From the nature of your question, I assume that you are a true info-warrior. Below are brief answers and links to additional sources of information.
The Square is emblematic of the right angle: our actions as Masons must be square with the Great Light of Masonry (The Holy Bible). The Compass reminds us to set a boundry line for our conduct. Also the Square represents the Earthly and the Compass the Heavenly. Observe that the compass is over the square. The "G" in the center is an American innovation representing God and geometry.
From my experience in a Masonic Lodge, especially serving as Master in 2004, I experienced Romans 10:17 "So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God." All of the salient teachings of Masonry are found between Genesis to Revelation.
From the Masonic Information Center http://www.msana.com/
follow the links to the Masonic Information Center. They publish a short book titled "Is it True What they Say about Freemasonry?" http://www.msana.com/pubmic.asp#true
. Also get a copy of "The Revolutionary Brotherhood" by Stephen Bullock which is his study of the influence of Freemasonry on the formation of the United States.
Southern California Research Lodge F&AMhttp://www.calodges.org/scrl/
Kessinger Publishing utilizes advanced technology to publish and preserve thousands of rare, scarce, and out-of-print books.http://www.kessinger.net/
Symbolical Masonry: An Interpretation of the Three Degreeshttp://www.kessinger.net/searchresults-orderthebook.php?Author=Haywood,+H.+L.#25
I have a copy of this book which belonged to my paternal grandfather who served as Master of his Lodge in 1972.
Masonry has been one of the pillars of American society from before the beginning. When men have sought Masonry, society has benefited from Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth promoted by the Fraternity.
Douglas Strother, PM
Redondo Lodge #328
PS: The star used by the Order of the Eastern Star represents the Star of Behlehem; its orientation signifies the descent of the Divine (Jesus Christ) to our sin-corrupted Earth.