology at Cambridge University.

‘This also means that, as people began to specialise in tasks other than just farming and food production, such as metalworking, fewer people were regularly doing tasks that were very strenuous on their legs.’

...

(http://www.mygen.com/images/article-2614780-1D6B920E00000578-477_634x357.jpg)
Experts claim that people today are 10 per cent smaller and shorter than their hunter-gatherer ancestors
...

When comparing samples from male farmers 2,300 B.C. with modern students, researchers found they had the same strength as 'sedentary' undergraduates

...

| - --

http://phys.org/news175332184.html
Modern men are wimps, according to new book
Oct 21, 2009 by Lin Edwards weblog

    
PhysOrg.com) -- A new book claims even modern athletes could not run as fast, jump as high, or have been nearly as strong as our predecessors.


The book, Manthropology: The Science of the Inadequate Modern Male, by Australian anthropologist Peter McAllister, describes many examples of the inadequacy of the modern male, calling them as a class, "the sorriest cohort of masculine Homo sapiens to ever walk the planet."

Given spiked running shoes, Indigenous Australians of 20,000 years ago could have beaten today's world record for running 100 and 200 meters. As recently as last century, some Tutsi males in Rwanda could have easily beaten the current high jump world record, and bodybuilders such as Arnold Schwarzenegger would have been no match in an arm wrestle with a Neanderthal woman.

Twenty thousand years ago six male Australian Aborigines chasing prey left footprints in a muddy lake shore that became fossilized. Analysis of the footprints shows one of them was running at 37 kph (23 mph), only 5 kph slower than Usain Bolt was traveling at when he ran the 100 meters in world record time of 9.69 seconds in Beijing last year. But Bolt had been the recipient of modern training, and had the benefits of spiked running shoes and a rubberized track, whereas the Aboriginal man was running barefoot in soft mud. Given the modern conditions, the man, dubbed T8, could have reached speeds of 45 kph, according to McAllister.

McAllister also presents as evidence of his thesis photographs taken by a German anthropologist early in the twentieth century. The photographs showed Tutsi initiation ceremonies in which young men had to jump their own height in order to be accepted as men. Some of them jumped as high as 2.52 meters, which is higher than the current world record of 2.45 meters.

McAllister, interviewed in his temporary residence in Cambridge, UK, also said women of the extinct hominids such as the Neanderthals carried around 10 percent more muscle than modern European men, and with training could have reached 90 percent of the bulk of Arnold Schwarzenegger at his physical prime. Her shorter lower arm would have given her a great advantage in an arm wrestle, and she could easily have slammed his arm to the table.
...

| - - - -

https://www.sciencemag.org/content/343/6172/747.abstract
Science 14 February 2014:
 Vol. 343  no. 6172  pp. 747-751 
 DOI: 10.1126/science.1243518 
•Research Article

A Genetic Atlas of Human Admixture History

Garrett Hellenthal1,  George B. J. Busby2,  Gavin Band3,  James F. Wilson4,  Cristian Capelli2,  Daniel Falush5,*,  Simon Myers3,6,*,†
 
Abstract

Modern genetic data combined with appropriate statistical methods have the potential to contribute substantially to our understanding of human history. We have developed an approach that exploits the genomic structure of admixed populations to date and characterize historical mixture events at fine scales.

We used this to produce an atlas of worldwide human admixture history, constructed by using genetic data alone and encompassing over 100 events occurring over the past 4000 years.

We identified events whose dates and participants suggest they describe genetic impacts of the Mongol empire, Arab slave trade, Bantu expansion, first millennium CE migrations in Eastern Europe, and European colonialism, as well as unrecorded events, revealing admixture to be an almost universal force shaping human populations.
...

http://www.well.ox.ac.uk/~gav/admixture/2014-science-final/resources/FAQ.pdf

Frequently asked questions about “A Genetic Atlas of Human Admixture History”G. Hellenthal, G.B.J. Busby, G. Band, J.F. Wilson, C. Capelli, D. Falush, S. Myers, Science
(2014)

What is your work about and how is it new?

Many researchers have studied human DNA and its history, and this has revealed how humans have
spread around the globe. This spreading out produces distinct populations, and small genetic
differences between separated populations arise (although most variation is still shared among groups).
When groups come back together – for example due to migrations or invasions - and have children, this
is called genetic admixture, and leaves a characteristic signature in DNA.

Our work uses DNA from many people around the world to identify these mixture events, and find out
first, who the groups were that mixed – often to the level of individual countries – and second, when
the mixture occurred. Other researchers have developed important tools to look at one or other these
questions but our method is the first to do both simultaneously – allowing us to more fully describe
events.

By using “chromosome painting”, it also offers better power and precision than previously
available. We are able to consider complex histories (e.g. several waves of mixing) and have analysed
95 groups across the globe, producing an “atlas” of mixing dates, places and mixing populations.

What does your study imply about human ancestry?
( 1)Most human populations are a product of mixture of genetically distinct groups that intermixed
within the last 4,000 years.
( 2)Mixture events are often localized in time and space: neighboring populations can sometimes
have distinct ancestry and history, especially for recent events.
( 3)Many mixture events involve source populations from very distant locations separated by
thousands of miles.
....

http://ec2-54-229-188-37.eu-west-1.compute.amazonaws.com/admixture/2014-science-final/

A genetic atlas of human admixture history - instructions

This interactive map summarizes the results described in the paper "A genetic atlas of human admixture history", Hellenthal et al, Science (2014). This help page gives a brief summary of the content and structure of the page. (We also suggest reading the FAQ and the tutorial accessible under the 'Historical event' menu.) To begin, click on a labelled population on the map (or select one from the "Target" drop-down menu at top). You will see displayed details of past admixture events which we infer to have occurred in forming that population.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - that would be The New World Order!
Post by: iamc2 on April 30, 2014, 10:44:07 pm
 Earth has been infected by Aliens from HELL: Ding Dong & Period! ( these beings come from inner space and not outer space).

 Ha! Ha! Ha! the Aliens have come here to earth for millions of years? and have done NOTHING? [must be Washington Lobbyists]!

 Mankind is so naive that he & she are fooled into believing that Demons are Aliens? from outer space?

 When in reality they are inter dimensional beings from Hell. 

 What a dumb planet & I am sure GOD is crying over our stupidity!
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on May 02, 2014, 01:08:55 pm
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/04/140430-neanderthals-cook-food-evolution-science/
Hot Stew in the Ice Age? Evidence Shows Neanderthals Boiled Food

An ancient diet expert suggests our early cousins knew how to boil their meals.

(http://images.nationalgeographic.com/wpf/media-live/photos/000/792/cache/neanderthals-boiled-water-birch_79234_990x742.jpg)
This female Neanderthal, found in a cave in Gibraltar, may have enjoyed foods heated in birch bark trays.

By Dan Vergano
National Geographic
Published April 30, 2014


Neanderthal cooking likely wouldn't have won any prizes on Top Chef, but a paleontologist suggests that our ancient cousins knew how to cook a mean stew, without even a stone pot to their name.

"I think it's pretty likely the Neanderthals boiled," said University of Michigan paleontologist John Speth at a recent meeting of the Society for American Archaeology in Austin, Texas. "They were around for a long time, and they were very clever with fire."

Neanderthals were a species of early humans who lived in Europe and the Near East until about 30,000 years ago. Conventional wisdom holds that boiling to soften food or render fat from bones may have been one of the advantages that allowed Homo sapiens to thrive, while Neanderthals died out. (Related: "Surprise! 20 Percent of Neanderthal Genome Lives on in Modern Humans, Scientists Find.")

But based on evidence from ancient bones, spears, and porridge, Speth believes our Stone Age cousins likely boiled their food. He suggests that Neanderthals boiled using only a skin bag or a birch bark tray by relying on a trick of chemistry: Water will boil at a temperature below the ignition point of almost any container, even flammable bark or hides.

"You can boil in just about anything as long as you take it off the flame pretty quickly," Speth says. His presentation included video of water boiling in a paper cup (the water keeps the paper from reaching its ignition temperature) and mention of scenes in Jean Auel's 1980 novel, Clan of the Cave Bear (later a movie), in which Neanderthals boiled stews in hide pouches.

...

Birch Bubbling

But who needs boiling stones or pots? Speth suggests that Neanderthals boiled foods in birch bark twisted into trays, a technology that prehistoric people used to boil maple syrup from tree sap.

Archaeologists have demonstrated that Neanderthals relied on birch tar as an adhesive for hafting spear points as long as 200,000 years ago. Making birch tar requires clever cooking in an oxygen-free container, says paleontologist Michael Bisson of Canada's McGill University.

"I've burned myself trying to do it," Bisson says, adding that Neanderthals were plenty clever when it came to manipulating birch. They likely ignited rolled-up birch bark "cigars" and plunged them into holes to cook the tar in an oxygen-free environment.

If the tar is exposed to oxygen in the air as it cooks, "it explodes," Bisson adds.
...
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on May 02, 2014, 03:49:43 pm
 Hi T.
I'm fascinated by this as well. Have you ever wondered if Neanderthals were a race that existed and was whacked out.
  No matter:  Nice post, it certifies the fact they were not the freaks general accepted history would have us believe.
  Isn't there a biblical reference as to Caine having fur?
  This earth has many races, black, white, red, yellow,dwarfs, midgets, whatever! It wouldn't suprise me in the least if a race existed that was exterminated or in hiding. There are biblical tales of giants roaming the earth,.... which way did they go.
  I have a feeling the true history of this earth would blow our minds.( All speculation, no backup, no source)..
 
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on May 02, 2014, 06:22:53 pm
Hi T.
I'm fascinated by this as well. Have you ever wondered if Neanderthals were a race that existed and was whacked out.
  No matter:  Nice post, it certifies the fact they were not the freaks general accepted history would have us believe.
 ...  

Yes it's all a lot more complicated ...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanidar_Cave

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a8/Erbil_governorate_shanidar_cave.jpg)

Shanidar Cave is an archaeological site in the Bradost mountain, Zagros Mountains in Erbil Governorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.[1] The site is located in the valley of the Great Zab. It was excavated from 1957–1961 by Ralph Solecki and his team from Columbia University and yielded the first adult Neanderthal skeletons in Iraq, dating from 60–80,000 years BP.[1]

The excavated area produced nine skeletons of Neanderthals of varying ages and states of preservation and completeness (labelled Shanidar I – IX). The tenth individual was recently[when?] discovered by M. Zeder during examination of a faunal assemblage from the site at the Smithsonian Institution. The remains seemed to Zeder to suggest that Neandertals had funeral ceremonies, burying their dead with flowers (although the flowers are now thought to be a modern contaminant), and that they took care of injured individuals. One skeleton and casts of the others at the Smithsonian Institution are all that is left of the findings, the originals having been dispersed in Iraq

Shanidar 4, the "flower burial"

Of all the skeletons found at the cave, Shanidar IV provides the best evidence for Neanderthal burial ritual. The skeleton of an adult male aged from 30–45 years was discovered in 1960 by Ralph Solecki and was positioned so that he was lying on his left side in a partial fetal position. Routine soil samples from around the body, gathered for pollen analysis in an attempt to reconstruct the palaeoclimate and vegetational history of the site, were analysed eight years after its discovery. In two of the soil samples in particular, whole clumps of pollen were discovered in addition to the usual pollen found throughout the site, suggesting that entire flowering plants (or at least heads of plants) had entered the grave deposit.[6]

Furthermore, a study of the particular flower types suggested that the flowers may have been chosen for their specific medicinal properties. Yarrow, Cornflower, Bachelor's Button, St. Barnaby's Thistle, Ragwort or Groundsel, Grape Hyacinth, Joint Pine or Woody Horsetail and Hollyhock were represented in the pollen samples, all of which have long-known curative powers as diuretics, stimulants, astringents as well as anti-inflammatory properties.[7] This led to the idea that the man could possibly have had shamanic powers, perhaps acting as medicine man to the Shanidar Neandertals
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on May 02, 2014, 06:46:18 pm
 The accepted, propaganda is we were basically apes who transformed into walking on 2 feet, dragging our knuckles once and a while.
No the race labled Neanderthals is exposed, they were not drooling mungs, they used fire, were capeable of boiling food, maintaing an age over 40 years in a primitive extremely dangerous surroundings and had sensibility's.
 Where did they go?
      Ever wonder what an average American family would do if marooned in a vast forest with nothing, no food, clothing, utensils,  ZIPO.
                                          These so called Neanderthals were not mutts.



Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: decemberfellow on May 02, 2014, 07:01:48 pm
Jesse Ventura vs the Humanzee

By Andrew Zarowny

Quote
Last night on an all new episode of Jesse Ventura Conspiracy Theory on Tru TV, Jesse and his team were on the hunt for humanzee. Human-chimpanzee hybrids allegedly being produced by our government, through DARPA, at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center in Lawrenceville, Georgia. Animal cruelty investigator, Chris DeRose, tells Jesse about chimera experiments involving breeding sheep with human livers, mice with human brains, pigs with human blood and other ′Manimal′ hybrids. Are these ′parahumans′ being genetically modified to create a supply of human organs for medical transplants? Or is our government preparing an army of ′chuman′ super-soldiers to suppress, and even eat, a rebellious citizenry should the nation default on its debts to Goldman Sachs




As crazy as this sounds, there is plenty of real smoke from this fire.




http://www.rightpundits.com/?p=10783 (http://www.rightpundits.com/?p=10783)

 

Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on June 03, 2014, 10:26:31 am
World's oldest pants found in Tarim Basin - ie proto Indo-European  people

https://www.sciencenews.org/article/first-pants-worn-horse-riders-3000-years-ago
First pants worn by horse riders 3,000 years ago
Oldest known trousers originated in Central Asia
By Bruce Bower
 9:05am, May 30, 2014

(https://www.sciencenews.org/sites/default/files/main/articles/bb_trousers_FREE.jpg)

Two men whose remains were recently excavated from tombs in western China put their pants on one leg at a time, just like the rest of us. But these nomadic herders did so between 3,300 and 3,000 years ago, making their trousers the oldest known examples of this innovative apparel, a new study finds.

With straight-fitting legs and a wide crotch, the ancient wool trousers resemble modern riding pants, says a team led by archaeologists Ulrike Beck and Mayke Wagner of the German Archaeological Institute in Berlin. The discoveries, uncovered in the Yanghai graveyard in China’s Tarim Basin, support previous work suggesting that nomadic herders in Central Asia invented pants to provide bodily protection and freedom of movement for horseback journeys and mounted warfare, the scientists report May 22 in Quaternary International.
...

A dry climate and hot summers helped preserve human corpses, clothing and other organic material in the Tarim Basin. More than 500 tombs have been excavated in a graveyard there since the early 1970s.

Earlier research on mummies from several Tarim Basin sites, led by Mair, identified a 2,600-year-old individual known as Cherchen Man who wore burgundy trousers probably made of wool. Trousers of Scythian nomads from West Asia date to roughly 2,500 years ago.

(http://www.crystalinks.com/cherchen.man.jpg)
Cherchen Man

Mair suspects that horse riding began about 3,400 years ago and trouser-making came shortly thereafter in wetter regions to the north and west of the Tarim Basin. Ancient trousers from those areas are not likely to have been preserved, Mair says.

Horse riding’s origins are uncertain and could date to at least 4,000 years ago, comments archaeologist Margarita Gleba of University College London. If so, she says, “I would not be surprised if trousers appeared at least that far back.”
...
The two trouser-wearing men entombed at Yanghai were roughly 40 years old and had probably been warriors as well as herders, the investigators say. One man was buried with a decorated leather bridle, a wooden horse bit, a battle-ax and a leather bracer for arm protection. Among objects placed with the other body were a whip, a decorated horse tail, a bow sheath and a bow.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xinjiang
...
According to J.P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair, the Chinese sources describe the existence of "white people with lightish hair" or the Bai people in the Shan Hai Jing, who lived beyond their northwestern border

The well-preserved Tarim mummies with reddish or blond hair, which today are displayed at the Ürümqi Museum and date back to the 3rd century BC, have been found in precisely the same area of the Tarim Basin.[15] Nomadic tribes such as the Yuezhi were part of the large migration of Indo-European speaking peoples who were settled in eastern Central Asia (possibly as far as Gansu). The Ordos in northern China east of the Yuezhi are another example

| - -

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurgan_hypothesis

The Kurgan hypothesis (also theory or model) is one of the proposals about early Indo-European origins, which postulates that the people of an archaeological "Kurgan culture" (a term grouping the Yamna, or Pit Grave, culture and its predecessors) in the Pontic steppe were the most likely speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language. The term is derived from kurgan (курган), a Turkic loanword in Russian for a tumulus or burial mound. The Kurgan model is the most widely accepted scenario of Indo-European origin

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/IE_expansion.png)

Map of Indo-European migrations from ca. 4000 to 1000 BC according to the Kurgan model. The Anatolian migration (indicated with a dotted arrow) could have taken place either across the Caucasus or across the Balkans. The magenta area corresponds to the assumed Urheimat (Samara culture, Sredny Stog culture). The red area corresponds to the area that may have been settled by Indo-European-speaking peoples up to ca. 2500 BC, and the orange area by 1000 BC.
...

