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Title: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 08:34:32 pm
NOTE NEW ARTICLE:
Quote
Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic
http://www.infowars.com/personal-recollections-of-the-1957-h2n2-flu-pandemic/
JT Coyote
Infowars
August 28, 2009

The students in the farming community I grew up in were having a grade school “fair” in the fall of 1957. It was the beginning of fourth grade for me. We were setting up props for the weekend festivities, when parents and students would all attend. We were busy converting the 4 room school into a frontier town. It was all part of the run up to the Colorado statehood Centennial celebration and we chose an Old West theme. 1957 was the first year of school polio and smallpox shots, which we had all received a couple of weeks earlier. I remember that I wasn’t feeling well that day, but I didn’t want to miss the fun, yet by mid afternoon — let’s just say, I had to go home early that Friday.
   
(http://www.infowars.com/images/1950s.jpg)   
Citizens line up for their vaccinations in the 1950s.
   
By Saturday morning I was running an incredible fever. I was in a constant state of vomiting and dry heaves, I couldn’t keep anything down, and for the longest time my only conscious moments were filled with fever, vomiting, and delirium. Within hours of one another, one by one, my brothers and sisters came down with the bug, though I have little conscious recollection of those first three days.

By Sunday my parents had also succumb. The only one who was still standing was my maternal grandmother, who while in her late teens, had survived the 1918 Spanish flu. Lucky for us she knew what to do and in her immunity, she nursed us all through the critical first few days of ordeal and the week of recovery. I also thank providence for the other two families that worked on the dairy farm. They had no grade school age children and were able to maintain the milking chores and other things necessary to keep the farm running. Yet within a week or two, one after another they all came down with flu as well. I know of people who were killed by this virus. There were some members of the Victory Grange, and the Tower Baptist Church, that we never saw again.

There must be a reason why the authorities are not talking about this strain of flu — primary obfuscation perhaps, by the weak red herring H1N1, that’s my gut feeling. I say this because when the story first broke in 2004/2005, about the 3000 or so H2N2 (1957) flu test kits that were “accidentally” mailed all over the world, it suddenly disappeared from the media. I repeat the word accidentally with a “don’t you believe it” advisory, (”nudge, nudge,- wink, wink, – know what I mean, known what I mean.”)

To quote the reference source: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H2N2)

“From October 2004 to February 2005, approximately 3,700 test kits of the 1957 H2N2 virus were accidentally spread around the world from the College of American Pathologists (CAP) (http://www.cap.org/apps/cap.portal). CAP assists laboratories in accuracy by providing unidentified samples of viruses; private contractor Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, U.S., chose the 1957 strand instead of one of the less deadly avian influenza virus subtypes. “CAP spokesman Dr. Jared Schwartz said Meridian knew what the virus was but believed it was safe. In selecting it, the company had determined that the virus was classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) agent, which meant it could legally be used in the kits. [...] Before the problem came to light, the CDC had made a recommendation that the H2N2 virus be reclassified as a BSL-3 agent, Gerberding said. She promised to speed up the reclassification. The CDC determines the classifications in
collaboration with the National Institutes of Health. In BSL-3 labs, agents are handled with equipment designed to prevent any airborne contamination and resulting respiratory exposure.” [10] (http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/…april1305labs.html) The 1957 H2N2 virus is considered deadly and the U.S. government called for the vials containing the strain to be destroyed.”

So just how many of these vials were actually destroyed? Do we know how many were opened and cultured? Well, the one thing we do know for sure is that they contained the BSL-3, deadly, live H2N2 virus. No need to dig up dead, obese, Inuit Eskimo women from which to extricate and resurrect the virus, all they had to do was ship out the existing 50 year old, culture test kits and allow the eugenics clinics to do what they do best… namely, culture, replicate, and distribute, the known killer, H2N2 (1957) avian flu virus.

I’ve had what they call the flu since then, a couple of days of achiness in the military in ‘68, and then again when I took the “mandatory” Air Force swine flu shot in 1972/73 and got sick from that. But again, just achy joints and muscles, a little nausea, and a fever for a few days, but nowhere near the 1957 flu. After 1973, I haven’t had the flu at all really, not even the most subtle symptoms. I seldom even have a cold beyond the sniffles, and achy joints, mostly now in my later years.


You would think that this latest scare, would bring the national media to mention the pandemic of 1957. After all, according to the WHO, (World Health Organization), it killed 2 million+ people world wide that year. Other credible sources say 4 million died. The official stats for the number of deaths in the United States during that pandemic is 70,000. I wonder if the folks who died that I knew, and folks in other out of the way rural areas in the country, and the world for that matter — were they counted in those statistics? Sources other than the WHO say that the number is more likely between 100,000 and 140,000 American deaths by flu in ‘57-’58…

This past Friday night there was a flyover above my home at about 8:30 in the evening. It happened again at just before midnight on Saturday, and then a third fly by — and I will never forget the exact time of this one, it was 2:09 AM Monday morning August 24th. The airplane was a twin-engine turbo prop that rumbled the house rafters as it went over. The valley where I live is about 9000 feet in elevation, about a mile wide and is rimed on opposite sides by 12,000 to 13,000 foot peaks. I could hear the aircraft feather its propellers on approach as it dropped down in a crop duster like swoop. It breezed across the valley in only a few seconds, then it powered back up into a climbing turn and disappeared over the reservoir. I should alert you to the fact that large twin engine aircraft flying at low altitude over our little valley in the wee hours of the morning, is as rare as snow storms in Pensacola Florida, yet it happened three times, in as many nights.

The reason I won’t forget the last flyover is this — in hopes of catching a glimpse of the noisy bird, I scurried out the front door onto the porch. I was immediately hit with a smell and taste that I can never forget. A sensation I have not experienced since the first time I tasted it. It was the taste and smell of that deathly ill three days I lived through, back in 1957.

I for one will not be surprised at all when they announce that what is taking people’s lives this time, will not be the H1N1 at all, but a variant of the H2N2 virus! — Still — why doesn’t the press even mention the 1957/58 H2N2 flu pandemic… seems curious, don’t you think?

–Oldyoti

“What we meant, in going for those redcoats was this –
we had always governed ourselves, and always meant to…
they, didn’t mean we should.”

– An old New England militia captain,
after the battles of Lexington and Concord
April 19, 1775




Influenza A virus subtype H2N2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H2N2


H2N2 is a subtype of the species influenzavirus A (sometimes called bird flu virus). H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the Asian Flu strain (now extinct in the wild), H3N2, and various strains found in birds. It is also suspected of causing a human pandemic in 1889.[1][2]


[edit]
Russian flu
See Influenzavirus A subtype H1N1#Russian flu for the 1977-1978 Russian flu

Some believe that the 1889 - 1890 Russian flu was caused by the influenzavirus A virus subtype H2N2, but the evidence is not conclusive. It is the earliest flu pandemic for which detailed records are available.[3] "The 1889 pandemic, known as the Russian Flu, began in Russia and spread rapidly throughout Europe. It reached North America in December 1889 and spread to Latin America and Asia in February 1890. About 1 million people died in this pandemic."[4]

[edit]
Asian flu

The "Asian Flu" was a category 2 flu pandemic outbreak of avian influenza that originated in China in early 1956 lasting until 1958. It originated from mutation in wild ducks combining with a pre-existing human strain.[5] The virus was first identified in Guizhou.[6] It spread to Singapore in February 1957[7], reached Hong Kong by April, and US by June. Death toll in the US was approximately 69,800.[5] Estimates of worldwide deaths caused by this pandemic varies widely depending on source; ranging from 1 million to 4 million, with WHO settling on "about 2 million".

Asian Flu was of the H2N2 subtype (a notation that refers to the configuration of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins in the virus) of type A influenza, and an influenza vaccine was developed in 1957 to contain its outbreak.

The Asian Flu strain later evolved via antigenic shift into H3N2 which caused a milder pandemic from 1968 to 1969.[8]

Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) clearly arose through reassortment between human and avian viruses, the influenza virus causing the 'Spanish flu' in 1918 appears to be entirely derived from an avian source (Belshe 2005)." [9]

[edit]
Test kits

From October 2004 to February 2005, approximately 3,700 test kits of the 1957 H2N2 virus were accidentally spread around the world from the College of American Pathologists (CAP). CAP assists laboratories in accuracy by providing unidentified samples of viruses; private contractor Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, U.S., chose the 1957 strand instead of one of the less deadly avian influenza virus subtypes. "CAP spokesman Dr. Jared Schwartz said Meridian knew what the virus was but believed it was safe. In selecting it, the company had determined that the virus was classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) agent, which meant it could legally be used in the kits. [...] Before the problem came to light, the CDC had made a recommendation that the H2N2 virus be reclassified as a BSL-3 agent, Gerberding said. She promised to speed up the reclassification. The CDC determines the classifications in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health. In BSL-3 labs, agents are handled with equipment designed to prevent any airborne contamination and resulting respiratory exposure."[10] The 1957 H2N2 virus is considered deadly and the U.S. government called for the vials containing the strain to be destroyed.

"CDC officials reported on 21 April that 99% of the samples had already been destroyed. News reports on 25 April said the last samples outside the United States had been destroyed at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, after they were found at the Beirut airport. Earlier reports said H2N2 samples were sent to 3,747 labs under CAP auspices and to about another 2,700 labs certified by other organizations. All but about 75 labs that received the CAP samples were in the United States."[11]

"In the United States, there is no government regulation over the 1957 flu strain. In fact, federal officials at the CDC do not even know how many U.S. laboratories keep this deadly strain in their viral libraries."[12]

[edit]
Sources
^ Sdstate.edu
^ Pilva.com
^ Encarta on influenza
^ CIDRAP article Pandemic Influenza Last updated 29 May 2008
^ a b Greene Jeffrey. Moline, Karen. [2006] (2006) The Bird Flu Pandemic. ISBN 0312360568.
^ Goldsmith, Connie. [2007] (2007) Influenza: The Next Pandemic? 21st century publishing. ISBN 0761394575
^ Germ Warfare, History Today
^ Starling, Arthur. [2006] (2006) Plague, SARS, and the Story of Medicine in Hong Kong. HK University Press. ISBN 9622098053
^ Chapter Two : Avian Influenza by Timm C. Harder and Ortrud Werner from free on-line Book called Influenza Report 2006 which is a medical textbook that provides a comprehensive overview of epidemic and pandemic influenza.
^ Cidrap UMN.edu
^ Flu.org
^ Globalist.com

[edit]
Further reading
Pandemic preparedness: lessons learnt from H2N2 and H9N2 candidate vaccines
Interim CDC-NIH Recommendation for Raising the Biosafety Level for Laboratory Work Involving Noncontemporary Human Influenza Viruses
New Scientist: Bird Flu
Pandemic-causing 'Asian flu' accidentally released
Persistence of Q strain of H2N2 influenza virus in avian species: antigenic, biological and genetic analysis of avian and human H2N2 viruses

[edit]
External links
BioHealthBase Bioinformatics Resource Center Database of influenza sequences and related information.v • d • e
Influenza

General topics   Research - Vaccine - Treatment - Genome sequencing - Reassortment - Superinfection - Season

Influenza viruses   Orthomyxoviridae - Influenza A - Influenza B - Influenza C

Influenza A virus
Subtypes   H1N1 - H1N2 - H2N2 - H2N3 - H3N1 - H3N2 - H3N8 - H5N1 - H5N2 - H5N3 - H5N8 - H5N9 - H7N1 - H7N2 - H7N3 - H7N4 - H7N7 - H9N2 - H10N7

H1N1          Pandemics   1918 flu pandemic (Spanish flu) - 2009 flu pandemic (Swine flu)

Science   2009 A/H1N1


H5N1   Science   Genetic structure - Transmission and infection - Global spread - Clinical Trials - Human mortality - Social impact - Pandemic preparation

        Outbreaks   Croatia (2005) - India (2006) - UK (2007) - West Bengal (2008)


Treatments   Antiviral drugs   Arbidol - adamantane derivatives (Amantadine, Rimantadine) - neuraminidase inhibitors (Oseltamivir, Laninamivir, Peramivir, Zanamivir)
Experimental (Peramivir)

Flu vaccines   FluMist - Fluzone


Influenza epidemics & pandemics          Pandemics   Russian flu (1889–1890) - Spanish flu - Asian flu - Hong Kong flu - 2009 flu pandemic

Epidemics   Russian flu (1977–1978) - Fujian flu (H3N2)


Non-human   Mammals   Canine influenza - Cat influenza - Equine influenza (2007 Australian outbreak) - Swine influenza

Non-mammals   Avian influenza - Fujian flu (H5N1)


Related   Influenza-like illness


Categories: Subtypes of Influenza A virus | 1957 in Hong Kong
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 08:53:20 pm
Persistence of Q strain of H2N2 influenza virus in avian species: antigenic, biological and genetic analysis of avian and human H2N2 viruses.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6477129?dopt=Abstract
Nerome K, Yoshioka Y, Torres CA, Oya A, Bachmann P, Ottis K, Webster RG.

The characteristics of an avian influenza virus were compared in detail with those of human Asian (H2N2) influenza viruses. Antigenic analysis by different antisera against H2N2 viruses and monoclonal antibodies to both the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens showed that an avian isolate, A/duck/München/9/79 contained hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subunits closely related to those of the early human H2N2 viruses which had been prevalent in 1957. However, this avian virus gave low HI titers with absorbed and non-absorbed antisera to different human H2N2 viruses isolated in 1957. Like human Q phase variant, such as A/RI/5-/57 (H2N2), hemagglutination of the above avian strain was not inhibited by the purified non-specific gamma-inhibitor from guinea pig serum. Growth behavior at restrictive temperature (42 degrees C) clearly differentiate the avian H2N2 virus from human influenza viruses, showing that the former virus grew well in MDCK cells at 42 degrees C but not the latters. Genomic analysis of these viruses revealed that the oligonucleotide map of H2N2 virus isolated from a duck was quite different from those of human H2N2 viruses from 1957 to 1967. The oligonucleotide mapping also indicated that different H2N2 influenza virus variants had co-circulated in humans in 1957.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 6477129 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 08:53:53 pm
Pandemic-causing 'Asian flu' accidentally released
http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn7261
14:21 13 April 2005 by Debora MacKenzie

The virus that caused the 1957 "Asian flu" pandemic has been accidentally released by a lab in the US, and sent all over the world in test kits which scientists are now scrambling to destroy.

There are fears the virus could escape the labs, as the mistake was discovered after the virus escaped from a kit at a high-containment lab in Canada. Such an escape could spread worldwide, as demonstrated in Russia in the 1970s.

The flu testing kits were sent to some 3700 labs between October 2004 and February 2005 by the College of American Pathologists (CAP), a professional body which helps pathology laboratories improve their accuracy, by sending them unidentified samples of various germs to identify.

The CAP kits - prepared by private contractor Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, US - were to contain a particular strain of influenza A - the viral family that causes most flu worldwide. But instead of choosing a strain from the hundreds of recently circulating influenza A viruses, the firm chose the 1957 pandemic strain.

This is a problem because of the way pandemic flu strains edge each other out of circulation. The most lethal flu pandemic on record, in 1918, was caused by an influenza A of the H1 type, named for the haemagglutinin, a surface protein, it carries. After 1918, H1 flu evolved into an "ordinary" flu, and continued to circulate.
Bird flu

The 1957 pandemic started in China before spreading worldwide, killing an estimated two million or more people. It was triggered by the hybridisation of human H1 flu with flu viruses from birds which carried another surface protein, H2. It was more lethal than the then-circulating H1 strains because no human had ever encountered the H2 protein before, and so lacked any immunity to the new strain.

Immediately after 1957, all traces of H1 flu in humans disappeared, to be replaced by H2 strains. A similar process occurred again in 1968, when another hybrid virus emerged - again in China - carrying another haemagglutinin, H3. This caused the "Hong Kong flu" pandemic, which killed an estimated one million people worldwide.

But after 1968, H2 flu disappeared - so anyone born after this year will have no immunity to H2 flu and any escape of the virus in the test kits could be as lethal to them as the Asian flu of 1957.

A similar event happened in 1977, with the sudden reappearance of an H1 flu identical to one that had been isolated in 1950. It is believed that the virus escaped from a faulty batch of live flu vaccine prepared in Russia. But fortunately that strain had evolved into a much tamer creature than its 1918 predecessor. Unfortunately, the 1957 H2 virus is the most lethal variant of its kind.
Routine test

A few of the CAP kits were sent to labs in Asia, the Middle East and South America, as well as Europe and North America. The kits' originators should have known what strain they contained, in order to evaluate the test results, though they claim they did not realise their mistake.

However, when Canada's National Microbiology Lab in Winnipeg identified the strain on 26 March - in a routine sample sent there from a Vancouver-based lab - it alerted the US Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization.

A major concern is that test kits are not usually handled at a high level of biological containment as it is generally assumed they do not carry unusually dangerous viruses. The Asian flu's most probable route of escape into the outside world would be if a lab worker were to unknowingly become infected by it.

But there has been no sign of the virus infecting humans yet, says Klaus Stöhr, chief flu scientist at the World Health Organization in Geneva.

"If this incident doesn't cause a major reassessment of the safety of flu research, a lab-sponsored pandemic may well be the only thing that induces sobriety," comments Ed Hammond of the Sunshine Project, a biosafety pressure group.
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 08:55:42 pm

Interim CDC-NIH Recommendation for Raising the Biosafety Level for Laboratory Work Involving Noncontemporary Human Influenza Viruses
http://www.cdc.gov/flu/h2n2bsl3.htm

Excerpted from the draft Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th edition.

NOTE: This document is provided for historical purposes only and may not reflect the most accurate and up-to-date information on this subject. For current flu information, please visit the CDC Flu Homepage.

The Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) manual is a Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) publication that provides guidelines for the safe handling of infectious agents in various laboratory settings. The BMBL is updated and published every 5 years as a collaborative project by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The 5th edition of the BMBL is expected to be published in early 2006. This new edition will include an updated Agent Summary Statement for Influenza that contains revised recommendations for the safe handling of influenza viruses in the laboratory. These recommendations are advisory and are intended to provide a basis for individual laboratory risk assessment of the viruses and activities used within that laboratory.

The recommended biosafety level for work with various human and animal influenza viruses, including non-contemporary human influenza A viruses, can be found below in the Draft Agent Summary Statement for Influenza for the upcoming 5th edition of the CDC/NIH Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories.
Draft Agent Summary Statement for Influenza
INTRODUCTION
Description

Influenza is an acute viral disease of the respiratory tract. The most common clinical manifestations are fever, headache, malaise, sore throat and cough. GI tract manifestations (nausea, vomiting and diarrhea) are rare but may accompany the respiratory phase in children. The two most important features of influenza are the epidemic nature of illness and the mortality that arises from pulmonary complications of the disease (Treanor, 2005).

The influenza viruses are enveloped RNA viruses belonging to the Orthomyxoviridae. There are three serotypes of influenza viruses, A, B and C. Influenza A is further classified into subtypes by the surface glycoproteins that possess either hemagglutinin (H) or neuraminidase (N) activity. Emergence of completely new subtypes (antigenic shift) occurs at irregular intervals with Type A viruses. New subtypes are responsible for pandemics and can result from reassortment of human and avian influenza virus genes. Antigenic changes within a type or subtype (antigenic drift) of A and B viruses are ongoing processes that are responsible for frequent epidemics and regional outbreaks and make the annual reformulation of influenza vaccine necessary.

Influenza viral infections, with different antigenic subtypes, occur naturally in swine, horses, mink, seals and in many domestic and wild avian species. Interspecies transmission and reassortment of influenza A viruses have been reported to occur among, humans and wild and domestic fowl. The human influenza viruses responsible for the 1918, 1957 and 1968 pandemics contained gene segments closely related to those of avian influenza viruses (APHA, 2000). Swine influenza has also been isolated in human outbreaks (Dowdle & Hattwick, 1977).

Control of influenza is a continuing human and veterinary public health concern.
Occupational Infections

Laboratory-associated infections have not been routinely documented in the literature, but informal accounts and published reports indicate that such infections are known to have occurred, particularly when new strains showing antigenic shift or drift are introduced into a laboratory for diagnostic/research purposes (Dowdle & Hattwick, 1977 ). Occupationally-acquired, nosocomial infections are documented (Stott et. al. 2002, Horcajada et.al.,2003). Laboratory animal-associated infections have not been reported; however, there is possibility of human infection acquired from infected ferrets and vice versa.
Natural Modes of Infection

Airborne spread is the predominant mode of transmission especially in crowded, enclosed spaces. Transmission may also occur through direct contact since influenza viruses may persist for hours on surfaces particularly in the cold and under conditions of low humidity (APHA, 2000). The incubation period is from one to three days. Recommendations for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza are available. (CDC, 2004).
LABORATORY SAFETY

The agent may be present in respiratory tissues or secretions of humans and most infected animals and birds. In addition, the agent may be present in the intestines and cloacae of many infected avian species. Influenza viruses may be disseminated in multiple organs in some infected animal species. The primary laboratory hazard is inhalation of virus from aerosols generated by infecting animals or by aspirating, dispensing, mixing, centrifuging or otherwise manipulating virus-infected samples. In addition, laboratory infection can result from direct inoculation of mucus membranes through virus contaminated gloves following handling of tissues, feces or secretions from infected animals. Genetic manipulation has the potential for altering the host range, pathogenicity, and antigenic composition of influenza viruses. The potential for introducing influenza viruses with novel genetic composition into humans is unknown.
Containment Recommendations

Biosafety Level 2 facilities, practices and procedures are recommended for diagnostic, research and production activities utilizing contemporary, circulating human influenza strains (e.g., H1/H3/B) and low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) strains (e.g., H1-4, H6, H8-16), and equine and swine influenza viruses. Animal Biosafety Level 2 is appropriate for work with these viruses in animal models. All avian and swine influenza viruses require an APHIS permit. Based on economic ramifications and source of the virus, LPAI H5 and H7 and swine influenza viruses may have additional APHIS permit-driven containment requirements and personnel practices and/or restrictions.

