De-Constructing Chemtrail Ingredients and their effects on Human Health

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Offline windyacres

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This will be an ongoing thread .  Windy Acres

Basic chemtrail ingredients through documented analysis -
this list is just a few of the ingredients.

Aluminum, Barium and Strontium
 Polymer Fibers, Ethylene Dibromide,
  Silicon carbide.
Aluminim salts.  Nano Aluminum-coated fiberglass [known as CHAFF], Radioactive Thorium, Cadmium, Chromium, Nickel, Desiccated Blood, Mold Spores, Yellow Fungal Mycotoxins.

As we all know the  government has been using aerosols for
decades now, here's a snip from the 1940's 

Quote
  The U.S. military has been spraying chemical and biological weapons in open air testing over civilian populations since the 1940’s. They are called “vulnerability tests”. This is not a controversial statement. The military has admitted to this practice on many occasions and there’s plenty of documentation from the government to corroborate it. There is also documentation of intentional, experimental releases of radiation on civilian populations. Unfortunately, this information tends to surface long after it could have saved lives, or eased the suffering of victims.(3)   


Chemtrails: The Consequences of Toxic Metals and Chemical Aerosols on Human Health

Part I

By Dr. Ilya Sandra Perlingieri

Global Research, April 23, 2016
Global Research 7 May 2010


This article by the late Dr. Ilya Perlingueri was first published by Global Research in May 2010

For decades, we have known that heavy metals and chemicals can cause grave physical harm. Going back to Rachel Carson’s “Silent Spring,” we have known and been amply warned of the serious consequences of using or being exposed to these poisons in our daily activities. Thousands of these are well-documented carcinogens.

Building on Carson’s ground-breaking research, we also know that certain kinds of chemicals can and do disrupt human [and other animals’] entire immune system. Going back 30 years, researchers were investigating what became known as endocrine [hormone] disrupting chemicals and how they were affecting frogs [who sometimes had five legs or hermaphroditic characteristics], other aquatic animals, and mammals. These animals were the proverbial canaries in the coal mine. In another pioneering book, “Our Stolen Future,” authors Dr. Theo Colburn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers clearly demonstrate that 1 + 1 hormone-disrupting chemicals did not equal 2.

Rather, in a nightmare of mathematical proportions, these poisons acted synergistically; and 1+1 could equal up to 1,600 times the original dose. We are also exposed to more than 100,000 chemicals regularly. Most of them have never been tested for human safety. So, almost nothing has been done to reduce human exposure to a myriad of hazardous chemicals. In fact, over the past decade, the Bush administration dismantled many environmental laws in existence for 30 years, to let corporations off the proverbial hook. [Just look at what’s unfolding in the Gulf with the BP oil spill.]

Although this information, on the dangers of hormone disruption, is now more widely available on Internet sites, it still is not well known by the average person who gets news mostly from mainstream media.(1) Most of these highly toxic chemicals are invisible; and, therefore, are easily off our collective radar. With the high stress level created by the deliberately orchestrated financial crisis –where millions have lost their jobs and homes– a degraded/collapsing environment or serious health problems are not priorities –especially, if very little is reported in mainstream news. This disaster scenario is part of the larger picture of what Naomi Klein writes about in her book “The Shock Doctrine.” We have so many major crises, one after another, that it is hard just to keep up with one’s daily routine –let alone have time to read and consider the toxicological health ramifications of massive amounts of thousands of heavy metals and chemicals that have poisoned our entire food chain and, thus, our own supposed “health.” We are at the very top of this wrecked food chain.

Now, however, there is another far more insidious layer of toxicity that is not being addressed at all in any mainstream, corporate-controlled news, and it is affecting our very survival. It is, however, being addressed more and more by independent researchers who have supporting evidence to back up their Internet reports.

For more than a decade, first the United States and then Canada’s citizens have been subjected to a 24/7/365 day aerosol assault over our heads made of a toxic brew of poisonous heavy metals, chemicals, and other dangerous ingredients. None of this was reported by any mainstream media. The US Department of Defense [DOD] and military have been systematically blanketing all our skies with what are known as Chemtrails (also known as Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering).(2) These differ vastly from the usual plane contrails that evaporate rather quickly in the sky.  Chemtrails do not dissipate. Rather, planes (fitted with special nozzles) release aerosols “lines” in the sky that do not evaporate. Multiple planes are deployed, flying parallel (or often “checkerboard” patterns) overhead; and soon the sky is blanketed with many grayish-white lines [miles and miles long, although this is changing]. At first, these lines are thin; but soon they expand and, in a short time, merge together. Our once-blue sky has vanished and has been replaced by a grayish-white toxic haze that blots out and greatly diminishes our usual sunshine.

Military and commercial planes are involved in more than 60 secret operations. Last year, when I flew across the country, I saw a United Airlines jet (flying below us at about 37,000 feet) spraying a black aerosol that went for miles and miles across the sky. This clandestine program now includes aerosol-spraying planes in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand [all NATO countries]. Hundreds (if not thousands) of people have called and written their public officials to get answers. Replies from US and Canadian officials are not forthcoming; or, if they do reply, queries are dismissed. This remains an ongoing, deliberate cover-up. No one is held accountable, while we continued to be poisoned daily. This is not the first time, however, that citizens are being used as experimental laboratory test subjects. The US government and its military have a very long and sordid history of using us, without informed consent, in this illegal manner. As Carole Pellatt notes:

    The U.S. military has been spraying chemical and biological weapons in open air testing over civilian populations since the 1940’s. They are called “vulnerability tests”. This is not a controversial statement. The military has admitted to this practice on many occasions and there’s plenty of documentation from the government to corroborate it. There is also documentation of intentional, experimental releases of radiation on civilian populations. Unfortunately, this information tends to surface long after it could have saved lives, or eased the suffering of victims.(3)

Over the past decade, independent testing of Chemtrails around the country has shown a dangerous, extremely poisonous brew that includes: barium, nano aluminum-coated fiberglass [known as CHAFF], radioactive thorium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, desiccated blood, mold spores, yellow fungal mycotoxins, ethylene dibromide, and polymer fibers. Barium can be compared to the toxicity of arsenic.(4) Barium is known to adversely affect the heart. Aluminum has a history of damaging brain function. Independent researchers and labs continue to show off-the-scale levels of these poisons. A few “anonymous” officials have acknowledged this on-going aerosol spraying.(5)

Numerous tests have been done to verify that these poisons are off the scale in their toxicity. They are documented in our water, in our soil, and in our air. For more than 10 years, researcher Clifford Carnicom has been valiantly and systematically reporting on the various detrimental aspects of these aerosols –and what they are doing to our entire environment, as well as our blood.(6) Various “sky watch” groups also have been carefully documenting and diligently reporting about these daily assaults.(7)

With all these poisons surrounding our every breath, it is not surprising to see a dramatic increase in illnesses. There are numerous reports of the increase in cardiac deaths and upper respiratory illnesses (asthma, chronic bronchitis, lung cancer, and often multiple chronic illnesses). Chemtrails toxicity has already dramatically affected our deteriorating “collective health.” The significant increase in heart disease and various upper respiratory illnesses has been linked to a vast increase in “particulate matter” in our air. This can be seen by some revealing statistics:

1. Coronary heart disease is now the leading cause of death in the US. According to the CDC, in 2006, 631,636 died of heart disease. This means 1 out of every 5 Americans are affected.(8)

In Canada, every seven minutes someone dies of heart disease.(9)

2. Asthma and upper respiratory illnesses. Between 100-150 million people suffer from asthma worldwide. In the US, 16.4 million adults have asthma and 7 million children have it. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema: 9.8 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis this past year; for emphysema the figure is 3.8 million.(10) Total: 37 million Americans afflicted.

In Canada, 2.4 million have been diagnosed with asthma.

3. Particulate matter in air pollution. Particulate matter [PM] consists of tiny particles 10 microns or less. [1 micron is about 1/70 the thickness of a single human hair.] These particles can lodge in the deepest part of your lungs; and over a period of time, they can damage lung function. This kind of pollution, that we breathe daily, can and does cause various upper respiratory illnesses, coronary heart disease, and premature aging and death. Particulate matter can also exacerbate any existing illness.(11) Unanswered questions: Does hazardous particulate matter act in synergistic ways in human bodies (as do endocrine disrupting chemicals)? How does PM affect millions who already have multiple chronic illnesses?

Brain Injury

Even with the increases in preventable illnesses, the issue that has not been linked or addressed –with what Clifford Carnicom rightly calls “aerosol crimes”– is the deterioration of cognitive function. Our immune system is already under siege daily; and this has resulted in millions (possibly billions) of people with not just one illness, but often multiple ones. The skin, the largest organ in our body, is a permeable membrane. This means that invisible toxins in our air, including Chemtrails and other highly dangerous chemicals, go right into our skin. Poisoned rainwater (or snow touching our skin) does the same thing. When the air we breathe is filled with a dangerous assortment of toxins, with each breath we take, these poisons assault our entire immune system. These poisons also affect our brain and, thus, our cognitive function.

Aluminum is a major component in these aerosols. Although it is our planet’s most abundant metal, our body has no biological need for it. Pesticide Action Network North America [PANNA] lists it as “toxic to humans, including carcinogenicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, and acute toxicity.”(12) Yet, aluminum is commonly used [this is a very short list] in vaccines, deodorants and anti-perspirants, over-the-counter medications, soft drink and beer cans [aluminum leeches from the cans], baking powder, cake mixes, processed cheeses, and other food products and additives. Over years, aluminum accumulates in the brain, tissues, and to a lesser amount the bones. It causes brain degeneration, dysfunction and damage –due to the blockage and reduced blood flow and oxygen of brain arteries. The brain shrinks, as brain cells die. This causes dementia. Symptoms include: emotional outbursts, paranoia, forgetfulness and memory loss, speech incoherence, irritability, diminished alertness, changes in personality, and poor/bad judgment. All these are on the rise, as more than 4-million Americans are afflicted. Brain deterioration and dementia take decades to cause serious and visible harm. Eventually, however, dementia is fatal. “Alzheimer’s” is now being used incorrectly as a catch-all term for all kinds of dementia. Just a few days ago, the front page of the New York Times had a headline: “More with Dementia Wander from Home.”(13) People afflicted with, what the Times terms “Alzheimer’s” were interviewed. One person mentioned he “has a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s.” This is patently wrong. Alzheimer’s dementia can only be accurately diagnosed after death when a post-mortem can be done. However, heavy metals poisoning can be diagnosed through lab testing; but this is rarely done for basic check-ups.