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/Kurgan_map.png)
Overview of the Kurgan hypothesis


(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/R1a1a_distribution.png/800px-R1a1a_distribution.png)
Haplogroup R1a1a distribution
...
Geneticists have noted the correlation of a specific haplogroup R1a1a defined by the M17 (SNP marker) of the Y chromosome and speakers of Indo-European languages in Europe and Asia. The connection between Y-DNA R-M17 and the spread of Indo-European languages was first proposed by Zerjal and colleagues in 1999.[8] and subsequently supported by other authors.[9] Spencer Wells deduced from this correlation that R1a1a arose on the Pontic-Caspian steppe.[10]

Subsequent studies on ancient DNA tested the hypothesis. Skeletons from the Andronovo culture horizon (strongly supposed to be culturally Indo-Iranian) of south Siberia were tested for DNA. Of the 10 males, 9 carried Y-DNA R1a1a (M17). Fairly close matches were found between the ancient DNA STR haplotypes and those in living persons in both eastern Europe and Siberia.[11] Mummies in the Tarim Basin also proved to carry R1a1a and were presumed to be ancestors of Tocharian speakers

...
Central Asia
...
From these cultures further migrations went further east, to found the Afanasevo culture, and the Tocharian languages formerly spoken by Tocharian peoples in oases on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China). The Indo-Iranian branch went south, forming the Iranian people and the Indo-Aryan migration into India. Closely related to the Indo-Aryans were the Mitanni, who founded a kingdom in the Middle East.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on June 04, 2014, 08:34:51 am
Today's world races. Black, corcasian, oriental, Indian, Aborigine, etc. A mixed bag.
 How many other races existed, do we truly have any idea?
 Lets face it, if a race existed that was more advanced or physically different than the average human wouldn't they seperate themselves, hide, go underground, or reamin and be exterminated.
 Come on folks, the inquisition killed and tortured  hundred of thousands who were different, even pretty gals thought simply by their beauty to be witches ( the devils work), folks who used herbs to cure the ill,..Imagine what would have happened to those of a different breed both physically and mentally, think about it!
 Science has dictated to the people many a fable, they have continued their philosophy for century's. The general theory's put forward by Celebrity scientists and their global masters is established, it fringes on heresy to challenge them.
  This is a interesting subject.. How many truly give a twit is the problem.
                                     All our answers are right here on this ball of dirt, hidden .
 
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on June 07, 2014, 10:32:14 am
http://phys.org/news/2014-06-mitochondrial-dna-eastern-farmers-sequenced.html
Mitochondrial DNA of first Near Eastern farmers is sequenced for the first time
Jun 06, 2014

Experts analysed samples from three sites located in the birthplace of Neolithic agricultural practices. Credit: Dr. Alejandro Pérez-Pérez

The mitochondrial DNA of the first Near Eastern farmers has been sequenced for the first time. In the research, published in the journal PLOS Genetics, experts analysed samples from three sites located in the birthplace of Neolithic agricultural practices: the Middle Euphrates basin and the oasis of Damascus, located in today's Syria and date at about 8,000 BC.

...
The study is focused on the analysis of mitochondrial DNA —a type of non-Mendelian maternally inherited DNA— from the first Neolithic farmers, by means of samples obtained by the UAB research group which were first processed by the UB research group.

The Neolithic: a deep revolution in human societies

Agricultural and husbandry practices originated around 12,000 years ago in a region of the Near East known as the Fertile Crescent. This phenomenon, known as "Neolithic", meant a profound social, cultural and economic transformation of human populations (agricultural production, sedentary farming lifestyle, origin of the first cities and modern societies, etc.).

...

From the Near East to Europe

The study published in PLOS Genetics provides a new framework to interpret the results of other studies about European Neolithic populations, stress the authors. According to conclusions, genetic affinities have been observed between the mitochondrial DNA of first Neolithic populations and the DNA of first Catalan and German farmers. This suggests that probably Neolithic expansion took place through pioneer migrations of small groups of population. Moreover, the two main migration routes ―Mediterranean and European― might have been genetically linked.

"The most significant conclusion —highlights Eva Fernández— is that the degree of genetic similarity between the populations of the Fertile Crescent and the ones of Cyprus an Crete supports the hypothesis that Neolithic spread in Europe took place through pioneer seafaring colonization, not through a land-mediated expansion through Anatolia, as it was thought until now".
...
In order to support these conclusions, the scientific team aims at analysing a greater number of human Neolithic samples from other regions of the Fertile Crescent, and at increasing the number of genetic markers analysed in the samples.
...

| - - - -

http://phys.org/news/2013-09-genetic-timeline-significant-human-population.html#inlRlv
Genetic study pushes back timeline for first significant human population expansion
Sep 24, 2013

Using new genetic tools, the authors conclude that the first significant expansion of human populations appears to be much older than the emergence of farming and herding, dating back to the Paleolithic (60,000-80,000 years ago) rather than Neolithic age (10,000 years ago). They also suggest that strong Paleolithic expansions may have favored the emergence of sedentary farming in some populations during the Neolithic.

About 10,000 years ago, the Neolithic age ushered in one of the most dramatic periods of human cultural and technological transition, where independently, different world populations developed the domestication of plants and animals. The hunter-gatherers gave rise to herders and farmers. Changes to a more sedentary lifestyle and larger settlements are widely thought to have contributed to a worldwide human population explosion, from an estimated 4-6 million people to 60-70 million by 4,000 B.C.


Now, researchers Aimé, et al., have challenged this assumption using a large set of populations from diverse geographical regions (20 different genomic regions and mitochondrial DNA of individuals from 66 African and Eurasian populations), and compared their genetic results with archaeological findings. The dispersal and expansion of Neolithic culture from the Middle East has recently been associated with the distribution of human genetic markers.

They conclude that the first significant expansion of human populations appears to be much older than the emergence of farming and herding, dating back to the Paleolithic (60,000-80,000 years ago) rather than Neolithic age. Therefore, hunter-gatherer populations were able to thrive with cultural and social advances that allowed for the expansion. The authors also speculate that this Paleolithic human population expansion may be linked to the emergence of newer, more advanced hunting technologies or a rapid environmental change to dryer climates.

...

| - - - -

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7700356.stm
DNA legacy of ancient seafarers
 By Paul Rincon 
 Science reporter, BBC News
 
Friday, 31 October 2008

Scientists have used DNA to re-trace the migrations of a sea-faring civilisation which dominated the Mediterranean thousands of years ago.

The Phoenicians were an enterprising maritime people from the territory of modern-day Lebanon.

They established a trading empire throughout the Mediterranean Sea in the first millennium BC.

A new study by an international team has now revealed the genetic legacy they imparted to modern populations. 

The researchers estimate that as many as one in 17 men from the Mediterranean may have Phoenician ancestry.
...
From their base in present-day Lebanon, the Phoenicians spread out across the sea, founding colonies and trading posts as far afield as Spain and North Africa, where their most powerful city - Carthage - was located.

Carthage spawned the audacious military commander Hannibal, who marched an army over the Alps to challenge the Roman Republic on its own territory.

The Phoenicians have been described as the world's first "global capitalists". They controlled trade throughout the Mediterranean basin for nearly 1,000 years until finally being conquered by the Romans.

Over subsequent centuries, much of what was known about these enigmatic people was lost or destroyed.
...
Genetic 'jacuzzi'

But several human migrations - both historic and prehistoric - have started in the Eastern Mediterranean and spread out to Europe and North Africa.

These include the migrations of early farmers from the Near East after 10,000BC, the expansion of the ancient Greeks who - like the Phoenicians - established outposts around the Mediterranean, and the Jewish diaspora.

Because of their geographical proximity, the people involved in these expansions may have carried similar genetic signatures to the Phoenicians.
...

 Teasing apart something that's specifically Levantine, or Phoenician, from the background of the general Neolithic expansion, or Greek colonisation, is actually quite tough - Spencer Wells - Genographic Project director
...
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on June 07, 2014, 01:43:50 pm
 This chages the concept we were taught and gives the educators a kick in the butt.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on June 13, 2014, 11:46:17 am
You cannot make this up ...
Journey to the Center of the Earth
Days of Noah - Flooding of the Earth , where did the water come from ? Where did it Go?


http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/jun/13/earth-may-have-underground-ocean-three-times-that-on-surface
Earth may have underground 'ocean' three times that on surface


Scientists say rock layer hundreds of miles down holds vast amount of water, opening up new theories on how planet formed

Melissa Davey   
theguardian.com, Thursday 12 June 2014 23.53 EDT

Three-quarters of the Earth's water may be locked deep underground in a layer of rock, scientists say. Photograph: Blue Line Pictures/Getty Images

After decades of searching scientists have discovered that a vast reservoir of water, enough to fill the Earth’s oceans three times over, may be trapped hundreds of miles beneath the surface, potentially transforming our understanding of how the planet was formed.

The water is locked up in a mineral called ringwoodite about 660km (400 miles) beneath the crust of the Earth, researchers say. Geophysicist Steve Jacobsen from Northwestern University in the US co-authored the study published in the journal Science and said the discovery suggested Earth’s water may have come from within, driven to the surface by geological activity, rather than being deposited by icy comets hitting the forming planet as held by the prevailing theories.

“Geological processes on the Earth’s surface, such as earthquakes or erupting volcanoes, are an expression of what is going on inside the Earth, out of our sight,” Jacobsen said.

“I think we are finally seeing evidence for a whole-Earth water cycle, which may help explain the vast amount of liquid water on the surface of our habitable planet. Scientists have been looking for this missing deep water for decades.”

(http://www.mygen.com/images/water_mantle_transition_web.png)

....

It produced evidence that melting and movement of rock in the transition zone – hundreds of kilometres down, between the upper and lower mantles – led to a process where water could become fused and trapped in the rock.

The discovery is remarkable because most melting in the mantle was previously thought to occur at a much shallower distance, about 80km below the Earth’s surface.

Jacobsen told the New Scientist that the hidden water might also act as a buffer for the oceans on the surface, explaining why they have stayed the same size for millions of years. "If [the stored water] wasn't there, it would be on the surface of the Earth, and mountaintops would be the only land poking out," he said.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on October 08, 2014, 12:18:56 pm
http://www.archaeology.org/issues/125-1403/trenches/1798-france-middle-ages-deformed-skull

(http://www.archaeology.org/images/MA2014/Trenches/Obernai_Deformed_Skull.jpg)
Barbarian Body Modification
 By NIKHIL SWAMINATHAN
Monday, February 10, 2014

Archaeologists digging in Obernai, a commune in northeastern France, discovered a deformed female skull in a necropolis containing 18 burials dating to the fifth century A.D., or the early Middle Ages. The entombed woman was adorned with gold pins, two pendants, and a silver mirror. The deformation of her skull, says Clément Féliu, an archaeologist with the National Institute of Preventive Archaeological Research, was absolutely intentional. It is likely an aristocratic signifier, he explains, created by linking small boards around a newborn’s head to make the skull taller and narrower. “I think the peoples who were buried in Obernai belong to a little group of ‘Barbarians,’” from the east, where the practice was more common, says Féliu.

http://news.discovery.com/history/archaeology/skeleton-of-possible-witch-girl-found-141006.htm
Skeleton of Possible 'Witch Girl' Found
 
 Oct 6, 2014 04:00 PM ET  //  by  Rossella Lorenzi

An archaeological dig in northern Italy has unearthed the remains of a 13-year-old-girl buried face-down -- evidence, archaeologists say, that despite her young age, she was rejected by her community and seen as a danger even when dead.

Dubbed by Italian media as “the witch girl,” the skeleton was unearthed at the complex of San Calocero in Albenga on the Ligurian Riviera, by a team of the Pontifical Institute of Christian Archaeology at the Vatican.

The site, a burial ground on which a martyr church dedicated to San Calocero was built around the fifth and sixth centuries A.D., was completely abandoned in 1593.
...
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on October 08, 2014, 06:21:00 pm
Hi T.
          The scientific community insists these enlarged skulls are caused by binding, explaining it was a custom among some barbarians.
          Why then are they discover on two continents? Some experts have made claimed a portion of the skulls found were not the result of binding & the eye sockets of some are much larger than human skulls.
          The theory is people were imitating royalty such as Egypt, Nerfertiti a princess -statue exibits her elongated skull.
            Interesting, but it gets complicated. 
       
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on October 08, 2014, 10:44:50 pm
Hi T.
          The scientific community insists these enlarged skulls are caused by binding, explaining it was a custom among some barbarians.
          Why then are they discover on two continents? Some experts have made claimed a portion of the skulls found were not the result of binding & the eye sockets of some are much larger than human skulls.
          The theory is people were imitating royalty such as Egypt, Nerfertiti a princess -statue exibits her elongated skull.
            Interesting, but it gets complicated. 

Yes skull binding was a global phenomenon  among the ruling elites and  shamans also in this time period this same tribe of peoples (Visigoths) were converted Arian Christians that had sacked Rome
Also this is where we also see the elites of society wearing tall cone hats ( like the pope)
:


Some of the Barbarians that conquered Rome were Arian Christians .... But they did not believe in the Trinity so they were wiped out later by Charlemagne ..

http://www.jaars.org/museum/alphabet/people/ulfilas.htm
(http://www.jaars.org/museum/alphabet/people/graphics/ulfilas.jpg)

The Visigoths, or West Goths, a warlike people, lived along the Roman frontier west of the Black Sea. After they had been "Christianized," Ulfilas (311-382), their bishop, saw they needed the Bible in their own tongue, "to speak to their hearts."

First, Ulfilas had to make an alphabet. He knew that neither the Greek nor the Roman alphabet would fit a Germanic language. He chose from these alphabets only the letters that corresponded to the speech sounds of Visigoth. For sounds for which there were no letters, he used runes, an early Germanic alphabet of limited use. With this, he translated the Bible.

The Visigoths migrated west and were the first to conquer Rome (A.D. 410) Their aim, however, was not so much to destroy but to acquire the benefits of civilization. It was largely due to the work of Ulfilas that these plunderers became peacemakers.

311 – 383 - Ulfilas -  Wulfila; Little Wolf - translated the Bible from Greek into the Gothic language. For this he devised the Gothic alphabet based on the Getae's alphabet - Ulfilas converted many among the Goths, preaching an Arian Christianity, which, when they reached the western Mediterranean, set them apart from their Orthodox neighbors and subjects.

325 - 400 A.D. The Goths are converted to Arian Christianity. Ulfias writes his translation of the New Testament, the only surviving work of written Gothic.

410 A.D. - Alaric, king of the Visigoths, conquers Rome.

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a0/Sack_of_Rome_by_the_Visigoths_on_24_August_410_by_JN_Sylvestre_1890.jpg/269px-Sack_of_Rome_by_the_Visigoths_on_24_August_410_by_JN_Sylvestre_1890.jpg)
Sack of Rome by the Visigoths on 24 August 410 by Joseph-Noël Sylvestre

493-553 - Ostrogothic Kingdom - was established by the King Theodoric the Great - Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas. Gothic Arian Christians

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arianism

Arianism is the theological teaching attributed to Arius (ca. AD 250–336), a Christian presbyter in Alexandria, Egypt, concerning the relationship of God the Father to the Son of God, Jesus Christ. Arius asserted that the Son of God was a subordinate entity to God the Father.

Deemed a heretic by the Ecumenical First Council of Nicaea of 325, Arius was later exonerated in 335 at the regional First Synod of Tyre,[1] and then, after his death, pronounced a heretic again at the Ecumenical First Council of Constantinople of 381.[2] The Roman Emperors Constantius II (337–361) and Valens (364–378) were Arians or Semi-Arians.