Non-contemporary human influenza (H2N2) strains

Non-contemporary, wild-type human influenza (H2N2) strains should be handled with increased caution. Important considerations in working with these strains are the number of years since an antigenically related virus last circulated and the potential for presence of a susceptible population. Biosafety Level 3 and Animal Biosafety Level 3 practices, procedures and facilities are recommended with rigorous adherence to additional respiratory protection and clothing change protocols. Negative pressure, HEPA-filtered respirators or positive air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) are recommended for use. Cold-adapted, live attenuated H2N2 vaccine strains may continue to be worked with at BSL-2.


1918 influenza strain

Any research involving reverse genetics of the 1918 influenza strain should proceed with extreme caution. The risk to laboratory workers is unknown at the present time but the pandemic potential is thought to be significant. Until further risk assessment data are available, the following practices and conditions are recommended for manipulation of reconstructed 1918 influenza viruses and laboratory animals infected with the viruses. These practices and procedures are considered minimum standards for work with the fully reconstructed virus.
Biosafety Level 3 and Animal Biosafety Level 3 practices, procedures and facilities
Large laboratory animals such as nonhuman primates should be housed in primary barrier systems in ABSL-3
Rigorous adherence to additional respiratory protection and clothing change protocols
Use of negative pressure, HEPA-filtered respirators or positive air-purifying respirators (PAPRs)
Use of HEPA filtration for treatment of exhaust air
Amendment of personnel practices to include personal showers prior to exiting the laboratory.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)

Manipulating highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in biomedical research laboratories requires similar caution because some strains may pose increased risk to laboratory workers and have significant agricultural and economic implications. Biosafety Level 3 and Animal Biosafety Level 3 practices, procedures and facilities are recommended along with clothing change and personal showering protocols. Loose-housed animals infected with HPAI strains must be contained within BSL-3 (Ag) facilities. Negative pressure, HEPA-filtered respirators or positive air-purifying respirators are recommended for HPAI viruses with potential to infect humans. The HPAI are agricultural Select Agents requiring registration of personnel and facilities with the lead agency for the institution (CDC or USDA-APHIS). An APHIS permit is also required. Additional containment requirements and personnel practices and/or restrictions may be added as conditions of the permit.
Other influenza recombinant or reassortant viruses

When considering the biocontainment level and attendant practices and procedures for work with other influenza recombinant or reassortant viruses the local Institutional Biosafety Committee should consider but not limit consideration to the following in the conduct of protocol-driven risk assessment. If adequate risk assessment data are not available, a more cautious approach utilizing elevated biocontainment levels and practices is warranted.
The gene constellation used
Clear evidence of reduced virus replication in the respiratory tract of appropriate animal models, compared with the level of replication of the wild-type parent virus from which it was derived
Evidence of clonal purity and phenotypic stability
The number of years since a virus that was antigenically related to the donor of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes last circulated.

There may be specific requirements regarding the setting of containment levels if your institution is subject to the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules.
SPECIAL ISSUES
Occupational Health Considerations

Institutions performing work with HPAI and avian viruses that have infected humans; non-contemporary wild-type human influenza strains, including recombinants and reassortants; and viruses created by reverse genetics of the 1918 pandemic strain should develop and implement a specific medical surveillance and response plan. At the minimum these plans should 1) require storage of baseline serum samples from individuals working with these influenza strains; 2) strongly recommend annual vaccination with the currently licensed influenza vaccine for such individuals; 3) provide employee counseling regarding disease symptoms including fever, conjunctivitis and respiratory symptoms; 4) establish a protocol for monitoring personnel for these symptoms; and 5) establish a clear medical protocol for responding to suspected laboratory-acquired infections. Antiviral drugs (e.g., oseltamivir, amantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir) should be available for treatment and prophylaxis , as necessary (CDC). It is recommended that the sensitivities of the virus being studied to the antivirals be ascertained. All personnel should be enrolled in an appropriately constituted respiratory protection program.

Influenza viruses may require USDA and/or USPHS import permits depending on the host range and pathogenicity of the virus in question.
References

American Public Health Association. Influenza. in Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 17th ed., 2000.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for preventing health-care-associated pneumonia. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Committee, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Recommendations and Reports; 53(RR-3): 1-36, 2004.

Dowdle, W.R. and M. A.W. Hattwick. Swine Influenza Virus Infections in Humans. J Infect Dis. 136 (Supplement): S386-5399, 1977.

Horcajada, J.P., Pumarola, T., Martinez, J.A., Tapias, G., Bayas, J.M., de la Prada, M., Garcia, F., Codina, C., Gatell, J.M., Jimenezde Anta, M.T. A nosocomial outbreak of influenza during a period without influenza epidemic activity. Eur Respir J 21(2): 303-7, 2003.

Stott, D. J., Kerr, G., Carman, W.F. Nosocomial transmission of influenza. Occupational Medicine. Vol. 52 No. 5, pp. 249-253, 2002.

Treanor, J.J. Influenza Virus in Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. (Eds Mandell, Bennett and Dolen), 2005.
More Information
Q & A: Destruction of H2N2 Panels
Q & A: Background
May 3, 2005 CDC Health Update: Destruction of Samples; Guidance for BSL3-Enhanced Biocontainment for H2N2
Apr 15, 2005 CDC Health Update: Monitoring Health of Lab Workers & Destroying H2N2 Samples
Apr 13, 2005 CDC Health Advisory: CDC & WHO recommend H2N2 panels be destroyed
Apr 21, 2005 Press Conference Transcript
Apr 13, 2005 Press Conference Transcript
Apr 12, 2005 WHO Statement: International response to distribution of H2N2

Page last modified October 6, 2005
Content Source: Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (CCID)
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD)
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 08:56:34 pm
Med Microbiol Immunol. 2002 Dec;191(3-4):203-8. Epub 2002 Oct 19.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12458361?dopt=Citation
 
Pandemic preparedness: lessons learnt from H2N2 and H9N2 candidate vaccines.

Hehme N, Engelmann H, Künzel W, Neumeier E, Sänger R.

GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, SSW Dresden, Zirkusstrasse 40, 01069 Dresden, Germany. [email protected]

Vaccination against influenza is considered to be one of the key interventions in case of a pandemic. Unfortunately, shortages in vaccine supplies will occur because of the substantial increase in vaccine demands worldwide and the limited available supply resources. The recommended use of monovalent--instead of current trivalent--vaccines containing 15 micro g hemagglutinin (HA) per dose can theoretically triple vaccine volumes but is unlikely to meet the demand. Furthermore, previous experiences demonstrated that one dose of 15 micro g HA will not be sufficient to elicit protective antibody levels in unprimed individuals. Modified formulation approaches were investigated, that would be suitable to provide significantly higher volumes of potent vaccine within a given period of time. Low doses of HA combined with aluminum (Al) adjuvants and the use of whole virus instead of split or subunit antigens can lead to substantial increases in process yield. In addition, production of whole virus vaccines will reduce manufacturing complexity. In a dose-finding study in healthy adults and elderly, immune responses after administration of Al-adjuvanted low-dose formulations were compared to a standard split virus vaccine (Fluarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium). All vaccines were safe and well tolerated. Antigen concentrations as low as 1.9 micro g HA/strain per dose of adjuvant-containing experimental vaccines induced protective antibody levels in primed populations. Reactogenicity profiles of Al-adjuvanted low-dose vaccines were investigated in a feasibility trial. Neither the use of Al-adjuvant nor of whole virus had a significant effect on general reactions. Studies in unprimed populations with H2N2 and H9N2 candidate vaccines showed different results, with a potential need for a two-dose schedule. Indeed, hemagglutination inhibition titers did not reach protective levels after a single vaccine dose but could be met following administration of a second dose. The same is true for Al-adjuvanted whole virus formulations with an up to eightfold-reduced antigen content. It may be concluded that the use of Al-adjuvanted whole virus vaccines with low HA content can raise protective antibody levels after two vaccine doses, which may, in turn, result in significant increases of vaccine supplies in the case of a pandemic.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH Terms:
Adjuvants, Immunologic
Adolescent
Adult
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control*
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Health Planning
Humans
Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype
Influenza A virus/classification
Influenza A virus/immunology
Influenza B virus/classification
Influenza B virus/immunology
Influenza Vaccines*/supply & distribution
Influenza, Human/drug therapy
Influenza, Human/epidemiology*
Influenza, Human/prevention & control*
Middle Aged

Substances:
Adjuvants, Immunologic
Antiviral Agents
Influenza Vaccines

PMID: 12458361 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 08:57:51 pm
http://www.influenzareport.com/ir/ai.htm

Antigenic shift, in contrast, denotes a sudden and profound change in antigenic determinants, i.e. a switch of H and/or N subtypes, within a single replication cycle. This occurs in a cell which is simultaneously infected by two or more influenza A viruses of different subtypes. Since the distribution of replicated viral genomic segments into budding virus progeny occurs independently from the subtype origin of each segment, replication-competent progeny carrying genetic information of different parental viruses (so-called reassortants) may spring up (Webster and Hulse 2004, WHO 2005). While the pandemic human influenza viruses of 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) clearly arose through reassortment between human and avian viruses, the influenza virus causing the 'Spanish flu' in 1918 appears to be entirely derived from an avian source (Belshe 2005).
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 09:01:46 pm
Germ Warfare

Robert Bud says we should remember the Asian flu epidemic of 1957 as a turning point in the history of antibiotics.


http://www.historytoday.com/MainArticle.aspx?m=31983&amid=30236374
History Today January 2007 | Volume: 57 Issue: 1 | Page 30-32 | Words: 2914 | Author: Bud, Robert

A fiftieth anniversary is an appropriate occasion to recall the first great influenza pandemic of the antibiotic age – one that caused more than a million deaths worldwide. The ‘Asian flu’ identified in China in February 1957 reached Britain that autumn, where it killed, directly and indirectly, more than 16,000 people, and possibly as many as 40,000.

More dangerous than the influenza itself was a secondary infection that caused a sometimes fatal pneumonia and confronted doctors with rich evidence of the growing resistance of bacteria to the hitherto triumphant penicillin. Even while the world was celebrating the miraculous discovery and deep impact of this new wonder drug and others like it, they were being used in ways that vitiated their effects by encouraging the breeding of resistant organisms.

To modern ears, the phrase ‘antibiotic age’ may sound archaic, but half a century ago it expressed some of the revolutionary hopes for the years after the Second World War. The writer Peter Vansittart would later recall in his autobiography In the Fifties (1995) that, along with Fascism, mass unemployment and (soon) colonialism, the threat from germs seemed to have been routed. Fear of infectious disease appeared a thing of the past. The plague epidemics of the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries, the outbreaks of cholera in the nineteenth century, even the influenza epidemic that followed the First World War, are part of Britain’s ‘island story’, but now pioneering sociologists of medicine reported that the enduring human experience of infectious disease had apparently been superseded. A major textbook of the day, Macfarlane Burnet’s Natural History of Infectious Disease (2nd edition, 1953), celebrated ‘the virtual elimination of infectious disease as a significant factor in social life’. These attitudes were underpinned by dramatic change in the doctor’s surgery: carbuncles were now easily treated with antibiotics, pneumonia could be cured within a few days, even tuberculosis was tamed.

Antibiotics have been credited with being the major factor in ending the risks consequent on infection. Penicillin, the first, was introduced during the Second World War. It was followed by the anti-tuberculosis drug streptomycin and then by a host of powerful and widely effective members of the ‘golden horde’ of tetracycline drugs. Through the 1950s other important families of antibiotics were quickly identified. It can be argued that too much importance was attributed to this one piece of new technology. In wealthier countries at least, social factors such as improved housing and nutrition were responsible for a long-term decline in the threat from diseases such as tuberculosis. Nonetheless, antibiotics complemented these factors, both by reducing the dangers of infection and by providing reassurance in the certainty of a cure.

With time, of course, such confidence came to seem facile. The 1980s witnessed the terror of AIDS, followed by ‘flesh-eating viruses’, CJD, SARS and avian flu. Bacteria resistant to antibiotic treatment came to infest hospitals and communities; the management of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), the latest fear, became a political issue in the 2005 general election, and policy-makers have openly discussed the implications of a ‘post-antibiotic’ age.

The dramatic shift in narrative from the post-war celebration of victory to fear of defeat in our own times might be compared to a Greek tragedy. Indeed, Aristotle’s defining characteristics of a ‘complex tragedy’ – the turning point (peripiteia) and the moment of the hero’s awareness (anagnoresis) – have their counterparts in this most modern of dramas. The 1957 epidemic can surely serve as the turning point, and the years since the mid-1990s be portrayed as the point of awareness by the general public.

The Asian flu proved highly infectious, one in six of the British population sharing the symptoms of a high fever, generally short lasting, and aching joints. More working time was lost to the illness in the first two weeks of October than to all the strikes in 1956. With miners laid low, production of coal fell by one-and-a-half million tons. The press reported that the infection was gripping schools and incapacitating naval vessels: in September, two ships and two submarines had to be excused from a major NATO exercise because their crews had fallen ill. According to The Times of October 8th, half the boys at Eton were sick.

Despite a brief high fever, with a temperature quickly topping 39ºC (102ºF), the symptoms were generally quite mild, and the treatment of aspirin, plenty to drink and bed rest usually proved effective. The British Medical Association discouraged advertisements that urged patients to call their doctor. A vaccine, given by two injections at a three-week interval, was available in limited quantities only, to such priority cases as medical and welfare staff. The Queen was given a course before visiting North America that year.

For a proportion of the epidemic’s victims – small as a percentage of the whole, but nonetheless large in actual numbers of people – the illness was far from trivial. The degree of suffering was much higher among the elderly, the infirm and the very young, and in many cases they succumbed, not to the influenza itself, but to pneumonia caused by a recently characterized bacterium resistant to all antibiotics, Staphylococcus aureus 80/81. This germ could produce an enzyme, penicillinase, that destroyed the penicillin molecule. Not just powerful against medicine, the bacterium was also virulent in its attack on humans.

Staphylococcal pneumonia proved fatal to more than a quarter of patients who contracted the infection, normally after entering hospital suffering from influenza. Its effects were rapid: within three days, the victims turned blue and asphyxiated. In America, childhood deaths from pneumonia had declined radically through the 1950s; now figures showed a brief upsurge. For those who wished to see, the fragility of the antibiotic age had been exposed.

Even before the flu epidemic, Staph. aureus had posed the major bacterial threat to the curative powers of antibiotics. The species had been named in 1884 to denote its golden colour and resemblance to a bunch of grapes. For all their attractive appearance and poetic name, the germs had long been recognized as a danger in hospitals. Indeed it was the effect of penicillium mould on a staph. culture that led Alexander Fleming to recognize the mould’s potential power and ultimately led to the isolation and use of penicillin.

At first, Staph. aureus was almost universally susceptible to penicillin. However, antibiotic-resistant strains of the bacterium took the place of those that could not much more quickly than was the case with other susceptible species – a bacteriologist at London’s Hammersmith Hospital noticed in 1948 that the character of a Staph. aureus population had shifted from predominantly susceptible to generally immune to penicillin within just two years. One immune strain of the bacterium in particular, Staph. aureus  80/81, spread rapidly in the 1950s to infect hospitals across the world.

Staph. aureus 80/81 did not just cause pneumonia in influenza sufferers, it also infected the skin of newborn children. At that time infants born in hospital were kept separate from their mothers in large crèches, within which infection spread easily. About one in ten contracted a skin infection, usually very slight, which they then passed on to the breasts of their nursing mothers. The number could be higher: a South Wales hospital reported that one in six of its newborn infants suffered from some skin infection or conjunctivitis. The wounds of surgical patients, protected by bandages that needed frequent changing, could also be infected. A 1958 American conference was told that between 5 and 9 per cent of clean wounds would become infected with staphylococci.

The ‘antibiotic age’, while providing more tools for medicine, was putting more pressure on individual doctors and on facilities worldwide. A Swedish physician who addressed the British Medical Association in 1964 talked not just of the triumph of technology but also of a demand vastly exceeding supply of medical care. The results of this growth in demand were rushed doctors’ appointments or an ever higher turnover of patients through hospital beds. Antibiotics could be used effectively in response, as patients swiftly departed surgeries armed with a prescription or drugs were used to manage hospital infection. Poorly managed use, however, could lead to the natural selection of resistant strains that made the antibiotics sometimes ineffective.

The press became aware of the threat from Staph. aureus 80/81 in January 1958. The file of the Standing Medical Advisory Committee, now in the National Archives, is full of the press clippings assembled by civil servants at the time. On January 12th, following a report from the Public Health Laboratory Service, the Sunday Express gave high prominence to the closure of wards. Next day, the Daily Mail and Daily Telegraph both dealt with the threat of staphylococci, while the Daily Herald spoke of a ‘Mystery Germ X’. On January 21st, more soberly but with the same theme, the Standing Medical Advisory Committee warned about the dangerous spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

These bacteria were clearly not just a British problem. In October 1958, the US Surgeon General told a public health conference that ‘every man and woman here knows that the stakes in this national problem are truly awful.’ He also acknowledged that British scientists were among the world leaders in identifying and managing the threat. At the Central Public Health Laboratory in Colindale, north London, a widely used technique for identifying bacteria had been devised during and after the war. Robert Williams, director of Colindale’s streptococcus, staphylococcus and air hygiene laboratory, was at the centre of an international network of analysts supported by the World Health Organization.

The analysts came to the same conclusion. In the antibiotic age, standards of cleanliness had been allowed to slip. This was a salutary lesson. In 1963 the Royal Society of Health organized a conference entitled ‘The Prevention of Hospital Infection’. Mrs D. Sissons, nursing tutor at the Royal Liverpool Children’s Hospital, suggested that nurses

should not be afraid to go to a houseman and say, ‘What are you doing with that mask half hanging off? Why are you walking over to outpatients with theatre clothes on? Are doctors sterile and nurses not?’ People would say they were old dragons, but she herself was proud of being one. Was it not clear to everyone, professional and lay, that they had a patient’s life in their hands, and that strict discipline should be restored? Absolute authority should be given to the matron or medical superintendent, not to a lay person.

Mrs Sisson’s message went down well. Dr Jackson of Ashton under Lyme complained: 

The level of infection in the ward had gone up because the beds were never cooled, the wards were never properly cleaned, and the time was reached three times in a year when that exploded – there was widespread infection and the place had to be closed ... Hospitals now were composed of sergeant-majors and very few leaders, and they should go back to the people who were really intimately concerned with the question of ward infection.

But if the 1957 flu crisis dealt a clear warning to public health specialists that antibiotics by themselves could not protect against widespread infection, the public remained unaware that a turning point had been reached. A study of the American press conducted forty years later for the Office of Technology Assessment highlights the public’s continuing faith in antibiotics in the 1950s. While the threats of Staph. Aureus 80/81 provoked professional disquiet, the general press coverage was neither political nor outraged, presenting the epidemic of virulent and resistant Staph. aureus not as a political problem, but as a professional challenge. To use the expression of John Sheehan, a leading antibiotics chemist, if bacteria could be ‘wily’, so could chemists.

Coincidentally, just as the 1957 influenza pandemic was beginning, chemists working for the Beecham Company had discovered how to brew the ‘trunk’ of penicillin on to which they could attach branches to produce novel antibiotics. Within three years they went from scientific to medical breakthrough, and in 1960 Beecham launched methicillin, whose structure made it immune to the destructive enzyme produced by Staph. aureus 80/81. Methicillin seemed to demonstrate that chemists could outsmart bacteria.

The benefits of the new drug could be dramatic. When Elizabeth Taylor contracted staphylococcal pneumonia on the movie set of Cleopatra, methicillin saved her. Nonetheless, the decline of the Staph. aureus 80/81 threat was not entirely due to the deployment of a single medicine; it was perhaps fading in any case. Moreover, it took just two years, from the drug’s launch, for the dangers of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) to become very apparent, after the death of an infected child at the Queen Mary’s Children’s Hospital in Roehampton.

This death from MRSA in 1962 coincided with the emergence of a new questioning of authority that would have an ironic consequence for the control of antibiotic use. That same year the British physician Maurice Pappworth issued a warning that the public were being used as unwitting ‘human guinea pigs’ in medical experimentation, and the scandal of the foetal abnormalities caused by the drug thalidomide became widely publicized. New anxieties spurred the foundation of the Patients’ Association and the early signs that the public was growing more sceptical of the goodwill of the medical profession and indeed of the drug companies.

This increased scepticism did not, however, temper the demand for drugs and medical treatment. It seems instead to have made doctors more cautious about resisting the expectations they believed patients brought into the surgery – of an antibiotic prescription on the way out. Whatever patients actually wanted (a complex question in itself), many doctors felt it necessary to earn trust by giving an antibiotic prescription.

MRSA and other threatening bacteria such as the antibiotic-resistant pneumococcus did not become widespread until the 1980s. In the intervening years, the anxieties of an earlier age had been forgotten, but confidence in the power of technology to beat bacteria had also declined. After a brief, and often unrewarding, enthusiasm for the promise of genomics and of robots in finding new and potent agents, the development of new antibiotics attracted rather less commitment from the pharmaceutical companies than half a century earlier. The late 1990s did, however, see intense anxiety about excessive use of antibiotics, with much greater emphasis being put on the management of antibiotic use. New forms of collaboration between doctor and patient were explored, by which patients themselves shared the decision if and how to medicate. Such attempts to alter contemporary experience remind us that we are living within, and consciously engineering, our own historical narratives. In reflecting on the experience of 1957 and the threat of Staph. aureus 80/81 we experience the turning point in the story of antibiotics, one of the iconic projects of the modern era. 
Robert Bud is the author of Penicillin: Triumph and Tragedy (Oxford University Press, 2007).
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: sociostudent on August 26, 2009, 09:28:09 pm

Sane, just ignore the PM I just sent you. This explains it.