What is not addressed in this increase in dementia is the more than 10 years of breathing Chemtrails with nano aluminum-coated fiberglass. Billions of tons have been sprayed on us.

With all these sources of aluminum added to the air we breathe with each breath, the cumulative toxicity is very high. Even in daily events, it is obvious –to anyone who is paying attention– that many people are behaving oddly. While it may be considered “anecdotal” reporting, there are millions of people whose behavior is strange. There have been numerous times in just the past year when I have asked someone a question and received an answer that is totally unrelated. There have been more and more uncontrolled outbursts in public areas: someone “snaps” for no apparent reason. Violence levels are up. Look at all the shootings on school campuses. There are more unexplained auto accidents that never should have happened. In just one day a few weeks ago, I witnessed three traffic accidents that need not have happened. The news is full of these stories.

Add to this already highly toxic body burden is the US military’s use of aluminum in its aerosols. It is used because of its electrical conductivity, durability, and light weight. The US Air Force reported in 1997 that it released “2 million, 6-7 ounce bundles of CHAFF.” These are laid by military aircraft form 15-50 miles in length.(14) Another unanswered question: Why is the USAF not releasing up-to-date figures?

A 2002 report notes that: “over the last 25 years, the US Navy [has released from planes] several hundred thousand pounds of aluminized chaff during flight operations over a training area on the Chesapeake Bay.”(15) If the Navy used hundreds of thousands of pounds in just this small area of the US, what could be extrapolated for the release of possibly billions of tons of nano aluminum by all the military divisions throughout the US and Canada more recently than 2002? CHAFF is being stored that has lead in it. Has that been released, without our knowledge, and added to these aerosols? What enormous, yet invisible, harm has that created for all of us?

Dr. Hildegarde Staninger reported last year that “exposure to aerial emissions of nano composite materials resulted in cholinesterase inhibition.”(16) The human body has three kinds of cholinesterase: for the brain, for plasma (manufactured by the liver), and red blood cells. Some pesticides and nerve gases (such as VX, an organophosphate) inhibit cholinesterase. The chronic inhibition of this enzyme (that normally circulates in red blood cells), caused by the spraying of these Chemtrails aerosols [for weather modification, but also used for mosquito and other insect eradication], causes chronic poisoning. This exposure causes severe neurological disorders, including paralysis in humans.

In a ground-breaking 2003 online essay, Dr. Kaye Kilburn, asks: “Why is Chemical Brain Injury Ignored?”(17) His article lists 13 concealed factors that affect our willingness to believe that dangerous chemicals do affect the brain. They include: 1. “It’s all in your head” [meaning real symptoms are ignored by allopathic medicine].

2. Resistance to vulnerability [individuals, and society collectively, cannot believe the brain is at risk].

3. The acceptance of mind-altering prescription drugs [such as Paxil] that can and do affect the brain [millions are on anti-depressants –what long-term damage does that also do to cognitive thinking?].

4. Chemical brain injury is considered not to be “an imminent threat.”

5. Competition from other serious threats [causing indifference or denial];

6. Delay in acknowledging health risks.

7. Economic interests [delaying tactics by big corporations are well known –delay continues profits and ignores taking responsibility –We are all expendable for corporate profits].

8. The field of neurology has been slow to consider causes [how many independent researchers are left who do not have any ties to the pharmaceutical/chemical companies?].

In  all these valuable reasons for not addressing this human crisis, the one that Dr. Kilburn has not addressed directly is the chronic assault of breathing/absorbing these now billions of tons of hazardous aerosolized chemicals and heavy metals over more than a decade without our informed consent. When one does not look for or address primary causes, then other issues can be blamed. This, on top of a government’s silence or refusal to respond and the corporate media’s complicity, make for an extremely dangerous combination that puts us all at grave and daily risk. As brain function is diminished, and other things are blamed for it, any population is easier “to control.”

Dr. Kiburn’s research clearly shows that chemicals do affect and seriously harm the brain [and, thereby, cognitive function]. Chemicals –especially a daily onslaught of toxic chemicals over many years– can damage our ability to think clearly. Even if we find this hard to believe, the evidence is there. Dr. Kilburn has expanded this essay into the first book to research this: “Chemical Brain Injury” (published in 1998). Dr. Kilburn notes:

    The brain’s preservation represents the only possibility of survival for mankind. To find in many parts of the country and in many individual patients that its function is eroded seriously by chemicals, chemicals that have been introduced into the environment basically in the last 50 years, is bad news indeed.(18)

It seems almost unbelievable that millions/billions of people could look up at the sky and not notice the dramatic changes that have occurred from what it was, for instance, in the mid-1990s. Then our sky was a gorgeous, deep blue. Clouds were a beautiful assortment of shapes. The sun was glorious. But people under 30, may not have a real sense of recollection about looking up every day and seeing this panoramic magnificence. Most of them are too busy texting or chatting on their cell phones. There are other issues to consider, as well: People are in their own comfort zones; and denial is a very powerful human emotion. In the hustle and bustle (now quite out of hand, for reflective time), how many people look up at the sky? It also takes huge courage, a very deep, internal willingness to examine politically motivated corporate controlled media spin, and search for the real answers. Humans like their regular routines. To re-examine what we think we know, based on new evidence, takes a willingness to think outside the proverbial box; to want to find out the truth –not the pervasive Orwellian doublespeak that pervades our society. If everything in our daily routine belies what is truly going on, it requires fortitude to explore the unknown –to question the litany.

Another courageous person is Dr. R. Michael Castle who continues to address the Chemtrails toxicity issue. He is a noted polymer chemist who has been interviewed frequently and has written articles about the extreme hazards of Chemtrails. Dr. Castle has also written a ground-breaking document, the Universal Atmospheric Preservation Act [UAPA]. This document has been in Congress since 2008; but is tied up in committee. The only way to have this vital piece of legislation passed is to have real congressional representatives actually representing us (instead of the corporate lobbyists). See:

http://anticcorruptionsociety.files.wordpress.com/22010/04/the-unified-atmospheric-preservation-act.pdf

Given these issues, since our collapsing society has so many different levels of deceit –the financial debacle, the lies and deceit of government and the Federal Reserve blaming people for the housing/mortgage nightmare, the emerging police state, the disasters that envelope our fragile environment– it becomes increasingly difficult just to maintain a daily routine and survive the economic depression and its daily fallout. Mainstream media does its supporting role and deceives us. Millions, like the proverbial lemmings, hasten to join the group demise. There are countless historical instances of this collective insanity. We Homo sapiens [sic, wise men?] have never learned the lessons of 5,000 years of history. This is because each new generation of corrupt political leaders (often tied historically to previous ones) never has the real interest of their constituents as a basic part of their political practice. Further, there is no Precautionary Principle in place.(19) It’s not the way the political game of deception works. Precaution is not part of an equation that is broken from the beginning. Humans are gullible and want to believe the Orwellian deceptions.

To add to this already heavy burden, to ask uninformed, although supposedly “well educated” [What does that actually mean, given that much of our higher education has omitted much of what Prof. Peter Dale Scott calls “deep political events” that never get into our history books?] people to reconsider what they think they know about what is really going on –this takes enormous internal strength. It requires profound courage. The basis of this “courage” actually means creating new synaptical pathways in the brain. Without them, we feel scared, nervous…because those new synapses have not yet been created. It takes repeated effort, and, thus, an emerging sense of ease, to create these new synapses.

If, however, millions of people are already on prescription pharmaceuticals to “calm them down” [long term, what is this doing to their ability to think clearly?] and, in addition, are breathing poisoned air rife with mind-distorting chemicals, then how clearly (if at all) is anyone able to think? How can anyone feel well and safe, if the very air we breathe is deliberately poisoned and is affecting our ability to think cogently? It is already evident that no one in any official capacity is willing to tell the truth. It is like Diogenes, the ancient Greek, searching for a truthful individual. No one seems to have the desire, or courage, or authority to stop this massive poisoning, because it is the secret plan of the elite insiders to deliberate destroy everything we once knew.

Our BASIC human rights, constitutional and international laws are mere paper. These rights and laws have all been torn asunder by those in charge. It has been done by stealth. We must organize peacefully. PEACEFULLY is the operative word. If these many-pronged aerosol attacks by military and commercial planes can spray these horrific toxins on us, year after year with impunity –against all laws– then it is absolutely imperative that we organize peacefully. As Peter Dale Scott notes in Jason Bermas’ new DVD “Invisible Empire”: we must use the Internet and our peaceful intellectual powers to come together and shut this nightmare down. It is possible to do this.

 

Dr. Ilya Sandra Perlingieri is author of the highly acclaimed book, “The Uterine Crisis.”