The Arian concept of Christ is that the Son of God did not always exist, but was created by—and is therefore distinct from—God the Father. This belief is grounded in the Gospel of John (14:28)[3] passage: "You heard me say, 'I am going away and I am coming back to you.' If you loved me, you would be glad that I am going to the Father, for the Father is greater than I."
...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulfilas

Ulfilas, (Gothic: 𐌿𐌻𐍆𐌹𐌻𐌰𐍃; Wulfila; Little Wolf), also Ulphilas, Orphila[1] (ca. 311 – 383;[2]), bishop, missionary, and Bible translator, was a Goth or half-Goth and half-Greek from Cappadocia who had spent time inside the Roman Empire at the peak of the Arian controversy.

http://theburgundian.blogspot.com/2009/06/christian-conversion-of-burgundians.html
The Christian Conversion of the Burgundians
...

That the majority of the Germanic tribes followed heretical Arianism was probably not an accident. As it had fallen out of favor within the empire, it had increased its influence among the Germanic people outside of the empire. In the case of the Visigoths under Theodosius, the barbarians preferred the decentralized, mostly locally governed Arian Christianity over the organized and centrally governed Catholic faith, which they believed would intrude upon their traditions and tend to weaken their social identity. So, while the barbarians adjusted to, even mimiced, the Roman lifestyle, they did not completely embrace Roman culture. The same attitude has been ascribed to the Burgundians. By adhering to what was regarded as a heretical form of Christianity, the already outnumbered Burgundians only increased their isolation amidst a sea of Gallo-Roman Christians.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obernai

Obernai (French: Obernai; Alsatian: Owernah; German: Oberehnheim) commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France. It lies on the eastern slopes of the Vosges mountains

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hennin

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1e/Hans_Memling_050.jpg/180px-Hans_Memling_050.jpg)

The hennin /ˈhɛnɨn/ was a headdress in the shape of a cone or "steeple", or truncated cone worn in the late Middle Ages by European women of the nobility.[1] They were most common in Burgundy and France, but also elsewhere, especially at the English courts,[2] and in Northern Europe, Hungary and Poland

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ce/Petrus_Christus_-_Portrait_of_a_Young_Woman_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg/640px-Petrus_Christus_-_Portrait_of_a_Young_Woman_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on October 22, 2014, 12:52:47 pm
http://www.archaeology.org/news/2638-141020-new-mexico-rock-art-water
Rock Art Panels May Be Linked to Hallucinogenic Plants
Monday, October 20, 2014

ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO—Archaeologist Lawrence Loendorf of Sacred Sites Research was documenting rock art sites in southern New Mexico when he realized that hallucinogenic plants were growing beneath panels painted with series of triangles in red, yellow, and black. One of the plants, known as coyote tobacco, contains up to three times the amount of nicotine as conventional tobacco. It can bring on a trance-like state if smoked continuously for six to eight hours.

The other plant, datura, is a potentially deadly psychedelic drug. He’s also found 1,000-year-old pottery at the 24 sites. “Every one of the sites where we find the tobacco, we also find El Paso ceramics, or we find other kinds of pots…that date generally in that same range,” Loendorf told Western Digs. The painted triangle motifs are recognized as a symbol of water and water-carrying vessels, so Loendorf speculates that shamans may have brought the plants to the sites for use in ceremonies and ended up seeding the plants accidentally. “I think that probably the ultimate reason for going through this trance is to intervene with spirits to make it rain,” he explained. The rock art will be dated with plasma oxidation technology. For more on rock art in New Mexico, see "Searching for the Comanche Empire."
...

| - - - -
http://www.angelfire.com/indie/anna_jones1/datura.html
...
In that there are a number of species of Datura there is some confusion as to what Datura Castaneda may have used. According to Castaneda in THE TEACHINGS OF DON JUAN: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge a shaman-sorcerer has an Ally contained in the Datura plants commonly known as jimson weed. Don Juan called that ally by one of the Spanish names of the plant, yerba del diablo (devil's weed), with the ally taking on the form of a sort of plant spirit. According to Don Juan, as he related it to Castaneda, ANY of the species of Datura was the container of the ally. However, the sorcerer had to grow his own patch, not only in the sense that the plants were his private property, but in the sense that they were personally identified with him.

| - - - -

(http://c1.staticflickr.com/7/6153/6191221434_0c5186f35c_z.jpg)
COYOTE TOBACCO

(http://www.mygen.com/images/devils_weed_legal_smoking_mix9mf.jpg)
Devil Weed

| - - - -

http://www.centnews.com/Tech/Oldest-DNA-ever-found-sheds-light-on-humans-global-trek/S-2014-10-22/99027.html

Oldest DNA ever found sheds light on humans' global trek
Posted at :2014-10-22 18:00:08

France - Scientists said Wednesday they had unravelled the oldest DNA ever retrieved from a Homo sapiens bone, a feat that sheds light on modern humans' colonisation of the planet.

A femur found by chance on the banks of a west Siberian river in 2008 is that of a man who died around 45,000 years ago, they said.

Teased out of collagen in the ancient bone, the genome contains traces from Neanderthals -- a cousin species who lived in Eurasia alongside H. sapiens before mysteriously disappearing.

Previous research has found that Neanderthals and H. sapiens interbred, leaving a tiny Neanderthal imprint of just about two percent in humans today, except for Africans.

The discovery has a bearing on the so-called "Out of Africa" scenario: the theory that H. sapiens evolved in East Africa around 200,000 years ago and then ventured out of the continent.

Dating when Neanderthals and H. sapiens interbred would also indicate when H. sapiens embarked on a key phase of this trek -- the push out of Eurasia and into South and later Southeast Asia.

The new study, published in the journal Nature, was headed by Svante Paabo, a renowned geneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, who has pioneered research into Neanderthals.

- Neanderthal interbreeding -
 
The bone found at the Irtyush River, near the settlement of Ust'-Ishim, carries slightly more Neanderthal DNA than non-Africans today, the team found.

But it takes the form of relatively long strips, whereas Neanderthal DNA in our genome today has been cut up and dispersed in tiny sections as a result of generations of reproduction.

These differences provide a clue for a "molecular calendar", or dating DNA according to mutations over thousands of years.

Using this method, Paabo's team estimate interbreeding between Neanderthals and H. sapiens occurred 7,000 to 13,000 years before the Siberian individual lived -- thus no more than 60,000 years ago.

This provides a rough date for estimating when H. sapiens headed into South Asia, Chris Stringer, a professor at Britain's Natural History Museum, said in a comment on the study.

If today's Australasians have Neanderthal DNA, it is because their forebears crossed through Neanderthal territory and mingled with the locals.

"The ancestors of Australasians, with their similar input of Neanderthal DNA to Eurasians, must have been part of a late, rather than early, dispersal through Neanderthal territory," Stringer said in a press release.

"While it is still possible that modern humans did traverse southern Asia before 60,000 years ago, those groups could not have made a significant contribution to the surviving modern populations outside of Africa, which contain evidence of interbreeding with Neanderthals."

Anthropologists suggest a northern branch of Eurasians crossed to modern-day Alaska more than 15,000 years ago via an "ice bridge" that connected islands in the Bering Strait, thus enabling H. sapiens to colonise the Americas

Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on October 22, 2014, 08:23:58 pm
 I find this topic interesting, some guy said, there are more mysteries on earth than in all the heavens.
 The skulls, banding examinations of a % are not consistant with the average human skull, thickness, soft spots, eye sockets, etc.
 Who knows, we sure don't.. Just to say the standard theme is being challenged.
 Any form  of homosapains considered different was exterminated or hiding. The inquisition tortured -waked out girls that were pretty, smart etc. considered witches, scientists, talented humans, herb growers.. Given the scale of of the prejudice, fear, involved, difference, things haven't changed much have they. Much worse in those days, though it continues.
 Certainly what they assume are barbarians that attempted to duplicate enlarged skulls no resistance to this, but the reality is more. Giants worked for Biblical accounts, which way did they go.
  Old age I guess, or maby a curious mind that is not suppressed by the fairy tales they are led to  believe would freak out the average Joe Cit.(masses).    Collectors,( super wealth/Govs/ have been collecting ancient items for hundreds of years, we will not be privy to their discoveries. Well, example- The Vatican vaults, whats the secrets they guard, and why? 
  Gets the ole bells ringing doesn't it.
The last thing the rulers want is to reveal the contents of the vaults, nor their items they have  paid fortunes to obtain.
 

 
 
 
 
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on December 13, 2014, 02:20:31 pm
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7R5frDdwc4c&index=3&list=LLDV_QMXVj2gm44Z5wT-JC0w
The Pyramid Show - Octogon vs. Occitania
The Pharaohs of Octogon destroyed the highstanding free european civilisation of Occitania;

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ViuayU-swhk
Real Ancient Pharaonic Pyramid La Ratapignata near Nice in Southern France - They Are Here All Right

http://www.beyond.fr/sites/pyramidratap.html
Ratapignata Pyramid
(http://www.beyond.fr/picssite/pyramidratap095s.jpg)
A strange pyramid is located on the hillside north of Nice and northwest of Falicon. The pyramid is fairly small and now showing the signs of age (the top has been truncated at about 3 m), but the lower part is in good condition. It was discovered in 1804, and was calculated to have been 9 m tall. Its uniqueness and mystery make it worth visiting.

The stone pyramid is built over the opening of the Grotto (Aven) of Ratapignata, on the eastern flank of the ridge. The grotto beneath the pyramid is a karstic cave, called Bauma des Ratapignata in Occitan, or "Cave of the Bats".

This is one of the very rare pyramids to be found in Europe, and no clear explanation has ever been given for its existence. Among the various theories of its origin, the grandson of the famous archeologist John Ward-Perkins (shown here at the pyramid in 1996) thinks it might have marked the tomb of an ancient chieftain, possibly an exiled Egyptian
...
The tale we heard in Falicon some ten years ago (1996) was that the pyramid was built by Roman legionnaires, and the 50-metre deep grotto was a temple to the Persian god Mithras.


http://www.archaeology.org/news/2771-141211-denmark-egypt-glass
Bronze Age Grave in Denmark Contained Egyptian Bead

AARHUS, DENMARK—The chemical composition of 23 glass beads unearthed in Denmark was examined with plasma-spectrometry, and compared with the trace elements found in beads from Amarna in Egypt and Nippur in Mesopotamia. One of the beads, made of blue glass, had come from a woman’s Bronze Age burial that was excavated in 1880 at the Ølby site. She had been buried in a hollowed-out oak trunk wearing a belt disc, a string skirt with small bronze tubes, a bracelet made of amber beads, and a single blue glass bead.
...

http://sciencenordic.com/danish-bronze-age-glass-beads-traced-egypt
Danish Bronze Age glass beads traced to Egypt
December 8, 2014 - 06:23

(http://sciencenordic.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/300x/sk0514-007_egekiste-oelby_0.jpg.crop_display.jpg)

An international collaboration between Moesgaard Museum in Aarhus, the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen, and Institut de Recherche sur les Archéomatériaux (IRAMAT) at Orléans, France, has resulted in a sensational discovery about the trade routes between Denmark and the ancient civilisations in Egypt and Mesopotamia in the Bronze Age 3,400 years ago. The discovery also gives us new knowledge about the sun cult in the Nordic Bronze Age.'
./..

Globalisation in the Bronze Age

Twenty-three glass beads from Denmark were analysed using plasma-spectrometry. Without destroying the fragile beads, this technique makes it possible to compare the chemical composition of trace elements in the beads with reference material from Amarna in Egypt and Nippur in Mesopotamia, about 50 km south east of Baghdad in Iraq. The comparison showed that the chemical composition of the two sets of trace elements match.

The researchers' first object for comparison was a bead from a wealthy woman's grave at Ølby, about 40 km south of Copenhagen. The woman had been buried in a more extravagant fashion, lying in a hollowed-out oak trunk and wearing a beautiful belt disc, a smart string skirt with tinkling, shining small bronzes tubes, and an overarm bracelet made of amber beads, and a single blue glass bead.

The glass bead turned out to be Egyptian. This is the first time that typical Egyptian cobalt glass has been discovered outside the Mediterranean area
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on December 13, 2014, 06:32:10 pm
Hi T.
          Only the privileged hold the key to the true history of mankind, we are force fed Sh**t sandwiches.
When I was a kid my dream was to be an archaeologist, for years I would dig up indian artifects, save up money to buy old swords etc.., had a hell of a collection.
         Bottom line, public school history classes ended my dream, endless reams of BS to avoid the real deal.
I asked a history teacher a  reasonable question and was told, your book is the standard and we follow the rules, its required reading.
          Looking back it was as if the teacher was close to an apoligy, kinda like ( in order to make a paycheck I have to feed you kids this HS)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on December 15, 2014, 12:47:00 pm
King Tut was a red headed Atlantean/European conqueror ...


(http://img.ultimate-guitar.com/_img/news/entertainment/richards-grandma-tut.jpg)

(http://wac.450f.edgecastcdn.net/80450F/wzozfm.com/files/2013/07/6-6-KING-TUT-Facebook.jpg)

http://stevenmcollins.com/WordPress/?p=2569
...
Despite the refusal of the Secretary General of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, Zahi Hawass, to release any
DNA results which might indicate the racial ancestry of Pharaoh Tutankhamen, the leaked results reveal that King Tut’s DNA is a 99.6 percent match with Western European Y chromosomes.

The DNA test results were inadvertently revealed on a Discovery Channel TV documentary filmed with Hawass’s permission — but it seems as if the Egyptian failed to spot the giveaway part of the documentary which revealed the test results.

Hawass previously announced that he would not release the racial DNA results of Egyptian mummies — obviously because he feared the consequences of such a revelation.

| - - - - -
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2022313/Up-70-British-men-related-Egyptian-Pharaoh-Tutankhamun.html

Swiss company reconstructs King Tut's DNA profile from Discovery Channel documentary
Results show he belonged to 'haplogroup' common to half of Western European men
Claims disputed by fellow geneticists

...

It is estimated that the earliest migration of haplogroup R1b1a2 into Europe began with the spread of agriculture in 7,000 BC, according to iGENEA.

However, the geneticists were not sure how Tutankhamun's paternal lineage came to Egypt from its region of origin.

| - - - -

see:
http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/ciencia_suppressedearthhistory02.htm
...

Numerous Egyptian artifacts have been found in Spain, dating from the Third Dynasty (well before the time of Akhenaten and the supposed flight of Meritaten), indicating long-established links between Egypt and Spain. (However, as far as I can see the author does not claim that Egyptian artifacts have been found at motilla sites).

| - - - -
http://www.philipcoppens.com/euro_pyrs.html
Europe’s pyramid history unveiled

The possibility of European pyramids is like London busses: you wait for centuries, and all of a sudden, two come along at the same time: in early 2003 in Italy, and in 2005 in Bosnia. After less than one year’s of scientific analysis, the Bosnian pyramid is already identified as an artificial structure, thus finally providing proof that Europe does have a pyramid past.

| - - -

https://archive.org/stream/cavalierspioneer00nuge#page/40/mode/2up
The Red-Haired Race And The Atlantean Connection
...
R1b1a2 and the myth of red hair in Egypt

So, was the lineage of pharaohs the same lineage that represents over 50 per cent of modern European men?

Interestingly, a mysterious race of redheaded mummies is being found all over the globe, including Egypt. Although some people argue that the blonde hair might in some cases be the result of mummification or that the people might have dyed their hair, the coincidence seems almost incredible, considering that the Irish are part of the same haplogroup as the lineage of the pharaohs.

(http://mysticablog.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/redhairedmummye3-126x165.jpg)
The Atlantean connection

It is documented that red-haired people were known to many of the peoples of the ancient world, but they always constituted a minority in every population . Their appearance in areas like Egypt and Peru surprises us for the climate, but the location in South America surprises us even more for the distance of the alleged source.
 Did they really arrive from the Caucasus? Or did they come from Western territories, maybe from a sunken continent?
Plato was certainly not the only one who mentioned the existence of the mythical Atlantis. There’s in fact reason to believe that Plato gathered much of his knowledge as well as the tale of Atlantis from his visits in Egypt.
 The Egyptians probably mentioned Atlantis in their writings – the writings about the mysterious land “Amentet”, the Land of the West.

...

http://www.european-pyramids.eu/wb/pages/european-pyramids/italy.php

The existence of ancient lava stone pyramids in Italy has long been known. There are several terraced lava stone structures in Sardinia and Sicily, excavated and studied scientifically.