Influenza A virus subtype H2N2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H2N2


H2N2 is a subtype of the species influenzavirus A (sometimes called bird flu virus). H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the Asian Flu strain (now extinct in the wild), H3N2, and various strains found in birds. It is also suspected of causing a human pandemic in 1889.[1][2]


[edit]
Russian flu
See Influenzavirus A subtype H1N1#Russian flu for the 1977-1978 Russian flu

Some believe that the 1889 - 1890 Russian flu was caused by the influenzavirus A virus subtype H2N2, but the evidence is not conclusive. It is the earliest flu pandemic for which detailed records are available.[3] "The 1889 pandemic, known as the Russian Flu, began in Russia and spread rapidly throughout Europe. It reached North America in December 1889 and spread to Latin America and Asia in February 1890. About 1 million people died in this pandemic."[4]

[edit]
Asian flu

The "Asian Flu" was a category 2 flu pandemic outbreak of avian influenza that originated in China in early 1956 lasting until 1958. It originated from mutation in wild ducks combining with a pre-existing human strain.[5] The virus was first identified in Guizhou.[6] It spread to Singapore in February 1957[7], reached Hong Kong by April, and US by June. Death toll in the US was approximately 69,800.[5] Estimates of worldwide deaths caused by this pandemic varies widely depending on source; ranging from 1 million to 4 million, with WHO settling on "about 2 million".

Asian Flu was of the H2N2 subtype (a notation that refers to the configuration of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins in the virus) of type A influenza, and an influenza vaccine was developed in 1957 to contain its outbreak.

The Asian Flu strain later evolved via antigenic shift into H3N2 which caused a milder pandemic from 1968 to 1969.[8]

Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) clearly arose through reassortment between human and avian viruses, the influenza virus causing the 'Spanish flu' in 1918 appears to be entirely derived from an avian source (Belshe 2005)." [9]

[edit]
Test kits

From October 2004 to February 2005, approximately 3,700 test kits of the 1957 H2N2 virus were accidentally spread around the world from the College of American Pathologists (CAP). CAP assists laboratories in accuracy by providing unidentified samples of viruses; private contractor Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, U.S., chose the 1957 strand instead of one of the less deadly avian influenza virus subtypes. "CAP spokesman Dr. Jared Schwartz said Meridian knew what the virus was but believed it was safe. In selecting it, the company had determined that the virus was classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) agent, which meant it could legally be used in the kits. [...] Before the problem came to light, the CDC had made a recommendation that the H2N2 virus be reclassified as a BSL-3 agent, Gerberding said. She promised to speed up the reclassification. The CDC determines the classifications in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health. In BSL-3 labs, agents are handled with equipment designed to prevent any airborne contamination and resulting respiratory exposure."[10] The 1957 H2N2 virus is considered deadly and the U.S. government called for the vials containing the strain to be destroyed.

"CDC officials reported on 21 April that 99% of the samples had already been destroyed. News reports on 25 April said the last samples outside the United States had been destroyed at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, after they were found at the Beirut airport. Earlier reports said H2N2 samples were sent to 3,747 labs under CAP auspices and to about another 2,700 labs certified by other organizations. All but about 75 labs that received the CAP samples were in the United States."[11]

"In the United States, there is no government regulation over the 1957 flu strain. In fact, federal officials at the CDC do not even know how many U.S. laboratories keep this deadly strain in their viral libraries."[12]


Umm....probably the same reason why we have over 36 level IV biolabs on U.S. soil right now.
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 10:54:08 pm
Sane, just ignore the PM I just sent you. This explains it.

Umm....probably the same reason why we have over 36 level IV biolabs on U.S. soil right now.

"In the United States, there is no government regulation over the 1957 flu strain. In fact, federal officials at the CDC do not even know how many U.S. laboratories keep this deadly strain in their viral libraries."

Influenza A virus subtype H2N2
http://www.reference.com/browse/Asian_flu?jss=0

H2N2 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the Asian Flu strain (now extinct in the wild), H3N2, and various strains found in birds. It is also suspected of causing a human pandemic in 1889.
Russian flu
See Influenza A virus subtype H1N1#Russian flu for the 1977-1978 Russian flu
Some believe that the 1889 - 1890 Russian flu was caused by influenza A virus subtype H2N2, but the evidence is not conclusive. It is the earliest flu pandemic for which detailed records are available. In 1889 it "began in Russia and spread rapidly throughout Europe. It reached North America in December 1889 and spread to Latin America and Asia in February 1890. About 1 million people died in this pandemic.
Asian flu
The "Asian Flu" was a category 2 flu pandemic outbreak of avian influenza that originated in China in early 1956 lasting until 1958. It originated from mutation in wild ducks combining with a pre-existing human strain. The virus was first identified in Guizhou. It spread to Singapore in February 1957, reached Hong Kong by April, and US by June. Death toll in the US was approximately 69,800. Estimates of worldwide infection rate varies widely depending on source, ranging from 1 million to 4 million.

Asian Flu was of the H2N2 strain (a notation that refers to the configuration of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins in the virus) of type A influenza, and a influenza vaccine was developed in 1957 to contain its outbreak.

The Asian Flu strain later evolved via antigenic shift into H3N2 which caused a milder pandemic from 1968 to 1969.

Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained Avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) clearly arose through reassortment between human and avian viruses, the influenza virus causing the 'Spanish flu' in 1918 appears to be entirely derived from an avian source (Belshe 2005)."
Test kits
From October 2004 to February 2005, some 3,700 test kits of the 1957 H2N2 virus were accidentally spread around the world from the College of American Pathologists (CAP). CAP assists laboratories in accuracy by providing unidentified samples of viruses; private contractor Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, U.S., chose the 1957 strand instead of one of the less deadly avian influenza virus subtypes. "CAP spokesman Dr. Jared Schwartz said Meridian knew what the virus was but believed it was safe. In selecting it, the company had determined that the virus was classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) agent, which meant it could legally be used in the kits. [...] Before the problem came to light, the CDC had made a recommendation that the H2N2 virus be reclassified as a BSL-3 agent, Gerberding said. She promised to speed up the reclassification. The CDC determines the classifications in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health. In BSL-3 labs, agents are handled with equipment designed to prevent any airborne contamination and resulting respiratory exposure. The 1957 H2N2 virus is considered deadly and the U.S. government called for the vials containing the strain to be destroyed.

"CDC officials reported on April 21 that 99% of the samples had already been destroyed. News reports on April 25 said the last samples outside the United States had been destroyed at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, after they were found at the Beirut airport. Earlier reports said H2N2 samples were sent to 3,747 labs under CAP auspices and to about another 2,700 labs certified by other organizations. All but about 75 labs that received the CAP samples were in the United States.

"In the United States, there is no government regulation over the 1957 flu strain. In fact, federal officials at the CDC do not even know how many U.S. laboratories keep this deadly strain in their viral libraries.
Sources
Further reading

Pandemic preparedness: lessons learnt from H2N2 and H9N2 candidate vaccines
Interim CDC-NIH Recommendation for Raising the Biosafety Level for Laboratory Work Involving Noncontemporary Human Influenza Viruses
New Scientist: Bird Flu
Pandemic-causing 'Asian flu' accidentally released
Persistence of Q strain of H2N2 influenza virus in avian species: antigenic, biological and genetic analysis of avian and human H2N2 viruses
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 10:55:32 pm
H2N2
http://www.lumrix.net/medical/pandemics/h2n2.html


H2N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus(bird flu virus). H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the Asian Flu strain (now extinct in the wild), H3N2, and various strains found in birds.

It is suspected of causing a human pandemic in 1889. [1][2] Inhaltsverzeichnis
1 Asian flu
2 Test kits
3 Sources
4 Further reading


Asian flu

The "Asian Flu" was a pandemicoutbreak of avian influenzathat originated in Chinain 1957and spread worldwide that same year, lasting until 1958. Estimates of worldwide casualty numbers vary widely, ranging from one million to four million people.

Asian Flu was of the H2N2 strain (a notation that refers to the configuration of the hemagglutininand neuraminidaseproteinsin the virus) of type A influenza, and a flu vaccinewas developed in 1957to contain its outbreak.

The Asian Flu strain later evolved via antigenic shiftinto H3N2which caused a milder pandemic from 1968to 1969.
Test kits

From October 2004to February 2005, some 3,700 test kits of the 1957H2N2 virus were accidentally spread around the world from the College of American Pathologists(CAP). CAP assists laboratories in accuracy by providing unidentified samples of viruses; private contractor Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, U.S., chose the 1957strand instead of one of the less deadly avian influenza virussubtypes. "CAP spokesman Dr. Jared Schwartz said Meridian knew what the virus was but believed it was safe. In selecting it, the company had determined that the virus was classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) agent, which meant it could legally be used in the kits. [...] Before the problem came to light, the CDChad made a recommendation that the H2N2 virus be reclassified as a BSL-3 agent, Gerberding said. She promised to speed up the reclassification. The CDC determines the classifications in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health. In BSL-3 labs, agents are handled with equipment designed to prevent any airborne contamination and resulting respiratory exposure." [3]The 1957H2N2 virus is considered deadly and the U.S. government called for the vials containing the strain to be destroyed.

"CDCofficials reported on April 21that 99% of the samples had already been destroyed. News reports on April 25said the last samples outside the United Stateshad been destroyed at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, after they were found at the Beirut airport. Earlier reports said H2N2 samples were sent to 3,747 labs under CAP auspices and to about another 2,700 labs certified by other organizations. All but about 75 labs that received the CAP samples were in the United States." [4]

"In the United States, there is no government regulation over the 1957flu strain. In fact, federal officials at the CDCdo not even know how many U.S. laboratories keep this deadly strain in their viral libraries." [5]
Sources
New Scientist: Bird Flu
Pandemic-causing 'Asian flu' accidentally released
Asian Lab Opens 'Accidental' Parcel With Deadly Flu
Persistence of Q strain of H2N2 influenza virus in avian species: antigenic, biological and genetic analysis of avian and human H2N2 viruses
Further reading
Pandemic preparedness: lessons learnt from H2N2 and H9N2 candidate vaccines
Interim CDC-NIH Recommendation for Raising the Biosafety Level for Laboratory Work Involving Noncontemporary Human Influenza Virusesde:Asiatische Grippe

es:Gripe asiática nl:Aziatische griep pt:Gripe asiática sv:asiaten zh:????
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/H2N2"

Categories: Influenza| Pandemics
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 10:57:31 pm
Article: ASIAN FLU SENT THOUSANDS HOME FROM SCHOOL IN 1957.(EDITORIAL)
Article from:The Kentucky Post (Covington, KY) Article date:August 25, 1997 Copyright
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-67850655.html

Byline: Jim Reis

The school year in 1957 - 40 years ago - began like any other with last-minute registrations, new school buildings and ''back to school'' sales. Within a month, however, school doors closed and thousands of children found themselves back at home.

The culprit was Asian flu.

A flurry of construction work preceded the start of the 1957 school year. Among the new school buildings either built, renovated or nearly completed were Ninth District in Latonia, Arnold Elementary in Newport, St. Pius in Edgewood, St. Ann in Covington, Mary Queen of Heaven in Boone County and Mary A. Goetz in Ludlow.
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 10:57:57 pm
Article: Coping with the Asian flu: with no cure in sight our industry can only hope the malaise is not fatal.(Asian financial crisis)
Article from:Industrial Distribution Article date:July 1, 1999 Author: Copyright
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-55367502.html

With no cure in sight our industry can only hope the malaise is not fatal

Despite what you might read in the financial pages, the Asian flu isn't letting up and continues to affect the U.S. economy in a significant way. Last year, when the crisis first hit home, the American public was treated to an earful of publicity and fanfare regarding an overseas crisis nicknamed the "Asian flu."

Regardless of widespread coverage of failing hedge funds, rampant currency revaluations, and an emerging gray market of goods returning from overseas unsold, I don't think anyone saw the impact that the Asian flu was having on the U.S. - except for those companies ..
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 10:58:45 pm
AP Interview: WHO flu chief: World still ‘relatively early’ in swine flu pandemic
Bureau News
July 24th, 2009
http://blog.taragana.com/n/ap-interview-who-flu-chief-world-still-relatively-early-in-swine-flu-pandemic-119531/
AP Interview: Flu chief: Pandemic in early stages

GENEVA — The global swine flu epidemic is still in its early stages, even though reports of over 100,000 infections in England alone last week are plausible, the World Health Organization’s flu chief said Friday,


Keiji Fukuda, WHO’s Assistant Director-General for Health Security and Environment, told The Associated Press that given the size of the world’s population, the new H1N1 virus is likely to spread for some time.

WHO earlier estimated that as many as 2 billion people could become infected over the next two years — nearly one-third of the world population.

“Even if we have hundreds of thousands of cases or a few millions of cases … we’re relatively early in the pandemic,” Fukuda said in an interview at WHO’s headquarters in Geneva.

The global health agency stopped asking governments to report new cases last week, saying the effort was too great now that the disease has become so widespread in some countries.

Authorities in Britain say there were over 100,000 infections in England alone last week, while U.S. health officials estimate the United States has passed the 1 million case mark. Those figures dwarf WHO’s tally of 130,000 confirmed cases worldwide since the start of the outbreak last spring.

“We know that the total number of laboratory-confirmed cases is really only a subset of the total number of cases,” Fukuda said.

Fukuda, the former chief of epidemiology at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC, also said there must be no doubt over the safety of swine flu vaccines before they are given to the public.

Health officials and drug makers are looking into ways of speeding up the production of the vaccine before the northern hemisphere enters its flu season in the fall.

The first vaccines are expected in September and October, said Fukuda. Other vaccines will take until December or January before they are released onto the market — well into flu season when a further dramatic rise in swine flu cases is predicted.

“Everybody involved with the vaccine work, from manufacturers up to the regulatory agencies, are looking at what steps can be taken to make the process as streamlined as possible,” Fukuda said. “One of the things which cannot be compromised is the safety of vaccines.”

The search for an effective inoculation has taken on a new urgency as WHO announced that almost 800 people have died from the disease in the past four months. This is more than the H5N1 bird flu strain has killed in six years.

The CDC said Friday that — based on the experience of the 1957 flu pandemic — the number of Americans dying from swine flu over the next two years could range from 90,000 to several hundred thousand. That projection would drop if the vaccine campaign and other measures are successful, U.S. health officials said.

One question that scientists and health officials disagree on is whether pregnant women should be among the first to receive a vaccine — after health workers, who make up about 1-2 percent of the world population and are considered indispensable.

A report by WHO experts found that pregnant women appear to be “at increased risk for severe disease, potentially resulting in spontaneous abortion and/or death, especially during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.”

Several women and their children have died in recent weeks, though obesity may have played a role in some of the deaths, the report says.

“Pregnant women have emerged as one of the groups that we are concerned about as being at higher risk than other people in terms of having the possibility of developing severe illness,” said Fukuda.

But right now, WHO is holding back on recommending that pregnant women receive priority vaccinations. And the agency is not commenting on the contentious suggestion by British and Swiss health officials that women should consider delaying pregnancy if they can.

“WHO certainly has no recommendations on whether women should try to have children” now, Fukuda said.

The agency has been working hard to ensure that poor countries receive vaccines too, despite rich nations having pre-ordered most of the available stock. A WHO spokesman said Friday that two drug makers have pledged to donate 150 million doses of vaccine to poorer countries by the end of October.

“We’re working with a range of partners to secure more vaccine for developing countries,” WHO’s Gregory Hartl said.

Fukuda, who is effectively in charge of WHO’s pandemic response until mid-August while the agency’s Hong Kong-born Director-General Margaret Chan is on home leave, also addressed the possibility that the virus might mutate and become resistant to anti-viral drugs such as Tamiflu.

Four separate Tamiflu-resistant cases have been reported recently from Denmark, Japan, Hong Kong and Canada.

“We haven’t seen widespread emergence of resistance to the drug right now,” Fukuda said, but added “this is something we’re watching very carefully.”

It is inevitable that over a long enough period of time the swine flu virus will mutate, he said.

“Unfortunately we can’t predict in what direction,” he said.

____

Associated Press Writer Bradley S. Klapper in Geneva and Mike Stobbe in Atlanta contributed to this report.
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 11:02:37 pm
HELLO MCFLY!

HELLO!

MCFLY!!!!


FROM 2005

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Scientists hunt thousands of vials of deadly flu virus sent across world

Strain not seen since 1957 could pose danger to laboratory staff
http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2005/apr/14/health.science
Sarah Boseley, Luke Harding and Suzanne Goldenberg
The Guardian, Thursday 14 April 2005 09.24 BST

Scientists in 18 countries are tracking down and destroying thousands of vials of a lethal virus which, if it escaped, could trigger the long-feared global flu pandemic, the World Health Organisation said yesterday.

The samples of virus H2N2, which caused 4 million deaths in the 1957 flu pandemic, were sent to more than 3,700 laboratories by a leading American medical institution several months ago.

Yesterday, it emerged that the potentially deadly distribution was discovered only through a combination of luck and human error at a laboratory in Vancouver, Canada. The original mistake was made in October last year in Northfield, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, home to the headquarters of the College of American Pathologists.

The college sends out standardised flu testing kits to labs around the world, each containing vials of different strains of flu virus to enable technicians to ensure that their own testing equipment and reagents are working properly. This time included with the modern strains of flu virus was the killer Asian flu known as H2N2.

The virus went to Bermuda, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Mexico, the Korean Republic, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Taiwan and labs in the US.

In Vancouver, British Columbia, technicians ran a sample from the panel containing H2N2 under the same flume hood as a sample from a patient - a practice that would not be allowed in many laboratories because of the risk of contamination, Frank Plummer, director of the National Microbiological Laboratory said.

The patient sample became contaminated. "The panel sample has very very high level of virus," Canada's chief public health officer, David Butler-Jones, said. "There was enough that it gave a low-level positive result in the patient sample."

Mr Plummer went on to reveal that the patient in Vancouver was not suffering flu symptoms, and the test was administered as a matter of routine. The sample then was forwarded to the national laboratory - again a matter of pure chance as regional facilities generally send only 25% of their samples for the more detailed analysis capable of identifying the flu strain as the deadly H2N2. "There is certainly a kind of irony here," Mr Plummer said yesterday, "but it is a happy sort of error."

The result - indicating the presence of H2N2 in a human for the first time in nearly 40 years - triggered an investigation. The patient was retested and found not to have H2N2, and the source of the contamination was traced to the panel on March 26.

Klaus Stohr, who heads the World Health Organisation's influenza programme, said the virus could cause a global flu outbreak. "It was an unwise decision to send it out," he said.

Asian flu did its deadliest work in 1957, until populations began to develop immunity to it and vaccines were developed. The strain lingered until 1968, vanishing as the next pandemic arrived - Hong Kong flu, or H3N2.

This means that people born after 1968 have not developed immunity to H2N2.

John Oxford, a professor of virology at the Queen Mary School of Medicine in London, said this could pose a problem to the labs that received the testing kits: "You tend to give this kit to the youngest, most unqualified person because it is all very simple," he said. "That young person is the most susceptible. Anyone younger than 36 or 37 would have no immunity."

The WHO said there was no need to panic: "It is a risk, but it is considered low. It should not lead to a big scare," Dr Stohr said. Professor Oxford agreed, but said that if labs knew they were dealing with H2N2, they would treat it with greater respect than other strains. "It is a potential pandemic virus," he said. "If somewhere in the world it gets out, it will be on our doorstep tomorrow morning."

The kits were usually sent out in the ordinary mail, he added. "We are allowed to send viruses in the post as long as they are wrapped in absorbent paper."

Some labs may not have thought the arrival of H2N2 remarkable, he said. "Most labs would say, 'Oh yes, an old fashioned virus'. But at the cutting edge of influenza, there is already uncertainty about H2N2 and discussions about it and the feeling that it might turn into a pandemic and we should be careful."

There were two pieces of good news, he said: that this would make labs more careful of H2N2 and that the British government had stockpiled the drug Tamiflu, which works against this strain.

Canada may have been the first country to have realised the potential danger, because they are particularly on the alert and prepared for emerging diseases after the Sars outbreak. After the discovery, the Public Health Agency of Canada alerted the WHO, which instructed all laboratories to seek out and destroy all stocks of H2N2 received in testing kits from the American college.

Yesterday, the four European countries to have received the virus - Germany, France, Belgium and Italy - moved swiftly to destroy it. Health officials in Germany said the US company had supplied six laboratories with the virus in the states of Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg and Rheinland-Palatinate. The labs destroyed the samples yesterday, officials said, after a directive from the country's health ministry.

Susanne Glassmacher, a spokeswoman for the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin, said: "The risk for the general population is very slight. The labs that got the H2N2 virus are used to dealing with dangerous virus samples. These are experienced diagnostic laboratories and they don't always know what they are getting. They are always pretty careful."

According to health officials in Europe, the laboratories had been expecting to receive the far more common strain of modern flu virus H3N2. It was not clear last night whether the laboratories were aware before the alert was issued that the samples contained the far more dangerous 1957 H2N2 strain.

According to the WHO, four countries had destroyed all their stocks - Canada, Hong Kong, Singapore and Korea, while Taiwan was moving quickly. In America, where the bulk of the virus samples were sent, Julie Geberding, director of the Centres for Disease Control, said most laboratories had destroyed their samples.
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 11:05:11 pm
WTF COUNTRY DO WE LIVE IN?

RUSSIAN NUKE SHIP MISSING?

ANYONE HAVE A "Get out of Armaggedon free"  letter for this planned false flag?

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


1957 letter for "designated key personnel" to escape mass destruction
http://www.boingboing.net/2008/12/05/1957-letter-for-desi.html
Posted by Mark Frauenfelder, December 5, 2008 11:56 AM | permalink



John Ptak, dealer in rare science books says:
This letter, written in 1957 by Colonel Leslie S. Moore of the U.S. Biological Weapons Program at Fort Detrick, Maryland, to a member (whose name I've removed) of the A.S. "(Atmospheric Sciences") division, was basically a get-out-of-hell-free card for its bearer in the case of devastating nuclear attack.

"In the event of a mass destruction attack on Fort Detrick with the resulting loss of Biological Warfare physical facilities, it is anticipated that it will be necessary to re-establish the BW activities at some other location."

"In order to accomplish this in the most expeditious manner, the availability of certain designated personnel...is deemed essential."

The "letter serves as notification that you have been selected as a member of this group which is to be evacuated" to get the biological weapons program up and running again. As you can read in the clickable version of the document, there are directions about what top do and when to do it. There is no mention of family. My read is that this is Endgame stuff, end of civilization as we know it, and that this was the Darwinian sweep of necessary people. Or is it Dr. Strangeloveian? I get the two confused.

