JT, when was the BAR exam first required in the U.S.? Was it a national requirement or a individual state's requirement. Then if passing the BAR, did that automatically assign one the title of Esquire? My best friend had some questions.
The curiosity stems from this: What was the requirement for one to be an attorney here in the U.S. prior to the BAR practice. If there was a system of exams at that time why did we go to the Brits for the Law exams.
If the Article 13 prevents dual citizens from assigning laws, then wouldn't all subsequent laws passed be null and void?
I'm not sure exactly when it became mandatory for lawyers and attorneys to submit to and pass the BAR examination. You can pretty much assume however that it became a requirement within the last 100 years or so.
As to the determination of which the laws, that have been passed subsequent to this shenanigan, as well as other shenanigans we have discussed on these pages... this is the primary reason for the 10th amendment state sovereignty movement, where the states legislatures can independently examine all laws, amendments, and court rulings handed down by the federal power since, but not to include, the Constitution as it was ratified on December 15, 1791, in convention, in the city of New York by Congress.
All laws from that date, and all rulings pertaining to those laws, and rulings supporting all laws, as well as constitutional amendments, all executive orders and presidential decision directives, etc. will become open to the state legislatures for constitutional scrutiny... this includes Justice Marshall's controversial decision in 1803 concerning Marbury versus Madison, and the incredibly destructive DC organic act of February 21, 1871, which setup a corporate shadow government.
We know now how the founders meant for us to use the 9th and 10th amendments as ratified... now to keep the federal power from killing all of us before we get the word out, and get the job done... I hate Fascists!
I think Abraham Lincoln said it best...
--Oldyoti"We the people are the rightful masters of both Congress
and the courts, not to overthrow the Constitution but
to overthrow the men who pervert the Constitution."