But what is generally unknown is the fact that since 2003 several grass covered pyramid hills of 50 - 100m size have been discovered by aerial or satellite imagery, suggesting strongly that there are man made pyramid construcions underneath

(http://www.mygen.com/images/sant_agata-Ansicht.jpg)


(http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-4DWCZ3USiXM/UHK7kWzzhZI/AAAAAAAAIDM/Te6ra7xBHac/s1600/bosnian+pyramid.jpg)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on December 15, 2014, 05:52:53 pm
I have forgotten the name of the man who said...:
                          " There are more mystery's on earth than in all the heavens"
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on December 15, 2014, 06:03:31 pm
http://www.burlingtonnews.net/redhairedmummiescanaryislands.html
The Red Haired Mummies of the Canary Islands
(http://www.burlingtonnews.net/sitebuilder/images/redhairedmummiescanaryislands1-424x194.jpg)

Off the coast of West Africa lie the Canary Islands - this region became home to a mysterious group of Nordics in antiquity who became known as the Guanches.

The best evidence of what these original Guanche Nordics looked like, is in the fortuitous existence of original Guanche mummies, which are on public display in that island group's national museum.

The most stunning link between the Guanches and the Egyptians comes in the form of pyramids - the Guanches built several small step pyramids on the islands, using exactly the same model as those found in ancient Egypt and in Mesopotamia. The pyramids have an east-west alignment.

Generally dolichocephalic, fair-featured with blond or red-hair, with males over six foot tall and women approaching six feet in height, they were a people of tall, strong and comely appearance, resembling many Northern Europeans today but for a generally greater and more robust stature.
...

http://www.gigalresearch.com/uk/bulletins-8.php
Mauritius Island pyramids
(http://www.gigalresearch.com/uk/images/ile-maurice/maurice-pyramide.jpg)

"Here are three of the seven pyramids I have identified in Mauritius as being identical to those on Tenerife Island, in Güimar (Canary Islands), thousands of kilometres away
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on February 06, 2015, 02:00:28 pm
The original Mediterranean diet plus slave service ...

http://www.insidescience.org/content/dinner-pisos/2536
Ancient Romans ate meals most Americans would recognize.
Originally published:  Feb 3 2015 - 3:30pm  .
 By:  Joel N. Shurkin, Contributor  .
 
(Inside Science) -- Let's pretend it is 56 B.C. and you have been fortunate enough to be invited to a party at the home of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, a great social coup. Piso, after all, was Julius Caesar's father-in-law and a consul of Rome.

What's for dinner?

You need to prepare for pig. Archaeologists studying the eating habits of ancient Etruscans and Romans have found that pork was the staple of Italian cuisine before and during the Roman Empire. Both the poor and the rich ate pig as the meat of choice, although the rich, like Piso, got better cuts, ate meat more often and likely in larger quantities.

They had pork chops and a form of bacon. They even served sausages and prosciutto; in other words, a meal not unlike what you'd find in Rome today -- or in South Philadelphia.

http://www.seriouseats.com/2011/09/best-cheesesteak-sandwiches-in-philadelphia-philly.html
(http://www.seriouseats.com/images/2011/09/20110926-philly-cheesesteak-roundup-jonhs-roast-pork-milano-2.jpg) Steak Milano from John's Roast Pork

Researchers discussed this ancient Mediterranean diet at a meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America in New Orleans in January.
...
Besides the meat, there would be vegetables that looked little different from what we eat, said Angela Trentacoste of the University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom. Except for grain, which was imported in huge quantities from places like North Africa, everything was locally grown.
...
One legend is true, MacKinnon said: Vomitoriums. There might be so much food at Piso's table, and everyone would want to indulge. To make room, they would excuse themselves from the table and purge.
Dinner parties were the way the Roman aristocracy showed off their wealth and prestige, according to Michael MacKinnon, professor of archaeology at the University of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on March 04, 2015, 12:46:09 pm
Finnish Crusader Viking ...

http://yle.fi/uutiset/thousand-year_old_swordsman_rises_from_the_earth/6934793
News 14.11.2013 16:32 | updated 14.11.2013 20:39
Thousand-year old swordsman rises from the earth

Archaeology hobbyists were stunned when they unearthed a remarkable historical find from a field in Janakkala, southern Finland. The ancient grave site appeared to be that of an early crusader buried with two swords from different eras.
...
Rare Crusade-era grave site

Upon further investigation the find turned out to be both rare and valuable. Researchers found a grave dating back to the Crusade-era 12th century. The cadaver had been extremely well preserved allowing researchers to use new techniques to harvest information that would not have been previously possible.

On top of all this, the find was a rare two-sword grave, in other words this traveller had two swords to accompany him on his journey into the afterlife. As a bonus puzzler, the swords originated from different historical periods.

There were two swords, one on top of the other, the smaller of which was a Viking-era artifact. There is now speculation that it may have been in a fire. In other words, it may have been an heirloom that was in a cremation fire. So that’s a rare combination. It’s one of the longest swords in Finland, from the crusade or medieval era roughly,” said the NBA’s researcher Simo Vanhatalo, who led the dig last week.

In addition to the swords, an array of tools had been provided for the dead traveller, including a spearhead and an axe blade. The remains indicate that the dead adventurer was a strapping 180 cm tall man who also carried his own 120-cm sword dating back to the period of the Vikings or Crusades.

( 180 cm = 5' 11"

(http://www.archaeology.org/images/News/1311/Crusader_Grave_Finland.jpg)

http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread982871/pg1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EuAjVi7CP2I

(http://www.mygen.com/images/gy5286beff.jpg)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on March 04, 2015, 12:57:16 pm
One of my ancestors :-\:

http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-norfolk-31659025
(http://news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/81294000/jpg/_81294907_78d50a66-ae2c-4ba7-815d-fe81dd95f486.jpg)
Coins in the grave have suggested the skeleton and jewellery date from circa 630-650AD.

University of East Anglia (UEA) student Mr Lucking, who lives in Bowthorpe on the outskirts of Norwich, said the importance of his find "hasn't sunk in really".

http://www.archaeology.org/news/3047-150227-england-anglo-saxon-pendant
Noblewoman’s Grave Yields Anglo-Saxon Jewelry
NORFOLK, ENGLAND—Archaeology student Tom Lucking was exploring a private field with a metal detector when a large and deep signal led him to the top of a bronze bowl. He refilled the hole and called in the geophysics team from the Suffolk Archaeological Field Group and Norfolk County Council’s Heritage Environment Service. The excavation revealed that the bowl was at the foot of the grave of an Anglo-Saxon noblewoman who had been buried with a fine pendant made of gold and jewels. “It’s so beautifully made. The garnet cells even have scored gold ‘foil’ at the back of them to catch the light,” archaeologist Steven Ashley of the Historic Environment Service said of the pendant. She also had a chatelaine, and a necklace made of two gold beads and repurposed gold coins. One of the coins in the necklace dates to between 639 and 656, and was minted for the Frankish king, Sigebert III. The bronze bowl was probably also imported from France. “She’s going to have known the kings of East Anglia, and France,” archaeologist Helen Geake commented to EDP 24. The woman’s skeletal remains will be analyzed for information about her age, diet, and medical conditions

http://www.edp24.co.uk/norfolk-life/amazing_anglo_saxon_pendant_joins_the_ranks_of_major_treasures_discovered_in_our_region_1_3972534
Trevor Heaton
Friday, February 27, 2015
 5:15 PM

(http://www.edp24.co.uk/polopoly_fs/1.3972533!/image/image.jpg_gen/derivatives/landscape_490/image.jpg)
In her role as one of the experts in Channel 4’s long-running Time Team series, Dr Helen Geake saw many exciting finds come to the surface. But the discovery of the stunning gold and jewel pendant, dug out of a muddy South Norfolk field and announced today, tops the lot.

“It’s the single most exciting discovery I have ever been present at,” Dr Geake said.
...
Now the South Norfolk pendant, the latest in a long line of spectacular discoveries from Norfolk, is set to join that famous list. “It’s going to be a nationally-important thing,” Dr Geake added. Nothing else has been found quite like it.

The exquisite 7cm pendant is stunningly made with gold ‘cells’ and red garnet inlays. Some of the garnets have been cut to make animal ‘interlace’, a popular and highly-skilled design technique from the period where representations of creatures are stretched out and intricately interwoven.
...
The bowl turned out to be at the foot of a grave with the badly-preserved bones of an adult Anglo-Saxon. As the excavation continued it was clear that this was a female because of the jewelry being discovered. It included a ‘chatelaine’, a long strip with probably silver rings which would have been hung from a girdle.

The pendant is the undoubted star find from the excavation, but there are other items to indicate that this was a noblewoman of wealth and taste. Some of them were made in the Kingdom of the Franks, part of what was to later become France.

They include two pendants made from re-used gold coins. One of them has been dated to between 639-656 when it was minted for Frankish king Sigebert III, probably near Marseilles, so we know the grave must be dated to just after this. The pendants, along with two gold beads, formed part of a ‘choker’-style necklace.
...
The bones of the noblewoman have already been taken to Norwich Castle Museum for analysis. We should be able to discover more about her lifestyle, including her age and clues to her diet and medical conditions. The finds will be considered at a special inquest to decide if they are Treasure.

The debate will then begin about what happens next to this amazing discovery, and whether the finds can be kept in Norfolk. This is a story 14 centuries in the making, and there’s a lot more to come yet.

Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on March 04, 2015, 01:20:22 pm
The oldest Viking ...

http://traveltips.usatoday.com/history-stokke-norway-100814.html
Norway’s rich history dates to the last ice age some 10,000 years ago. In Stokke, 68 miles south of Oslo, commemorations mark events as ancient as Viking explorations and newer happenings less than a hundred years ago. The best weather for outdoor explorations in Stokke runs from late-June to early-August, as warm temperatures and green landscapes greet visitors.

The Vikings

Remembered primarily as fierce pirates, Vikings were also shrewd traders who left their Scandinavian homelands and traveled throughout Europe and the United Kingdom. Viking graves dating from 500 to 1000 A.D. are visible along Road 303 between Melsomvik and Tonsberg; the largest burial ground is found at Skjersnes, with 11 additional graves near the Melsom School. Buried in the 10th century and discovered in the twentieth, the “Grimestad Treasure” is now on display at the University of Oslo, 67 miles from Stokke

http://www.gonorway.no/norway/counties/vestfold/stokke/10/index.html
GRIMESTAD TREASURE

In 1936 there was a large treasure-trove found at Grimestad. It contained about 30 silver bracelets of various sizes, 7 silver bars of different sizes and 46 whole and half silver coins. The coins were all of the so-caled "kyfiske" type, that is, they were stamped with a sort ot Arabic print which came from the town Kufa in Mesopotamia. The newest of the coins was stamped in the year 922. The find is one of the biggest of it's kind in Europe. It is presumed that the Grimestad treasure could have been buried in the second half of the 10th century. The find was sent to Univensitetets Oldsakssamling.


http://www.thelocal.no/20150216/stone-age-skeleton-found-in-summer-judged-norways-oldest
Stone Age skeleton judged Norway's oldest
Published: 16 Feb 2015 23:41 GMT+01:00

The Stone Age skeleton found in Norway last summer could be as much as 8000 years old, archeologists now believe, making it by far the oldest ever discovered in the country.
...
“Brunstad man”, whose remains were found in Stokke, south of Oslo, is now believed to be from the Mesolithic period, which spans from 10,000BC-4000BC)

“The discovery is sensational in Norwegian, and indeed even in a north European context,” Almut Schülke, an archaeologist working for the Museum of Cultural History at the University of Oslo, told Aftenposten journalists when they visited the laboratory where the find is being analysed on Monday. “It is very seldom that we find bones from the stone age.”

The skeleton is in an extremely fragile condition, meaning researchers are painstakingly examining it tiny fragment by tiny fragment, documenting the location of everything as accurately as possible and feeding it into a 3-D computer model of the find.

| - -

http://www.aftenposten.no/fakta/innsikt/Norges-eldste-skjelett-ut-av-jorden-7903422.html

(http://ap.mnocdn.no/incoming/article7903417.ece/ALTERNATES/w980c169/afp000839177.jpg)
Sara Gummesson er arkeoostolog (spesialist på ben) og driver detektivarbeid i jord som er kompakt som betong. Rester av røtter som har vokst inn i bena bidrar til å gjøre identifiseringsarbeidet vanskelig.
FOTO: Kulturhistorisk museum www.khm.uio.no
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on March 04, 2015, 01:54:27 pm
[ look at earlier posts on Doggerland .... ]

http://theconversation.com/ancient-britons-had-wheat-2000-years-before-they-had-farms-38012
February 27 2015, 6.02am EST
Ancient Britons had wheat 2000 years before they had farms

Wheat has been found in a settlement on England’s south coast dating back to 6000BC – 2000 years before farming reached Britain. This finding overturns many cherished archaeological beliefs – or myths – about the era. Though they were once patronised as simplistic hunter-gatherers, it turns out early Britons must have been active traders with the agricultural superpowers of their day in France and the Balkans. It’s time to reassess Mesolithic man.

The introduction of farming is usually regarded as a defining historic moment for human societies. Agriculture creates the conditions for permanent settlement, urbanisation and complex societies.

The positive impact and significance of farming, starting during the period known as the Neolithic, is often contrasted harshly with preceding hunter gatherer cultures. These societies, associated with a period entitled the Mesolithic in Britain (c. 10,000-4000 BC), were relatively mobile and the passage of time has been unforgiving in respect of the survival of their material culture.
...
The presence of wheat suggests the existence of a web of social networks stretching between Mesolithic Britain and the advancing Neolithic front far to the south and east. Far from being simple or isolated, the Mesolithic peoples of southern Britain were probably engaged in trading or gifting exotic foodstuffs across much of continental Europe – it seems absolutely unreasonable to imply that hunter gatherer groups were passive recipients in such an exchange.
...
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31648990
Scientists find evidence of wheat in UK 8,000 years ago
By Helen Briggs

Environment Correspondent, BBC News
(http://news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/81269000/jpg/_81269226_2013-06-18divingbouldnercliff-themaritimetrust,rolandbrookes-1.jpg)
The site is submerged in the Solent

Wheat was present in Britain 8,000 years ago, according to new archaeological evidence.

Fragments of wheat DNA recovered from an ancient peat bog suggests the grain was traded or exchanged long before it was grown by the first British farmers.

The research, published in Science, suggests there was a sophisticated network of cultural links across Europe.

The grain was found at what is now a submerged cliff off the Isle of Wight.
...
Tangible link
 
And Garry Momber of the Maritime Archaeology Trust, which collected the samples from the site, said work in the Solent had opened up an understanding of the UK's formative years in a way that he never dreamed possible.

"The material remains left behind by the people that occupied Britain as it was finally becoming an island 8,000 years ago, show that these were sophisticated people with technologies thousands of years more advanced than previously recognised.

"The DNA evidence corroborates the archaeological evidence and demonstrates a tangible link with the continent that appears to have become severed when Britain became an island."
...


http://www.sciencemag.org/content/347/6225/998.abstract
Sedimentary DNA from a submerged site reveals wheat in the British Isles 8000 years ago

Oliver Smith1,  Garry Momber2,  Richard Bates3,  Paul Garwood4,  Simon Fitch5,  Mark Pallen6,*,  Vincent Gaffney7,*,
 Robin G. Allaby1,*,†

 The Mesolithic-to-Neolithic transition marked the time when a hunter-gatherer economy gave way to agriculture, coinciding with rising sea levels. Bouldnor Cliff, is a submarine archaeological site off the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom that has a well-preserved Mesolithic paleosol dated to 8000 years before the present. We analyzed a core obtained from sealed sediments, combining evidence from microgeomorphology and microfossils with sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) analyses to reconstruct floral and faunal changes during the occupation of this site, before it was submerged.

 In agreement with palynological analyses, the sedaDNA sequences suggest a mixed habitat of oak forest and herbaceous plants. However, they also provide evidence of wheat 2000 years earlier than mainland Britain and 400 years earlier than proximate European sites. These results suggest that sophisticated social networks linked the Neolithic front in southern Europe to the Mesolithic peoples of northern Europe.