Suffice to say that Fort Detrick, which had been established in 1943 (constructing and delivering anthrax bombs by 1944) as Camp Detrick, already had a fairly full career before it was up-named to "Fort" in 1956. It was the recognized home/collecting node for the American Chemical and Biological Weapons programs until Richard Nixon, of all people, disbanded that capacity at Detrick in 1969.
Read the rest at John's blog.

Two Minutes to Doomsday: "Get out of Hell Free" Card, 1957. Armageddon and All That...
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Unintelligable Name on August 26, 2009, 11:05:32 pm
They're constantly losing virus samples, and constantly putting it in the news...

What gives...

Definately trying to convince us we live in an unstable and volitile world.
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 11:07:53 pm
They're constantly losing virus samples, and constantly putting it in the news...

What gives...

just keep an eye on H2N2 reports.

But not for nothing, please show me another report like this:

"Scientists in 18 countries are tracking down and destroying thousands of vials of a lethal virus which, if it escaped, could trigger the long-feared global flu pandemic, the World Health Organisation said yesterday.  The samples of virus H2N2, which caused 4 million deaths in the 1957 flu pandemic, were sent to more than 3,700 laboratories by a leading American medical institution several months ago."


AND

"In the United States, there is no government regulation over the 1957 flu strain. In fact, federal officials at the CDC do not even know how many U.S. laboratories keep this deadly strain in their viral libraries."

concerning such a deadly strain.
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: codemonkey70 on August 26, 2009, 11:12:05 pm
BEEP BEEP!!! ALERT ALERT!!!Information Overload via Sane posting.  :D

Seriously though, this is priceless information. Good job gathering all of this info!!! There are so many twists and turns in this "flu" business its kinda hard to keep it all sorted out.

Like Chemicalrain I also wonder what the deal is with the leakage of information on this. is it truly to keep folks on edge, or is it  to desensitize folks to it??
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Dig on August 26, 2009, 11:21:24 pm
BEEP BEEP!!! ALERT ALERT!!!Information Overload via Sane posting.  :D

Seriously though, this is priceless information. Good job gathering all of this info!!! There are so many twists and turns in this "flu" business its kinda hard to keep it all sorted out.

Like Chemicalrain I also wonder what the deal is with the leakage of information on this. is it truly to keep folks on edge, or is it  to desensitize folks to it??

there i no leakage of info, i had to research this shit, then after sociostudent pointed out something i missed i researched more.


these are a gathering of many different articles over a 20 year span. i just put it together in this thread. they are not talking about h2n2 publicly.

they keep saying h1n1 of h5 or h3.

but h2n2 is the fricking killer and it seems to be so easily distributed via "mixups" and "chemtrailing" and "4,000 vials accidently shipped" and "exploding packages", etc.

4 million people died of it AND IT MOSTLY KILLED CHILDREN!!!!!! [notice how children are the first to get the vaccine?]


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Watch this to see one possible way to distribute it.

I would guess Battelle would be involved:

It took me forever to get it online. So please repost everywhere. Watch download and burn.
Thanks.


Lisa


http://www.megavideo.com/?v=J7JXPTGY

http://www.zshare.net/video/6110874965647f6e/

http://thepiratebay.org/torrent/5060030/Toxic_Skies_(2008)_-_Eng

The megavideo is still converting its on the site but taking forever.
The zshare is working now to watch and download.
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: Dig on August 27, 2009, 11:41:35 am
Bio-ILLogical 'Mistake'  Shipment Of H2N2  More Suspicious
http://www.clickitnews.com/ubbthreads/postlist.php?Cat=&Board=emergingdiseases
From Patricia Doyle, PhD
[email protected]
4-16-5

 Hello, Jeff - I have been monitoring every medical and news site as well as CDC, WHO, American College of Pathologists, and Meridian Bioscience etc to see what those involved in the "mistake" intend to do. Namely, wouldn't you think that execs over at Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, OH would want heads to roll and those involved to be fired? No comment from Meridian - and their executives are alllegedly 'traveling' and cannot be reached for comment? In this day and age of cell phones?
 
I don't believe for one minute that the 1957 A H2N2 Asian flu vials were sent by mistake. They knew.
 
When are we going to stop the sending of highly pathogenic agents via Fed Ex, UPS, DHL, etc? Aren't there medical transport services that handle BSL3/4 and other infectious samples? Employees at companies like Fed Ex, UPS, USPS, etc, have NO idea what is in the parcels they are handling. The public needs to demand this type of activity cease.
 
What about the alleged 'missing vials'? I don't believe that bunk, either. Did FedEx, UPS, DHL, etc ALL suddenly stop using TRACKING NUMBERS? If I order a dress of article from overseas, I can always track that parcel. We can all do the same with parcels from US, as well. I know where my package is during every step of its journey. So, how can we say now, 5 months or so after the October mailing, that Lebanon and Mexico cannot find their samples? It's BS.
 
You bet this stuff is gone missing...and now that they all know what it is, it's even MORE likely to stay 'missing' - probably in the hands of rogue labs around the world.
 
This is one time we can honestly say our arrogance is coming back to us tenfold. Wait until Fall and people start getting sick - and dying - with this strain of flu.
 
And, as usual, no one will ever be held accountable...
 
Patty
 
Patricia A. Doyle, PhD
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: Dig on August 27, 2009, 11:45:04 am
2001: Slepushkin V A; Staber P D; Wang G; McCray P B; Davidson B L
http://www.biomedexperts.com/Abstract.bme/11273782/Infection_of_human_airway_epithelia_with_H1N1_H2N2_and_H3N2_influenza_A_virus_strains
Infection of human airway epithelia with H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza A virus strains.
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 2001;3(3):395-402.

Three subtypes of influenza A virus cause human disease: H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2. Although all result in respiratory illness, little is known about how these subtypes infect differentiated airway epithelia. Therefore, we assayed A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/Japan/305/57 (H2N2), and X31 (H3N2) influenza virus strains for binding and infection on fully differentiated primary cultures of airway epithelia isolated from human bronchus, grown on semiporous filters at an air-liquid interface. In this model system, viral infectivity was highest when virus was applied to the apical versus the basolateral surface; Japan was most infectious, followed by PR8. The X31 strain showed very low levels of infectivity. Confocal microscopy and fluorescence-resonance energy transfer studies indicated that Japan virus could enter and fuse with cellular membranes, while infection with X31 virions was greatly inhibited. Japan virus could also productively infect human trachea explant tissues. These data show that influenza viruses with SAalpha2,3Gal binding specificity, like Japan, productively infect differentiated human airway epithelia from the apical surface. These data are important to consider in the development of pseudotyped recombinant viral vectors for gene transfer to human airway epithelia for gene therapy.
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: Unintelligable Name on August 27, 2009, 11:46:00 am
http://www.infowars.com/us-air-force-study-proposed-2009-influenza-pandemic-in-1996/

"Technology could not solve some old problems, as in 2009, when an influenza pandemic struck in southern China, then rapidly spread worldwide.17 Three hundred-thirty million people were affected and over thirty million died.18 No one ever determined if the virus was a natural mutation or bioengineered.19 Many feared the latter."

http://www.fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2025/af/a-f-5.htm
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: Dig on August 27, 2009, 11:46:07 am
No honest investigation into accidental global release of Spanish Flu virus
http://www.NaturalNews.com/z008227_H2N2_influenza_Spanish_Flu.html
by Mike Adams, the Health Ranger, NaturalNews Editor Originally published June 4 2005

What if a terrorist acquired a deadly strain of influenza that had killed millions of people in the past? What if that terrorist were able to replicate that virus, obtain the names and addresses of organizations all around the world, and distribute it across the world? What if that became headline news, and everybody found out about it? You would think that law enforcement officials might be interested, right? You'd think that somebody would investigate how this deadly strain of influenza got shipped to all of these organizations around the world...

In reality, that's not what would happen at all. Such a hypothetical event actually occurred, except it wasn't a terrorist. It was a research company that claimed to have "accidentally" distributed all of these samples of the deadly H2N2 influenza strain, which is most famous for killing millions of people around the world in 1957. It was called the "Spanish Flu" at the time, although that name is not technically accurate.

This company took this deadly virus and replicated it, then put it in kits that were part of an everyday influenza identification testing kit. They overnighted these kits through postal mail or courier services to over 4,000 destinations around the world in many different countries. When this became headline news, however, nobody was interested in finding out whether this was a crime. Nobody thought, "Why is this happening?" Nobody raised the alarm and said, "You know what, this is a threat to human health." This is a deadly virus and people born after 1957 have no immunity whatsoever to this virus. This means you could re-release this old H2N2 influenza strain into today's population, and you could observe the same kill rate experienced back in 1957. You could see the same mess all over again with millions of people dying worldwide.

As if all of these viruses aren't dangerous enough on their own -- for example, Marburg in Angola and the bird flu virus in Southeast Asia -- we actually have companies replicating these deadly strains and distributing them, just to make sure that they're in everybody's labs all over the world.

It gets worse. Some of these shipments were lost. They don't even know where they are! They claim now that virtually all of these shipments have been destroyed, but how do we know? Even then, shouldn't somebody be held responsible for distributing this deadly virus? You could be charged with federal crimes if you were caught with this kind of material. If you sent it out to somebody, who knows how many years you'd do in prison for a stunt like that. In this country, we've been arresting people for putting white powder in envelopes and sending them to Congressmen, claiming it was anthrax. Anthrax doesn't even approach the kill rate of something like H2N2. And as far as I can see, nobody's really being held responsible for this.

This is not a minor issue. This is not "Oops, we just released a level-4 biological agent into the wild. We sent it to 4,000 destinations in over a dozen different countries, and we can't really find 10 percent of those any more. We don't know where they are, and nobody does." To me, this all sounds a little suspicious. If anybody else had pulled a stunt like this, they would have the FBI, the CDC, and the World Health Organization descending upon them instantly. This research company, however, appears to have undergone no such scrutiny. Where are the answers to the really important questions in this matter? How did they get their hands on H2N2? Shouldn't this be a controlled viral specimen? Aren't there restrictions on who has this stuff? Can anybody just order H2N2, H5N1, or any of the other influenza strains that have killed people over the years? Can we just go out and buy this stuff on the internet? Apparently, yes. That's what these people did. Over 4,000 customers bought this kit. They said, "Take my credit card and send me some level 4 biological agents."

It all just strikes me as a little bizarre. What if one of these vials broke open in the shipment? What if a FedEx driver broke one of these containers, contracted the virus, and it suddenly started replicating in that person? It could have been any courier, but what if they then came into contact with other people? Suddenly, you'd have a carrier, and the virus would be spreading. We would have the Spanish Flu all over again.

That scenario is not at all out of the realm of possibility, especially when the virus sample has been sent to 4,000 destinations. If you play the odds long enough, nature is going to clobber you. Nature will survive and viruses, of course, are not even living. A virus is just basically a pattern of DNA. It doesn't have to be alive to be dangerous. The fact that these were "dead" samples did not make it safer for all of us.

Here's another interesting fact in all of this. This deadly strain of influenza was only discovered accidentally by one of the labs that had received this shipment. It took some real detective work for them to figure out they had this deadly influenza strain in this kit. In other words, the research company that was sending these kits out wasn't even aware that they were doing it. They most likely would never have been aware of it if one of their customers hadn't alerted them. There was no mechanism in place to test these outgoing kits. There was no safety net. They could have been shipping these off to anybody, and it could have continued for years. Who knows how many samples would have been out there in the wild?

As a nation, we are frequently worried about the wrong things. For example, we're spending all this money on the fight against terrorists, and we're in Iraq fighting a war, and it seems like every decade we do it again. However, we've got people right here in the United States who are replicating these deadly strains of influenza and shipping them out into the wild. To me, that’s a much bigger threat than any terrorist, real or imagined. I don't mean to minimize the whole international situation, but if one virus like this gets out and the right person contracts it, you'd have a pandemic on your hands. You'd have an outbreak. And you can't fight a pandemic with bullets.

It wasn't too long ago that President Bush signed an order giving the government the right to quarantine air travelers who may be infected with things like the bird flu, or any other infectious disease. Here's the scenario: You've suddenly got H2N2 out in the wild, you've got Marburg going crazy over in Angola, you've got the bird flu virus all over in Korea right now, and you suddenly get people flying back to America exhibiting some upper respiratory symptoms. They get taken off the plane and quarantined, because they're a threat to everyone else in this country. If this gets any worse, or if H2N2 actually gets out into the wild and starts infecting people, we're going to have a lot of people quarantined. You'd better not get sick, because they're going to take you away. Seriously, that's what the order dictates. They're going to take you away and quarantine you for the good of everyone else in society.

I actually agree with that policy. I think that if you are in charge of the safety of a population, you have to make that kind of decision. You cannot let a pandemic just keep growing and spreading. If you're in charge of the CDC, or the World Health Organization, or the US Government, you have to quarantine people who appear to be a threat to public health. But what it means for us in terms of our freedoms is that they're being trampled on. Again, you'd better not get sick, since there are so many infectious disease agents out there now that people are getting increasingly paranoid. You could be pulled off of a plane, you could be pulled out of a line at some kind of a checkpoint, you could be quarantined, and you'd have no say about it. You wouldn't get an attorney, and you'd be quarantined by force. If you resist, you could quickly see firearms being pointed in your face. Gunpoint is the ultimate application of government willpower.

The Spanish Flu should have been over and done with in 1957. We shouldn't have to revisit it again. We've got enough dangerous stuff going around anyway. We've got superbugs in the hospitals. We've got people breeding superbugs in their own kitchens and bathrooms because they're using these antibacterial soaps that actually encourage the creation of resistant bacteria strains. We've got the bird flu virus now becoming a potentially serious threat. We've got Marburg over in Angola, which has a kill rate of anywhere from 90 to 98 percent, depending on how you work the math and which reports you believe. Hopefully, these illnesses will never show up over in North America, Australia, or Europe, but their existence is frightening enough. We don't have to be adding to it by doing nature's job of replicating these dangerous strains. Nature does that well enough on its own. It doesn't need our help.

Modern medicine: doing more harm than good
I want to drive home the point that our current medical research system in this country is absolutely insane. It has lost its mind even beyond the fact that researchers keep claiming they'll find cures for cancer if we only give them another couple of billion dollars. That's completely absurd, by the way. Aside from that fact, and the whole "cure con," as I call it, we have these organizations actually creating threats to our lives.

It's not just the pharmaceutical companies I'm talking about here, although their products are very dangerous for human health. (Let's face it, prescription drugs are killing twice as many Americans every year as the total number of Americans who died in the Vietnam War. This is a statistic from the Journal of the American Medical Association.) You've also got organized medicine killing three-quarters of a million people in the United States each year. That figure is from the "Death By Medicine" research document. In addition, you've got companies like this viral research lab blatantly increasing our risk. They're just rolling the dice, folks. They're rolling the dice with your life on the line. Perhaps this time we'll get lucky. Perhaps they'll find all of these missing vials and destroy them. Even if they do, it's just a lucky narrow escape. If you keep betting against nature, if you keep pushing the odds, sooner or later they're going to come up snake eyes. Sooner or later, nature is going to find a way to make that virus replicate in the wild. We'll only have ourselves to blame.

Vaccines: a channel for spreading infectious disease?
This kind of behavior is a good demonstration of why I don't trust companies that are replicating and distributing these dangerous infectious agents. This is why I don't trust vaccine companies at all. I never get vaccinated, and I don't recommend vaccination for anybody. I think the science behind vaccinations is bad. The mercury content of vaccines is toxic. There is a clear link to autism in children, and I think that a lot of vaccines have been contaminated with various strains of infectious disease over the years. In fact, there's strong evidence that some of the outbreaks we've seen in North America in the past were actually caused by mass vaccination programs.

When you see incidents such as the "accidental" mass distribution of H2N2, it becomes all the more believable. These companies really don't know what they're doing. They don't have adequate safety measures in place. It's being operated like a fast food chain -- "Here's your order. Maybe it's everything you ordered, maybe not. Move on through the drive-thru, there are people behind you." This is the kind of attitude that obviously must be going on at these research labs. It's unacceptable, because we're playing with the lives of millions of people.

Some may say, "It's okay, because it was an accident. This company didn't mean to send that out. It was an accident." Do you think that excuse would fly with a terrorist? Do you think they would say, "Oh, I didn't mean to fly into that building. It was an accident!" Do you think that would be accepted? "We didn't mean to release sarin gas into the subway. That was a complete accident. We had no intention to do that." That excuse wouldn't be acceptable!

A complete lack of leadership and responsibility
It shouldn't matter who it came from. It doesn't matter what their intentions were. What matters is what effect they had. Whose lives did they put at risk through their actions and through their lack of responsibility? It's the same lack of responsibility that we see across modern medicine here in the United States, especially in the pharmaceutical industry and medical research institutions. There's a disturbing lack of responsibility, ethics, and basic understanding of human or animal rights. There's even a lack of recognizing the individuality of human beings. It appears they're living in another world, where they think their actions have no consequences. They think they can just do anything they want, ship out anything they want, and forget about quality control. These are all just various strains of infectious disease. Let's send them out anyway, and we'll worry about it later. That must be the attitude that's taking place. It can only be sloppy quality control and a frightening disregard for human life that allowed something like this to happen.

Personally, I think somebody needs to be nailed for this. Somebody should be held responsible, and we deserve an explanation of more than just saying, "It was an accident. Oops! We just sent out a deadly strain of influenza." I don't buy that. There is more to this story; there's a reason why this happened. There had to be a chain of mistakes all the way through the organization, a chain that could have been stopped by somebody speaking up, or somebody doing their job correctly, or somebody just doing the right thing. There wasn't a whistleblower here. So this situation happened, putting us all at risk. That is unacceptable. We should demand a better explanation than "oops!"

What's to stop them from doing it again? What's to stop another company from doing it? How do we know that other strains aren't being shipped out right now? H2N2 is only one strain among many. You've got H5N1 today, and you've got all kinds of influenza strains from the past, such as the 1929 flu, which was a huge killer. How do we know that these are being contained right now? How do we know that the institutions that claim to be researching these actually have safety measures in place? How do we know that? We don't really.

All we know is what the press tells us, which doesn't seem to be the whole story by any stretch of the imagination. Even if a deadly strain WERE accidentally released, and people were starting to get infected, you can bet the CDC and White House would force mainstream newspapers to keep the lid on the news. Why? They don't want to cause a panic. So even if this virus were in the wild right now, you couldn't count on the mainstream media to tell you the truth about it. Washington would be, "balancing truth with public safety," as they say. Or, perhaps, balancing truth with corporate profits.

Don't trust any "official" news on infectious disease. The official news is shaped to minimize panic and control the public, not to impart accurate information to individual citizens. And I'm willing to be we'll never get the true story about this global release of H2N2 by a lab that can only says, "Oops."

We got lucky this time. But when you're dealing with infectious disease, you can only thumb your nose at nature so many times.
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: Dig on August 27, 2009, 11:52:44 am
1: Avian Dis. 2007 Mar;51(1 Suppl):264-8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17494563
Adaptation of influenza A/Mallard/Potsdam/178-4/83 H2N2 virus in Japanese quail leads to infection and transmission in chickens.
Sorrell EM, Perez DR.

University of Maryland, College Park, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Medicine, 8075 Greenmead Drive, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

To assess the potential of quail as an intermediate host of avian influenza, we tested the influenza A/Mallard/ Potsdam/178-4/83 (H2N2) virus to determine whether through adaptation a mallard strain can replicate and transmit in quail, as well as other terrestrial birds. After five serial passages of lung homogenate a virus arose that replicated and transmitted directly to contact cage mates. To test whether adaptation in quail led to interspecies transmission, white leghorn chickens were infected with the wild-type (mall/178) and quail-adapted (qa-mall/178) viruses. The results show that mall/178 H2N2 does not establish an infection in chickens nor does it transmit, while qa-mall/178 H2N2 infects and transmits to contact chickens causing clinical signs like depression and diarrhea. Completed sequences indicate six amino acid changes spanning four genes, PB2, PB1, HA, and NP, suggesting that the internal genes play a role in host adaptation. Further adaptation of qa-mall/178 in white leghorn chickens created a virus that replicated more efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Sequence analysis of the chicken-adapted virus points to a deletion in the neuraminidase stalk region.

PMID: 17494563 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: Dig on August 27, 2009, 11:53:55 am
http://www.infowars.com/us-air-force-study-proposed-2009-influenza-pandemic-in-1996/

"Technology could not solve some old problems, as in 2009, when an influenza pandemic struck in southern China, then rapidly spread worldwide.17 Three hundred-thirty million people were affected and over thirty million died.18 No one ever determined if the virus was a natural mutation or bioengineered.19 Many feared the latter."

http://www.fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2025/af/a-f-5.htm

best thing about the image is the last two words for theevent of 2010.
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: Unintelligable Name on August 27, 2009, 11:56:40 am
best thing about the image is the last two words for theevent of 2010.

By itself, yeah. World Government cannot exist anyway, it's an absurdity. The NWO is on a mission destined to fail.
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: jofortruth on August 27, 2009, 12:26:09 pm
Slideshow on History of Pandemics:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/6822433/pandemics


See pg 24 on the 1918 flu - "people aged 20-40 were its victims rather than the old and weak. This remains a mystery up to this day! (Well, when something is manufactured, that would make for a mystery wouldn't it? Someone must start focusing on the EUGENICS side of these events. Since they write in their books all about how they use eugenics, this needs to be taken more seriously!)


So, didn't they say this current flu is that same demographic?  
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: Anti_Illuminati on August 27, 2009, 12:45:09 pm
I don't have time to copy and paste all of this, so I'll just provide the links (except for an abstract):

http://www.uniprot.org/citations/15380362

Lindstrom S.E., Cox N.J., Klimov A.