Notes

1. See: www.ourstolenfuture.org

2. See Michael J. Murphy. “What in the World Are They Spraying?” March 3, 2010: www.countercurrents.org/murphy030310.htm ; and G. Edward Griffin. “Chemtrail vs. Contrail” April 14, 2010: www.youtube.com/watch?v=rsWpSPBwA-w

3. Carole Pellatt. Connections. “What’s going on in the air? Yes, we are being sprayed.” Aug. 8m 2007:

 http://homepage.mac.com/carolepellatt/yeswearebeingsprayed ; and

http://homepage.mac.com/carolepellatt/MATRIX/INDEXCHEMTRAILS.html

4. See Pesticide Action Network North America [PANNA]: http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC41174

5. March 12, 2010:

www.lightwatcher.com/chemtrails/text/faa_confirms_Chemtrails. An interesting conference at the University of California, San Diego [UCSD], “Atmospheric Aerosols: Health, Environment, and Climate Effects” addresses some of the cardio-vascular increases due to “atmospheric aerosols” but these academics never use the word Chemtrails. Yet, satellite photos they show clearly indicate the atmospheric impact of Chemtrails. See: Jan. 31, 2008: UCSD: www.youtube.com/watch?v=ztHV5RF-xyw

6. For numerous detailed reports, see: www.carnicom.com; www.carnicominstitute.org; www.bariumblues.com; and Dr. Marijah McCain. “Chemtrails and Barium Toxicity.” April 6, 2002: www.rense.com/general21/tox.htm ; Material Safety Data Sheet, University of Utah: www.chemtrails911.com/docs/bariumhealth.htm. This last cited website is very outdated. It does not address the increased amounts of barium now found in our air. Additional info: “Local News Station Confirms Barium in Chemtrails.” Nov. 10, 2007: www.youtube.com/watch?v=okB-489l6MI

7. See: www.newyorkskywatch.com; www.californiaskywatch.com ; www.arizonaskywatch.com

8. Heart Disease Facts. CDC; www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm

9. www.heartandstroke.com/site/c.ikIQLcMWJtE/b.3483991/k.34A8/Statistics.htm#heartdisease

10. Asthma. CDC: www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/asthma.htm; and chronic bronchitis and emphysema: CDC: www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/copd.htm

11. Rosalind Peterson’s report: “The impacts of air pollution on health.” www.californiaskywatch.com/health_issues.htm 

12. PANNA: www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33881

13. May 4, 2010: www.nytimes.com/2010/05/05/us/05search.html?hpw

14. [14. See: Rosalind Peterson. “Public and federal agencies concerned about the potentially harmful or undesirable effects of chaff on the environment.” www.californiaskywatch.com/documents/htmldocs/chaff_goa_dod.htm

15. “Effects of Navy chaff release on aluminum levels in an area of the Chesapeake Bay.” PubMed. US National Library of Medicine. June 2002: www.ncbi.nl.nih.gov/pubmed/12061831

16. Sept. 7, 2009: www.hildegarde-staninger.com/exposure-to-aerial-emissions-html 

17. Kaye H. Kilburn. “Why is Chemical Brain Injury Ignored. Pondering Causes and Risks.” Editorial. Archives of Environmental Health. March 1, 2003: www.mindfully.org/Health/2003/Chemical-Brain-Injury1mar03.htm

18. www.neuro-test.com/aboutKilburn/aboutKilburn.html 

19. Dr. Ilya Sandra Perlingieri. “Worldwide Environmental Crisis. Gone Missing: The Precautionary Principle.” Global Research. Feb. 11, 2009: www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=12268   
The original source of this article is Global Research
Copyright © Dr. Ilya Sandra Perlingieri, Global Research, 2016


http://www.globalresearch.ca/chemtrails-the-consequences-of-toxic-metals-and-chemical-aerosols-on-human-health/19047
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Offline windyacres

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Please add ingredients known to be in Chemtrails, I can't watch
youtube videos being on dial up.  What I'm going to do on this
thread is then break down each known chemical and the effects
to Human Health and the central nervous system. 

Thanks, Windy
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Offline windyacres

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  Ethylene Dibromide


Medical Management Guidelines for Ethylene Dibromide
(C2H4Br2)


Synonyms include 1,2-dibromoethane, glycoldibromide, and bromofume.

    Persons whose clothing or skin is contaminated with liquid ethylene dibromide (above 50�F) can secondarily contaminate others by direct contact or through offgassing vapor.
    A liquid at room temperature, ethylene dibromide readily penetrates skin, cloth, and other protective materials such as rubber and leather. It is nonflammable.
    Ethylene dibromide is a colorless, heavy liquid with a sweet chloroform-like odor. It's odor is not detectable at a low enough concentration to be considered a warning of excessive exposure.
    Absorption can occur by the inhalation, oral, and dermal routes. It is toxic by these three routes of exposure. Toxicity is thought to be due to metabolic products of ethylene dibromide.

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General Information
Description

Ethylene dibromide is a nonflammable colorless liquid with a sweet chloroform-like odor at room temperature above 50�F (10�C). It is slightly soluble in water and soluble in most organic solvents. It is heavier than water. When heated to decomposition, it may release gases and vapors such as hydrogen bromide, bromine, and carbon monoxide. Ethylene dibromide should be stored in a dry place at ambient temperature.
Routes of Exposure
Inhalation

Inhalation is an important route of exposure. Ethylene dibromide's odor is not detectable at a low enough concentration to be considered a good warning of excessive exposure. Ethylene dibromide vapors are heavier than air and can accumulate in poorly ventilated or low-lying areas.

Fatalities have occurred among workers cleaning a tank containing residues of ethylene dibromide. The dermal route also contributed to the exposure.

Children exposed to the same levels of ethylene dibromide as adults may receive larger doses because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and higher minute volume:weight ratios. In addition, they may be exposed to higher levels than adults in the same location because of their short stature and the higher levels of ethylene dibromide vapors found nearer to the ground.
Skin/Eye Contact

Ethylene dibromide can penetrate ordinary rubber gloves and leather. Prolonged skin contact with the liquid may cause erythema, blistering, and skin ulcers. Skin absorption may contribute to systemic toxicity.

Because of their relatively larger surface area:weight ratio, children are more vulnerable to toxicants absorbed through the skin.
Ingestion

Acute toxic effects, including fatal systemic poisoning, can result from ingestion. Rapid effects following ingestion can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and drowsiness.
Sources/Uses

Ethylene dibromide is produced by liquid-phase bromination of ethylene at 35-85�C. This is followed by neutralization to free acid and purification by distillation. Ethylene dibromide was used extensively as a scavenger for lead in gasoline and as a pesticide and an ingredient of soil, vegetable, fruit, and grain fumigant formulations. However, these uses have almost disappeared in the United States. It is used to some extent as a chemical intermediate, gauge fluid, and as a nonflammable solvent for resins, gums, and waxes.
Standards and Guidelines

OSHA 8-hour TWA = 20 ppm; acceptable ceiling concentration = 30 ppm

NIOSH REL-TWA = 0.045 ppm; 15-min ceiling limit = 0.13 ppm

NIOSH IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health) = 100 ppm
Physical Properties

Description: Colorless; liquid at room temperature and solid below 50�F (10�C)

Warning properties: Inadequate for exposure to vapors

Molecular weight: 187.9 daltons

Boiling point (760 mm Hg): 268°F (131°C)

Freezing point: 50°F (10°C)

Vapor pressure: 11 mm Hg at 77°F (25°C)

Liquid specific gravity: 2.172 at 77°F (25°C)

Gas density: 6.48 (air = 1)

Water solubility: Water soluble (0.43% at 86°F) (30°C)

Flammability: Nonflammable
Incompatibilities

Incompatible with strong oxidizers, magnesium, alkali metals, and liquid ammonia.
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Health Effects

    Ethylene dibromide is a liquid at ambient temperatures that can cause skin, eye, mucous membrane, and respiratory tract irritation. It may also cause damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys. These effects can result from all routes of exposure.
    The systemic effects of ethylene dibromide are in part due to metabolic conversion to the cell toxicant 2-bromoacetaldehyde.
    Persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye problems, or impaired liver, kidney, or respiratory tract function may be more susceptible to the effects of ethylene dibromide.

Acute Exposure

Ethylene dibromide alkylates macromolecules causing cellular disruption and reduced glutathione levels. Cellular disruption in tissues and organs, such as liver and kidneys, results in progressive dysfunction. Manifestation of some of the effects of acute high exposure may be delayed a few days.

Children do not always respond to chemicals in the same way that adults do. Different protocols for managing their care may be needed.
Respiratory

Early symptoms of acute exposure include irritation of the nose and throat. Exposures of moderate to severe intensity produce respiratory manifestations ranging from cough, chest pain, and dyspnea to bronchitis, pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and hemorrhage. Pulmonary edema occurred 3 days after oral poisoning in one fatal human case.

Children may be more vulnerable because of higher minute ventilation per kg and failure to evacuate an area promptly when exposed. Hydrocarbon pneumonitis may be a problem in children.
CNS

Ethylene dibromide is a mild central nervous system depressant. Drowsiness has been reported following ingestion and inhalation. Inhalation of vapors in a confined oxygen-deficient space has caused rapid loss of consciousness, coma, and death.
Dermal

Liquid ethylene dibromide is a skin irritant. Brief skin contact or contact with contaminated clothing causes erythema and discomfort. Splashing of the liquid on the skin causes a sensation of cooling because the liquid evaporates quickly. Prolonged skin contact may cause blistering and skin ulcers (may be delayed 24-48 hours). Ethylene dibromide can be absorbed through the skin to produce systemic effects.

Exposure to certain chemicals can lead to Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS), a chemically- or irritant-induced type of asthma.

Because of their larger relatively surface area:body weight ratio, children are more vulnerable to toxins absorbed through the skin.
Ocular/Ophthalmic

Conjunctivitis has been reported after exposure to ethylene dibromide. Eye contact with the compound may cause temporary loss of vision because of destruction of tissues in the eye.
Hepatic

Ethylene dibromide poisoning often affects the liver. Significant liver damage has resulted from inhalation and ingestion of ethylene dibromide. Necrosis of the liver was a chief finding in a fatal case of acute oral poisoning. In two fatal cases of inhalation/dermal exposure, serum aspartate aminotransferase and lactic dehydrogenase were elevated before death.
Renal

The kidney is often affected in ethylene dibromide poisoning. Severe renal lesions were reported in fatal cases of acute oral poisoning and also inhalation poisoning. Lesions included necrosis of the tubular epithelium, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the proximal convoluted tubules, and tubular protein casts.
Gastrointestinal

Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea have been reported after ethylene dibromide ingestion
Hematological

Coagulation has been reported after ingestion. Leukocytosis can occur within several days of exposure.
Metabolic

Metabolic acidosis can occur after high exposure to ethylene dibromide.
Potential Sequelae

Patients who develop severe acute neurologic injury but survive may have both central and peripheral neurologic effects that persist indefinitely.
Chronic Exposure

No reliable reports exist of adverse health effects in humans exposed chronically to ethylene dibromide.

Chronic exposure may be more serious for children because of their potential for a longer latency period.
Carcinogenicity

The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that ethylene dibromide can reasonably be anticipated to be a human carcinogen, based on ethylene dibromide-induced tumors in multiple sites and by various routes of exposure in animals. Results from epidemiological studies have been inconclusive.
Reproductive and Developmental Effects

There is inconclusive but suggestive evidence that ethylene dibromide may reduce fertility in men. Antispermatogenic effects have been demonstrated in various animal species. Ethylene dibromide is included in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicants, a 1991 report published by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) that lists 30 chemicals of concern because of widely acknowledged reproductive and developmental consequences.