...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einkorn_wheat
Einkorn wheat (from German Einkorn, literally "single grain") can refer either to the wild species of wheat, Triticum baeoticum, or to the domesticated form, Triticum monococcum. The wild and domesticated forms are either considered separate species, as here, or as subspecies: Triticum monococcum subsp. baeoticum (wild) and T. monococcum subsp. monococcum (domesticated). Einkorn is a diploid species (2n = 14 chromosomes) of hulled wheat, with tough glumes ('husks') that tightly enclose the grains. The cultivated form is similar to the wild, except that the ear stays intact when ripe and the seeds are larger.

Einkorn wheat was one of the first plants to be domesticated and cultivated. The earliest clear evidence of the domestication of Einkorn dates from 10,600 to 9,900 years before present (8,650 BC to 7,950 BC) from two archaeological sites in southern Turkey.[1]
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on March 04, 2015, 02:10:08 pm
   Hi T. I'm still hung up on:
The Derinkuyu underground city (Cappadocian Greek: Ανακού) is an ancient multi-level underground city in the Derinkuyu district in Nevşehir Province, Turkey. Extending to a depth of approximately 60 m, it was large enough to shelter approximately 20,000 people together with their livestock and food stores. It is the largest excavated underground city in Turkey and is one of several underground complexes found across Cappadocia.[citation needed] WIK
  Dated 3000 years ago.

Did the Vikings visit N.America........Not ragging on Columbus, BUT.

Hurstwic: Other Viking Artifacts in North America
www.hurstwic.org/history/.../text/other_artifacts.htm

Other Viking Artifacts in North America. L'Anse aux Meadows Maine coin There are a small group of Norse artifacts found in North America that are widely ...
Hurstwic: Viking-age Exploration in North America
www.hurstwic.org/.../North_American_exploration....

L'Anse aux Meadows, located on the northern tip of Newfoundland, Canada, is the only authenticated Norse site in North America. About 1000 years ago, Norse ...

Check out Dighton Rock, Mass. Some say its a forgery(  the why is it encased in a bomb proof bunker.. The Phoenicians visited this area and carved inscriptions, I have been there, spent days looking around, it is not a fake.......Just my opinion. Although archeologists have been of the same feeling.

Public schools, history ( a waste) scripted by the the ole Gov.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on March 04, 2015, 02:19:56 pm
every indication is there was trans-Atlantic trade 3000BC  ...

http://www.philipcoppens.com/copper.html
Copper: a world trade in 3000 BC?

Europe’s economy between 2000 and 1000 BC stood and fell with copper, used for the creation of bronze. At the same time, large quantities of copper were mined in America, though no-one seems to know who was using it. A question of a world economy, and supply and demand?
...
The chief ingredient for bronze is copper. The era around 3000 BC saw more than 500,000 tons of copper being mined in the so-called Upper Peninsula, in the American state of Michigan.

The largest mine was on Isle Royale, an island in Lake Superior, near the Canadian border. Here, there are thousands of prehistoric copper pits, dug thousands of years ago by ancient peoples unknown. The Minong Belt on Isle Royale has a distance of one and three quarter miles in length and is nearly four hundred feet wide. The copper pits range ten tot thirty feet deep with connecting tunnels; one archaeologist estimated that their digging would take the equivalent of 10,000 men working for 1000 years.

 After two centuries of speculation, no-one has ever satisfactorily explained where the world’s purist copper might have gone.

Extraction from Isle Royal began in 5300 BC, with some even claiming that it began as early as 6000 BC. Evidence for smelting is known to exist from “only” 4000 BC onwards.

 The exact size of the mined ore is perhaps never going to be exactly determined, but what is known, is that ca. 1200 BC, all mining activity was halted. But around 1000 AD, mining was restarted and lasted until 1320 AD. During this period, a moderate 2000 tons were removed

(http://www.philipcoppens.com/bronze01.jpg)
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: JT Coyoté on March 04, 2015, 02:25:20 pm
   Hi T. I'm still hung up on:
The Derinkuyu underground city (Cappadocian Greek: Ανακού) is an ancient multi-level underground city in the Derinkuyu district in Nevşehir Province, Turkey. Extending to a depth of approximately 60 m, it was large enough to shelter approximately 20,000 people together with their livestock and food stores. It is the largest excavated underground city in Turkey and is one of several underground complexes found across Cappadocia.[citation needed] WIK
  Dated 3000 years ago.

Did the Vikings visit N.America........Not ragging on Columbus, BUT.

Hurstwic: Other Viking Artifacts in North America
www.hurstwic.org/history/.../text/other_artifacts.htm

Other Viking Artifacts in North America. L'Anse aux Meadows Maine coin There are a small group of Norse artifacts found in North America that are widely ...
Hurstwic: Viking-age Exploration in North America
www.hurstwic.org/.../North_American_exploration....

L'Anse aux Meadows, located on the northern tip of Newfoundland, Canada, is the only authenticated Norse site in North America. About 1000 years ago, Norse ...

Check out Dighton Rock, Mass. Some say its a forgery(  the why is it encased in a bomb proof bunker.. The Phoenicians visited this area and carved inscriptions, I have been there, spent days looking around, it is not a fake.......Just my opinion. Although archeologists have been of the same feeling.

Public schools, history ( a waste) scripted by the the ole Gov.

From where did the Phoenician gold come that filled Salomon's temple to God... Salomon's wealth in gold alone was measured as many hundreds of tons. The Vikings were late comers, merely rediscovering...

The Inuit Eskimos described the Norse they encountered as people of great stature 7 feet or so, and men of short stature 4 feet or so... (chuckle)... loggers and miners...

JTCoyoté

"Everyone assumes America must play
the leading role in crafting some settlement
or compromise between the Israelis and the
Palestinians. But Jefferson, Madison, and
Washington explicitly warned against
involving ourselves in foreign conflicts."

~Dr. Ron Paul

Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: chris jones on March 04, 2015, 08:44:53 pm
The  Phoenician 's were seafaring over one millennium BC. The folks were not the mutts we we taught about in the public schools system. History continues to amaze me..The truth of it that is.
 Hand made vessels that sailed the seas, these people had courage Inc & knowledge not spoken of by the authoritarian educational  system.
 there are more mystery's on the earth than in all the heavens. We aren't privy to them.
Seems to me we are on a par with mushrooms-  kept in a closet and fed Sh**t.
 The govs and elite have the real deal well hidden. Think Vatican Vaults for a second, one of the most secure areas on earth.    WHY?
 
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on March 09, 2015, 02:40:50 pm
http://www.archaeology.org/news/3067-150309-israel-cave-cache
Caver Discovers 2,300-Year-Old Silver Stash in Israel
Monday, March 09, 2015

JERUSALEM, ISRAEL—A member of the Israeli Caving Club discovered a cache of valuable objects while exploring a stalactite cave in northern Israel and reported his find to the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA). Two silver coins minted during the reign of Alexander the Great; silver signet rings, bracelets, and earrings; and eight white and black agate beads stored in a small clay oil lamp are thought to have been placed in a cloth pouch before being hidden in a niche in the cave.

“The valuables might have been hidden in the cave by local residents who fled there during the period of governmental unrest stemming from the death of Alexander, a time when the Wars of the Diadochi broke out in Israel between Alexander’s heirs following his death,” according the a statement made by the IAA and reported by CNN.

http://www.cnn.com/2015/03/09/middleeast/israel-ancient-treasure-found-in-cave/index.html
Cavers find treasure from era of Alexander the Great in Israel
(http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/150309101056-israel-coins-exlarge-169.jpg)

The two silver coins were minted during the reign of Alexander the Great, who conquered the region in the late fourth century B.C. On one side of the coin is an image of Alexander the Great, while on the other side is an image of Zeus sitting on his throne, arm raised as if ready to wield his fearsome lightning bolts. The coins allowed archaeologists to date the find.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Diadochi
The Wars of the Diadochi (or Wars of Alexander's Successors), (Greek: Πόλεμος των Διαδόχων, Polemos ton Diadochon) were a series of conflicts fought between Alexander the Great's generals over the rule of his vast empire, after his death. They occurred between 322 and 275 BC.
...
When Alexander the Great died (June 10, 323 BC), he left behind a huge empire that was in essence composed of many independent territories. Alexander's empire stretched from his homeland of Macedon itself, along with the Greek city-states that his father had subdued, to Bactria and parts of India in the east. It included Anatolia, the Levant, Egypt, Babylonia, and Persia.

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Diadochi_satraps_babylon.png/1280px-Diadochi_satraps_babylon.png)
The distribution of satrapies in the Macedonian empire after the settlement in Babylon 323 BC
,,,

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleopatra_of_Macedon
Cleopatra of Macedon (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα; c. 357 BC – 308 BC), or Cleopatra of Epirus, was an Epirote-Macedonian princess and later queen regent of Epirus. The daughter of Philip II of Macedon and Olympias of Epirus, she was the only full sibling of Alexander the Great. Her other siblings include half sisters Thessalonike and Cynane, and half brother Philip III of Macedon.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hellenistic_period
The Hellenistic period is the period of ancient Greek and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC[1] and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year ...

| - - -

http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi.htm
Alexander's successors: the Diadochi

Diadochi ('successors'): name of the first generation of military and political leaders after the death of the Macedonian king and conqueror Alexander the Great in 323. To settle the question whether his empire should disintegrate or survive as a unity, and, if so, under whose rule, they fought four full-scale wars. The result, reached by 300, was a division into three large parts, which more or less coincided with Alexander's possessions in Europe, Asia, and Egypt.
During the next quarter of a century, it was decided whether these states could endure. As it turned out, there were no great territorial changes, although there were dynastic changes. After 280, the period of state-forming came to an end.

....

http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t11.html
The invasion of the Gauls
 
 Just when the situation in the hellenistic empires seemed to be stabilized, the Galatians invaded Greece. The deepest cause was the collapse of the kingdom that had once been Lysimachus': when this king was killed in 281, the tribes in the buffer zone in the north sided with the barbarous Galatians, who now found the way to the south open. These Galatians belonged to the La T�ne-culture, which is often called 'Celtic'.

The story is told by Pausanias (Guide for Greece 10.19.4-23.9); his source may or may not be Hieronymus of Cardia. The translation was made by Peter Levi.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galatians_(people)
The Galatians were a Celtic people that dwelt mainly in the north central regions of Asia Minor or Anatolia, in what was known as Galatia, in today's Turkey. In their origin they were a part of the great Celtic migration which invaded Macedon, led by Brennus. The original Celts who settled in Galatia came through Thrace under the leadership of Leotarios and Leonnorios c. 278 BC. These Celts consisted mainly of three tribes, the Tectosages, the Trocmii, and the Tolistobogii, but they were also other minor tribes. They spoke a Celtic language, the Galatian language, which is sparsely attested.

In the 1st century AD, many of them were Christianized by Paul the Apostle's missionary action. One of the Epistles of Paul the Apostle in the Bible (New Testament) is addressed to Galatian Christian communities (Epistle to the Galatians).


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galilee
According to the Hebrew Bible, Galilee was named by the Israelites and was the tribal region of Naphthali and Dan, at times overlapping the Tribe of Asher's land.[1] However, Dan was dispersed among the whole people rather than isolated to the lands of Dan, as the Tribe of Dan was the hereditary local law enforcement and judiciary for the whole nation.[2][non-primary source needed] Normally,[when?] Galilee is just referred to as Nafthali.


http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/303091/Jesus-Christ
Jesus Christ, also called Jesus of Galilee ... Jesus was a Galilean from Nazareth, a village near Sepphoris, one of the two major cities of Galilee (Tiberias was the other).
 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NIFSsaoAzj4
An Scannán Íosa - Ghaeilge / Gaeilge / Gaelic Gaeilge The Jesus Film - Irish / Gaelic Irish Language

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http://www.nytimes.com/2001/12/25/science/archaeologists-find-celts-in-unlikely-spot-turkey.html
Archaeologists Find Celts In Unlikely Spot: Turkey
By JOHN NOBLE WILFORD 
Published: December 25, 2001

In storybook histories, the ancient city of Gordion is remembered only as the seat of King Midas, he of the golden touch, and the place where Alexander the Great struck a famous blow in legend and metaphor. Challenged to separate the strands of an impossible knot, the Gordion knot, the conqueror cut through the problem, in the manner of conquerors, with one authoritative swing of his sword.

After Midas and Alexander, Gordion languished on the fringes of history, and until recently archaeologists had taken little notice of its Celtic past. Yes, European Celts -- the Gauls of Roman times and the forerunners of Bretons, Welsh, Irish and highland Scots -- once migrated as far east as what is now central Turkey and settled in and around post-Alexander Gordion, beginning in the early third century B.C.

Archaeologists say they have now excavated artifacts and architectural remains dispelling any lingering doubt that the Celts were indeed there, as a few classical texts had recorded in passing. These people called themselves Galatai, a Celtic name for tribal warriors, and became known to the Romans as Galatians. Their Christianized descendants were advised by the apostle Paul, in the New Testament, that ''whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.''

...
Even though the date of the buried skeletons is in some doubt, Dr. Voigt's team said, ''their treatment is undoubtedly linked to ritual practices that began in third-century Gordion and would represent continuity of Celtic traditions'' after the town became part of a Roman province.

Nearly all these people appeared to have met violent ends, with strangulation by hanging or garroting the most usual cause. Several had broken necks and spines. A woman, probably 30 to 45 years old, had a fractured skull, and was also strangled. Below her lay the bones of a younger woman, who seems to have been done in by the two heavy grinding stones weighing down her upper body. In the same pit, the bones of two young children were mixed in an apparently deliberate way. Among other switches, the jaw of an older child was placed with the cranium of the younger one.

Archaeologists concluded that all of these people were presumably ''sacrificed.
'' They might have been war captives. Traces of wood in the base of a skull suggested that a person's severed head had been mounted on a pole for display. Some victims might have been killed as part of Celtic divination rituals. Texts recount that Celtic religious leaders, the druids, were prophets who killed humans in order to discern the future as revealed by the dying victims' movements.

In another part of the lower town, archaeologists came upon the largest bone deposit, holding more than 2,000 animal bones and those of a few dismembered humans. Three individuals -- a man of about 40, a woman of 35 and a child under 8 -- might have been a family. This might have been the scene of a feast associated with the Celtic celebration of Samhain, around Nov. 1. Based on their age at death, the animals were probably slaughtered in the fall, the time for culling herds before winter. Some humans could also have been cooked for the feast.

''It may not be too far a stretch to associate Bone Cluster 3 with this Celtic festival, which we still celebrate as Halloween,'' Dr. Voigt and her colleagues wrote.
...
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on June 10, 2015, 10:01:55 pm
The first "white" humans were probably a great rarity ... and then probably used in shamanistic rituals ... finally creating a tribe of  people of their own and with there own rituals and ways ...

http://geogenetics.ku.dk/latest-news/modern-european/
10 June 2015

When modern Eurasia was born

BRONZE AGE GENETICS Modern European and Central Asian peoples are genetically speaking not more than a couple of thousand years old. It was during the Bronze Age that the last major chapters were written in the story of the genetic past of Europe and central Asia. How it happened has been intensively debated among archaeologists. In a study lead by the Centre for GeoGenetics, geneticists and archaeologists from Gothenburg University have generated the largest ancient genomic study to date, and in doing so established how the foundation for modern Europe and Central Asia was laid. Their results are published in the scientific journal Nature



(http://geogenetics.ku.dk/latest-news/modern-european/Yamnaya-skull-300.gif)
Yamnaya skull from the Samara region coloured with red ochre. (Photo: Natalia Shishlina).

....

One of the main findings from the study is how these migrations resulted in huge changes to the European gene-pool, in particular conferring a large degree of admixture on the present populations. Genetically speaking, ancient Europeans from the time post these migrations are much more similar to modern Europeans than those prior the Bronze Age.

Mobile warrior people

The re-writing of the genetic map began in the early Bronze Age, about 5,000 years ago. From the steppes in the Caucasus, the Yamnaya Culture migrated principally westward into North- and Central Europe, and to a lesser degree, into western Siberia. Yamnaya was characterized by a new system of family and property. In northern Europe the Yamnaya mixed with the Stone Age people who inhabited this region and along the way established the Corded Ware Culture, which genetically speaking resembles present day Europeans living north of the Alps today.


http://www.biblebasics.co.uk/colours/col13.htm


'adam' meaning dyed red, red or ruddy. To grow red or to emit (show) redness.
'adom' meaning red or ruddy (of man, horse, heifer, garment, water, lentils)


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ochre

Red ochre, Fe2O3, takes its reddish color from the mineral hematite, which is an anhydrous iron oxide.
...
According to some scholars, Neolithic burials used red ochre pigments symbolically, either to represent a return to the earth or possibly as a form of ritual rebirth, in which the color symbolizes blood and the Great Goddess.[5]

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http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31695214
Genomes document ancient mass migration to Europe
2 March 2015
 From the section Science & Environment
 
DNA analysis has revealed evidence for a massive migration into the heartland of Europe 4,500 years ago.