Phylogenic analysis of all gene segments of human H2N2 viruses isolated from 1957 to 1968 was undertaken to better understand the evolution of this virus subtype. Human H3N2 viruses isolated from 1968 to 1972 were also examined to investigate genetic events associated with their emergence in humans and to identify the putative H2N2 ancestral virus. All gene segments of human H2N2 viruses demonstrated divergent evolution into two distinct clades (I and II) among late H2N2 isolates. All gene segments of 1968 H3N2 viruses that were retained from human H2N2 viruses were most similar to clade I H2N2 genes. However, genes of both clades were found among H3N2 isolates of 1969-1971. Unique phylogenic topologies reflected multiple reassortment events among late H2N2 or H3N2 viruses that resulted in a variety of different genome constellations. These results suggest that H2N2 viruses continued to circulate after 1968 and that establishment of H3N2 viruses in humans was associated with multiple reassortment events that contributed to their genetic diversity.

http://lib.bioinfo.pl/auid:3206139

http://conventus.de/nmtemp/media/26249/virologie_abstract_ev.pdf

http://nmji.in/archives/Volume_19_2_March_April2006/selected_summaries/Human_flu.htm

http://www.cbcb.umd.edu/~niranjan/papers/NagarajanKingsfordBIBM08.pdf

http://www.cbcb.umd.edu/~niranjan/reassortment.shtml

http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19224

http://www.virologyj.com/content/6/1/69
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: RemixNinja on August 27, 2009, 01:04:51 pm
just keep an eye on H2N2 reports.



Setting a Google news alert right now.
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: jofortruth on August 27, 2009, 01:06:08 pm
Read this part of "Ecoscience" by Holdren:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/18940611/Eco-Science-Ten-Epidemics-and-Climate
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: RemixNinja on August 27, 2009, 01:15:14 pm
"In the United States, there is no government regulation over the 1957 flu strain. In fact, federal officials at the CDC do not even know how many U.S. laboratories keep this deadly strain in their viral libraries."


The above quote is one of the scariest things I have read on this board.  The government regulates or tries to regulate firearms, Internet, transportation, water, food, farming, drugs, gambling, families, et cetera, but it does not regulate the deadly H2N2?!?!
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: Dig on August 27, 2009, 01:15:31 pm
Read this part of "Ecoscience" by Holdren:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/18940611/Eco-Science-Ten-Epidemics-and-Climate

jo!

ecoscience is a coloring book!

MSNBC told me so!

Nothing to see here, move along...
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Anti_Illuminati on August 27, 2009, 01:34:58 pm
The above quote is one of the scariest things I have read on this board.  The government regulates or tries to regulate firearms, Internet, transportation, water, food, farming, drugs, gambling, families, et cetera, but it does not regulate the deadly H2N2?!?!

In Jay Rockefeller's world, the Internet is more deadly than H2N2 and the 1918 super flu, weaponized ebola, weaponized polio, weaponized smallpox, weaponized anthrax, and black holes that could potentially be generated at CERN.
Title: Re: Hey look, they are hiding this real killer manufactured flu - 1889 Russian flu
Post by: Unintelligable Name on August 27, 2009, 01:42:08 pm
In Jay Rockefeller's world, the Internet is more deadly than H2N2 and the 1918 super flu, weaponized ebola, weaponized polio, weaponized smallpox, weaponized anthrax, and black holes that could potentially be generated at CERN.

Today, tomorrow the deadliest thing in the world will be people without microchips, or private citizens with firearms.
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: angndon on August 27, 2009, 09:11:59 pm
Here are some interesting tidbits

First...remember when Indonesia was sending avian flu samples to WHO? (read below)

From 2005
http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/influenza/avianflu/news/may2705avflu.html
Indonesian pigs have avian flu virus; bird cases double in China
 In Indonesia, Chairul Nidom, a virologist at Airlangga University's tropical disease center in Surabaya, Java, was conducting independent research earlier this year. He tested the blood of 10 apparently healthy pigs housed near poultry farms in western Java where avian flu had broken out, Nature reported. Five of the pig samples contained the H5N1 virus.

The Indonesian government has since found similar results in the same region, Nature reported. Additional tests of 150 pigs outside the area were negative. However, the story said, lack of funding for surveillance and testing is a concern to Nidom, who said he has samples from 90 more pigs from Banten, but he can't afford to test them or to broaden his investigation.

"I think pigs pose a much greater threat of spreading the disease to humans than poultry," Nidom told Nature. Pigs are often described as a mixing vessel in which human and avian flu viruses can swap genetic information, which could lead to a hybrid virus with the ability to spread easily among people.


The Indonesian government sent a report to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) on May 23 that describes three surveys involving "purposive and pooled sampling" of pigs, with a total 187 samples.


If you remember....
Indonesia later stopped sending samples to WHO, but started back up again when a deal was struck between Indonesia and Baxter Pharmaceuticals. 

This means that Baxter's Avian flu samples likely already had the hybrid virus.
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: Unintelligable Name on August 27, 2009, 09:13:20 pm
Fits into the Airforce 'prediction.'

Run with it.
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: TahoeBlue on August 28, 2009, 01:12:17 pm
One of the outcomes (many years later) of the 1958 Influenza Epidemic was investigation of spikes in schizophrenia cases.... What I find interesting is that Tamiflu itself increases mental problems in children and there have been many recent studies conducted in the last few years of flu and Schizophrenia ...

Notice that some studies show NO such connection, while in the U.S. and Britain and Japan they DO.

http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/151/10/1496
Schizophrenia and prenatal exposure to the 1957 A2 influenza epidemic in Croatia

L Erlenmeyer-Kimling, Z Folnegovic, V Hrabak-Zerjavic, B Borcic, V Folnegovic- Smalc and E Susser
Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032.

The authors present data from the Republic of Croatia on schizophrenia rates in a birth cohort prenatally exposed to the 1957 A2 influenza epidemic and in comparison (unexposed) birth cohorts. The rate of schizophrenia did not differ significantly between the exposed and unexposed cohorts.

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0920996499000055
Prenatal exposure to the 1957 influenza pandemic and non-affective psychosis in The Netherlands
Schizophrenia Research, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 85-91 J.Selten

Abstract
Second-trimester exposure to the 1957 A2 influenza pandemic is a controversial risk factor for schizophrenia. Two earlier studies of the Dutch psychiatric registry failed to find an increased risk for exposed subjects, but diagnostic misclassification within the spectrum of non-affective psychoses has not yet been ruled out as an explanation for the negative findings. Using an enlarged data-set we examined not only whether second-trimester exposure to the epidemic is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia (ICD:295), but also whether it is associated with an increased risk of paranoid states (ICD:297) or other non-organic psychoses (ICD:298).

In this retrospective cohort study the risks of the above-mentioned disorders were compared for those exposed and unexposed to A2 influenza during the second trimester of fetal life. The risks for the exposed subjects were not significantly higher than the risks for the unexposed.

The power of the study to detect a significant increase in the risk of schizophrenia was sufficient. If the relative risk of a lifetime hospitalization for schizophrenia for second-trimester exposed subjects (born January–April 1958) is assumed to be 1.3, the power of the study would be 0.97 (alpha=0.05; one-tailed testing).

If the relative risk for subjects born five months after the peak of the epidemic (mid-February to mid-March 1958) is assumed to be 1.88, as reported for England and Wales, the power of the study would be close to 1.00. This was the largest study of its kind in Europe: 275 subjects were born in the period January–April 1958 and had a lifetime hospitalization for schizophrenia.

This study indicates that there is no relation between second-trimester exposure to the 1957 influenza pandemic and risk of non-affective psychosis in the Dutch population. It adds to a growing body of work which does not support an association between maternal influenza and schizophrenia.

http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/301/3/324

Contracting Schizophrenia - Lessons From the Influenza Epidemic of 1918-1919
Commentary by Stuart C. Yudofsky, MD  JAMA. 2009;301(3):324-326.
 Vol. 301 No. 3, January 21, 2009
...
In 1919, JAMA published a classic article by Karl A. Menninger on the association of influenza and psychoses in patients who were admitted to the Boston Psychopathic Hospital from September 15, 1918, through December 15, 1918, the apogee of this scourge in New England.2

Menninger's professional life was in transition in 1918 (as was the field of psychiatry in the era in which this paper was written): he was in the internship year between graduation from Harvard Medical School and founding the legendary Menninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas (with his father C. F. Menninger, MD). In this Classic, Menninger reported the clinical courses of 80 patients admitted to the psychiatric hospital with "mental disturbances" associated with influenza, of whom 16 were diagnosed with delirium, 25 with dementia praecox, 23 with "other types of psychosis," and 16 who were not able to be classified.2 It was the group of patients diagnosed with dementia praecox who captured Menninger's primary interest in this article2 and in others he published about this series of patients. In 1926, Menninger published a follow-up study of 50 patients diagnosed with dementia praecox (at Boston Psychopathic Hospital) after the 1918 influenza outbreak.3 To his surprise, 35 of these patients completely recovered within a 5-year follow-up period and 5 others showed improvement. He wrote, "The astonishing indication of these data is that the vast majority of cases regarded as ‘dementia praecox’ did not dement, but actually recovered," and concluded, "This would seem to indicate the need of new diagnostic criteria or new prognostic conceptions."3
...

Can Influenza "Cause" Schizophrenia? 

Although Menninger considered many avenues by which the Spanish Influenza of 1918 could lead to the development of dementia praecox, neither he nor any of his contemporary investigators raised the possibility that the influence of influenza on the etiology of schizophrenia could occur in utero.

Although this idea has been debated in the scientific literature, many studies have documented that schizophrenia occurs more frequently in children born in winter and early spring when viral infections are more prevalent.12 Among 25 investigations of the incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring of women who were thought to have contracted influenza during pregnancy, approximately 50% reported positive associations.13 Reliably documenting maternal influenza exposure in these studies has been challenging because viral exposure has been generally based on participants' self-reports of infection or on occurrences of influenza epidemics contemporaneous with their pregnancies. To counter this problem, Brown et al assayed for influenza antibodies in sera drawn from pregnant women whose children later developed schizophrenia, and compared these samples with ones from a matched control group of women whose children did not develop schizophrenia.14 The study population was derived from 170 cases judged to have schizophrenia or "schizophrenia spectrum disease" from a cohort of 12 094 live births enrolled in the California Child Health and Development Study.15

The results of the study by Brown et al14 revealed a dramatic 7-fold increase in the risk of schizophrenia among the offspring of women who were exposed to influenza during their first trimester of pregnancy. Further analysis suggested a 3-fold increase of risk in women who were exposed to influenza from the midpoints of their first and second trimesters.14

The finding that exposure to influenza during pregnancy may be an etiologic factor for schizophrenia may lead to new understanding of the pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of this devastating condition. For example, vaccinating women of childbearing age against influenza might help prevent some forms of schizophrenia. In carrying to fruition this remarkable line of research, the 90 years of progress in improving psychiatric diagnosis and classification since the original Menninger study2 have been as important as the advances in modern laboratory techniques used to assay the influenza antigens in the sera of the cohorts. It certainly seems reasonable to speculate that Kraepelin, Bleuler, and Karl Menninger would be excited by this progress and pleased with their seminal roles in the evolution of the diagnosis and classification of psychiatric disorders.


http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S000632239800359X
Schizophrenia and the influenza epidemics of 1957 in Japan
Biological Psychiatry, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 119-124
Y.Izumoto

Abstract
Background: We tested the hypothesis that the exposure to an influenza epidemic during the second trimester of gestation is associated with an increased risk of later development of schizophrenia.

Methods: There were three influenza epidemics (A/B mixed type, the first A2 type and the second A2 type) in 1957 in Kochi, Japan. We compared the risk of developing schizophrenia in birth cohorts exposed to these three influenza epidemics during gestation with that in birth cohorts not exposed. To identify subjects who had developed schizophrenia, we surveyed patients with schizophrenia who received medical care at all psychiatric institutions in Kochi prefecture.

Results: There is a pattern that schizophrenic births increase twice or more among female subjects who were exposed to each of three influenza epidemics in the fifth month of gestation. The increase in the female births exposed to the second A2 epidemic was significant (relative risk 2.86, 95% confidence interval 1.37–5.26). This pattern across the three epidemics was not observed in male subjects.

Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to an influenza epidemic during the second trimester increased the risk of later development of schizophrenia in female births.
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: Dig on August 28, 2009, 06:13:35 pm
Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic
http://www.infowars.com/personal-recollections-of-the-1957-h2n2-flu-pandemic/
JT Coyote
Infowars
August 28, 2009

The students in the farming community I grew up in were having a grade school “fair” in the fall of 1957. It was the beginning of fourth grade for me. We were setting up props for the weekend festivities, when parents and students would all attend. We were busy converting the 4 room school into a frontier town. It was all part of the run up to the Colorado statehood Centennial celebration and we chose an Old West theme. 1957 was the first year of school polio and smallpox shots, which we had all received a couple of weeks earlier. I remember that I wasn’t feeling well that day, but I didn’t want to miss the fun, yet by mid afternoon — let’s just say, I had to go home early that Friday.   
   
   
   Citizens line up for their vaccinations in the 1950s.
   


By Saturday morning I was running an incredible fever. I was in a constant state of vomiting and dry heaves, I couldn’t keep anything down, and for the longest time my only conscious moments were filled with fever, vomiting, and delirium. Within hours of one another, one by one, my brothers and sisters came down with the bug, though I have little conscious recollection of those first three days.

By Sunday my parents had also succumb. The only one who was still standing was my maternal grandmother, who while in her late teens, had survived the 1918 Spanish flu. Lucky for us she knew what to do and in her immunity, she nursed us all through the critical first few days of ordeal and the week of recovery. I also thank providence for the other two families that worked on the dairy farm. They had no grade school age children and were able to maintain the milking chores and other things necessary to keep the farm running. Yet within a week or two, one after another they all came down with flu as well. I know of people who were killed by this virus. There were some members of the Victory Grange, and the Tower Baptist Church, that we never saw again.

There must be a reason why the authorities are not talking about this strain of flu — primary obfuscation perhaps, by the weak red herring H1N1, that’s my gut feeling. I say this because when the story first broke in 2004/2005, about the 3000 or so H2N2 (1957) flu test kits that were “accidentally” mailed all over the world, it suddenly disappeared from the media. I repeat the word accidentally with a “don’t you believe it” advisory, (”nudge, nudge,- wink, wink, – know what I mean, known what I mean.”)

To quote the reference source: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H2N2>

“From October 2004 to February 2005, approximately 3,700 test kits of the 1957 H2N2 virus were accidentally spread around the world from the College of American Pathologists (CAP) <http://www.cap.org/apps/cap.portal>. CAP assists laboratories in accuracy by providing unidentified samples of viruses; private contractor Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, U.S., chose the 1957 strand instead of one of the less deadly avian influenza virus subtypes. “CAP spokesman Dr. Jared Schwartz said Meridian knew what the virus was but believed it was safe. In selecting it, the company had determined that the virus was classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) agent, which meant it could legally be used in the kits. [...] Before the problem came to light, the CDC had made a recommendation that the H2N2 virus be reclassified as a BSL-3 agent, Gerberding said. She promised to speed up the reclassification. The CDC determines the classifications in
collaboration with the National Institutes of Health. In BSL-3 labs, agents are handled with equipment designed to prevent any airborne contamination and resulting respiratory exposure.”[10] <http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/…april1305labs.html> The 1957 H2N2 virus is considered deadly and the U.S. government called for the vials containing the strain to be destroyed.”

So just how many of these vials were actually destroyed? Do we know how many were opened and cultured? Well, the one thing we do know for sure is that they contained the BSL-3, deadly, live H2N2 virus. No need to dig up dead, obese, Inuit Eskimo women from which to extricate and resurrect the virus, all they had to do was ship out the existing 50 year old, culture test kits and allow the eugenics clinics to do what they do best… namely, culture, replicate, and distribute, the known killer, H2N2 (1957) avian flu virus.

I’ve had what they call the flu since then, a couple of days of achiness in the military in ‘68, and then again when I took the “mandatory” Air Force swine flu shot in 1972/73 and got sick from that. But again, just achy joints and muscles, a little nausea, and a fever for a few days, but nowhere near the 1957 flu. After 1973, I haven’t had the flu at all really, not even the most subtle symptoms. I seldom even have a cold beyond the sniffles, and achy joints, mostly now in my later years.


You would think that this latest scare, would bring the national media to mention the pandemic of 1957. After all, according to the WHO, (World Health Organization), it killed 2 million+ people world wide that year. Other credible sources say 4 million died. The official stats for the number of deaths in the United States during that pandemic is 70,000. I wonder if the folks who died that I knew, and folks in other out of the way rural areas in the country, and the world for that matter — were they counted in those statistics? Sources other than the WHO say that the number is more likely between 100,000 and 140,000 American deaths by flu in ‘57-’58…

This past Friday night there was a flyover above my home at about 8:30 in the evening. It happened again at just before midnight on Saturday, and then a third fly by — and I will never forget the exact time of this one, it was 2:09 AM Monday morning August 24th. The airplane was a twin-engine turbo prop that rumbled the house rafters as it went over. The valley where I live is about 9000 feet in elevation, about a mile wide and is rimed on opposite sides by 12,000 to 13,000 foot peaks. I could hear the aircraft feather its propellers on approach as it dropped down in a crop duster like swoop. It breezed across the valley in only a few seconds, then it powered back up into a climbing turn and disappeared over the reservoir. I should alert you to the fact that large twin engine aircraft flying at low altitude over our little valley in the wee hours of the morning, is as rare as snow storms in Pensacola Florida, yet it happened three times, in as many nights.

The reason I won’t forget the last flyover is this — in hopes of catching a glimpse of the noisy bird, I scurried out the front door onto the porch. I was immediately hit with a smell and taste that I can never forget. A sensation I have not experienced since the first time I tasted it. It was the taste and smell of that deathly ill three days I lived through, back in 1957.

I for one will not be surprised at all when they announce that what is taking people’s lives this time, will not be the H1N1 at all, but a variant of the H2N2 virus! — Still — why doesn’t the press even mention the 1957/58 H2N2 flu pandemic… seems curious, don’t you think?

–Oldyoti

“What we meant, in going for those redcoats was this –
we had always governed ourselves, and always meant to…
they, didn’t mean we should.”

– An old New England militia captain, after the battles of Lexington and Concord April 19, 1775
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: chris jones on August 28, 2009, 10:47:08 pm
You f olks did your homework, great job.

BUMPED and Thank you.
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: TahoeBlue on August 29, 2009, 12:11:38 pm
Another interesting thing happened in 1958 - The Bits began the Centre for Longitudinal Studies National Child Development Study (with followup Genetic informational studies by Wellcome Trust funded !).

http://www.b58cgene.sgul.ac.uk/
Genetic information from the British 1958 Birth Cohort
One million genetic variants and associated biomedical traits in a national sample of adults. Version 2.3, updated 5/9/2008

Welcome to this web presentation of genetic data derived from the British 1958 birth cohort DNA collection, a national research resource created with funding from the Wellcome Trust and the Medical Research Council.

Much of the information relates to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) but data on other forms of genetic variation, including HLA ("tissue type") will be included as they become available.

We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the cohort study team, survey workers, participating laboratories, biomedical collaborators, and depositors of genotype data in creation of this website.

Above all, we would like to express our sincere thanks to over 8,000 cohort members who participated in the 2002-2004 biomedical follow-up and gave written consent to use of their DNA for medical research.

This website does not contain any information relating to individual cohort members or their relatives. Scientists wishing to obtain samples from the DNA collection for non-commercial medical research purposes should complete an application form for consideration by our oversight committee.

http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/studies.asp?section=000100020003
NATIONAL CHILD DEVELOPMENT STUDY

The National Child Development Study (NCDS) is a continuing, multi-disciplinary longitudinal study which takes as its subjects all the people born in one week in England, Scotland and Wales in one week in March 1958.

NCDS has its origins in the Perinatal Mortality Survey. Sponsored by the National Birthday Trust Fund, this was designed to examine the social and obstetric factors associated with stillbirth and death in early infancy among the children born in Great Britain in that one week. Information was gathered from almost 17,500 babies.

NCDS was the second in a series of four such perinatal studies, the others being based on a week's births in 1946 and 1970, and on births in selected wards in 2000/01. Each has formed the basis of a continuing longitudinal study.

As the table below shows, following the initial birth survey in 1958, there have to date been seven attempts to trace all members of the birth cohort in order to monitor their physical, educational, social and economic development. These were carried out by the National Children's Bureau in 1965, 1969, 1974, and 1981; by the Social Statistics Research Unit, City University, in 1991; and by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies, IoE in 1999/2000 and 2004.

It is important to note that the birth cohort was augmented by including immigrants born in the relevant week in the target sample for the first three follow-ups (NCDS 1-3). This has implications for both the target and achieved samples in the table below, which indicates the target and achieved samples for each follow-up. These figures were revised between NCDS6 and NCDS7 in the light of an exercise conducted within CLS to examine the changes in the NCDS and BCS70 populations and samples over time.  This is available as a CLS Technical Report.
http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/core/documents/download.asp?id=209&log_stat=1

(see website for tables)
...
There are two ways in which the target and achieved samples can be conceptualised:

1. the longitudinal target sample consists of all those born (alive or dead) in Great Britain in that particular week in March 1958, until they die or permanently emigrate from Britain.  The longitudinal achieved sample is all those members of the longitudinal target sample who participate in a particular sweep (at least one survey instrument partially completed).

2. the cross-sectional target sample at a particular sweep consists of all those born anywhere in the world in that particular week in March 1958, and living in Britain at that sweep.   The cross-sectional achieved sample is all those members of the cross-sectional target sample who participate in a particular sweep (at least one survey instrument partially completed).

After the birth survey, anyone born abroad during that week who subsequently moved to Britain before the age of 16, may be included in the cross-sectional sample, but not the longitudinal one.  Immigrants were added for the sweeps NCDS1-3, but no subsequent attempts were made to include further members.

For a rigorous analysis of response rates, refer to the Technical Report.

In addition to the seven attempts to trace all members, contact was made in 1978 with the schools attended by members of the birth cohort at the time of the second follow-up in 1974 in order to obtain details of public examination entry and performance. Similar details were also sought from sixth-form colleges and further education colleges, etc where these were identified by schools.

For the birth survey, information was obtained from the mother and from medical records by the midwife. For the purposes of the first three NCDS surveys, information was obtained from parents (who were interviewed by health visitors), head teachers and class teachers (who completed questionnaires), the schools health service (who carried out medical examinations) and the subjects themselves (who completed tests of ability and, latterly, questionnaires).