Special consideration regarding the exposure of pregnant women is warranted, since ethylene dibromide has been shown to be a genotoxin; thus, medical counseling is recommended for pregnant women.
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Prehospital Management

    Victims exposed only to ethylene dibromide gas do not pose substantial risks of secondary contamination to personnel outside the Hot Zone; however, some ethylene dibromide may permeate clothing. Victims whose clothing or skin is contaminated with liquid ethylene dibromide (i.e., ambient temperature higher than 50�F) can secondarily contaminate response personnel by direct contact or through off-gassing vapor.
    Ethylene dibromide is a mucous membrane, skin, and eye irritant. It may also cause respiratory distress and pulmonary noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, liver and kidney toxicity, drowsiness, coma, and death. Dermal absorption may contribute to systemic toxicity.
    There is no antidote for ethylene dibromide. Treatment consists of support of respiratory and cardiovascular functions.

Hot Zone

Rescuers should be trained and appropriately attired before entering the Hot Zone. If the proper equipment is not available, or if rescuers have not been trained in its use, assistance should be obtained from a local or regional HAZMAT team or other properly equipped response organization.
Rescuer Protection

Ethylene dibromide is a highly toxic systemic poison that is readily absorbed following inhalation and dermal exposure.

Respiratory Protection: Positive-pressure, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with a full facepiece is recommended in response situations that involve exposure to potentially unsafe levels of methyl bromide vapor.

Skin Protection: Chemical-protective clothing (including boots and gloves) is recommended because ethylene dibromide vapor or liquid can be absorbed through the skin and may contribute to systemic toxicity. Contact with liquid ethylene dibromide can cause skin irritation and blisters. Ethylene dibromide can penetrate ordinary rubber gloves and leather.
ABC Reminders

Quickly establish a patent airway, ensure adequate respiration and pulse. If trauma is suspected, maintain cervical immobilization manually and apply a cervical collar and a backboard when feasible.
Victim Removal

If victims can walk, lead them out of the Hot Zone to the Decontamination Zone. Victims who are unable to walk may be removed on backboards or gurneys; if these are not available, carefully carry or drag victims to safety.

Consider appropriate management of anxiety in victims with chemically-induced acute disorders, especially children who may suffer separation anxiety if separated from a parent or other adult.
Decontamination Zone

Remove clothing, including footwear, from all victims because ethylene dibromide persists in cloth, leather, and rubber. After clothing has been removed, patients exposed only to the gas who have no skin or eye irritation may be transferred immediately to the Support Zone. All others require decontamination as described below.

Rescuer Protection

If exposure levels are determined to be safe, decontamination may be conducted by personnel wearing a lower level of protection than that worn in the Hot Zone (described above).
ABC Reminders

Quickly establish a patent airway, ensure adequate respiration and pulse. Stabilize the cervical spine with a collar and a backboard if trauma is suspected. Administer supplemental oxygen as required. Assist ventilation with a bag-valve-mask device if necessary.
Basic Decontamination

Victims who are able may assist with their own decontamination. Remove all contaminated clothing including footwear. Ethylene dibromide can persist in cloth, leather, and rubber, and these materials may contribute to severe chemical burns after prolonged skin contact. Double-bag contaminated clothing and personal belongings. Leave these items in the Hot Zone.

Flush exposed skin and hair with water for at least 15 minutes, then wash twice with mild soap. Rinse thoroughly with water. Use caution to avoid hypothermia when decontaminating patients, particularly children or the elderly. Use blankets or warmers after decontamination as needed.

Irrigate exposed or irritated eyes with plain water or saline for 15 to 20 minutes. Remove contact lenses if easily removable without additional trauma to the eye. If pain or injury is evident, continue irrigation while transferring the victim to the Support Zone.

If ingestion of liquid ethylene dibromide occurs, do not induce emesis. If the victim is alert and able to swallow, administer a slurry of activated charcoal at a dose of 1 g/kg (infant, child, and adult dose). A soda can and straw may be of assistance when offering charcoal to a child.

Consider appropriate management of chemically contaminated children at the exposure site. Also, provide reassurance to the child during decontamination, especially if separation from a parent occurs.
Transfer to Support Zone

As soon as basic decontamination is complete, move the victim to the Support Zone.
Support Zone

Be certain that victims have been decontaminated properly (see Decontamination Zone above). Victims who have undergone decontamination pose no serious risks of secondary contamination. Support Zone personnel require no specialized protective gear in such cases.
ABC Reminders

Quickly establish a patent airway, ensure adequate respiration and pulse. If trauma is suspected, maintain cervical immobilization manually and apply a cervical collar and a backboard when feasible. Administer supplemental oxygen as required and establish intravenous access if necessary. Place on a cardiac monitor.
Additional Decontamination

Continue irrigating exposed skin and eyes, as appropriate.

In cases of ingestion of liquid ethylene dibromide, do not induce emesis. If the victim is alert and able to swallow, administer a slurry of activated charcoal at a dose of 1 g/kg (infant, child, and adult dose). A soda can and straw may be of assistance when offering charcoal to a child.
Advanced Treatment

In cases of respiratory compromise secure airway and respiration via endotracheal intubation. If not possible, perform cricothyrotomy if equipped and trained to do so.

Treat patients who have bronchospasm with an aerosolized bronchodilator such as albuterol.

Consider racemic epinephrine aerosol for children who develop stridor. Dose 0.25-0.75 mL of 2.25% racemic epinephrine solution, repeat every 20 minutes as needed, cautioning for myocardial variability.

Patients who are comatose, hypotensive, or are having seizures or cardiac arrhythmias should be treated according to advanced life support (ALS) protocols.

If evidence of shock or hypotension is observed, begin fluid administration. For adults with systolic pressure less than 80 mm Hg, bolus perfusion of 1,000 mL/hour intravenous saline or lactated Ringer's solution may be appropriate. Higher adult systolic pressures may necessitate lower perfusion rates. For children with compromised perfusion administer a 20 mL/kg bolus of normal saline over 10 to 20 minutes, then infuse at 2 to 3 mL/kg/hour.
Transport to Medical Facility

Only decontaminated patients or patients not requiring decontamination should be transported to a medical facility. "Body bags" are not recommended.

Report to the base station and the receiving medical facility the condition of the patient, treatment given, and estimated time of arrival at the medical facility.

If the patient has ingested ethylene dibromide, prepare the ambulance in case the patient vomits toxic material or has diarrhea. Have ready several towels and open plastic bags to quickly clean up and isolate vomitus.
Multi-Casualty Triage

Consult with the base station physician or the regional poison control center for advice regarding triage of multiple victims. Because systemic symptoms may be delayed for several hours after exposure, all exposed patients should be transported to a medical facility for evaluation. Symptomatic patients should receive priority in transport.
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Emergency Department Management

    Hospital personnel away from the scene are not at significant risk of secondary contamination from patients exposed to vapors of ethylene dibromide or to liquid ethylene dibromide (ambient temperatures greater than 50�F); however, some ethylene dibromide may have permeated clothing.
    Ethylene dibromide is a mucous membrane irritant and exposures to high concentrations can cause eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritation, as well as pulmonary edema. Dermal absorption can contribute to systemic toxicity.
    High concentrations can also cause drowsiness, coma, and death.
    There is no antidote for ethylene dibromide. Treatment consists of support of respiratory and cardiovascular functions.

Decontamination Area

Unless previously decontaminated, all patients suspected of contact with liquid ethylene dibromide and all victims with skin or eye irritation require decontamination as described below. Because ethylene dibromide is absorbed through the skin, don butyl rubber gloves and apron before treating patients. Ethylene dibromide readily penetrates most rubbers and barrier fabrics or creams, but butyl rubber provides good skin protection. All other patients may be transferred immediately to the Critical Care Area.

Be aware that use of protective equipment by the provider may cause anxiety, particularly in children, resulting in decreased compliance with further management efforts.

Because of their relatively larger surface area:body weight ratio, children are more vulnerable to toxicants absorbed through the skin. Also, emergency department personnel should examine children's mouths because of the frequency of hand-to-mouth activity among children.
ABC Reminders

Evaluate and support airway, breathing, and circulation. In cases of respiratory compromise secure airway and respiration via endotracheal intubation. If not possible, surgically create an airway.

Treat patients who have bronchospasm with an aerosolized bronchodilator such as albuterol.

Consider racemic epinephrine aerosol for children who develop stridor. Dose 0.25-0.75 mL of 2.25% racemic epinephrine solution, repeat every 20 minutes as needed, cautioning for myocardial variability.

Patients who are comatose, hypotensive, or have seizures or cardiac arrhythmias should be treated in the conventional manner.
Basic Decontamination

Patients who are able may assist with their own decontamination. Remove and double-bag all clothing, including footwear, because ethylene dibromide penetrates many materials and can remain trapped in them. Leather absorbs ethylene dibromide; items such as leather shoes, gloved, and belts may require disposal by incineration.

Flush exposed skin and hair with water for at least 15 minutes, then wash twice with mild soap. Rinse thoroughly with water. Use caution to avoid hypothermia when decontaminating patients, particularly children or the elderly. Use blankets or warmers after decontamination as needed.

Irrigate exposed or irritated eyes with tap water or saline for 15 to 20 minutes. Remove contact lenses if easily removable without additional trauma to the eye. If pain or injury is evident, continue irrigation while transferring the victim to the Critical Care Area. An ophthalmic anesthetic, such as 0.5% tetracaine, may be necessary to alleviate blepharospasm, and lid retractors may be required to allow adequate irrigation under the eyelids.

If ingestion occurs, do not induce emesis. If the victim is alert and able to swallow, and if not already done, administer a slurry of activated charcoal at a dose of 1 g/kg (infant, child, and adult dose). A soda can and straw may be of assistance when offering charcoal to a child.
Critical Care Area

Be certain that appropriate decontamination has been carried out (see Decontamination Area, above).
ABC Reminders

Evaluate and support airway, breathing, and circulation as in ABC Reminders above. Establish intravenous access in seriously ill patients. Continuously monitor cardiac rhythm.

Patients who are comatose, hypotensive, or have seizures or cardiac arrhythmias should be treated in the conventional manner.
Inhalation Exposure

Administer supplemental oxygen by mask to patients who have respiratory complaints. Treat patients who have bronchospasm with an aerosolized bronchodilator such as albuterol.