Data from the genomes of 69 ancient individuals suggest that herders moved en masse from the continent's eastern periphery into Central Europe.

These migrants may be responsible for the expansion of Indo-European languages, which make up the majority of spoken tongues in Europe today.


An international team has published the research in the journal Nature.

Prof David Reich and colleagues extracted DNA from remains found at archaeological sites around the continent. They used a new DNA-enrichment technique that greatly reduces the amount of sequencing needed to obtain genome-wide data.

Their analyses show that 7,000-8,000 years ago, a closely related group of early farmers moved into Europe from the Near East, confirming the findings of previous studies.

The farmers were distinct from the indigenous hunter-gatherers they encountered as they spread around the continent. Eventually, the two groups mixed, so that by 5,000-6,000 years ago, the farmers' genetic signature had become melded with that of the indigenous Europeans.

But previous studies show that a two-way amalgam of farmers and hunters is not sufficient to capture the genetic complexity of modern Europeans. A third ancestral group must have been added to the melting pot more recently.

Prof Reich and colleagues have now identified a likely source area for this later diaspora. The Bronze Age Yamnaya pastoralists of southern Russia are a good fit for the missing third genetic component in Europeans.
...

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http://www.snpedia.com/index.php/Rs1426654
Rs1426654

This SNP influences skin pigmentation. The allele, A111T, rs1426654(A), indicates light-skinned european ancestry. [PMID 16847698, PMID 16357253]

It appears as if this SNP is a relatively new one in human evolution; one estimate [PMID 17182896] is that the rs1426654(A) allele, in other words, light skin pigmentation, spread through the European population around 6,000 - 12,000 years ago. Prior to that, "European ancestors" were most likely relatively brown-skinned. Another study ([PMID 24048645OA-icon.png]) has concluded that almost all individuals carrying the A111T variant can trace ancestry back to a single person who most likely lived at least 10,000 years ago.

This SNP is one of three from the SLC24A5 gene that can be analyzed to categorize the ancestry of a person as either European, African, or Asian, based on a 2009 study.[PMID 19440451]


The 3 SNPs are:

    rs1426654
    rs2555364
    rs16960620

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http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/heres-how-europeans-quickly-evolved-lighter-skin-180954874/?no-ist
Here’s How Europeans Quickly Evolved Lighter Skin

... New analysis of ancient European genes shows that other traits we associate with modern Europeans, such as tallness and the ability to digest milk, are also relatively recent additions to the continent’s genetic profile.

...
The new study adds to this growing pile of evidence. Gibbons reports that the researchers found that Europeans probably couldn’t have digested milk until about 4,300 years ago. And the story of skin pigmentation is complex. She writes:

[T]he new data confirm that about 8500 years ago, early hunter-gatherers in Spain, Luxembourg, and Hungary also had darker skin: They lacked versions of two genes—SLC24A5 and SLC45A2—that lead to depigmentation and, therefore, pale skin in Europeans today.

But in the far north—where low light levels would favor pale skin—the team found a different picture in hunter-gatherers: Seven people from the 7700-year-old Motala archaeological site in southern Sweden had both light skin gene variants, SLC24A5 and SLC45A2. They also had a third gene, HERC2/OCA2, which causes blue eyes and may also contribute to light skin and blond hair. Thus ancient hunter-gatherers of the far north were already pale and blue-eyed, but those of central and southern Europe had darker skin.

...

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http://www.newhistorian.com/humans-in-europe-only-recently-developed-light-skin/3431/
Humans in Europe Only Recently Developed Light Skin
osted By: Daryl WorthingtonPosted date: April 07, 2015

A  new study has revealed that humans living in Europe had dark skin for the majority of the time they have inhabited the continent.

The study, presented at the 84th annual meeting of the American Association of Anthropologists (AAAS), suggests that many of the characteristics associated with European genetics are a recent development in the broader history of human evolution and migration. Led by Dr. Iain Mathieson from Harvard University, the international team of researchers analysed 83 human gene samples collected as part of the ‘1000 Genomes Project’ (an initiative designed to sequence the genomes of a large number of people and allow public access to the data for scientific research).

Focusing on two genes, SLC24A5 and SLC45A2, which are responsible for de-pigmentation and pale skin, the team studied samples taken from a wide range of ancient populations spread across different periods and different locations.

...

Migration from the Near East is believed to have been responsible for the arrival of the genes associated with lighter skin pigmentation. As these farmers first came to the continent their interbreeding with the existing inhabitants saw the SLC24A5 gene spread through central and southern Europe, leading to lighter skin pigmentation in those regions. As the AAAS reports: “As they (farmers from the Near East) interbred with the indigenous hunter-gatherers, one of their light-skin genes swept through Europe, so that central and southern Europeans also began to have lighter skin. The other gene variant, SLC45A2, was at low levels until about 5800 years ago when it swept up to high frequency.”
/...

In northern Europe however, the situation seems to have been different. Remains studied from Southern Sweden were found to have the gene variants responsible for lighter skin and blonde hair as far back as 7,700 years ago, indicating the inhabitants of Northern Europe had light skin and eyes before the migration from the Near East.
...
The focus of the study was the process and rate of natural selection in Europe. By successfully charting the timing and spread of the SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 genes, the study has raised some fascinating questions. Exactly why the change in skin pigmentation occurred when it did is unclear, while the speed at which natural selection took place was much faster than typically expected.

For more information: www.biorxiv.org

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http://www.pnas.org/content/109/6/1889.full
Use of red ochre by early Neandertals

Abstract

The use of manganese and iron oxides by late Neandertals is well documented in Europe, especially for the period 60–40 kya.
Such finds often have been interpreted as pigments even though their exact function is largely unknown. Here we report significantly older iron oxide finds that constitute the earliest documented use of red ochre by Neandertals. These finds were small concentrates of red material retrieved during excavations at Maastricht-Belvédère, The Netherlands. The excavations exposed a series of well-preserved flint artifact (and occasionally bone) scatters, formed in a river valley setting during a late Middle Pleistocene full interglacial period. Samples of the reddish material were submitted to various forms of analyses to study their physical properties. All analyses identified the red material as hematite. This is a nonlocal material that was imported to the site, possibly over dozens of kilometers. Identification of the Maastricht-Belvédère finds as hematite pushes the use of red ochre by (early) Neandertals back in time significantly, to minimally 200–250 kya (i.e., to the same time range as the early ochre use in the African record).

Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: Libertarian Perspective on June 11, 2015, 05:48:45 am
The post above is typical BBC propaganda in trying to justify the existence of the myth that is indo-european language and the so called original migration from the near east when in reality it was the other way around. The Carpato-Danubian cultures of Cucuteni/Trypolie/Karnovo flourised thousands of years before these "indo-europeans" they had their own language and writing, they had cities and trade with the Asia Minor.
If you want to know more read the below document.
https://www.dropbox.com/s/me1b3uckvhtluxy/Civilization%20in%20the%20Carpathians%281%29.pdf?dl=0
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on March 27, 2016, 02:06:32 pm
Again the ancient retrovirus' HERV's inside our dna ... (see page one of this thread)

http://www.uofmhealth.org/news/archive/201603/more-ancient-viruses-lurk-our-dna-we-thought

March 22, 2016
Media Contact: Kara Gavin 734-764-2220
More ancient viruses lurk in our DNA than we thought
One whole endogenous retrovirus genome -- and bits of 17 others -- were spotted in a study of 2,500 human genomes

...

Nineteen new pieces of DNA -- left by viruses that first infected our ancestors hundreds of thousands of years ago -- have just been found, lurking between our own genes.

And one stretch of newfound DNA, found in about 50 of the 2,500 people studied, contains an intact, full genetic recipe for an entire virus, say the scientists who published their findings today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

...

The study looked at the entire span of DNA, or genome, from people from around the world, including a large number from Africa -- where the ancestors of modern humans originated before migrating around the world. The team used sophisticated techniques to compare key areas of each person’s genome to the “reference” human genome.

...

The findings add to what science already knows about human endogenous retroviruses, or HERVs. That’s the name for the ancient infectious viruses that inserted a DNA-based copy of their own RNA genetic material into our ancestors’ genomes. They’re part of the same type of virus that includes the modern human immunodeficiency virus, which causes AIDS.

...

The new HERVs are part of the family called HERV-K. The intact whole viral genome, or provirus, just found was on the X chromosome; it’s been dubbed Xq21. It’s only the second intact provirus found to be hiding in human DNA.
In the researchers’ own words:

“This one looks like it is capable of making infectious virus, which would be very exciting if true, as it would allow us to study a viral epidemic that took place long ago,” says senior author and virologist John Coffin, Ph.D. of the Tufts University School of Medicine. “This research provides important information necessary for understanding how retroviruses and humans have evolved together in relatively recent times.”

...

Kidd says. “There have been a number of examples of other HERVs that insert themselves next to human genes or near them, and have impact on their expression. We’re interested in applying these methods to find other types of viral or mobile element insertions.”
...

Many of the genomes they examined were from the 1000 Genomes Project, an international collaboration. Another set of genomes came from work Kidd and colleagues at Stanford University had done as part of the Human Genome Diversity Project, with a focus on DNA samples from African volunteers.

These latter samples showed more signs of HERVs, in line with the high level of genetic diversity in African populations. That diversity stems from the longtime stability and intermixing of the continent’s population – as opposed to other populations in Europe, Asia and the Americas that stem from specific out-migrations in ancient times.

Cataloging all the HERV insertions in humans will require even more scanning of whole human genomes, which are becoming easier to come by as technology improves and becomes less expensive. And although intact proviruses lurking in our DNA may be rare, the impact of other HERV sequences on our health or disease is probably not.

The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health (OD009154, CA089441, GM112339) as well as the American Cancer Society and the F.M. Kirby Foundation.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on May 29, 2016, 06:00:32 pm
thread worthy ...

http://www.archaeology.org/news/4494-160526-phoenician-dna-sequenced
Phoenician DNA Sequenced
Thursday, May 26, 2016

CARTHAGE, TUNISIA—Scientists have completely mapped the genome of the "Young Man of Byrsa,” a Phoenician who lived 2,500 years ago, and whose remains were discovered outside Carthage in 1994, reports the Independent.

The Phoenicians were an influential seafaring people who originated in Lebanon around 1500 B.C. and then colonized much of the Mediterranean, including what is now Tunisia, where they founded Carthage.

The team, co-led by University of Otago geneticist Lisa Matisoo-Smith, found that the man had a rare mitochondrial haplogroup that is thought to have originated 20,000 to 25,000 years ago among European hunter-gatherer populations.

His DNA most closely matched that of a modern-day Portuguese person, and the researchers speculate that the Young Man of Byrsa's maternal ancestry lay somewhere on the Iberian Peninsula, not in North Africa or the Near East, as might have been expected.

The team hopes further research on Phoenician DNA will reveal more about ancient migration and exchange patterns. To read more about Phoenicians, go to “History’s 10 Greatest Wrecks: Bajo de la Campagna.”

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/archaeology/dna-sequencing-of-ancient-phoenician-remains-could-make-us-reconsider-the-history-of-human-movement-a7048046.html

...

They found it contained an extremely rare type of genome sequence, known as U5b2c1, which is almost unknown among modern populations. The research has now been published in the scientific journal Plos One.

“This is first example of an ancient Phoenician genome,” Professor Lisa Matisoo-Smith, co-leader of the study, told The Independent. The DNA was found on the site of Byrsa, a citadel close to the ancient city of Carthage, which now just outside Tunis, Tunisia.
...

However, the U5b2c1 sequence has not been found in modern Lebanon. Just one person - in Portugal - has been found to carry exactly the same genome


...
To find European lineage in North Africa dating from 2,500 years ago was “very unexpected”, the professor said. The scientists were expecting to find DNA of indigenous North African lineage, because of the location, or from the Near East, because of the history of Carthage.
...

This is the earliest European lineage recorded in North Africa, so in a way it not only helps us understand Phoenician history, but also makes people [re]think about the history of human mobility,” said Prof Matisoo-Smith.
[/b]
...

Similarly to Roman Britain, although several hundred years earlier, the research shows Phoenician cities were diverse and often moved with trade networks.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on May 29, 2016, 06:16:07 pm
The post above is typical BBC propaganda in trying to justify the existence of the myth that is indo-european language and the so called original migration from the near east when in reality it was the other way around. The Carpato-Danubian cultures of Cucuteni/Trypolie/Karnovo flourised thousands of years before these "indo-europeans" they had their own language and writing, they had cities and trade with the Asia Minor.
If you want to know more read the below document.
https://www.dropbox.com/s/me1b3uckvhtluxy/Civilization%20in%20the%20Carpathians%281%29.pdf?dl=0

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coliboaia_Cave
Coliboaia Cave (Romanian: peștera Coliboaia, pronounced [koliˈbo̯aja]) is located in Apuseni Natural Park, Câmpani, Bihor County, Romania.
It contains the oldest known cave paintings of Central Europe,[1] radiocarbon dated to 32,000 and 35,000 BP,[2][3]  corresponding to the Aurignacian and Gravettian cultures of the Paleolithic period.[4]

The Coliboaia Cave was first mentioned in history before 1900, but it was never extensively investigated until 1981 by Gabor Halasi. This cave was not well known until September 2009, when they found prehistoric cave paintings. It then became protected by the Romanian Federation of Speleology. Situated on a western slope of Sighestel Valley, the cave sits at an altitude of 560 meters. It has a medium sized entrance and a portal that is oriented east to west.
...
On the right wall, there is a drawing of a bison. The picture is 1.43-2.02 meters above the ground and is made of bluish-gray lines. On the left side, a head of a black rhino is illustrated 58-89 centimeters above the floor. A consistent element to these drawings is that they are heads of animals, not full figures. The time of origin of the pictures is unknown. Archaeologists’ estimates vary from the Early/MIddle Upper Paleolithic (29000-23000 BP) to the Aurignacian Period (35000-29000 BP). The lack of bears and rhinos pictured in the cave, however, contradicts such because those animals were scarce during these time periods. Furthermore, the drawings do not appear to be completely uniform. This suggests they were not all done at the same time
...
see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistory_of_Transylvania
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on July 30, 2016, 12:12:33 pm
http://www.archaeology.org/news/4689-160729-rice-japonica-indica
Ancient Rice DNA Sequenced
Friday, July 29, 2016

OXFORD, ENGLAND—It had been previously believed that the first rice grown in northern China, Japan, and on the Korean peninsula was only of the sticky japonica variety, which requires cultivation in dry fields.

But a team led by Masahiko Kumagai of the University of Tokyo obtained DNA from carbonized rice ranging in age from 900 to 2,800 years old found at archaeological sites in Japan and Korea. The scientists then compared the genomes of the ancient rice samples to a database of more than 200 cultivated and wild rice DNA samples from around the world.

They found that some of the ancient grains seemed to be more similar to the indica variety of rice, which has a long grain, grows submerged in water, and is usually associated with the tropics.

This suggests that the crops were moved long distances.

Michael Purugganan of New York University told The Christian Science Monitor that early farmers may have tried to grow “everything they could get their hands on,” until they developed a crop that adapted well to the environment. To read about the earliest evidence for tea drinking in China, go to "The Price of Tea in China."
...

| - - -

http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2016/0727/Scientists-probe-ancient-grains-of-rice-and-are-surprised-by-what-they-find
Scientists probe ancient grains of rice and are surprised by what they find
Scientists sequenced the DNA of ancient grains of rice from Japan and the Korean peninsula in search of clues into the mysterious history of the staple food.

...

The rice farmed in archaic Japan and on the Korean Peninsula was surprisingly diverse, according to the team's paper published Tuesday in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution. And this suggests that the cultivated crops were being moved long distances.
...

Understanding that rice could have been being traded among far-flung civilizations over 2,000 years ago could help scientists better understand how domestic rice has evolved.