The 1981 and later surveys differ, in that information was gathered by professional survey research interviewers.  In 1981 information was obtained from cohort members and from the 1971 and 1981 Censuses - from which variables describing area of residence were taken.  In the 1991 survey there was a professional interview with the cohort member, but self-completion questionnaires were also used to gather data from NCDS subjects and from husbands, wives, and cohabitees. In addition, for a random sample of one in three cohort members, information was collected for all natural or adopted children who were living with them. Data were gathered from the children themselves, and from their mother, or mother-figure (who might be the cohort member, or their spouse or partner), using a series of age-specific assessments of cognitive and behavioural development. These were supplemented by a mother interview, and by interviewer observations of mother-child interaction.  For the 1999-2000 sweep, information was obtained from cohort members by interviewer and self-completion, but using CAPI (Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing) for the first time.  The 2004 survey was administered by telephone.

During the collection of exam data in 1978 information was obtained only from the schools and colleges by postal survey.
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: TahoeBlue on August 29, 2009, 12:54:21 pm
Quote
Genetic information from the British 1958 Birth Cohort

http://www.wtccc.org.uk/
Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium

WTCCC1
The Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium (WTCCC) is a group of 50 research groups across the UK which was established in 2005. The WTCCC aims were to exploit progress in understanding of patterns of human genome sequence variation along with advances in high-throughput genotyping technologies, and to explore the utility, design and analyses of genome-wide association (GWA) studies.


The WTCCC has substantially increased the number of genes known to play a role in the development of some of our most common diseases and has to date identified approximately 90 new variants across all of the diseases analysed. As well as confirming many of the known associations, some 28 in total, the WTCCC has also identified many novel variants that affect susceptibility to disease. A link to the diseases studied in WTCCC1 can be found here: [link]

The WTCCC aims to complete the initial survey of common variation for association to disease, and to examine the replicated association signals detected through resequencing and fine-mapping. The WTCCC will also carry out a major experiment to address the genome-wide measurement of copy number variation (CNV) within the 19,000 (tbc) samples tested in phase one (16,000 disease samples and 3,000 common controls) and additional samples from breast cancer. Further information

WTCCC2
In recognition of the success of the WTCCC and to capitalise on the success of the GWA approach, a further round of GWA studies were funded in April 2008.
These include 15 WTCCC-collaborative studies and 12 independent studies be supported totalling approximately 120,000 samples. Many of the studies represent major international collaborative networks that have together assembled large sample collections.

WTCCC2 will perform genome-wide association studies in 13 disease conditions: Ankylosing spondylitis, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, glaucoma, ischaemic stroke, multiple sclerosis, pre-eclampsia, Parkinson's disease, psychosis endophenotypes, psoriasis, schizophrenia, ulcerative colitis and visceral leishmaniasis.

WTCCC2 will also investigate the genetics of reading and mathematics abilities in children and the pharmacogenomics of statin response. Over 60,000 samples will be analysed using either the Affymetrix v6.0 chip or the Illumina 660K chip.

The WTCCC2 will also genotype 3,000 controls each from the 1958 British Birth cohort and the UK Blood Service control group, and the 6,000 controls will be genotyped on both the Affymetrix v6.0 and Illumina 1.2M chips.
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: maelstrom on August 30, 2009, 05:30:28 am
Slideshow on History of Pandemics:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/6822433/pandemics


See pg 24 on the 1918 flu - "people aged 20-40 were its victims rather than the old and weak. This remains a mystery up to this day! (Well, when something is manufactured, that would make for a mystery wouldn't it? Someone must start focusing on the EUGENICS side of these events. Since they write in their books all about how they use eugenics, this needs to be taken more seriously!)


So, didn't they say this current flu is that same demographic?  

the spanish flu cut down young people in their prime. this is called a "cytokine storm" now, when the immune system overreacts and the lungs fill with puss. it seems to affect people with strong immune systems.

yes, they said this flu has the danger of being like that one in cytokine response. in fact, that was the major element of the hype intended for the medical community.

this is another example of a very poor cover story for the laboratory flu, a failed bioweapon, because they are pushing for CHILDREN to be vaccinated first. children were not the high risk group in 1918. the cover story is so bad you have to think it is intentionally bad, designed to be seen through by the simplest, most indoctrinated and least educated viewer in existence. the mainstream news cover story is clearly a hoax, everyone can see it.

why? what is going on?

three possibilites spring to mind immediately:

1. psychological warfare technique: present two mutually exclusive but seemingly true actualities to induce confusion, chaos and lethargy in the enemy.

2. the people behind this effort are total failures. their bioweapon fizzled, their follow-up is below par, their next installment will be a dud.

3. the flu dem-panic is designed to draw attention away from something else, and can be turned on and off like a switch at the proper moment.
Title: Re: Are they hiding an H2N2 Manufactured Pandemic that killed 4 million in 1957
Post by: JTCoyoté on August 30, 2009, 01:56:47 pm
the spanish flu cut down young people in their prime. this is called a "cytokine storm" now, when the immune system overreacts and the lungs fill with puss. it seems to affect people with strong immune systems.

yes, they said this flu has the danger of being like that one in cytokine response. in fact, that was the major element of the hype intended for the medical community.

this is another example of a very poor cover story for the laboratory flu, a failed bioweapon, because they are pushing for CHILDREN to be vaccinated first. children were not the high risk group in 1918. the cover story is so bad you have to think it is intentionally bad, designed to be seen through by the simplest, most indoctrinated and least educated viewer in existence. the mainstream news cover story is clearly a hoax, everyone can see it.

why? what is going on?

three possibilites spring to mind immediately:

1. psychological warfare technique: present two mutually exclusive but seemingly true actualities to induce confusion, chaos and lethargy in the enemy.

2. the people behind this effort are total failures. their bioweapon fizzled, their follow-up is below par, their next installment will be a dud.

3. the flu dem-panic is designed to draw attention away from something else, and can be turned on and off like a switch at the proper moment.

To your three points -- this is the essence of obfuscation and I would suggest that it may be a little of all three -- we cannot drop our guard for a moment -- we need to keep our eye on the news blotter, for anything and everything that could possibly be pushed by during this time.

With Congress legalizing FEMA facilities on a national basis, this does not bode well for America, and they are doing it right now.

--Oldyoti

"The mind once enlightened
cannot again become dark."
 ~Thomas Paine
Common Sense
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: TahoeBlue on August 30, 2009, 07:08:02 pm
Interesting article from "Suburban Emergency Management Project" SEMP.US ?

The Suburban Emergency Management Project (SEMP) originated in 2001 with a grant from the Grace A. Bersted Foundation, which provides assistance to organizations in the suburban counties surrounding Cook County, Illinois. Margaret R. O'Leary, M.D., M.B.A., former chair of the M.B.A. program and the Executive M.B.A. for Physicians and Health Care Executives program at Benedictine University (Lisle, IL), served as principal investigator for the grant.

The First 72Hours: A Community Approach to Disaster Preparedness.

http://www.semp.us/publications/biot_reader.php?BiotID=642
Similarities of Mild Flu Pandemic 1957-58 to 2009 Flu Pandemic
Biot Report #642: August 16, 2009 

Well known physician and epidemiologist D.A. Henderson (born 1928) and his associates at the Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center have recently published “Public health and medical responses to the 1957-58 influenza pandemic,” which concludes that the 1957-1958 influenza pandemic was a “transiently disturbing event for the population, albeit stressful for schools and health clinics and disruptive to school football.” (1) Furthermore, it shares characteristics in common with the 2009 H1N1 strain influenza pandemic. The influenza A virus causing the 1957-1958 influenza pandemic was an H2N2 strain.

Henderson’s article does not say the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic will be mild this autumn—it might take a nasty course—“but we would be ill-served,” he writes, “if we did not consider past experience.” (2) “Interestingly,” he says, “the 1957-58 Asian influenza (H2N2) pandemic bears many similarities to the 2009 pandemic in its epidemiologic behavior.” For example,

Both arose early in the year and spread widely during the spring.
Both outbreaks substantially abated over the early summer months in the northern hemisphere and caused major epidemics in the southern hemisphere, which is the traditional seasonal pattern.
Both outbreaks to date have similar reported clinical presentations and transmission patterns.
Both outbreaks caused hospitalization of patients having underlying medical conditions.
Both outbreaks’ reported case-fatality rates have been low, similar to those observed during seasonal influenza epidemics. (2-3)

Emergence and Spread of the H2N2 Novel Influenza Virus Strain of 1957
In February 1957, the new Asian influenza virus (H2N2) emerged somewhere in China and spread to Hong Kong, as first reported in a New York Times article dated April 17, 1957. (4) From Hong Kong, the flu moved through eastern Asia (e.g., Singapore and Malaya) and the Middle East during April, May and June, and on to 20 countries, including the United States in June 1957. (5) The flu struck South America and Africa in July and August 1957. In the U.S., the first cases of “Asian flu” were in military camps on the east and west coasts and in other institutional settings, such as children’s summer camps, migrant worker barracks, and conference centers. (6-14)

The illness was described in one outbreak (Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana) as “sudden in onset and marked by high fever, malaise, headache, generalized myalgia, sore throat, and cough.” (3) The outbreaks tended to be over in only about four weeks.

A student at a college in Ohio described the outbreak this way:

In the fall of 1957, I was a freshman at the College of Wooster in Wooster Ohio. For some reason, I took the flu shot for the first time. It may be that I was encouraged to do so by the school doctor. However, I was one of the few who did.


Asian flu vaccination, 1957.
Source: http://www.physorg.com/newman/gfx/news/hires/topfluexpert.jpg
accessed August 5, 2009.

Later that fall I was in class and began to have flu-like symptoms that were fairly mild; aches, temperature, and other symptoms. I returned to my dorm room and fell asleep without dinner. I slept until late morning, missing class and breakfast. I still had some mild symptoms, but the aches and elevated temperature were gone. I felt well enough to go to lunch and then on to my afternoon classes. I noticed that the dining room was not as full as usual. Later, in class, I also noticed a lot of students missing.

By the next day, I had no symptoms at all. However, there were even fewer students in the dining room and classrooms, and several professors were also missing. My girlfriend was quite sick and through her I learned that her roommates and a large number of dorm mates were in bed very ill, too. Eventually over 80% of the student body was “hospitalized” in the dorms. The few like me, who were not ill, began delivering meals, checking for students with serious symptoms, and making reports to the health center. The center staff made visits to the dorms on a regular basis, but depended on us “well ones” to point out those sick students who needed the most assistance. (15)

Another college student recalled his experience during the 1957-1958 influenza pandemic:

At the time of the pandemic I was in my second year at Juniata. Numerous classmates fell ill with influenza and classes were canceled for a week, but nearly all of the students remained on campus. Our medical care was provided by two nurses who operated a small dispensary on campus with approximately 25 beds. A local family physician visited daily. A number of students were hospitalized overnight for intravenous fluid (IV) therapy and others were kept overnight for temperature control. I was hospitalized overnight and received some IV therapy but then was able to return back to my dormitory.

The dining hall remained open and we continued to obtain our meals there, this probably contributed to the high incidence of infection which I believe resulted in a nearly universal student infection rate. None of us had received an influenza vaccine because of lack of availability at that time.

Reflecting back on that time, I think it was remarkable that the students remained on campus. We suffered no fatalities and most did not return to their homes to spread this illness throughout the local communities. (15)

National Public Health Leaders React to Anticipated Pandemic in Autumn 1957
Henderson, et al, describe the efforts of organizations, such as the Association of State and Territorial Health Officers, to develop strategies to address the epidemic. “At the time, there was uncertainty as to whether most epidemics would be delayed until the usual influenza season (perhaps December 1957-February 1958) or whether the virus might strike as it did once before (in 1918) in September.” (16) The organization urged home care for uncomplicated influenza cases to reduce the hospital burden and recommended limitations on hospital admissions. Closing schools and limiting public gatherings were not recommended as strategies to mitigate the pandemic’s impact, because they do not work.

Dr. Richard E. Shope of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, who first isolated Influenzavirus A from pigs, piped in, A second wave might be as disastrous as the epidemic in the fall of 1918, which killed millions of persons. He said he doubted antibiotics would satisfactorily combat the bacteria that would accompany a second influenza wave. [?] Although antibiotics are effective with childhood flu infections, he said, there is not sufficient proof that they will help adults.” [?] He continued, “Adults who have apparently missed infection in the first wave of Asian flu will be particularly susceptible if a second wave develops. [?]…He urged a widespread vaccination program. He added that those who had Asian flu during the first wave probably would be immune during the second one.” (17)

Even as Dr. Shope rattled his medical saber, the Asian influenza pandemic in the United States was “effectively complete.” (18) Vaccine production, greatly accelerated, did not produce vaccine in time to affect the course of the pandemic. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the vaccine during clinical trials was poor, between 53% and 60%. (Toss a coin to see whether the vaccine might work or not for a given recipient.) (19)

The vaccine is being produced at the Wright-Fleming Institute of Microbiology in England 1957. Source:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/1/newsid_3086000/3086843.stm
accessed August 5, 2009.

There was no significant impact on the U.S. economy, in spite of 45 million people (around 25% of the population), according to the Communicable Disease Center (now named the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) becoming infected with H2N2 in October and November 1957.

Morbidity and Mortality of the 1957-1958 H2N2 Novel Influenza Pandemic in the U.S.
Henderson, et al, provide the interesting information that 13 Influenza A epidemics occurred between 1934 and 1963. “All except the 1957-58 pandemic would…be characterized as being due to ‘seasonal influenza’ resulting from a genetic ‘drift of the virus. The 1957-58 epidemic was different in that the genetic character of the virus ‘shifted’ significantly, so that few in the population had residual immunity. The H1N1 viruses were supplanted by the H2N2 strain,” leading to increased susceptibility of  school-age children through young adults up to 35 or 40 years of age who lacked antibody to the new strain. (20)

The “excess number of” deaths caused by complicated influenza (influenza with pneumonia) between October 1957 and March 1958 was 19,000 individuals, say Henderson, et al. (19) The fatality rate for the 1957-58 Asian flu in the U.S. calculates to 19,000 divided by 45 million, or 0.04 percent. This compares to a fatality rate of 3 percent for soldiers (24,664 dead soldiers) in the U.S. army diagnosed with influenza between April 1, 1917 and December 31, 1919, as described elsewhere. (21)

Summary
The 1957-1958 H2N2 Influenza A pandemic was a 3-5 day febrile respiratory illness that landed large numbers of patients in clinics, doctors’ offices, and emergency departments, but relatively few of them were sick enough to require hospitalization. School absenteeism was high, but schools remained open unless the number of students and/or teachers was so low that closure made sense. The U.S. economy was not affected. The only major events that were canceled or postponed were high school and college football games, because of the number of afflicted players. Vaccine did not arrive in time to mitigate the outbreak. Furthermore, it only worked a little more than half the time it was administered. Henderson, who watched the pandemic from very close range, called it “a transiently disturbing event for the population, albeit stressful or schools and health clinics and disruptive to school football schedules.” He believes that the 2009 novel H1N1 influenza pandemic shares characteristics with the 1957-1958 influenza pandemic. 

The Henderson article is a tonic for this writer and other people somewhat fatigued by the preparedness behavioral epidemic afflicting the yammering U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security bureaucracies about the upcoming fall wave of the novel H1N1 pandemic influenza. Will it, like the 1957-1958 influenza pandemic, be a “transient disturbing event for the population,” as Henderson suggests?

D.A. Henderson, Brooke Courtney, Thomas V. Inglesby, Eric Toner, and Jennifer B. Nuzzo: “Public health and medical responses to the 1957-58 influenza pandemic.” Biosecurity Strategy, Practice, and Science. Volume 7, Number 3, 2009. Available at :
http://www.upmc-biosecurity.org/website/resources/publications/2009/2009-08-05-public_health_medical_responses_1957.html


http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/1/newsid_3086000/3086843.stm

By December 3,550 people had died from influenza in England and Wales - three times as many flu fatalities as in the corresponding period of 1956.
After the vaccine was made available deaths fell but a second wave of the virus in November saw fatalities rise again.

One hundred thousand deaths worldwide were attributed to Asian Flu - nearly 70,000 of them in the United States.

Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: TahoeBlue on August 30, 2009, 07:30:47 pm
Quote
Dr. Richard E. Shope of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, who first isolated Influenzavirus A from pigs

Now isn't that interesting? and guess which virus he isolated? H1N1 WSN/33 a direct releative to 1918 swine flu.

Quote
The 1933 virus has significant homology with the 1918 pandemic strain and WSN/33 was actually isolated for the study of neurotropic disease caused by the 1918 pandemic strain.

http://www.recombinomics.com/News/04130502/H2N2_Recall.html
1957 H2N2 Pandemic Flu Recalled from Proficiency Kits
Recombinomics Commentary April 13, 2005


>> It was not immediately clear why the 1957 pandemic strain, which killed between 1 million and 4 million people - was in the proficiency test kits routinely sent to labs. It was a decision that Stohr described as "unwise," and "unfortunate."  That particular bug was "an epidemic virus for many years," Stohr said from the U.N. health agency's headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. "The risk is low but things can go wrong as long as these samples are out there and there are some still out there." The 1957 strain has not been included in the flu vaccine since 1968, and anyone born after that date has no immunity to it.<<
...
The recall of 1957 H2N2 raises issues related to WSN/33 in Korean swine.  Although H1N1 is still circulating in the current trivalent vaccine, WSN/33 was isolated in 1933 and is markedly different than the contemporary H1N1 in circulation.  Moreover, it has key mutations that would increase its virulence and broaden its tropism.  WSN/33 was isolated from mouse brain in 1940 and is missing a key glycosylation site on NA.  This mutation allows the virus to sequester plasminogen, which facilitates HA cleavage and allows the virus to enter a broad range of tissue types.  It is also lethal in mice, and contains a mutation in M2 that makes it resistant to antiviral ion channel blockers such as Amantadine and Rimantadine.

Sequences from swine on farms in South Korea were deposited at GenBank October 24, 2004 and the WHO has been investigating the sequences for the past six months.  They are expected to issue a report announcing the halt of efforts to prove or disprove the existence of the reported viruses with WSN/33 genes in Korean swine. 

Remarkably, after 6 months there still has not been positive data generated to prove or disprove the existence of the reported virus.

If these viruses are in swine in South Korea, they would raise serious public health concerns.  How they moved from a lab to Korean farms would also be a major concern, since either an accident or bioterrorism could have significant consequences.

WHO's failure to generate positive data to confirm or refute the existence of WSN/33 genes in pigs on farms in Korea is cause for concern.

http://www.recombinomics.com/News/12040402/1933_2004_H1N1.html
1933 Human Sequences in 2004 H1N1 Korean Swine Isolates

Recombinomics Commentary December 4, 2004

Recombinomics Commentary
December 4, 2004


The swine sequences release by GenBank this week would appear to be cause for concern.  Six of the isolates were from swine in South Korea and they have both reassorted and recombined genes (between a common Korean avian, H9N2 sequences and genes virtually identical to WSN/33). 

This is of significant concern because WSN/33 is a neurotropic component of WS/33, the first human influenza virus isolated. 

WSN/33 was obtained from serial passages of WS/33 in mouse brains in 1940.  It is lethal in mice and is H1N1 so it should also readily infect humans.  The N in WSN has lost a glycosylation site and binds plasminogen to facilitate HA cleavage. 

Two of the swine isolates are H1N1 and they have the same alteration which abolishes the glycosylation site. These two isolates, A/swine/Korea/S10/2004 and A/swine/Korea/S109/2004 have 7 WSN/33 genes.  Only PB2 is related to Korean H9N2 isolates.  4 other swine isolates are H9N2 and have 3-5 WSN/33 genes.

It would seem that swine shedding H1N1 virus from 1933 would pose a serious health threat. 

The 1933 virus has significant homology with the 1918 pandemic strain and WSN/33 was actually isolated for the study of neurotropic disease caused by the 1918 pandemic strain.

It seems that people born after 1933 would have limited immunity to the H1N1 virus isolated from the swine in South Korea in 2004
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: TahoeBlue on August 30, 2009, 08:12:13 pm
Interesting but searching does not give us much about Dr. Richard E. Shope and BW programs

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Shope
Richard Shope was the discoverer of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. He first isolated Influenzavirus A from pigs in 1931.[1]

^ Shope, R.E. (1931), "Swine Influenza I. Experimental Transmission and Pathology", Journal of Experimental Medicine 54 (3): 349–359, doi:10.1084/jem.54.3.349,
http://www.jem.org/cgi/reprint/54/3/349.pdf 

http://theinfounderground.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=4&t=5896&start=60

http://educate-yourself.org/cn/stefanlankaviralfraudexposed04may09.shtml
suppressed and slandered?...and then, as Hirst points out (1961), the favored type of flu research was "dropped" in the mid-1950s. ?? At this time Dr. Richard E. Shope, hog cholera/flu expert, was in charge of Ft. Detrick's biowar program...

His grandson speaks:
http://askmagazine.nasa.gov/pdf/pdf25/NASA_APPEL_ASK25s_communicating.pdf
...
I grew up in a family of renowned virologists. As a child, I sloshed through central New Jersey fields and
woods with my grandfather (Richard E. Shope) and galumphed through barnyards with my father
(R. E. Shope, Jr .) as they went virus hunting. For me, it was a grand time of swatting mosquitoes and filling my quota of  laughter and wonder, enjoying the company of my actively curious namesakes. I would ride with my grandfather to his laboratory at the Rockefeller Institute in New York City and look out the window at the East River or marvel at his honorary degrees while he fiddled with his centrifuges.

On different occasions I would visit my father’s virology lab at the University of Minnesota Veterinary
College in St. Paul
as he checked the results of his viral cultures in Petri dishes and made the rounds to check on the experimental animals.
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: TahoeBlue on August 30, 2009, 08:56:35 pm
Please excuse this off slightly topic digression...But to show the connections... hopefully it will come back to 1957 and H2N2

Quote
Dr. Richard E. Shope and BW programs

The Plum Island - Deitrick - Dr. Richard E. Shope - Dr Robert Shope (son) and Erich Traub - PaperClip Connection

http://www.mail-archive.com/[email protected]/msg00538.html
...
6.********* It is interesting to note that the Third Reich’s biological warfare program had the cover name of “Cancer Research Program.” (In RFA#16—available from Spitfire—as well as FTR#’s 16, 73, we look at the National Cancer Institute’s Special Viral Cancer Research Program and the evidence suggesting that the project was actually a front for the continuation of biological warfare research.