Consider racemic epinephrine aerosol for children who develop stridor. Dose 0.25-0.75 mL of 2.25% racemic epinephrine solution, repeat every 20 minutes as needed, cautioning for myocardial variability.

Observe these patients for 24 hours using repeated chest examinations and other appropriate tests. Follow-up as clinically indicated.
Skin Exposure

If the skin was in contact with concentrated ethylene dibromide vapor or liquid, chemical burns may result; treat as thermal burns. Burns may be delayed in onset.

Because of their relatively larger surface area:body weight ratio, children are more vulnerable to toxicants absorbed through the skin.
Eye Exposure

Continue irrigation for at least 15 minutes. Test visual acuity. Examine the eyes for corneal damage and treat appropriately. Immediately consult an ophthalmologist for patients who have corneal injuries.
Ingestion Exposure

If ingestion of liquid ethylene dibromide occurs, do not induce emesis. If the victim is alert and able to swallow, and if not already done, administer a slurry of activated charcoal at a dose of 1 g/kg (infant, child, and adult dose). A soda can and straw may be of assistance when offering charcoal to a child.
Antidotes and Other Treatments

There is no proven antidote for ethylene dibromide poisoning. Dimercaprol (BAL) or acetylcysteine (Mucomyst) have been suggested as antidotes based on the postulated mechanism of ethylene dibromide's toxicity. However, no adequate studies have tested the efficacy of these therapies, and they are not recommended for routine use.
Laboratory Tests

Serum bromide levels can be used to document that exposure did occur. However, bromide levels do not accurately predict the clinical course. Routine laboratory studies include CBC, glucose, and electrolyte determinations. Additional studies for patients exposed to ethylene dibromide include liver-function tests and renal-function tests. In cases of inhalation exposure, chest radiography and arterial blood gas measurements may be helpful.
Disposition and Follow-up

Decisions to admit or discharge a patient should be based on exposure history, physical examination, and test results. The probable delay in onset of serious effects from ethylene dibromide exposure should be considered.
Delayed Effects

Because the onset of pulmonary edema may be delayed for up to several days, patients who have severe exposure should be monitored with serial examinations before absence of toxic effects can be assured. If pulmonary edema is suspected, admit patients to an intensive care unit. Neurological symptoms also may not develop for several days or weeks.
Patient Release

Patients who have no evidence of neuropsychiatric or pulmonary effects 24 hours after exposure may be discharged with instructions to return to the emergency department (ED) if symptoms develop or recur (see the Ethylene Dibromide--Patient Information Sheet below).
Follow-up

Obtain the name of the patient's primary care physician so that the hospital can send a copy of the ED visit to the patient's doctor.

Patients exposed to ethylene dibromide should be monitored for late neuropsychiatric sequelae.

Patients who have corneal injuries should be reexamined within 24 hours.
Reporting

Ethylene dibromide is a pesticide. If a pesticide- or work-related incident has occurred, you may be legally required to file a report; contact your state or local health department.

Other persons may still be at risk in the setting where this incident occurred. If the incident occurred in the workplace, discussing it with company personnel may prevent future incidents. If a public health risk exists, notify your state or local health department or other responsible public agency. When appropriate, inform patients that they may request an evaluation of their workplace from OSHA or NIOSH. See Appendix III for a list of agencies that may be of assistance.
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Patient Information Sheet

This handout provides information and follow-up instructions for persons who have been exposed to ethylene dibromide.

Print this handout only. Print the Ethylene Dibromide Patient Information Sheet (File Size 26k)26k
What is ethylene dibromide?

Ethylene dibromide is a colorless liquid at ambient temperature, with a sweetish odor. Ethylene dibromide has been used as a scavenger for lead in gasoline and as a pesticide and an ingredient of soil and grain fumigant formulations. These uses have virtually disappeared in the United States. Minor uses include use as a chemical intermediate and as a nonflammable solvent for resins, gums, and waxes.
What immediate health effects can be caused by exposure to ethylene dibromide?

Ingestion of the ethylene dibromide or inhalation of vapors can cause injury to the brain, lungs, and throat. High doses can also injure the kidneys and liver. Contact with the skin and eyes can lead to irritation and burns and can also contribute to systemic toxicity. Ethylene dibromide may cause cardiac arrhythmias and sensitization. Generally, the more serious the exposure, the more severe the symptoms.
Can ethylene dibromide poisoning be treated?

There is no antidote for ethylene dibromide poisoning, but its effects can be treated and most persons recover. Persons who have experienced serious symptoms may need to be hospitalized and may need follow-up examinations or treatment later on.
Are any future health effects likely to occur?

A single small exposure from which a person recovers quickly is not likely to cause delayed or long-term effects. After a serious exposure that causes lung or nervous system-related problems, permanent brain or lung damage can result. The Department of Health and Humans Services has determined that ethylene dibromide can reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.
What tests can be done if a person has been exposed to ethylene dibromide?

Specific tests for the presence of bromide in blood may provide some useful information to the doctor. If a severe exposure has occurred, blood and urine analyses and other tests may show whether the lungs, brain, liver, or kidneys have been damaged. Testing is not needed in every case.
Where can more information about ethylene dibromide be found?

More information about ethylene dibromide can be obtained from your regional poison control center; your state, county, or local health department; the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR); your doctor; or a clinic in your area that specializes in occupational and environmental health. If the exposure happened at work, you may wish to discuss it with your employer, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), or the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Ask the person who gave you this form for help in locating these telephone numbers.


http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/MMG/MMG.asp?id=1143&tid=251
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  Ethylene Dibromide (Dibromoethane)
   



 106-93-4
Hazard Summary-Created in April 1992; Revised in January 2000

    Exposure to ethylene dibromide primarily occurs from its past use as an additive to leaded gasoline and as a fumigant.  Ethylene dibromide is extremely toxic to humans.  The chronic (long-term) effects of exposure to ethylene dibromide have not been well documented in humans. Animal studies indicate that chronic exposure to ethylene dibromide may result in toxic effects to the liver, kidney, and the testis, irrespective of the route of exposure.  Limited data on men occupationally exposed to ethylene dibromide indicate that long-term exposure to ethylene dibromide can impair reproduction by damaging sperm cells in the testicles.  Several animal studies indicate that long-term exposure to ethylene dibromideincreases the incidences of a variety of tumors in rats and mice in both sexes by all routes of exposure.  EPA has classified ethylene dibromide as a Group B2, probable human carcinogen.

Please Note: The main sources of information for this fact sheet are EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), which contains information on the carcinogenic effects of ethylene dibromide including the unit cancer risk for inhalation exposure, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dibromoethane.
Uses

    Ethylene dibromide was used in the past as an additive to leaded gasoline; however, since leaded gasoline is now banned, it is no longer used for this purpose. (1)
    Ethylene dibromide was used as a fumigant to protect against insects, pests, and nematodes in citrus, vegetable, and grain crops, and as a fumigant for turf, particularly on golf courses. In 1984, EPA banned its use as a soil and grain fumigant. (1)
    Ethylene dibromide is currently used in the treatment of felled logs for bark beetles and termites, and control of wax moths in beehives. (1)
    Ethylene dibromide is also used as an intermediate for dyes, resins, waxes, and gums. (1)

Sources and Potential Exposure

    Possible sources of ethylene dibromide emissions to the ambient air are production and processing facilities. (1)
    Exposure could occur from inhalation of ambient air near industries that use ethylene dibromide or through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water. (1)

Assessing Personal Exposure

    There is no known reliable medical test to determine whether someone has been exposed to ethylene dibromide. (1)

Health Hazard Information
Acute Effects:

    Clinical signs in humans and animals related to acute inhalation exposure to ethylene dibromide are depression and collapse. Ethylene dibromide is a severe skin irritant that can cause blistering. (1,2)
    Exposure to high concentrations of ethylene dibromide through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact can result in death. Changes in the liver and kidney are reported in humans who died from ingestion of ethylene dibromide. (1,2)
    Tests involving acute exposure of rats have shown ethylene dibromide to have high acute toxicity from oral exposure, while moderate acute toxicity resulted from inhalation exposure. (3)

Chronic Effects (Noncancer):

    The chronic effects of exposure to ethylene dibromide have not been extensively documented in humans. In one case in which a worker breathed ethylene dibromide for several years, he developed bronchitis, headache, and depression. His health improved after he stopped breathing air contaminated with ethylene dibromide. (1,2)
    Animal studies indicate that prolonged exposure to ethylene dibromide may result in toxic effects to the liver, kidney, and the testis whether by inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. (1,2)
    EPA has not established a Reference Dose (RfD) or a Reference Concentration (RfC) for ethylene dibromide. (4)
    EPA has calculated a provisional RfC of 0.0002 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) for ethylene dibromide based on reproductive effects in humans. The RfC is an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a continuous inhalation exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious noncancer effects during a lifetime. It is not a direct estimator of risk but rather a reference point to gauge the potential effects. At exposures increasingly greater than the RfC, the potential for adverse health effects increases. Lifetime exposure above the RfC does not imply that an adverse health effect would necessarily occur. The provisional RfC is a value that has had some form of Agency review, but it does not appear on IRIS. (5)

Reproductive Effects/Developmental:

    Developmental effects have not been documented in humans. Limited data on men occupationally exposed to ethylene dibromide indicate that long-term exposure to ethylene dibromide can impair reproduction by damaging sperm cells in the testicles. (1,2)
    Animals that breathed or ate food containing ethylene dibromide for short or long periods were less fertile than control animals or had abnormal sperm. Pregnant animals that were sick from exposure to ethylene dibromide have had pups with birth defects. (1,2)

Cancer Risk:

    Two cancer studies on workers exposed to ethylene dibromide have been carried out. Neither study reported a statistically significant increase in cancer mortality; however these studies are considered inadequate due to confounding factors. (4)
    Several animal studies indicate that long-term exposure to ethylene dibromide increases the incidences of a variety of tumors in rats and mice in both sexes by inhalation, by gavage (the placing of ethylene dibromide experimentally in the stomach), or by administration to the skin. (4)
    EPA has classified ethylene dibromide as a Group B2, probable human carcinogen. (4)
    EPA uses mathematical models, based on animal studies, to estimate the probability of a person developing cancer from breathing air containing a specified concentration of a chemical. EPA has calculated an inhalation unit risk estimate of 2.2 × 10-4 (µg/m3)-1. EPA estimates that, if an individual were to continuously breathe air containing ethylene dibromide at an average of 0.005 µg/m3 (5 x 10-6 mg/m3) over his or her entire lifetime, that person would theoretically have no more than a one-in-a-million increased chance of developing cancer as a direct result of breathing air containing this chemical. Similarly, EPA estimates that continuously breathing air containing 0.05 µg/m3 (5 x 10-5 mg/m3) would result in not greater than a one-in-hundred thousand increased chance of developing cancer, and air containing 0.5 µg/m3 (5 x 10-4 mg/m3) would result in not greater than a one-in-ten thousand increased chance of developing cancer in their lifetime. For a detailed discussion of confidence in the potency estimates, please see IRIS. (4)
    EPA has calculated an oral cancer slope factor of 85 (mg/kg/d)-1. (4)

Physical Properties

    Ethylene dibromide is a colorless liquid with a mild sweet odor, like chloroform.  It is also known as 1,2-dibromomethane. (1,7)
    Ethylene dibromide is slightly soluble in water. (1,7)
    The chemical formula for ethylene dibromide is C2H4Br2, and it has a molecular weight of 187.88 g/mol. (1,7)
    The vapor pressure for ethylene dibromide is 11.0 mm Hg at 25 °C, and it has a log octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow) of 86. (1).