"The picture we're getting is that the story of rice is much more complicated than we had originally thought," Michael Purugganan, the Dean for Science at New York University who was not part of the study, tells the Monitor in a phone interview.
...
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on August 10, 2016, 12:10:11 pm
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/aug/08/viking-traders-took-easy-to-ride-horses-around-the-world-dna-suggests
Viking traders spread comfy-to-ride horses around the world, DNA suggests

Ancient DNA reveals ambling horses, comfortable to ride over rough roads, first appeared in medieval England, and were spread worldwide by Vikings


The Vikings might have been fearsome, bearded and hardy but it seems that when it came to horses, they liked to travel in comfort.

Research has revealed that the genetic mutation for a smooth ride first appeared in horses in medieval England and was later spread around the world by Viking traders.

Described, for riders, as being akin to sitting in a comfy chair, ambling gaits are particularly suited to lengthy rides over rough roads. But while all horses can walk, trot and gallop, the ability to amble is only found in certain breeds of horses, among them the Icelandic pony.

The trait, as the scientists had previously discovered, is down to a mutation in a single gene, a genetic variant dubbed the “gait keeper”, which also allows horses to adopt another gait - the pace.

Now the team have discovered where and when the mutation first appeared.

“As far as we know today, ambling horses originated in early medieval England and spread around Eurasia within a few centuries,” said Arne Ludwig, lead author of the research from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research in Berlin.

Writing in the journal Current Biology, the international team of researchers describe how they looked at ancient DNA from 90 horses that lived between 6000 BC and 1000 AD in countries across Europe and Asia. The researchers found that there was no trace of the gait keeper mutation in horses that lived before the 9th century AD, with its first appearance cropping up in two English horses that lived in York around 850-900 AD.
...
Instead, they suggest that the trait first appeared in English horses which were then taken to Iceland and later distributed around the world, with these horses selectively bred because of their comfortable gait - a boon in the days of rough tracks and long journeys on horseback.

The spread of the trait, was most likely down to the Vikings, who not only had a strong presence in York and other regions in the north of England during the late 9th and early 10th centuries, but also settled in Iceland and had established trade routes to many other countries. “Thus ambling horses might have been introduced to Asia by Vikings during their journeys to the Caspian Sea and the Middle East,” the authors write.
...

| - - -

http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(16)30752-7
The origin of ambling horses


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.07.001
Summary

Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called ‘gaited’ horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1] . In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1] . Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2] . Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9th–11th century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date.



| - - - -


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B6H4sUpmWzU
The 5 gaits of the icelandic horse

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vh4IaBApe-k
Ambling Pleasure 4.11.09


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eoQe6ZOh2H4
How horse got funny walk Ancient DNA traces root ambling gait medieval England
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on August 11, 2016, 03:11:41 pm
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/aug/11/400-year-old-greenland-shark-is-the-oldest-vertebrate-animal
400-year-old Greenland shark is the oldest vertebrate animal

(http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2011/12/13/article-2073680-0F28ABF200000578-593_634x415.jpg)

Greenland Shark, which would have reached sexual maturity at around 150 years, sets new record for longevity as biologists finally develop method to determine age

She was born during the reign of James I, was a youngster when René Descartes set out his rules of thought and the great fire of London raged, saw out her adolescent years as George II ascended the throne, reached adulthood around the time that the American revolution kicked off, and lived through two world wars. Living to an estimated age of nearly 400 years, a female Greenland shark has set a new record for longevity, scientists have revealed

The discovery places the lifespan the Greenland shark far ahead of even the oldest elephant in captivity, Lin Wang, who died aged 86.
It is also far longer than the official record for humans, held by 122-year-old Frenchwoman Jeanne Louise Calment.

“It kicks off the bowhead whale as the oldest vertebrate animal,” said Julius Nielsen, lead author of the research from the University of Copenhagen, pointing out that bowhead whales have been known to live for 211 years.

But the Greenland shark doesn’t scoop all the gongs - the title of the world’s longest lived animal is held by Ming, an Icelandic clam known as an ocean quahog, that made it to 507 years before scientists bumped it off.
...
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on September 10, 2016, 11:36:10 am
Unwrapping A 2000 Year Old Red Haired Elongated Baby Skull In Paracas Peru https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NN9SNn9PgHg

Sep 5, 2016 Brien Foerster

DNA RESULTS AT THIS LINK: https://hiddenincatours.com/dna-results-elongated-skulls-paracas-part-1-4-baby/

EUROPEAN DNA!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Elongated Skulls DNA Results Reveal NEW SPECIES Brien Foerster 2016 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6b5BrvMy6kA

Aug 19, 2016 Adept Initiates

ELONGATED SKULLS OF PARACAS DNA REST RESULTS ARE IN...


Shocking! Former World Banker Says “Second Species” Controls Earth http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=261488.0

World Banker Says Second Species Controls Earth - Homo Capensis http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=269937.0

very interesting ...

https://hiddenincatours.com/dna-results-elongated-skulls-paracas-part-1-4-baby/

DNA testing of the baby Paracas was conducted in the Lakehead University lab in Canada, as well as perhaps one or two other labs in the United States. The results that came back showed only one discernible haplogroup present, that of U2e1. This haplogroup is not associated with Native Americans, but WITH proto-Germanic and proto-Balto-Slavic speakers! Contamination has been ruled out.

(https://hiddenincatours.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/migration.png)

This would indicate that the Paracas ancestors that had the haplogroup U2e1 haplogroup did not cross the Bering land bridge with the Native Americans, but likely sailed to the coast of Peru from Europe, the Middle East or possibly India, at least 3000 years ago. The full DNA results and analysis can be found in the DVD Watchers 10, available HERE.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on September 11, 2016, 01:36:17 pm
The work of cave men ...  Orkney Islands - in the middle of NO WHERE ...  just after the GREAT ICE AGE ... hmmm...

http://www.scotsman.com/heritage/people-places/neolithic-tomb-in-orkney-to-close-over-safety-fears-1-4224833

(http://res.cloudinary.com/jpress/image/fetch/w_700,f_auto,ar_3:2,c_fill/http://www.scotsman.com/webimage/1.4224836.1473367194!/image/image.jpg)

Maeshowe, the biggest and most impressive of Orkney's prehistoric chambered cairns, attracts around 25,000 visitors annually. Picture: Donald MacLeod

The temporary closure has been ordered because of ­dangers in accessing the site, with visitors using its car park having to cross one of the Orkney mainland’s busiest roads.

HES has been monitoring safety issues relating to vehicle movements around the 5,000-year-old tomb and the neighbouring 19th century Tormiston Mill, and concluded there are significant risks to staff and visitors that cannot currently be overcome.

(http://www.thehistoryhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Maeshowe-Aerial-View.jpg)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maeshowe
Maeshowe (or Maes Howe; Norse: Orkhaugr[1]) is a Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave situated on Mainland, Orkney, Scotland. It was probably built around 2800 BCE. It gives its name to the Maeshowe type of chambered cairn, which is limited to Orkney.

Maeshowe is a significant example of Neolithic craftsmanship and is, in the words of the archaeologist Stuart Piggott, "a superlative monument that by its originality of execution is lifted out of its class into a unique position."[2] The monuments around Maeshowe, including Skara Brae, were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999.

(http://www.go-orkney.com/scotmap.jpg)

| - - - -

https://www.visitscotland.com/blog/heritage/neolithic-orkney-why-orkney-is-the-centre-of-great-britain/
Why Orkney is the centre of ancient Britain (Guardian)
by James Boyle- October 8, 2012

There was a great article posted over at the Guardian website on the weekend written by Robin Mckie, who travelled north to uncover the treasures on offer in Neolithic Orkney – which are estimated to have been formed before Egypt’s pyramids.

Throughout the article Robin highlights the cultural significance of the ancient sites in Orkney:

What is clear is that the cultural energy of the few thousand farming folk of Orkney dwarfed those of other civilisations at that time. In size and sophistication, the Ness of Brodgar is comparable with Stonehenge or the wonders of ancient Egypt.

London may be the cultural hub of Britain today, but 5,000 years ago, Orkney was the centre for innovation for the British isles. Ideas spread from this place. The first grooved pottery, which is so distinctive of the era, was made here, for example, and the first henges – stone rings with ditches round them – were erected on Orkney. Then the ideas spread to the rest of the Neolithic Britain. This was the font for new thinking at the time.

see:
 https://www.theguardian.com/science/2012/oct/06/orkney-temple-centre-ancient-britain?newsfeed=true
Neolithic discovery: why Orkney is the centre of ancient Britain
...

The people of the Neolithic – the new Stone Age – were the first farmers in Britain, and they arrived on Orkney about 6,000 years ago. They cultivated the land, built farmsteads and rapidly established a vibrant culture, erecting giant stone circles, chambered communal tombs – and a giant complex of buildings at the Ness of Brodgar.

The religious beliefs that underpinned these vast works is unknown, however, as is the purpose of the Brodgar temples.
...
"This wasn't a settlement or a place for the living," says archaeologist Professor Colin Richards of Manchester University, who excavated the nearby Barnhouse settlement in the 1980s . "This was a ceremonial centre, and a vast one at that. But the religious beliefs of its builders remain a mystery."

...
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on November 23, 2016, 03:43:02 pm
http://www.livescience.com/56972-shrine-of-viking-king-discovered.html
Altar of Miracle-Making Viking King Discovered in Norway
By Stephanie Pappas, Live Science Contributor |  November 22, 2016 03:04pm ET

The original shrine to a Viking-king-turned-saint has been discovered in Norway, archaeologists say.

The Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research (NIKU) announced Nov. 11 that its researchers had discovered the foundations of a wooden church where the body of King Olaf Haraldsson was taken immediately after he was declared a saint in 1031. St. Olaf, as he is now known, conquered and consolidated Norway in 1016 but held on to rule for a little more than a decade before his power was threatened by Canute I, king of Denmark and England. Olaf died in the Battle of Stiklestad in 1030.
...

The site is in Trondheim, where Olaf was buried after his death in battle. After locals began circulating stories about miracles credited to the dead king, his grave was opened, and his body was found to be miraculously well preserved, according to church teachings. The local bishop declared him a saint and reinterred his body in St. Clement's Church.

It's this church that NIKU archaeologists believe they have now uncovered. They found stone foundations, and even a small rectangular platform made of rock on the building's east end, believed to be the base of the church's altar. This altar may have been the High Altar of the church built over St. Olaf's new grave.

"This is a unique site in Norwegian history in terms of religion, culture and politics," excavation director Anna Petersén said in a statement. "Much of the Norwegian national identity has been established on the cult of sainthood surrounding St. Olaf, and it was here [where] it all began!" The pope would confirm St. Olaf's local canonization as a saint in 1164.
...

Now, archaeologists say they've found a key location in the king's posthumous journey from martyr to Norway's patron saint. [25 Grisly Archaeological Discoveries]
...

Olaf's run in power crumbled soon after, when the then-king of England and Denmark, Canute I, resolved to reconquer Norway. Olaf was forced to flee to Russia in 1028; he returned in 1030 to try to win back the throne, but died instead.

Some contemporary sources report that he was murdered or unceremoniously killed in an ambush. The Norse saga Heimskringla, which was written 200 years after the fact, tells a more valorous tale of the king leading an army into battle and dying in hand-to-hand combat, with Thorir Hund, one of the leaders of the resistance to Olaf's reign, delivering the final death blow.
...
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on April 22, 2017, 10:17:06 am
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2017/04/21/ancient-stone-carvings-confirm-comet-struck-earth-10950bc-wiping/
Ancient stone carvings confirm how comet struck Earth in 10,950BC, sparking the rise of civilisations
By Sarah Knapton,  Science Editor 
 21 April 2017 • 11:25am   


The Vulture Stone from Gobekli Tepe (left) which recorded a devastating comet strike (right

Ancient stone carvings confirm that a comet struck the Earth around 11,000BC
, a devastating event which wiped out woolly mammoths and sparked the rise of civilisations

Ancient stone carvings confirm that a comet struck the Earth around 11,000BC, a devastating event which wiped out woolly mammoths and sparked the rise of civilisations.

Experts at the University of Edinburgh analysed mysterious symbols carved onto stone pillars at Gobekli Tepe in southern Turkey, to find out if they could be linked to constellations.

The markings suggest that a swarm of comet fragments hit Earth at the exact same time that a mini-ice age struck, changing the entire course of human history.
 
Scientists have speculated for decades that a comet could be behind the sudden fall in temperature during a period known as the Younger Dryas. But recently the theory appeared to have been debunked by new dating of meteor craters in North America where the comet is thought to have struck.

However, when engineers studied animal carvings made on a pillar – known as the vulture stone – at Gobekli Tepe they discovered that the creatures were actually astronomical symbols which represented constellations and the comet.

The idea had been originally put forward by author Graham Hancock in his book Magicians of the Gods.

Using a computer programme to show where the constellations would have appeared above Turkey thousands of years ago, they were able to pinpoint the comet strike to 10,950BC, the exact time the Younger Dryas begins according to ice core data from Greenland.

The Younger Dryas is viewed as a crucial period for humanity, as it roughly coincides with the emergence of agriculture and the first Neolithic civilisations.


Before the strike, vast areas of wild wheat and barley had allowed nomadic hunters in the Middle East to establish permanent base camps. But the difficult climate conditions following the impact forced communities to come together and work out new ways of maintaining the crops, through watering and selective breeding. Thus farming began, allowing the rise of the first towns.
...

But despite the ancient age of the pillars, Dr Sweatman does not believe it is the earliest example of astronomy in the archaeological record.

"Many paleolithic cave paintings and artefacts with similar animal symbols and other repeated symbols suggest astronomy could be very ancient indeed," he said.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on April 29, 2017, 11:04:07 am
https://www.wired.com/2017/04/130000-year-old-mastodon-threatens-upend-human-history/
A 130,000-Year-Old Mastodon Threatens to Upend Human History
AUTHOR: ERIC NIILER. ERIC NIILER   SCIENCE  DATE OF PUBLICATION: 04.26.17.
04.26.17

IN 1993, CONSTRUCTION workers building a new freeway in San Diego made a fantastic discovery. A backhoe operator scraped up a fossil, and scientists soon unearthed a full collection of bones, teeth, and tusks from a mastodon. It was a valuable find: hordes of fossils, impeccably preserved. The last of the mastodons—a slightly smaller cousin of the woolly mammoth—died out some 11,000 years ago.

But the dig site turned out to be even more revelatory—and now, with a paper in the journal Nature—controversial. See, this site wasn’t just catnip for the paleontologists, the diggers who study all fossils. It soon had archaeologists swooping in to study a number of stone tools scattered around the bones, evidence of human activity. After years of debate over the dating technology used on the mastodon, a group of researchers now believes that they can date it and the human tools to 130,000 years ago—more than 100,000 years earlier than the earliest humans are supposed to have made it to North America.
....

The researchers expect a bit of controversy from a discovery that pushes back the arrival of humans in North America by a factor of ten. Nature itself put together this video featuring a leading British critic of the paper. Still, lead author Steven Holen, co-director of the Center for American Paleolithic Research is confident that his colleagues have done their homework. “I was skeptical myself,” he says. “But it’s definitely an archaeological sit.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HyfSsgCrjb0
The first Americans: Clues to an ancient migration

Published on Apr 26, 2017
An archaeological site in California may have opened up a whole new chapter in the history of humans in the Americas. Researchers claim the site shows evidence of humans interacting with the bones of a mastodon, an ice age relative of elephants and mammoths. New dating suggests the site may be 130,000 years old – 100,000 years earlier than the accepted date for the first human colonisation of the Americas.

Read the paper here: http://nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nature22065

And a News & Views article here: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v544/n7651/full/544420a.html

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2017/04/26/humans-americas-discovery-mastodon-bones/100924148/
Ancient humans may have reached Americas 100,000 years earlier than thought
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on May 01, 2017, 02:37:46 pm
http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/extreme-3500-year-old-nordic-grog-was-booze-choice-vikings-1432694
Nordic and Viking civilisations drank an "extreme hybrid beverage" known as Grog around 3,500 years ago, scientists have discovered.

(http://d.ibtimes.co.uk/en/full/1357768/viking.jpg)

Nordic people created an alcoholic drink made from local ingredients
such as honey, bog myrtle, juniper, resin and barley, as well as grape wine imported from southern or central Europe.

Published in the Danish Journal of Archaeology, researchers led by Patrick E. McGovern, from the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, found evidence of this ancient boozy beverage inside pottery and bronze drinking vessels and strainers from sites in Denmark and Sweden.
...

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https://www.thelocal.dk/20170426/danish-vikings-may-have-made-their-own-wine
Danish Vikings 'may have made their own wine'
26 April 2017
12:24 CEST+02:00

New research suggests the Vikings indulged in a bit of viticulture.