Erich Traub appears to have been involved with the projects related to the SVCRP.) “ . . . Everybody seemed willing to forget about Erich Traub’s dirty past—that he played a crucial role in the Nazis’ ‘Cancer Research Program,’ the cover name for their biological warfare program, and that he worked directly under SS Reichsfuhrer Heinrich Himmler. They seemed willing to overlook that Traub in the 1930’s faithfully attended Camp Sigfried. In fact, the USDA liked him so much, it glossed over his dubious past and offered him the top scientist job at the new Plum Island Laboratory—not once, but twice. Just months after the 1952 public hearings on selecting Plum Island, Doc Shahan dialed Dr. Traub at the naval laboratory to discuss plans for establishing the germ laboratory and a position on Plum Island.” (Ibid.; p. 10.)
...

8.********* The push to employ Traub as the director of Plum Island involved professional recommendations that omitted his work for the Third Reich: “The letters supporting Traub to lead Plum Island came in from fellow Plum Island founders. ‘I hope that every effort will be made to get him. He has had long and productive experience in both prewar and postwar Germany,’ said Dr. William Hagan, dean of the Cornell University veterinary school, carefully dispensing with his wartime activities. The final word came from his dear American friend and old Rockefeller Institute boss Dr. Richard Shope, who described Traub as ‘careful, skill, productive and very original’ and ‘one of this world’s most outstanding virologists.’ Shope’s sole reference to Traub at war: ‘During the war he was in Germany serving in the German Army.’” (Idem.)

9.********* Traub declined the offer to lead the lab. There is considerable evidence that he was involved with biological warfare research at Plum Island. “Declining the USDA’s offer, Traub continued his directorship of the Tubingen laboratory in West Germany, though he visited Plum Island frequently. In 1960, he was forced to resign as Tubingen’s director under a dark cloud of financial embezzlement. Traub continued sporadic lab research for another three years, and then left Tubingen for good--a scandalous end to a checkered career. In the late 1970’s, the esteemed virologist Dr.Robert Shope, on business in Munich, paid his father Richard’s old Rockefeller Institute disciple a visit. The germ warrior had been in early retirement for about a decade by then. ‘I had dinner with Traub one day—out of old time’s sake—and he was a pretty defeated man by then.’ On May 18, 1985, the Nazis’ virus warrior Dr. Erich Traub died unexpectedly in his sleep in West Germany. He was seventy-eight years old.” (Ibid.; pp. 10-11.)

http://www.rumormillnews.com/cgi-bin/archive.cgi/noframes/read/82306
...
Carroll reports that Yale (Yale Arbovirus Research Unit, or YARU) worked closely with Plum Island on Rift Valley fever virus. Carroll also reports that the future head of YARU (Shope) had worked with Ft. Detrick in its human experimentation program, Operation Whitecoat.

Whitecoat experiments included injecting humans with Rift Valley fever virus (the virus is reported to be 30% fatal) to develop and test vaccines against the virus.

YARU also had worked on WNV. According to Carroll:

"Dr. Robert Shope's Yale Arbovirus Research Unit (YARU) across Long Island Sound held twenty-seven different strains of West Nile virus in its New Haven, Connecticut, freezers until 1995, when he moved to the University of Texas and took his strains with him. YARU and Plum often trafficked in viruses, most notably the dangerous Rift Valley fever virus in 1977. Had Dr. Shope shared West Nile virus reference samples with his friend Plum Island director Dr. Roger Breeze--the island laboratory being the only official location where foreign animal germs like West Nile virus are supposed to be studied?"
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: TahoeBlue on August 30, 2009, 11:33:15 pm
A very interesting Obit... One of their own has fallen...  Connections to  H2N2  Plum Island : Robert E. Shope : Col. Robert Traub and her first husband, the well-known rickettsiologist, Bennett Elisberg

Quote
Between 1955 and 1961, she served at the US Army Medical Research Unit in Kuala Lampur, where she worked with the famous entomologist Col. Robert Traub and her first husband, the well-known rickettsiologist, Bennett Elisberg.

Pat became interested in the role of viruses in fevers of unknown origin and respiratory tract infections in a laboratory that was at the forefront of studies on tropical disease ecology.

Also engaged in the stimulating research environment in Kuala Lampur at the time were the late Robert E. Shope and C. E. Gordon Smith, both of whom would become legendary figures in arbovirus research and tropical medicine.

In 1957 Pat, Ben Elisberg and their colleagues made  what probably was one of the first isolations of the H2N2 Asian influenzaA pandemic strain,

http://www.springerlink.com/content/n8561537117165r0/
http://www.springerlink.com/content/n8561537117165r0/fulltext.pdf

Obituary In Memoriam
Patricia AnnWebb (1925–2005)

Patricia AnnWebb, M.D., a unique figure in the field of medical virology, died on January 24th 2005 at
the age of 79 years. For many years, she served as a distinguished career officer in the US Public Health
Service (USPHS). She made important contributions to our knowledge of arboviruses and viral hemorrhagic
fevers
, serving the USPHS in multiple challenging overseas assignments in the tropics. PatriciaWebb will be remembered as an inquisitive, tough and exacting scientist-physician by the many young virologists she inspired to fulfill careers exploring emerging viral diseases.

Pat was born in Cambridge, England on April 5, 1925. Her father, Robert A.Webb, M.D. was an American-born and educated (Johns Hopkins) pathologist who became a renowned Professor of Pathology at the University of Oxford, interested in the pathogenic role of bacteria, such as Listeria; he was a close associate of Howard Florey. Patricia, her sister and brother were dispatched to the United States during the Blitz (1940). In 1945, Patricia graduated when only 20 years old from Agnes Scott College in Decatur, Georgia, and went on to medical school at Tulane University, graduating in 1950. After a rotating internship at St. Joseph’s Mercy Hospital, Pontiac Michigan, she completed residency training in pediatrics (1951–53) at Kern General Hospital, Bakersfield, California.

In the summer of 1952, Pat was deeply influenced by the occurrence of one of the largest epidemics of arboviral encephalitis in the history of the United States. Hundreds of children were hospitalized with western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE), the highest attack rate being in infants <1 year of age. One of Pat’s first publications described the clinical features of these pediatric WEE cases.

This was her initial foray into the field of arbovirology in an ecological setting that would be the focus of attention of arbovirus research for decades to come. Pat’s subsequent career was spent in a variety of research positions in US Government laboratories studying viral infections.

Between 1955 and 1961, she served at the US Army Medical Research Unit in Kuala Lampur, where she worked with the famous entomologist Col. Robert Traub and her first husband, the well-known rickettsiologist, Bennett Elisberg.

Pat became interested in the role of viruses in fevers of unknown origin and respiratory tract infections in a laboratory that was at the forefront of studies on tropical disease ecology.

Also engaged in the stimulating research environment in Kuala Lampur at the time were the late Robert E. Shope and C. E. Gordon Smith, both of whom would become legendary figures in arbovirus research and tropical medicine.

In 1957 Pat, Ben Elisberg and their colleagues made  what probably was one of the first isolations of the H2N2 Asian influenzaA pandemic strain,

but their deliberate attempts to establish the isolate and prepare a lyophilized sample that could be sent for international characterization were overshadowed by a creative Singapore virologist who dispatched the virus to England in inoculated eggs kept viable under a brood hen.

In 1961, Pat began a long and distinguished career in the USPHS, assigned initially to the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH). Working with Robert Chanock and Karl Johnson, she explored the role of rhinoviruses in human respiratory diseases.

In 1962–63 Pat and Karl Johnson (who became Patricia’s second husband) began a remarkable series of endeavors in tropical virology at the NIH’s Middle America Research Unit (MARU) in Panama. This era of virological exploration began with an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever in the remote Beni Department of northeastern Bolivia. Field and laboratory studies of the causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Machupo virus, expanded into a broadly based program aimed at elucidating the natural history, experimental biology, and virion characterization of rodent-borne viruses in the neotropics.

Young scientists assigned to MARU and strongly influenced by Pat and Karl included some of today’s leaders in the field of hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis: C.J. Peters, T.Walton, R. Tesh, and G. Eddy. Pat and Karl also engaged collaborators among the leading virologists of the day – G.H. Bergold, J. Casals, W. Rowe, W. Rawls, C. Mims, E. Traub, and F.A. Murphy. During this period, Machupo virus was shown to be morphologically and antigenically related to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, an observation that led to the
creation of a new family of viruses (the Arenaviridae). This finding significantly expanded current scientific thinking about zoonotic viruses.

Pat went on to discover and describe a number of other new neotropical arenaviruses. She was particularly interested in the role of rodent hosts in perpetuating arenavirus infections.Wild rodents were brought to the laboratory for detailed studies on pathogenesis (a particularly unusual, risky, and difficult endeavor). The mechanisms underlying chronic infection and excretion of virus, the role of host genetics in controlling infection, and the adverse effects of infection on the host mediated by immune responses and damage to reproductive organs were subjected to intensive scrutiny.

Work on Machupo and other arenaviruses was undertaken in the 1960s using primitive but effective means of laboratory biocontainment. However, field work in the affected area of Boliviawas treacherous, and several MARU investigators, including Karl developed Machupo disease. Pat also developed and survived a severe infection with Machupo virus, probably acquired from Karl. In 1969, Karl and Pat jointly were awarded the prestigious Gorgas Medal for their contributions to medical virology in Latin America.

The Gorgas Medal citation reads: “By their worthy contributions to the knowledge of viral diseases of tropical America, Drs. Johnson and Webb have demonstrated outstanding ability in the field of preventive
medicine. Their research efforts were instrumental in controlling the 1963 outbreak of Bolivian
hemorrhagic fever . . . . Their dedicated service is evidence of a deep concern for the improved
health of the peoples of Latin America.” Their contributions to science were also elaborated
in the popular press.

When MARU was closed in 1975, Pat and Karl moved to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta. This move ushered in a new era of research on hemorrhagic fevers,  particularly Lassa fever inWest Africa and Ebola virus in Zaire.

Pat was the operational force in the Special Pathogens laboratory in Atlanta, supporting field research and epidemiological activities in Africa. The scene surrounding the initial isolation and identification of Ebola virus was described in Richard Preston’s book, The Hot Zone. Samples from a dying nun with hemorrhagic fever in Yambuku, Zaire arrived at CDC in October 1976. Pat opened the box to find that “the tubes had cracked and broken during shipment . . . the package was sticky with blood”.

With minimum regard for her personal safety, Pat collected barely enough residual material to initiate virus isolation attempts in Vero cells. Within a few days she noted cytopathic effects, and provided Fred Murphy with material for electron micrographic examination.The image shocked them all -a filovirus similar to Marburg.However, Pat showed by immunofluorescence that it was an antigenically distinct new agent.

Sierra Leone was the epicenter of Lassa virus activity in West Africa, and CDC established a field station at Kenema in the East of the country to study the epidemiology, diagnosis, transmission and clinical features of the disease. In 1978, Pat succeeded Joe McCormick as director of the Kenema field station.

As in Panama and Atlanta, Pat’s organizational skills and meticulous approach in the laboratory were critical to success, and she especially enjoyed the application of laboratory methods to field work. With McCormick and Karl Johnson, she carried out clinical studies under extremely difficult circumstances, demonstrating the effectiveness of an antiviral drug (ribavirin) in the treatment of severe Lassa virus infection.

Pat spent the last years of her career (1981–1988) at CDC’s Division of Vector-Borne Viral Diseases in Fort Collins CO, where she worked closely with the division director, Tom Monath, on arbovirus problems. In 1982, Colorado was struck by a major epizootic of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) disease, affecting horses, cattle, pigs and a few humans. The Colorado epizootic led to a series of important papers by Pat and colleagues showing that VSV transmission between domesticated animals occurred principally by the agency of mechanical vectors such as stable flies.

About this time, and not long after the unfolding of the HIV epidemic in the US, some members of the scientific community suggested that HIV transmission between humans could also be effected by blood-feeding insects. Pat took charge of an investigation in which mosquitoes and bedbugs were inoculated with or orally fed HIV. She showed experimentally that the risk of biological and mechanical transmission by insects was vanishingly small. The work was particularly dangerous due to the use of fine needles for inoculating insects.

In 1988 Pat retired to England and Scotland, living a quiet life with her beloved Labrador retrievers. She retained a keen interest in science and had a huge appetite for books. When Pat’s health began to fail, she moved back to the US to be closer to her two sons. Whether the challenge was hemorrhagic fevers or AIDS, Pat approached her work with enthusiasm, imagination, and precision. She was quick to laugh, particularly at herself. She brooked no fools, had an acerbic wit, and her work was characterized by consummate organization and careful documentation. She also cared deeply for people, and took particular interest in those who were less fortunate than her. She had a love and compassion for both animals and people, and after retirement worked tirelessly for conservation groups and Amnesty International.

All of us who knew her and worked with her consider ourselves fortunate to have had Pat as a colleague and as a friend. She left an indelible impression on all who knew her. Dr. Webb is survived by her sister, Jill Chance, two sons, Peter and Michael, and two grandchildren Colin and Aaron.

Thomas P. Monath MD
Karl M. Johnson MD
Acambis Inc., Cambridge, MA
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: TahoeBlue on August 31, 2009, 01:36:36 pm
Quote
Between 1955 and 1961, she served at the US Army Medical Research Unit in Kuala Lampur, where she worked with the famous entomologist Col. Robert Traub and her first husband, the well-known rickettsiologist, Bennett Elisberg.

Pat became interested in the role of viruses in fevers of unknown origin and respiratory tract infections in a laboratory that was at the forefront of studies on tropical disease ecology. Also engaged in the stimulating research environment in Kuala Lampur at the time were the late Robert E. Shope and C. E. Gordon Smith, both of whom would become legendary figures in arbovirus research and tropical medicine.

In 1957 Pat, Ben Elisberg and their colleagues made  what probably was one of the first isolations of the H2N2 Asian influenzaA pandemic strain,

This story gets stranger and stranger . .. There is Erich Traub the ex-Nazi paperclip guy working on BW in the forties and fifties and then there is this Robert Traub the flea specialist who happens to be one of the first to "Discover" H2N2 in 1957 with his pals and is also best friends with fellow flea lover Rothschild...
And lets not forget the Father and Son team of Richard E Shope and Robert Shope discoverer's of swine flu and others.


http://www.nytimes.com/1997/01/05/us/robert-traub-an-entomologist-is-dead-at-80.html
Robert Traub, an Entomologist, Is Dead at 80
By FORD BURKHART
Published: Sunday, January 5, 1997

Dr. Robert Traub, a medical entomologist who compared fleas from distant times and places and saw in them clues to the mysteries of evolution and continental drift, died on Dec. 21 at the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Md. He was 80 and lived in Bethesda.
...
Working in the rain forests of Asia for the United States Army, Dr. Traub sought ways to help soldiers avoid diseases borne by chiggers and other insects. In the 1950's he commanded the Army's research laboratory in Kuala Lumpur, in what is now Malaysia. He let chiggers bite him so he could contract typhus to test an experimental cure. The cure worked. He retired as a colonel in 1962 and joined the University of Maryland.

Dr. Traub was so devoted to the fleas that he amassed one of the world's two best collections of them, said his frequent collaborator, Miriam Rothschild of Peterborough, England, who is a noted flea authority herself and oversees the world's other great flea archive, at the Natural History Museum in London. Dr. Traub and Ms. Rothschild together wrote a definitive work, ''The Rothschild Collection of Fleas: The Ceratophyllidae'' (Cambridge University Press, 1983).
...
Dr. Traub was named honorary curator of fleas for the Smithsonian Institution in Washington on his retirement from teaching at Maryland.

Robert Traub was born in Manhattan, received a B.S. in biology from City College in 1938, an M.S. in medical entomology from Cornell in 1939, and, after service in the Army, a doctorate in the same field from the University of Illinois in 1947.

From 1962 to 1983, he was a professor of medical microbiology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore.
...
In his basement at his death, he had 200 unknown types of fleas in storage, awaiting study and description.
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: TahoeBlue on August 31, 2009, 04:38:48 pm
Quote
Also engaged in the stimulating research environment in Kuala Lampur at the time were the late Robert E. Shope and C. E. Gordon Smith, both of whom would become legendary figures in arbovirus research and tropical medicine.

Who was Dr. C.E. Gordon Smith?  Well I can't find alot yet....

http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/54/2/281.pdf
...
The decade of the 1970s saw changes, in structure and direction, throughout the London School, when C.E. Gordon Smith (1924-1991) began a period of nearly 20 years as its Dean. A former Reader in Virology at the School, he presided as Dean over a programme of major restructuring, both at the beginning of the 1970s, and again towards the end of his tenure in the late 1980s, when the Reid Committee's  recommendations were being put into effect under himself and his successor as Dean, from 1989 to 1995, Richard Feachem.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_School_of_Hygiene_and_Tropical_Medicine
The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM or the "London School") is a constituent college of the University of London, specialising in public health and tropical medicine. Founded by Sir Patrick Manson in 1899, London School is a research-led postgraduate centre of excellence in public health, international health and tropical medicine.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health

Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases

The Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (ITD) was formed in August 1997 and encompasses all of the laboratory-based research in the School as well as that on the clinical and epidemiological aspects of infectious and tropical diseases. It is currently headed by Simon Croft, who is Professor of Parasitology.

There is close interaction between scientists in different research teams. The Department has strong overseas links which provide a basis for field studies and international collaborations in developed and developing countries. Funding for research in the Department comes from around 45 funding organizations and agencies. Major funders of research include the Department for International Development, Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, BBSRC, GlaxoSmithKline and the Commission of European Communities.

The School was founded in 1899 by Sir Patrick Manson as the London School of Tropical Medicine and located at the Albert Dock Seamen's Hospital in the London Docklands.[5] Manson was a physician who worked in the Far East in the 1860s-1880s, where he encountered tropical diseases and was frustrated by his lack of knowledge. On his return to London, among other roles, he was appointed Medical Advisor to the Colonial Office. He believed that doctors should be trained in tropical medicine, to treat the many British citizens who were dying of tropical diseases that could have been treated if colonial doctors knew more about these diseases. The original School was established as part of the Seamen's Hospital Society, it has its origins in the hospital ships which were docked on the Thames at Greenwich.

Deans of the School
Professor Gordon Smith from 1970 to 1989
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: sociostudent on August 31, 2009, 08:38:09 pm
This story gets stranger and stranger . .. There is Erich Traub the ex-Nazi paperclip guy working on BW in the forties and fifties and then there is this Robert Traub the flea specialist who happens to be one of the first to "Discover" H2N2 in 1957 with his pals and is also best friends with fellow flea lover Rothschild...


So, we know that the Rockefeller Institute was pretty active in this research, and now we throw a rothschild or two in there, and what we have is a true globalist conspiracy, right? No left-right paradigm games, no b.s.--just psychopathic former nazis who's kids were charged with the globalist ideal to cull the population?
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: TahoeBlue on September 01, 2009, 12:29:14 pm
So, we know that the Rockefeller Institute was pretty active in this research, and now we throw a rothschild or two in there, and what we have is a true globalist conspiracy, right? No left-right paradigm games, no b.s.--just psychopathic former nazis who's kids were charged with the globalist ideal to cull the population?

 1957 - US Army Medical Research Unit in Kuala Lampur - Col. Robert Traub,  Robert E. Shope, C. E. Gordon Smith , Pat Webb, Ben Elisberg made one of the first isolations of the H2N2 Asian  (http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=125912)

Richard Shope was the medical chief of the Army's Ft. Detrick bioweapons program from 1951 to 1959. (Robert Shope's Dad) (http://800poundgorilla.100webspace.net/phpbb3/viewtopic.php?f=31&p=110)

They just "happen" to be there all together johnny on the spot, to "Discover" this "New" and "Novel" form of H1N1 which we call H2N2 before the epidemic started. I can't help but believe they released it.  Robert had worked at Deitrick (with his dad) and like his dad, was an expert in pig cholera (H1N1) and was also connected to Erich Traub and Plum Island.
Richard Shope is also associated with Project Whitecoat testing infectious diseases on servicemen starting in 1954.
So Dad sends his son "something" to distribute in far off Malasia that spreads to SE Asia, China.  Gordon Smith was basically and American Brit (like Pat Webb) and was of "The London School" and associated with the Wellcome Trust, which just happens to fund the 1958 Birth Cohort (why not 1956 or 57 or 59 or 60?). They were prepared and ready for something big. Also during this time period were the Nuclear above ground tests which forever changed the C14 content in humans.

Even the scientists are surprised that H1N1 virtually dissapeared from humans in the wake of H2N2
So was this a Global Biological "Warfare" Experiment in 1957?

see:
Historical Perspective — Emergence of Influenza A (H1N1) Viruses
http://nejm.highwire.org/cgi/reprint/361/3/279.pdf

NEJM -- Historical Perspective -- Emergence of Influenza A (H1N1) Viruses (web version)
http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/NEJMra0904322

http://scienceblogs.com/notrocketscience/upload/2009/06/from_spanish_to_swine_-_how_h1n1_kicked_off_a_91-year_pandem/Swineflugenealogy.jpg

The Persistent Legacy of the 1918 Influenza Virus
http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/extract/361/3/225

[In 1954 -  United States Army Medical Unit, Fort Detrick - Project Whitecoat - Army's code name for a series of germ warfare studies conducted on about 2,300 Seventh-day Adventist servicemen from 1954  to 1973]

Extinction of Human H1N1 Virus (1957)
Influenza A (H1N1) abruptly disappeared from humans in 1957 and was replaced by a new reassortant virus that combined genes from the H1N1 strain and an avian virus. This new influenza A (H2N2) strain contained three new segments
from the avian source and maintained the other five segments from the H1N1 strain of 1918 lineage. 17 After this pandemic subtype emerged, human influenza A (H1N1) was not detected again until 1977. 18
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: sociostudent on September 06, 2009, 01:41:41 am
Hey Tahoe, remember when we were talking about the use of detergents to enhance the virulence of biological agents?