    Ethylene dibromide reacts with hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere, with a half-life for this reaction of approximately 40 days.  In water, its half-life ranges from 2.5 to 13.2 years, and in soil it was detected 19 years after it had been applied. (1)

Conversion Factors (only for the gaseous form):
To convert concentrations in air (at 25°C) from ppm to mg/m3: mg/m3 = (ppm) × (molecular weight of the compound)/(24.45). For ethylene dibromide: 1 ppm = 7.7 mg/m3.
To convert concentrations in air from µg/m3 to mg/m3: mg/m3 = (µg/m3) × (1 mg/1,000 µg).
 

Health Data from Inhalation Exposure





LC50 (Lethal Concentration50)--A calculated concentration of a chemical in air to which exposure for a specific length of time is expected to cause death in 50% of a defined experimental animal population.
NIOSH ceiling--National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health's ceiling limit; NIOSH--recommended 15-min exposure limit, which should not be exceeded.
NIOSH REL--NIOSH's recommended exposure limit; NIOSH-recommended exposure limit for an 8- or 10-h time-weighted-average exposure and/or ceiling.
OSHA PEL--Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit expressed as a time-weighted average; the concentration of a substance to which most workers can be exposed without adverse effect averaged over a normal 8-h workday or a 40-h workweek.

The health and regulatory values cited in this factsheet were obtained in December 1999.
aHealth numbers are toxicological numbers from animal testing or risk assessment values developed by EPA.
bRegulatory numbers are values that have been incorporated in Government regulations, while advisory numbers are nonregulatory values provided by the Government or other groups as advice.  OSHA numbers are regulatory, whereas NIOSH numbers are advisory.
cThe LOAEL is from the critical study used as the basis for the EPA provisional RfC.
References

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dibromoethane. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. 1992.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB, online database). National Toxicology Information Program, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. 1993.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS, online database). National Toxicology Information Program, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. 1993.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on 1,2-Dibromoethane. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. 1999.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables. FY-1997 Update. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington, DC. 1997.
    The Merck Index. An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. 11th ed. Ed. S. Budavari. Merck and Co. Inc., Rahway, NJ. 1989.
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).  Occupational Safety and Health Standards, Toxic and Hazardous Substances. Code of Federal Regulations. 29 CFR 1910.1000.  1998.
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cincinnati, OH. 1997.


Last updated on Tuesday, February 23, 2016


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Ethylene dibromide

General Description

    Synonyms: 1,2-Dibromoethane; Ethylene bromide; EDB
    OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1140
    Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 106-93-4
    NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KH9275000
    Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1605 154
    NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Ethylene dibromide: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

    OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
        General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1 referred to Table Z-2 - 20 ppm TWA; 30 ppm Ceiling (5 Minutes); 50 ppm Peak
        Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards - 25 ppm, 190 mg/m3 Ceiling; Skin
    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): Skin; Appendix A3 (Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans)
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 0.045 ppm TWA; 0.13 ppm Ceiling (15 Minutes); Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogen

Health Factors

    Carcinogenic Classification:
        National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenic classification: Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogen (PDF)
        International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) carcinogenic classification: Group 2A, probably carcinogenic to humans

    NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 100 ppm
    Potential Symptoms: Respiratory system, eye irritation; dermatitis with vesiculation; decreased sperm count, increased sperm abnormalities; skin absorption: nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea; lethargy; metabolic acidosis, liver and kidney damage; (carcinogenic)

    Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Skin-Marked (HE14); Acute Toxicity-Liver, Kidney (HE4); Suspected Human Carcinogen (HE2)
    Affected Organs: Respiratory system, liver, kidneys, skin, eyes, testes 


    Notes:
        Metabolized in the liver primarily by cytochrome P450 2E1 and conjugation with glutathione.
        Serious toxic interactions between ethylene dibromide inhalation (20 ppm) and the drug disulfiram (an inhibitor of CYP2E1) have been reported in rat carcinogenicity studies.
        Effects on sperm reported for workers exposed to peak levels less than 0.3 ppm.
    Literature Basis:
        Letz, G.A., Pond, S.M., Osterloh, J.D., Wade, R.L. and Becker, C.E.: Two fatalities after acute occupational exposure to ethylene dibromide. JAMA 252(17): 2428-2431, 1984 (symptoms of fatal exposure).
        Ratcliffe, J.M., Schrader, S.M., Steenland, K., Clapp, D.E., Turner, T. and Hornung, R.W.: Semen quality in papaya workers with long term exposure to ethylene dibromide. Br. J. Ind. Med. 44(5): 317-326, 1987 (sperm toxicity).
        Wormhoudt, L.W., Ploemen, J.H., de Waziers, I., Commandeur, J.N., Beaune, P.H., van Bladeren, P.J. and Vermeulen, N.P.: Inter-individual variability in the oxidation of 1,2-dibromoethane: use of heterologously expressed human cytochrome P450 and human liver microsomes. Chem. Biol. Interact. 101(3): 175-192, 1996 (metabolism).
        Stein, H.P., Bahlman, L.J., Leidel, N.A., Parker, J.C., Thomas, A.W. and Millar, J.D.: Ethylene dibromide and disulfiram toxic interaction. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 39(7): A35-37, 1978 (interaction with disulfiram).


https://www.osha.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_240395.html
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Offline KiwiClare

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Thank-you very much for sharing the above information.

You may find this useful, as this activist tested for a wide range of elements in rainwater.  This is a rainwater lab report for rain collected in Brisbane, Australia in 2012.    Details of the testing are here: https://chemtrailsnorthnz.wordpress.com/2012/10/21/aluminium-strontium-barium-in-brisbane-rainwater/
As well as the aluminium, barium and strontium, note the cadmium and zinc levels.   
 Could it be that the known carcinogen was sprayed, zinc cadmium sulphide, as it was in the UK?   The zinc cadmium sulphide trials were exposed in the April 2002 UK Guardian article, Millions were in germ war tests. Refer: http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2002/apr/21/uk.medicalscience   Also, broadcast by ITV West in late 2004, the documentary, ‘Top Secrets Revealed’ had in Part 1 exposed  zinc cadmium sulphide was sprayed over an unwitting public in parts of the UK.  Refer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Ydm8rgF18I&feature=gv  It was revealed that for years the UK’s Ministry of Defence sprayed millions of UK citizens from planes, disseminating huge amounts of zinc cadmium sulphide into their atmosphere.  The BBC program, Inside Out, aired a program on 6th November, 2006 on this topic and showed that scientists from Porton Down had used the UK as a vast outdoor laboratory.  From 1950 to the late-1970s, Porton Down scientists had clandestinely sprayed zinc cadmium sulphide over populated areas of the UK, in spite of the fact that cadmium was known to be dangerous to human health.   See ‘Cadmium Poisoning’ at Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadmium_poisoning



To be persuasive, we must be believable,
To be believable, we must be credible,
To be credible, we must be truthful.
- Edward R. Murrow

Offline windyacres

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Cool!   Thanks KiwiClare!  I am no where near done
on this thread, once all the known ingredients to
chemtrails are listed, then I'll dissect them as to
what they do to the human body.   A lot of the
ingredients masquerade themselves as other medical ailments.

It's pure evil, and there is no escaping them.   In my area for
the last 2+ years about 2-3 times a month they've been spraying
at night.  You can see the trails being laid down when it's the full moon.

And anyone who is an avid vegetable gardener can attest that gardens
no longer grow the same like they did pre-chemtrail spraying days.

The planes pretty much follow  pre-set   coordinates but now and
then they change directions even when the winds are calm.  Sometimes
I've seen them make a U-turn in mid-air and re-spray where trails
were already laid out.   
Be Prepared

Offline decemberfellow

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I appreciate the work you put in this Windy God Bless.
Rev21:4
And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed away.


Who am I
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v7Fk6dt_uHo

Offline windyacres

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Thank you decemberfellow.  My methodology on this thread and
it will grow a few pages is to list in pretty much the same order
so when it's all laid out, then the  dissection can start.
The Molecular Substratal dissection.

Also to the  Mods here, for organizational purposes, I will be making
individual posts instead of pasting 4-5 long informational posts in one.
Those get too long and un-organized feeling.   I'll try not to post too much
at one given time so the front page doesn't look s-p-a-m-m-ed with this
thread title. 

Be Prepared

Offline windyacres

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Ethylene Dibromide (EDB)

Publication Date: 9/93

Pesticide
Information
Profile


TRADE OR OTHER NAMES

The chemical name for EDB is 1,2-dibromoethane, and synonyms include DBE; alpha, beta-dibromoethane; dibromoethane; ethylene bromide; glycol bromide; glycol dibromide; and sym-dibromoethane. Product names include Bromofume, Celmide, EDB-85, Fumo-Gas, Kopfume, Nephis, and Soilfume.

INTRODUCTION

Until recently, ethylene dibromide (EDB) was used extensively as a soil and post-harvest fumigant for crops, and as a quarantine fumigant for citrus and tropical fruits and vegetables. In 1983, the EPA suspended the use of EDB as a fumigant when low-level residues were found in groundwater and some grains. Today, EDB is principally used as a scavenger additive in leaded gasoline. It is also registered for use as a gas in termite and Japanese beetle control, beehive and vault fumigation, and spot fumigation of milling machinery.