Studies of grape pips point to wine production in Denmark during the time of the Vikings.

The Vikings liked alcohol, but while it is easy enough to grow crops and produce beer in the Danish climate, wine is a different challenge and was thought to have always been imported from southern parts of Europe to northern countries.

But new research has showed that at least one of the two oldest grape cores found in Denmark was grown locally, reports science news site Videnskab.dk.

Results of the analysis could be the final piece of evidence needed to prove that wine was produced in Denmark during the Viking era, says the report.
...

Henriksen himself discovered the two centuries-old wine pips in a sample of earth at the site of a Viking settlement at Tissø. Analysis of the pips found one to date from the Viking era and the other from the Iron Age.

No evidence of grapes in Denmark prior to the Middle Ages was previously known.

Henriksen sent the pips to the National Museum, where they underwent strontium isotope tests similar to those that confirmed Danish preserved bodies the Skydstrup girl and the Egtved girl originated from geographical areas further south in Europe.

The tests showed that the Viking era grape was probably grown on Zealand, reports Videnskab.dk.

“Before we only had suspicions, but now we can see that they actually had grapes and therefore the resources to produce [wine] themselves. Suddenly it all becomes very real,” professor Karin Margarita Frei of the National Museum told Videnskab.dk.
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on October 31, 2018, 01:11:54 pm
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/ancient-clovis-people-may-have-taken-tool-cues-earlier-americans

Ancient Clovis people may have taken tool cues from earlier Americans

Newly discovered Texas spearpoints could shed light on the first inhabitants of North America
By Bruce Bower
2:47pm, October 24, 2018

(https://www.sciencenews.org/sites/default/files/2018/10/main/articles/102318_BB_spearpoints_feat.jpg)

Stone spearpoints from roughly 15,000 years ago suggest that descendants of some of the earliest American settlers went on to create the Clovis culture.

Excavations at a site in Central Texas yielded about 100,000 stone artifacts, including 12 spearpoints, that date to between 15,500 and 13,500 years ago. The shapes of those spearpoints show a progression from stemmed points to a short triangular blade, meaning that the artifacts may have been precursors to long, triangular Clovis points, researchers report October 24 in Science Advances.

By about 13,500 years ago, Clovis people had settled various sites across North America. For years, scientists thought that these people were the first inhabitants of the continent. But researchers have found a growing number of pre-Clovis human sites in the Americas (SN: 8/4/18, p. 7).

In 2011, initial pre-Clovis finds were unearthed at the Buttermilk Creek Complex, part of the larger Debra L. Friedkin archaeological site and the same place where the newly discovered artifacts come from. But none of those finds could be linked to later Clovis points also from the site.

In the new study, the researchers show that 11 of the 12 new spearpoints had been chipped into leaf shapes that taper into slightly narrower stems. The exception is a short, triangular spearpoint with a flat base that dates to between 14,000 and 13,500 years ago.
...
(https://www.sciencenews.org/sites/default/files/2018/10/102318_BB_spearpoints_inline_730.jpg)

?We have discovered two previously unknown spearpoint styles that predate Clovis,? says study coauthor and archaeologist Michael Waters of Texas A&M University in College Station. Finding these artifacts in sediment showing a clear progression from stemmed points to a triangular point to Clovis points over a roughly 2,000-year period raises the likelihood that one spearpoint style led to the next, Waters holds.
...
?At least in Central Texas,? Halligan says, ?people arrived well before Clovis, discovered a source of excellent stone for tools and passed their knowledge on to their descendants who eventually started making Clovis artifacts.?
...
Title: Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
Post by: TahoeBlue on October 31, 2018, 01:44:43 pm
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/iberian-megalithic-tombs-lensless-telescopes-03987.html
Iberian Megalithic Tombs: 6,000-Year-Old Lensless Telescopes?
Jun 30, 2016 by News Staff / Source

(http://cdn.sci-news.com/images/2016/06/image_3987_2-Carregal-do-Sal.jpg)

A team of astronomers from the UK is exploring what might be described as the first astronomical observing tool, potentially used by humans around 4,000 BC.

The team, led by Dr. Fabio Silva of the University of Wales Trinity Saint David, suggests that the long, narrow entrance passages to Iberian megalithic tombs from the Middle Neolithic period may have enhanced what early human cultures could see in the night sky.

The team?s idea is to investigate how a simple aperture, for example an opening or doorway, affects the observation of slightly fainter stars.

The scientists focus their study on passage graves, which are a type of megalithic tomb composed of a chamber of large interlocking stones and a long narrow entrance.

These spaces are thought to have been sacred, and the sites may have been used for rites of passage, where the initiate would spend the night inside the tomb, with no natural light apart from that shining down the narrow entrance lined with the remains of the tribe?s ancestors.

These structures could therefore have been the first astronomical tools to support the watching of the skies, millennia before telescopes were invented




https://www.britannica.com/topic/Iberian

Iberian, Spanish Ibero, one of a prehistoric people of southern and eastern Spain who later gave their name to the whole peninsula. The waves of migrating Celtic peoples from the 8th to 6th century bc onward settled heavily in northern and central Spain, penetrated Portugal and Galicia, but left the indigenous Bronze Age Iberian people of the south and east intact. Greek geographers give the name Iberian, probably connected with that of the Ebro (Iberus) River, to tribes settled on the southeastern coast, but, by the time of the Greek historian Herodotus (mid-5th century bc), it applied to all the peoples between the Ebro and Huelva rivers, who were probably linguistically connected and whose material culture was distinct from that of the north and west. There were, however, areas of overlap between the Iberian and Celtic peoples, as in the Celtiberian tribes of the northeastern Meseta Central and in Catalonia and Aragon.
...

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258832687_Orientation_of_Visigothic_tombs_as_indicators_of_recent_soil_movements_and_slides_-_a_case_study_from_southern_Spain_Betis_and_Baelo_Claudia

Orientation of Visigothic tombs as indicators of recent soil movements and slides - a case study from southern Spain (Betis and Baelo Claudia)
Chapter (PDF Available) ? January 2013


I am of the Iberian Tribe ... And you owe me your due respect and devotion - at least a Senator position

DNAandME:
Iberian 0.1%

Although we've detected Iberian DNA in your ancestral breakdown, we have not identified more specific locations that your recent ancestors may have called home.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=leI7sfmipuI
DONOVAN- ATLANTIS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTuPbJLqFKI
Sunshine Superman- Donovan
 


http://love2fly.iberia.com/2017/02/who-were-the-iberians-of-spains-distant-past/
(http://love2fly.iberia.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/L2F-Jan-17-pic-Spain-Iberians-Lady-of-Elx-Elche-shutterstock_456255556-640x427.jpg)

Spain takes its name from Hispania, a colony ruled by the ancient Romans from the 3rd century BC to circa 400 AD. But that name itself comes from the Hispani, a term the Romans used (along with Hiberi), to refer to the tribal peoples who preceded them, whom they conquered and absorbed. Relatively little about them survives in the historic record ? just a few bits and pieces including statues (most famously the charismatic, enigmatic Lady of Elx, top), coins, pottery, and other artifacts, along with a small handful of ruins. But the story of civilisation in Spain as well as Portugal essentially starts with them.

Like the ancestors of the Basques, the Iberian tribes were non Indo-Europeans who spoke a language with elements in common with not only Basque but Etruscan in Italy and Minoan Linear A in Greece. The Iberian Peninsula came to be named after them because it was they whom the ancient Greeks and Romans first encountered.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_of_Elche

The originally polychromed bust is thought to represent a woman wearing a complex headdress and large wheel-like coils (known as rodetes) on each side of the face. The opening in the rear of the sculpture indicates it may have been used as a funerary urn.
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The sculpture was found on 4 August 1897, by a young worker, Manuel Campello Esclapez. The popular version of the story differs from the official report by Pere Ibarra (the local keeper of the records) which stated that Antonio Maci? found the bust. Ibarra's version of the discovery story, was that farm workers clearing the southeast slope of La Alcudia for agricultural purposes, discovered the sculpture. The bust was quickly nicknamed "Reina Mora" or "Moorish Queen" by locals.[1]

An archaeological site is now located where the bust of Elche was discovered. Evidence has been found there of an Iberian-Punic settlement, a Roman sewer, walls and Roman houses, and mosaics. One mosaic shows an effigy of Saint Abdon, belonging to a Christian basilica of the 5th century. The latter archaeological evidence is supported by the codices of the councils of Toledo where it discusses an audience with bishops from Illici (Elche).
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Experts in Spanish archaeology have rejected Moffitt's theory and accept the Lady of Elche as a genuine ancient Iberian work. Antonio Uriarte of the University of Madrid has stated: "Decade by decade, research has reinforced the coherence of the Lady within the corpus of Iberian sculpture.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_A
Linear A is one of two currently undeciphered writing systems used in ancient Greece (Cretan hieroglyphic is the other).

 Linear A was the primary script used in palace and religious writings of the Minoan civilization. It was discovered by archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans. It is related to the Linear B script, which succeeded the Linear A and was used by the Mycenaean civilization.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Le%C3%B3n
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Background
The city of Le?n was founded by the Roman Seventh Legion (usually written as Legio Septima Gemina ("twin seventh legion"). It was the headquarters of that legion in the late empire and was a centre for trade in gold, which was mined at Las M?dulas nearby.

In 540, the city was conquered by the Arian Visigothic king Liuvigild
, who did not harass the already well-established Roman Catholic population. In AD 717,

Le?n fell again, this time to the Moors. However, Le?n was one of the first cities retaken during the Christian reconquest of the Iberian peninsula, and became part of the Kingdom of Asturias in AD 742.
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Le?n and Castile
The taking of Toledo, the old Visigoth capital, in 1085 by Alfonso VI of Le?n was a turning point in the development of Le?n and Castile and the first major milestone in the Reconquista.
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http://www.ariminia.ro/en/carpia/
Carpia
by Arimin Constantin Olariu | Fără categorie
The Iberian destiny

     Beginning with the Vth century, many Spanish writings support the idea that the fourth colonization of Spain by the Goths, considered to be in fact the ancient Getae (?Getae illi qui et nunc Gothi?), has led to the foundation of the Spanish nation and of the Iberian state.

Throughout the following centuries, this legend gathered momentum, becoming an actual historical, cultural and moral reference for the Spanish society. The Swedish also boast in their stories that the laws upon which their state and culture rely, are the laws of Zamolxis! Like any rational individual residing in a mioritic space, I wondered: are these nations off the track or is it that our realms reeks of infamy? In order to understand why the Spaniards spread such stories, we need to search carefully our ancient history, forged with so much resentment by the would-be mentors of our people! To the same effect, a great part of the answer to this question can be found on the lead plates concealed by the embittered employees at the Institute of Archaeology in Bucharest.

The Romanian historians who knew a thing or two about Getica of Jordanes cut it short, saying that the author of Gothic origin made a confusion between the Getae who destroyed the Roman Empire and the Goths who came to our lands during the second and third century AD. Their ?farsighted? sayings remained deep-rooted and iron-bound for centuries to come. Still, these far-fetched ideas aren?t even stated anymore in the history books, to keep people from wondering if the reasoning is correct or it is plain raving.

    On the tombs of the Visigoth kings in Old Castile, stands written for posterity: ,,Rex Godorum et Dacorum et Gaetorum et Hispaniae Rex?, meaning for our understanding ?king of the Goths, of the Dacians, of the Getae and king of Spain?! Did these kings not even know who their subjects were, or should the wretched fellows from the mioritic lands should receive a ?decoration of talent? for high treason against their nation and country? I will give one more example to show who they really are and how much evil they did to the Romanian people!

 In a document from 615 called Libbelus dotalis Morgingeba (Morgingeba?s Wealth Register), the Visigoth chieftain writes that their state was based upon ?,?ordinis ut Getici est et Morgingeba uetusti? (?practices as of Getae and also used by Morgingeba?) meaning he writes and also leaves a testimony about leges bellagines. In the same document the author mentions the Visigoths received nobiliary titles, ??Insigni merito et Geticae de stirpe Senatus? (Honoured with military merits and Getae senatorial rights, following the example of Constantine the Great, who ennobled many barbarian knights that had proven worthy in the use of weapons).

Christian Mozarabs from Al-Andalus had come north to populate the deserted frontier lands, and the traditional view of Spanish history has been that they brought with them the remains of Visigothic and Classical culture, and a new ideology of Reconquista, a crusade against the Moors.
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  In the Irish mythology, Danu or Dana in modern Irish was the mother goddess of the Tuatha de Danaan, meaning those of Irish origin or ?the people of the goddess Danu?, another people descended from gods like the Getae. The Egyptians say that amongst the ?sea people? who invaded them in search of loot, were also the ?Daniuna?, while Virgil writes in chapter II,49 of Aeneid about the people of ?Danaos? or ?Danaans?, the ancient inhabitants of Peloponnesus, who caused great sorrow to the stronghold of Troy, but we don?t know if this happened before or after the visit to Egypt. During the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age, Tartessos had strong trading connections with the British Islands and the Ancient Ireland, because these territories had the necessary metals to produce bronze and iron objects. The region that was flooded and covered by mud and sand where the ancient Tartessos used to be, is nowadays a special reservation called Do?ana National Park, a lexical reminiscence of the ancient natives Danaan, since the two highlighted words belong to the same lexical family.
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  A comparative study between the Emegi language, the old Romanian language and the Hispanic languages would reveal treasures that would cause great chagrin to the Latinists and the defenders of the Indo-Germanic theory. Hebrews have no place on this pure land which doesn?t allow revelations and diabolical visions. After this research through the Antiquity blackened by the fog of oblivion, but mostly by the people?s incommensurate hate, allow me to get back to the Spanish medieval writers who left us noteworthy data and facts regarding our true history and culture.
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Alonso de Cartagena (1384-1456), who lived in the days of Henry IV, wrote that the kings of Spain descended from Dacian princes, taking only their names from the place where they lived, because they were more illustrious than those of their ancestors; he also says that the name Geta can be found in the medieval writings as a nobiliary title. In our language, the same word is meant as an insult and an expletive! The Getae symbols appear in the blazonry of the Spanish kings ? the arrows which terrified the world and the yoke as a proof that they were rich in cattle.
If Orosius said that the Getae were the Goths who conquered Spain, two centuries later Isidore asserted the identity of the Getae with the Goths and over the ensuing centuries, the scholars, as well as the ruling class had to demonstrate their Getic lineage in order to prove that they were of noble blood. From Isidore of Seville, the legend evolved, taking roots in all the chronicles; thus, a fragment of the Getae history surprisingly entered the history of Spain itself. The Getae names Boruista/Buruista, Diurpaneus, Decebalus, Zamolxis and Deceneus can be found in Saint Isidore?s works, in the writings of the archbishop Rodrigo Jimenez de Rada and at King Alfonso el Sabio, occupying their rightful place in the genealogy of the Spanish people.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liuvigild

Liuvigild, Leuvigild, Leovigild, or Leovigildo (Spanish and Portuguese), (c. 519[citation needed] ? 21 April 586) was a Visigothic King of Hispania and Septimania from 568 to April 21, 586. From 585 he was also king of Galicia. Known for his Codex Revisus or Code of Leovigild, a unifying law allowing equal rights between the Visigothic and Hispano-Roman population, his kingdom covered modern Portugal and most of modern Spain down to Toledo. He was born circa 525.
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The Visigoths were still a military aristocracy and kings had to be formally ratified by the nobility. Visigoths and their Ibero-Roman subjects were still separated by religion and by distinct law codes. Liuvigild modified the old Code of Euric which governed the Goths and created his own Codex Revisus. He also repealed old Roman laws dating back to the late 4th century forbidding intermarriage between Visigoths and Ibero-Romans.[8]

Liuvigild further secured a peaceful succession, a perennial Visigothic issue, by associating his two sons, Hermenegild and Reccared, with himself in the kingly office and placing certain regions under their regencies. Hermenegild, the elder, was married to Ingunthis, daughter of the Frankish King Sigibert I.

In 582 Liuvigild captured M?rida, which had been under the political control of its popular bishop Masona since the early 570s. Masona was soon after exiled for three years, possibly in the context of the rebellion of Hermenegild.

Hermenegild had converted to orthodox Christianity, persuaded by his Frankish wife Ingunthis and Leander, bishop of Seville. After his father, who considered this conversion treason, insisted on appointing Arians as bishops,
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