The River, p. 555
...Some time after our meeting, I recalled the strange feeling I had had at the beginning of the interview, when [Stanley] Plotkin had been telling me about his arrival at the Wistar Institute in August 1957. I recalled that Joseph Pagano had also spoken about working on anthrax vaccines in his early days at the Wistar. Further reading demonstrated that during the fifties, anthrax--Like the Venezuelan Equine Ecephalitis Virus Koprowski had stumbled upon in Rio--was one of the major preoccupations of the U.S. Army Chemical Corps because of its potential as a biological warfare agent. I decided to see when Plotkin or Pagano had published anything on the subject.
 What I found was rather shocking. First I came across an article by Stanley Plotkin and others on an epidemic of inhalation anthrax, that, as the title revealed, was "the first in the twentieth century". Philip Bracyman, the lead author, and Plotkin were listed as being from the Anthrax Investigations Unit, CDC, Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, and the work had been supported by a contract with the U.S. Army Chemical Corps, based at Fort Detrick.
 The revelation that with Koprowski taking over the directorship of the Wistar, the institute began accepting contracts from the principal biowarfare unit of the U.S. Army was an unexpected discovery. So was the realization that this was perhaps what Plotkin had meant when he spoke about the "opportunity... to do some research while fulfilling a military obligation." But what was really striking was the content of that research.
 Plotkin's article revealed that on August 27, 1957, a man from a goat har-processing plant at a mill in Manchester, New Hampshire, fell sick with inhalation anthrax. During the next two months, there were eight further cases of anthrax at the mill, four involving inhalation anthrax and four cutaneous anthrax. The latter group survived, but four of the five inhalation cases died.
 Cutaneous anthrax is a moderately rare and not especially dangerous skin disease affecting those who handle animal hair or its derivatives. During the previous sixteen years, there had been 136 cases of cutaneous anthrax at the mill, which turned goat hair and wool from southern Asia into lining material for suits. Only one case had been fatal. By contrast, there had been no previous cases of inhalation anthrax at the mill--and only 23 isolated cases had been reported in the world medical literature since 1900.
 ...It is written in typical Plotkin style, and one suspects that he may have been responsible for much of the work.The introduction states that the outbreak "presented an unusual opportunity to study both the epidemiology of this disease, and the effectiveness of an anthrax vaccine that had been given to some of the workers several months before the epidemic." A later article by the same authors reveals that 300 of the manchester mill's 630-odd employees volunteered to be vaccinated with this live anthrax vaccine, although the remainder refused. Beginning in May 1957, approximately half of the 300 were vaccinated with three primary injections at fortnightly intervals, while the other half received 3 injections of a placebo.
 The vaccinees had been due to receive three booster shots at six monthly intervals, but the anthrax outbreak in August caused the trial to be terminated. Of the five cases of inhalation anthrax, four had not particapted in the vaccine program, while the fifth had received only the placebo. Although the abandonment of the Manchester trial did not allow statistically valid conclusions to be made about the vaccine efficacyk, calculations that also incorporated data from other mills where earlier vaccine trials had been staged led the authors to conclude that the vaccine was 92.5% effective...

(In the source documents, it says, "The vaccine had been prepared at Fort Detrick, where the injection of six hundred scientific personnel had apparently demonstrated its suitability for human use. G.G. Wright, et al, 'Studies on Immunity in Anthrax V. Immunizing activity of Alum-Precipitated Protective Antigen', J. Immunol., 1954, 73, 387-391")

 But what had caused the unprecedented epidemic? The authors concluded that one particular batch of black goat hair from India might have been responsible...Furthermore, the epidemiologists noted that detergents used for scouring the hair had been shown to enhance the virulence of anthrax spores, and that a new detergent had come into use during this period.
 It is striking that these papers about the Manchester outbreak do not contain a single reference to the extraordinary coincidence whereby the first inhalation anthrax epidemic of the century occurred within three months of an experimental trial of a live anthrax vaccine...

...The first inhalation anthrax victim in Manchester fell ill on the same morning that a new detergent replaced the traditional scouring agents of soap and soda ash, but he was working in a different part of the mill from where the new detergent had been introduced. Nonetheless, the authors comment that "an hypothesis which presents itself is that this particular batch [of goat hair] contained an unusual number of highly-virulent anthrax spores to which was added for most of the epidemic a virulence-enhancing substance (the scouring agent)".
 The only reference to the implications for biowarfare research in these two lengthy reports comes in a single sentence at the conclusion of one of them, which reads: "The potential civil defense problem posed by anthrax aerosols is also emphasized."

Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: sociostudent on September 06, 2009, 01:58:15 am
For some reason, chemtrails don't seem so innocuous when you read that last part.
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: sociostudent on September 06, 2009, 02:19:52 am
Hey Tahoe, remember when we were talking about the use of detergents to enhance the virulence of biological agents?

The River, p. 555
...Some time after our meeting, I recalled the strange feeling I had had at the beginning of the interview, when [Stanley] Plotkin had been telling me about his arrival at the Wistar Institute in August 1957. I recalled that Joseph Pagano had also spoken about working on anthrax vaccines in his early days at the Wistar. Further reading demonstrated that during the fifties, anthrax--Like the Venezuelan Equine Ecephalitis Virus Koprowski had stumbled upon in Rio--was one of the major preoccupations of the U.S. Army Chemical Corps because of its potential as a biological warfare agent. I decided to see when Plotkin or Pagano had published anything on the subject.
 What I found was rather shocking. First I came across an article by Stanley Plotkin and others on an epidemic of inhalation anthrax, that, as the title revealed, was "the first in the twentieth century". Philip Brachman, the lead author, and Plotkin were listed as being from the Anthrax Investigations Unit, CDC, Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, and the work had been supported by a contract with the U.S. Army Chemical Corps, based at Fort Detrick. (fixed  ;) )
 The revelation that with Koprowski taking over the directorship of the Wistar, the institute began accepting contracts from the principal biowarfare unit of the U.S. Army was an unexpected discovery. So was the realization that this was perhaps what Plotkin had meant when he spoke about the "opportunity... to do some research while fulfilling a military obligation." But what was really striking was the content of that research.
 Plotkin's article revealed that on August 27, 1957, a man from a goat har-processing plant at a mill in Manchester, New Hampshire, fell sick with inhalation anthrax. During the next two months, there were eight further cases of anthrax at the mill, four involving inhalation anthrax and four cutaneous anthrax. The latter group survived, but four of the five inhalation cases died.
 Cutaneous anthrax is a moderately rare and not especially dangerous skin disease affecting those who handle animal hair or its derivatives. During the previous sixteen years, there had been 136 cases of cutaneous anthrax at the mill, which turned goat hair and wool from southern Asia into lining material for suits. Only one case had been fatal. By contrast, there had been no previous cases of inhalation anthrax at the mill--and only 23 isolated cases had been reported in the world medical literature since 1900.
 ...It is written in typical Plotkin style, and one suspects that he may have been responsible for much of the work.The introduction states that the outbreak "presented an unusual opportunity to study both the epidemiology of this disease, and the effectiveness of an anthrax vaccine that had been given to some of the workers several months before the epidemic." A later article by the same authors reveals that 300 of the manchester mill's 630-odd employees volunteered to be vaccinated with this live anthrax vaccine, although the remainder refused. Beginning in May 1957, approximately half of the 300 were vaccinated with three primary injections at fortnightly intervals, while the other half received 3 injections of a placebo.
 The vaccinees had been due to receive three booster shots at six monthly intervals, but the anthrax outbreak in August caused the trial to be terminated. Of the five cases of inhalation anthrax, four had not particapted in the vaccine program, while the fifth had received only the placebo. Although the abandonment of the Manchester trial did not allow statistically valid conclusions to be made about the vaccine efficacyk, calculations that also incorporated data from other mills where earlier vaccine trials had been staged led the authors to conclude that the vaccine was 92.5% effective...

(In the source documents, it says, "The vaccine had been prepared at Fort Detrick, where the injection of six hundred scientific personnel had apparently demonstrated its suitability for human use. G.G. Wright, et al, 'Studies on Immunity in Anthrax V. Immunizing activity of Alum-Precipitated Protective Antigen', J. Immunol., 1954, 73, 387-391")

 But what had caused the unprecedented epidemic? The authors concluded that one particular batch of black goat hair from India might have been responsible...Furthermore, the epidemiologists noted that detergents used for scouring the hair had been shown to enhance the virulence of anthrax spores, and that a new detergent had come into use during this period.
 It is striking that these papers about the Manchester outbreak do not contain a single reference to the extraordinary coincidence whereby the first inhalation anthrax epidemic of the century occurred within three months of an experimental trial of a live anthrax vaccine...

...The first inhalation anthrax victim in Manchester fell ill on the same morning that a new detergent replaced the traditional scouring agents of soap and soda ash, but he was working in a different part of the mill from where the new detergent had been introduced. Nonetheless, the authors comment that "an hypothesis which presents itself is that this particular batch [of goat hair] contained an unusual number of highly-virulent anthrax spores to which was added for most of the epidemic a virulence-enhancing substance (the scouring agent)".
 The only reference to the implications for biowarfare research in these two lengthy reports comes in a single sentence at the conclusion of one of them, which reads: "The potential civil defense problem posed by anthrax aerosols is also emphasized."


Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: JTCoyoté on September 07, 2009, 04:50:14 pm
 In the 1950s, by whatever vehicle, whether it was inoculation or area spraying, something that was first film documented as being used upon the population of Nanking by the Japanese in the mid-1930s, they did spread the flu. They fostered a flu pandemic that attacked the digestive tract, produced an insanely high fever, and killed a lot of people.

They came through again with another, the Hong Kong flu in 1968, which I did not get except for minor symptoms after being inoculated into my active military service in January of that year. Again when the swine flu scare took hold in the early and mid-70s, it was the inoculation that made me ill. Both of these illnesses, came within two weeks of being inoculated... exactly the same as what happened to me in 1957 after the school's shots were given.

In the 1980s, the new scare was a virus that suppressed the immune system called AIDS... There eugenic hope was to suppress the mating urge in the baby boom humans.  This was foisted on the scene, as were condoms... as a birth control tactic, and worked pretty well... as far as a pandemic goes, AIDS was pretty much a failure... but for its intended purpose, along the use of condoms, and abortion... it succeeded.

Their latest foray into genetic manipulation, this new flu, requires three shots... what it will do is the most heinous thing that anyone could do to a living thing. This new flu, sensitizes the immune system in a way that a normal vaccine is supposed to, to recognize a complete genetic signature of the disease and eradicate it... this is and what this new one will do up to a point, but the immune cells are instructed to attack a partial read of the disease DNA as well... Thus when the genetic signature of the disease embeds itself into cells of the body, and attaches itself to the calls DNA, the immune system begins to attack the DNA combination and kills the host's own cells even those that have successfully defeated the disease and carry only the immunity factor in the DNA. This autoimmune reaction will be what kills people this time around...

Whether this scheme will fizzle like AIDS, kill 10s of millions like the Spanish flu, or just forever alter the genetic makeup of the surviving humans... we cannot tell... my suspicion is that it will produce the last scenario to some degree, and will spawn a whole litany of new destructive viruses in the process.

JTCoyoté

"I have always thought the actions of men
the best interpreters of their thoughts."
~John Locke
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: KarnEvil9 on September 07, 2009, 05:06:06 pm
I was only 2 in 1957 so I was isolated at home. But I did get those red measles in the early 60s that put me in a 3 day coma, they were all down in my esophagus and my temps reached 104 at one time. The doc told my mom all she could do was keep pouring ice water in me and giving me aspirin. When I came out of it, the doc said I would have the immune system from hell. I have never had a flu shot and the last time I had the flu was that awful Chinese/Hong Kong stuff in 1981. I'm telling everyone I know not to take the shot and to get outside and/or boost their intake of vitamin D.
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: sociostudent on September 08, 2009, 02:02:23 am
I was only 2 in 1957 so I was isolated at home. But I did get those red measles in the early 60s that put me in a 3 day coma, they were all down in my esophagus and my temps reached 104 at one time. The doc told my mom all she could do was keep pouring ice water in me and giving me aspirin. When I came out of it, the doc said I would have the immune system from hell. I have never had a flu shot and the last time I had the flu was that awful Chinese/Hong Kong stuff in 1981. I'm telling everyone I know not to take the shot and to get outside and/or boost their intake of vitamin D.

I got strep throat at aged 16, and had the part-time job from Hell at a local dept. store (It rhymes with "Marget") and I ended up leaving it to get worse, and 2 weeks later, my skin broke out with all these red papules, and my tongue turned red, and my lymph nodes looked like they had just taken on a mind of their own entirely, lol. So I went to the doctor, and he immediately had me isolated and put on IV antibiotics--I had scarlet fever. I think at that point, I was just in so much pain and so tired my mind kind of turned off and I don't remember much. My fever was around 104 at that point.

I got better after the antibiotics started working, and the doc said I was lucky I didn't get rheumatic fever or something.

"Marget" fired me later for missing work due to the illness. No sh*t.
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: TahoeBlue on February 24, 2010, 12:23:02 am
SwRI - SFBR - Tom Slick - The Other Battelle - Only Private BSL-4 (http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=135734.0)

Tom Slick was the basis for many cartoon and adventure features in the late fifties (Sky King, Clutch Cargo). He searched for Bigfoot and the yeti.
Flew his own plane and convieniently died in 1962 when his plane disintegrated in flight over Montana... Also around the time of the JFK assassination...
Also being a cryptozoologist would be an excellent cover for travelling to many distant locales for the CIA...

Tom Slick's relationship with the CIA and saving the Dalai Lama. And yes he was a YALE man...

Also of interest was 1957-1958 was the beginning of the H2N2 Pandemic.... was Slick distributing the new novel H2N2 ? See:  Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté  (http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=128816.msg794986#msg794986)

http://www.cryptomundo.com/cryptozoo-news/slick-317/
...
(http://www.cryptomundo.com/wp-content/TomSlick1957kneesa.jpg)
Tom Slick (above, after his March 15, 1957, near-death accident in Nepal) was most famous, of course, for his expeditions in search of the Abominable Snowmen, the Yeti of the Himalayan Mountains.

In 1957, Tom Slick personally headed his first of many sponsored expeditions to Nepal in search of the Yeti, with Peter Byrne and Sherpa guides along for his deadly serious initial reconnaissance. From noting the timeline for Slick’s trek, remarkably, I discovered that Slick began his actual search in earnest in the Arun Valley on March 17, 1957.

On March 18th and 19th, 1957, the Government of Nepal issued press releases and answered reporters’ questions that they officially forbade all foreign mountaineers from “killing, injuring, or capturing a Yeti.” Slick’s party was allowed to carry guns for their self-defense. But they also had steel traps to capture a Yeti, and the new law was specifically targeted at Slick’s expedition

Especially interesting to me is a question I have never had fully answered: Was the character in the movie The Abominable Snowman of the Himalayas of the American Yeti hunter and exploiter “Tom Friend” (shown above next to the film’s Yeti body) based, in some part, on the real Texan Yeti hunter Tom Slick?

What was one of the other missions of Tom Slick’s 1957 expedition? Apparently, it may have been spying on the Chinese in Tibet. Certainly that was what the Russians thought.

(http://www.umsl.edu/~skthoma/snow.jpg)

This April 27, 1957, article (above) in The New York Times carried the claims that Tom Slick was behind an effort to subvert the Chinese and free Tibet. (It would be revealed years later that Tom Slick and his Slick Airways were working closely with the OSS and the CIA.)

Two years later, what date would the CIA pick to begin the exit of the Dalai Lama from Tibet? March 17, 1959. Who may have been helping with that trek? Tom Slick and Peter Byrne. Perhaps it was Tom Slick that picked the date, not the CIA?

Colonel Fletcher Prouty has written about this secret mission to Tibet. In 1955, Prouty was appointed the first “Focal Point” officer between the CIA and the Air Force for Clandestine Operations per National Security Council Directive 5412. He was Briefing Officer for the Secretary of Defense (1960-1961), and for the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Prouty, in his 1973 book about the CIA, Secret Team, writes: “This fantastic escape and its major significance have been buried in the lore of the CIA as one of those successes that are not talked about. The Dalai Lama would have never been saved without the CIA.”

On March 17, 1959, three groups, the Dalai Lama, his immediate family and senior advisors, escaped from Lhasa, Tibet.

John Prados writing in The Presidents’ Secret Wars: CIA and Pentagon Covert Operations Since World War II (New York: Morrow, 1986), notes: “Tenzin Gyatso [the Dalai Lama] was disguised as a common soldier of the guard…. The best information [about the fleeing Dalai Lama] came from the CIA…. The CIA was so well informed because it had furnished an American radio operator, who traveled with the Dalai Lama’s party…There may have been other CIA agents with the party as well.”

Who were these individuals? Who helped the Dalai Lama’s party get out of Tibet? None other than Peter Byrne, Tom Slick’s man in Nepal. He may forget it, but he told me so in 1988, when I was interviewing him about his years of work, overt and covert, with Tom Slick of San Antonio, Texas. I go into further details in my book, Tom Slick: True Life Encounters in Cryptozoology (Fresno: Linden Press, 2002).
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: TahoeBlue on June 17, 2018, 10:34:51 am
bump ...
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: JTCoyote on June 18, 2018, 05:02:12 pm
As we are slowly figuring out, the CDC is not the Center for Disease Control at all, it is in fact the Center for Disease CREATION! This is the tax funded progenitor of purposefully engineered disease and death... I'm so very disgusted that this Nazi-esque quazi government program for population wide experimentation and debilitation has been allow to exist, let alone being tax funded all these decades.

JTCoyote

"I am one of those who do not believe
that a national debt is a national blessing,
but rather a curse to a republic; in as
much as it is calculated to raise around
the administration a moneyed aristocracy
dangerous to the liberties of the country."
~Andrew Jackson
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: JTCoyote on June 19, 2018, 12:43:06 pm
The latest mortality stats on "Disease X," the spreading strain of Avian Flu, is now 5000 dead, it was less than 300 a week ago... it's growing at an alarming rate... the "experts" are now revising the mortality rate at higher than 40%...

Remember this...

Survivors is a British post-apocalyptic fiction drama television series created by Terry Nation and produced by Terence Dudley at the BBC, that broadcast from 1975 to 1977. It concerns the plight of a group of people who have survived an apocalyptic plague pandemic, which was accidentally released by a Chinese scientist and quickly spread across the world via air travel. Referred to as "The Death", the plague kills approximately 4,999 out of every 5,000 human beings on the planet within a matter of weeks of being released.

Oldyoti

" 'Tis our true policy to steer clear of
permanent Alliances, with any portion
of the foreign world."
~George Washington
From his Farewell Address, Sept. 19, 1796
Title: Re: Personal recollections of the 1957 H2N2 flu pandemic --by JTCoyoté
Post by: TahoeBlue on June 19, 2018, 01:25:23 pm
Re: WHO Admits Scientists are Engineering Super H5N1 Bird Flu Virus - Why?

https://www.infowars.com/disease-x-new-strain-of-bird-flu-kills-40-of-those-who-contract-100s-dead-in-china/
?DISEASE X?: New Strain Of Bird Flu Kills 40% Of Those Who Contract, 100s Dead In China
The strain, H7N9, circulates in poultry and has killed 623 people out of 1,625 infected in China ? a mortality rate of 38.3%.
Zero Hedge - June 16, 2018
...

| -- -

http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=90023.msg527932#msg527932
...
Bayer Avian Influenza Summit

(http://www.mygen.com/images/avianinfluenza-500x375.png)
http://www.622design.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/09/avianinfluenza-500x375.png

SPP -   http://www4.dr-rath-foundation.org/us/north_american_union.html

August 28, 2007

U.S. under U.N. law in health emergency
Bush's SPP power grab sets stage for military to manage flu threats
The Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America summit in Canada released a plan that establishes U.N. law along with regulations by the World Trade Organization and World Health Organization as supreme over U.S. law during a pandemic and sets the stage for militarizing the management of continental health emergencies.

The "North American Plan for Avian & Pandemic Influenza" http://www.spp.gov/pdf/nap_flu07.pdf was finalized at the SPP summit last week in Montebello, Quebec.

At the same time, the U.S. Northern Command, or NORTHCOM, has created a webpage dedicated to avian flu and has been running exercises in preparation for the possible use of U.S. military forces in a continental domestic emergency involving avian flu or pandemic influenza.
http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=14987
...
"unlike previous pandemic influenzas, this will be the first time in the history of humanity that we actually have an opportunity to plan in advance how we would respond to a global pandemic," said Army Lt. Col. (Dr.) Dan Bochicchio, vice chief surgeon of the National Guard Bureau.

Read article at worldnetdaily.com
http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=57369

... SPP Plan...
Canada, Mexico and the United States face a growing threat posed by the spread of avian influenza and the
potential emergence of a human influenza pandemic. The highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, which re-emerged
in Asia in late 2003, has already spread to Europe, the Middle East and Africa. While the virus has not yet
reached North America, the three countries must be prepared for the day when it—or some other highly
contagious virus—does.

That doc link is gone  - you can get it here:
The "North American Plan for Avian & Pandemic Influenza"  (http://www.mygen.com/nap_flu07.pdf)

Zoning And Compartmentalization

In the event of an incursion of NAI virus into North American poultry, the three countries, as WTO Members,
must comply with Article 6 of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
(WTO SPS Agreement), including Article 6.2 which requires that WTO Members “shall, in particular,
recognize the concepts of pest- or disease-free areas and areas of low pest or disease prevalence.”


| - - -

https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/h7n9-influenza-vaccine-clinical-trials-begin
Thursday, March 15, 2018
H7N9 influenza vaccine clinical trials begin


Two new clinical trials testing an experimental vaccine to prevent influenza caused by an H7N9 influenza virus are now enrolling volunteers at sites across the United States. The Phase 2 studies, sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), will test different dosages of the inactivated influenza vaccine candidate (called 2017 H7N9 IIV) as well as different vaccination schedules. The studies also will evaluate whether an adjuvant boosts the immune responses of people receiving the vaccine.

H7N9 is an avian (bird) influenza virus first reported in humans in 2013 in China.
Since then, six waves of H7N9 infection have occurred in China, resulting in more than 1,500 cumulative human infections, according to the World Health Organization. No human cases of H7N9 influenza have been detected to date in the United States. Currently, the virus does not spread easily from person to person; rather, people typically become infected through direct exposure to infected poultry or contaminated environments.