Because the odor of EDB may not be detected until concentrations are above the recommended workplace levels, careful monitoring is required to limit exposure.

TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS

ACUTE TOXICITY

EDB is a highly toxic compound and is labeled with a DANGER signal word. Inhalation is the most hazardous route of exposure to EDB; however it may also be toxic by skin contact or ingestion. EDB is a severe skin and eye irritant. Direct contact can result in skin blistering. It can also be rapidly absorbed into the body through the skin in toxic amounts. Agricultural and food storage workers are at highest risk. Symptoms of poisoning include headache, depression and loss of appetite. Four deaths have been attributed to accidental poisoning by EDB (5).

The oral LD50 of EDB is 108 mg/kg for rats, 250 mg/kg for mice, and 55 mg/kg for rabbits (15). The lowest dose that resulted in mortality in a woman was recorded at 90 mg/kg. One woman who ingested a fatal dose of 4.5 ml experienced rapid breathing, vomiting, and diarrhea. Her liver and kidneys were damaged (15).

Administration of very high doses of EDB to rats and chicks caused changes in the livers of these animals within 22 hours (2).

The inhalation LD50 for rats is 400 ppm for two hours (15) and 689 ppm for one hour. In rats, inhalation of small concentrations of EDB vapors depresses weight gain, and slightly higher levels damage the lungs.

CHRONIC TOXICITY

Reproductive Effects

A study of male workers exposed to low air levels of EDB at four separate manufacturing sites showed no consistent association between EDB and reproductive effects (14). But, another study of 46 men exposed to a lower average air concentration for five years showed adverse effects on sperm number, movement, survival, and structure (15). Bulls had abnormal sperm after 12-21 days of EDB exposure (12).

Fetal deaths increased after adult male rats were given high doses of EDB in the diet for five days before mating. Cows and ewes given lower doses did not show any effects on reproduction (16).

Teratogenic Effects

In one study, no teratogenic effects were observed in offspring of pregnant rats and mice who were exposed to various levels of EDB vapors for 23 hours a day during the sensitive period of gestation (12). At all doses, both rats and mice showed body weight decreases, and a significant number of deaths occurred in the adults exposed to the high doses. While fetal death rates increased and body weights decreased, EDB was not considered a teratogen because adverse fetal effects primarily occurred at doses that also adversely affected the mother.

The fetal abnormalities may have been a consequence of maternal toxicity, such as weight loss, which was brought about by EDB exposure.

Hens fed daily diets of 1-2 ppm EDB had decreased egg weights (15).

Mutagenic Effects

EDB has been reported to be mutagenic in some test systems but it has not shown mutagenic effects on human cells (1).

Carcinogenic Effects

EDB is considered a carcinogen in rats and mice. Rats inhaling high daily doses of EDB for 18 months developed tumors of the mammary glands, spleen, adrenals, liver, and kidney (13).

EDB is a suspected human carcinogen (15). Data from animal studies led the EPA to estimate nearly 100% lifetime incidence of cancer to be expected in workers exposed to EDB for 40 years at fumigation centers. Actual incidence has been much less-about 5%-in a group of workers employed in EDB production plants (11).

The risk of cancer may be increased in people exposed to EDB who are also using disulfiram, a generally safe drug that is used in the treatment of alcoholism (13). When rats inhaled EDB and also ate disulfiram for 14 months, many tumors in the liver, kidneys, thyroids, and lungs appeared. The number of tumors was even higher than if the rats inhaled the same dose of EDB by itself for 18 months (9, 13).

Organ Toxicity

Exposure to high levels of EDB may damage the lung, liver, kidneys, heart, and other internal organs and systems (10). Lung injury can also lead to secondary effects like pneumonia and respiratory tract infections. Humans may become nauseated at high air concentrations, depending on the length of exposure.

Daily inhalation of EDB vapors for six to 13 weeks at levels comparable to human occupational exposures damaged the liver, kidney, and testes of rats, and changed chick livers. Changes in the lungs and respiratory tract and temporary clouding of the corneas have been seen in animal studies after only one week of exposure to workplace levels of EDB.

Human skin can be severely irritated when exposed to large amounts of EDB for two hours, during which burning, itching, redness, blistering, and swelling occurs. Rabbits exposed to a 1% EDB solution for 14 days developed severe skin irritation (16).

Fate in Humans and Animals

EDB is readily and rapidly absorbed from the lungs when breathed as vapors, from the gastrointestinal tract when ingested, or through the skin when applied topically. EDB is broken down in the body to inorganic bromide, which is found in the urine, liver, and tissues of EDB-exposed animals. EDB has a biological half-life of less than 48 hours in rats, chicks, mice, and guinea pigs (16).

Guinea pigs' metabolic pathways are similar to those of humans. In one experiment, guinea pigs were injected with a single high dose of EDB. After 72 hours, two thirds of the injected EDB was excreted as metabolites in the urine and a tenth was exhaled in its original form. The remainder was primarily found in the kidneys, liver, adrenal glands, pancreas, and spleen (10).

ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

The toxic dose of EDB to non-target organisms range from 10-100 ppm, a range that is much higher than has ever been found in surface waters. No specific lethal dose values for wildlife species were found.

EDB residues in grain and feed do not accumulate in livestock to any significant extent. Cooking reduces the levels of EDB in baking mixes and other grain-based food products from 78 to 99%.

ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

Because of the inability of plants to take up EDB from the soil, it is not likely to accumulate in plants. However, EDB's breakdown product, inorganic bromide, is taken up by plants in small amounts. Residues of EDB persist in fumigated food products for 6 to 12 weeks.

The fastest degradation of EDB occurs at or near the soil surface. In about two months, almost all (97%) of EDB near the soil surface is converted to ethylene and bromide ions.

The EDB that persists in the topsoil remains unchanged (17). This EDB is thought to be entrapped in small air spaces within the soil. The EDB that is entrapped in this way is inaccessible to microbial degraders and can slowly leach to water supplies over very long periods. Such leaching is very slow at 25 degrees C and is highly temperature- dependent.

EDB is soluble, stable and persistent in water. It can be widely distributed in aqueous systems. The primary removal process for ethylene dibromide in water is evaporation (7). EDB has a half-life of slightly over one day in river water and about five days in lake water. Binding to sediment is relatively low.

EDB is present in outside air, mostly as a result of emissions from automobiles and fumigation centers. EDB is stable in the air, with a half-life of 45 days. Sunlight degrades EDB.

The major degradation products in soil and water are ethylene and bromide ions. One decomposition product, ethylene glycol, may further degrade to form, formaldehyde. EDB slowly decomposes in the presence of heat and/or light and can be slowly broken down by moisture.

Groundwater contamination of EDB has been confirmed at levels up to 300 ppb (8). Usual levels of EDB found in groundwater were very low (1- 20 ppb). These values are similar to the levels found in stored grain products.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND GUIDELINES

Ethylene dibromide is a heavy, colorless liquid with a mildly sweet, chloroform odor. The chemical is light-sensitive and reacts with metals, oxidizing materials, and alkalis. EDB is both a halogenated hydrocarbon and a brominated alkane.

Exposure Guidelines:
NOEL (water, 10 days):      0.008 mg/l (child), 0.027 mg/l (adult)
ADI:      1.0 mg inorganic bromide/kg bw
TOL:      10 ppm
PEL:      20 ppm OSHA TWA; 30 ppm OSHA ceiling.(15)
TLV:      0.13 ppm (ceiling limit - 15 min); 0.045 ppm (TWA - 8 hours) (15)

Drinking water health advisory:      0.11 ug EDB/L water, based on carcinogenic risks

Physical Properties:
CAS #:      106-93-4
Molecular weight:      187.88
Solubility in water:      0.404 g/100 g water (20 degrees C) (8)
Solubility in solvents:      EDB is soluble in alcohols, ethers, acetone, benzene, and most organic solvents.

Melting point:      9.47 degrees C
Boiling point:      131.7 degrees C
Vapor pressure:      9 mm Hg (20 degrees C), 11 torr (25 degrees C)
Log P:      1.064 (20 degrees C)
Kow:      53.7-61.7 (calculated) (3, 4, 6)
Koc:      44, 14-160, 21-93 (organic matter 0.5-21.7%)
BCF:      9.3-10.2 (calculated) (3, 4, 6)
H:      475.8 torr/M

BASIC MANUFACTURER

United Phosphorous Ltd.
Readymoney Terrace
167 Dr. Annie Besant Rd.
Bombay 400 018 India

Telephone 22-493-0681
Emergency 22-493-2427
Review by Basic Manufacturer:
Comments solicited: November, 1992
Comments received:

REFERENCES

    Bladeren, P.J., et al. 1980. Biochem. Pharmacol 29:2975-2982.
    Broda, C., Nachtomi, E., and Alumot (Olomucki), E. 1976. Gen. Pharmac. 7:345-348.
    Hunter, R., et al. 1984. User Manual for the QSAR System. Center for Data Systems and Analysis, Montana State University.
    Leo, A. 1978. Report on the Calculation of Octanol/Water Log P Values for Structures in the EPA Files. Claremont, CA.
    Letz, G.A., Pond S.M., Osterloh, J.D., Wade, R.L. and Becker, C.E. 1984. JAMA 252:2428-2431.
    Li, Fred. 1982. Technical data submitted in support of the San Luis Drain Report of Waste Discharge, File Report, Branch of Scientific Resources, USBR Department of Interior, 2800 Cottage Way, Sacramento, CA 95825.
    Mackay, D., et al. 1982. "Volatilization of Organic Pollutants from Water." USEPA-600/53-82-019.
    McConnel, J.B., et al. 1984. "Investigation of Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) in Groundwater in Seminole County, Georgia." U.S. Geological Survey Circular 933.
    Olson, W.A., Habermann, R.T., Weisburger, E. K., Ward, J.M., and Weisburger, J.H. 1973. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 51:1993-1995.
    Plotnick, H.B. and Connor, W.L. 1976. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 13:251-258.
    Ramsey, J.C., Park, C.N., Ott, M.G. and Gehring, P.J. 1979. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 47: 411-414.
    Short, R.D., et al. 1978. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 45: 173- 182.
    Wong, L.C.K., Winston, J.M., Hong, C.B. and Plotnick, H. 1982. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 63: 155-165.
    Wong, O., Utidjian, H.M.D., Karten, V. 1979. J. Occupat. Med. 21:98-102.
    Occupational Health Services Inc. Material Safety Data Sheet for Ethylene Dibromide. 3/25/87.
    National Library of Medicine. Hazardous Substances Databank. Ethylene Dibromide. May, 1992
    Pignatello, J.J.; Sawhney, B.L.; Frink, C.R. EDB: Persistence in Soil. Science 236: 898.


http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/dienochlor-glyphosate/ethylene-dibromide-ext.html

 
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Offline KiwiClare

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Thank-you windy acres.  I hope you don't mind me butting in.   The powers that be seem keen to get the tap water fluoridated around NZ and it led me to look into its synergistic effects.

Synergistic Poisoning  Aluminium and Fluoride
Avoiding fluoride in an environment contaminated with aerosol particulates and other sources of aluminium of course is important for good health.  As mentioned above, evidence shows the most common component of aerosol trails is aluminium, (US aluminum).  Unforunately, when combined with fluoride, aluminium becomes all the more toxic.
For example:
Quote
A 52-week study of the factors that enhance or inhibit the bioavailability of aluminum and its effects on the nervous system was published in 1998 in the Journal of Brain Research. According to the report, the equivalent of fluoridated drinking water in terms of elemental fluorine levels had an impact on brain tissue similar to the pathological changes found in humans with Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia.
 
The introduction to the report noted, "One of their most remarkable findings was that animals administered the lowest dose of aluminum-fluoride (0.5 ppm) exhibited a greater susceptibility to illness and a higher incidence of mortality than the animals administered the higher levels (5 ppm, 50 ppm) of aluminum [without the fluoride].
 
"While the small amount of aluminum-fluoride in the drinking water of rats required for neurotoxic effects is surprising, perhaps even more surprising are the neurological results of the sodium-fluoride at the dose given in the present study (2.1 ppm) [the amount used to achieve 1 ppm of elemental fluorine used in fluoridation].
 
"In most reports of chronic fluoride toxicity, the data provided are usually limited to weight loss, dental and skeletal changes, indicators of carcinogenesis, and damage to soft tissues.
 
"Fluoride has diverse actions on a variety of cellular and physiological functions, including the inhibition of a variety of enzymes, a corrosive action in acid mediums, hypocalcemia [low blood calcium], hyperkalemia [excess blood potassium], and possibly cerebral impairment."
 
The authors summarize, "Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride and sodium-fluoride in the drinking water of rats resulted in distinct morphological alterations of the brain, including the effects on neurons and cerebrovasculature."

Refer:  Neurological Impact Of Fluoride Toxicity  http://www.rense.com/general11/fk.htm

Also:
Quote
There is a barrier between the body and the brain that stops metals reaching the brain. In 2013 Akinrinade ID and his colleagues from Bingham University in Nigeria, showed that the relationship between fluoride and aluminum is important in escaping this barrier.  Fluoride combines with aluminum to form aluminum fluoride, which is then absorbed by the body where it eventually combines with oxygen to form aluminum oxide or alumina. Alumina is the compound of aluminum that is found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease.

The implications of this fluoride-aluminum relationship to Alzheimer’s disease are not linear. The solubility of aluminum and probably the ease with which it is absorbed varies markedly with the high acidity and alkalinity of water. In general, however, aluminum is most soluble in acidic water, especially if it contains fluorides.

The public health argument for fluoridation has never been made for older adults. Such institutional ageism is bad science and much worse, this is bad public health.

Refer: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/iage/201407/is-dementia-caused-aluminum-through-fluoridation


Aluminum, Fluoride, and Glyphosate—A Toxic Trifecta Implicated in Autism and Alzheimer's Disease

http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2015/02/12/aluminum-fluoride-glyphosate-poisoning.aspx
To be persuasive, we must be believable,
To be believable, we must be credible,
To be credible, we must be truthful.
- Edward R. Murrow

Offline windyacres

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I don't mind at all KiwiClare, the more information on this thread
from everyone really helps.

I did an report on fluoride years ago and during WW2
the Russian's used it in high concentrations to mentally subdue
prisoners of war.  In high doses it can do all kinds of mind altering
physiological processes.   

Good find the article you posted, I find this quote from it very telling,
they've got this figured out.  It's as if Big Pharma is behind it too.

Quote
here is a barrier between the body and the brain that stops metals reaching the brain. In 2013 Akinrinade ID and his colleagues from Bingham University in Nigeria, showed that the relationship between fluoride and aluminum is important in escaping this barrier.  Fluoride combines with aluminum to form aluminum fluoride, which is then absorbed by the body where it eventually combines with oxygen to form aluminum oxide or alumina. Alumina is the compound of aluminum that is found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease. 
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Offline windyacres

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The Use Of Flouridation For Mass Mind Control   


11-5-7

The following letter was received by the Lee Foundation for Nutritional Research, Milwaukee Wisconsin, on 2 October 1954, from Mr. Charles Perkins, a chemist:
 
"I have your letter of September 29 asking for further documentation regarding a statement made in my book, The Truth About Water Fluoridation, to the effect that the idea of water fluoridation was brought to England from Russia by the Russian Communist Kreminoff. "In the 1930`s, Hitler and the German Nazi`s envisioned a world to be dominated and controlled by a Nazi philosophy of pan-Germanism. The German chemists worked out a very ingenious and far-reaching plan of mass-control which was submitted to and adopted by the German General Staff.

This plan was to control the population in any given area through mass medication of drinking water supplies. By this method they could control the population in whole areas, reduce population by water medication that would produce sterility in women, and so on. In this scheme of mass-control, sodium fluoride occupied a prominent place. ...
 
"Repeated doses of infinitesimal amounts of fluoride will in time reduce an individual`s power to resist domination, by slowly poisoning and narcotizing a certain area of the brain, thus making him submissive to the will of those who wish to govern him. (A convenient light lobotomy) 
 
"The real reason behind water fluoridation is not to benefit children`s teeth. If this were the real reason there are many ways in which it could be done that are much easier, cheaper, and far more effective. The real purpose behind water fluoridation is to reduce the resistance of the masses to domination and control and loss of liberty.
 
"When the Nazis under Hitler decided to go into Poland, both the German General Staff and the Russian General Staff exchanged scientific and military ideas, plans, and personnel, and the scheme of mass control through water medication was seized upon by the Russian Communists because it fitted ideally into their plan to communize the world. ...
 
"I was told of this entire scheme by a German chemist who was an official of the great IG Farben chemical industries and was also prominent in the Nazi movement at the time. I say this with all the earnestness and sincerity of a scientist who has spent nearly 20 years` research into the chemistry, biochemistry, physiology and pathology of fluorine--any person who drinks artificially fluorinated water for a period of one year or more will never again be the same person mentally or physically." CHARLES E. PERKINS, Chemist, 2 October 1954.
 
__________________________
 
 
Quoting Einstein`s nephew, Dr. E.H. Bronner (a chemist who had also been a prisoner of war during WWII) in a letter printed in The Catholic Mirror, Springfield, MA, January 1952:
 
"It appears that the citizens of Massachusetts are among the 'next' on the agenda of the water poisoners.
 
"There is a sinister network of subversive agents, Godless 'intellectual' parasites, working in our country today whose ramifications grow more extensive, more successful and more alarming each new year and whose true objective is to demoralize, paralyze and destroy our great Republic--from within if they can, according to their plan--for their own possession.
 
"The tragic success they have already attained in their long siege to destroy the moral fiber of American life is now one of their most potent footholds towards their own ultimate victory over us.
 
"Fluoridation of our community water systems can well become their most subtle weapon for our sure physical and mental deterioration.
 
"As a research chemist of established standing, I built within the past 22 years, 3 American chemical plants and licensed 6 of my 53 patents. Based on my years of practical experience in the health-food and chemical field, let me warn: fluoridation of drinking water is criminal insanity, sure national suicide. Don`t do it.
 
"Even in small quantities, sodium fluoride is a deadly poison to which no effective antidote has been found. Every exterminator knows that it is the most efficient rat-killer. ... Sodium fluoride is entirely different from organic calcium-fluoro-phosphate needed by our bodies and provided by nature, in God`s great providence and love, to build and strengthen our bones and our teeth. This organic calcium-fluoro-phosphate, derived from proper foods, is an edible organic salt, insoluble in water and assimilable by the human body, whereas the non-organic sodium fluoride used in fluoridating water is instant poison to the body and fully water soluble.
 
The body refuses to assimilate it. "Careful, bonafide laboratory experimentation by conscientious, patriotic research chemists, and actual medical experience, have both revealed that instead of preserving or promoting `dental health,` fluoridated drinking water destroys teeth, before adulthood and after, by the destructive mottling and other pathological conditions it actually causes in them, and also creates many other very grave pathological conditions in the internal organisms of bodies consuming it. How can it be called a "health" plan? What`s behind it?
 
"That any so-called "doctors" would persuade a civilized nation to add voluntarily a deadly poison to its drinking water systems is unbelievable. It is the height of criminal insanity. "No wonder Hitler and Stalin fully believed and agreed from 1939 to 1941 that, quoting from both Lenin`s Last Will and Hitler`s Mein Kampf:
 
"America we shall demoralize, divide, and destroy from within." ...
 
"Are our Civil Defense organizations and agencies awake to the perils of water poisoning by fluoridation? Its use has been recorded in other countries. Sodium fluoride water solutions are the cheapest and most effective rat killers known to chemists: colorless, odorless, tasteless; no antidote, no remedy, no hope: Instant and complete extermination of rats. ...
 
"Fluoridation of water systems can be slow national suicide, or quick national liquidation. It is criminal insanity--treason!"
 
Dr. E.H. Bronner, Mfg. Research Chemist, Los Angeles.
 
http://www.sonic.net/kryptox/history/perkins2.htm

 
http://rense.com/general79/hd3.htm


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Offline windyacres

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Ethylene dibromide

General Description

    Synonyms: 1,2-Dibromoethane; Ethylene bromide; EDB
    OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1140
    Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 106-93-4
    NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KH9275000

   
   
Health Factors

    Carcinogenic Classification:

        National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenic classification: Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogen (PDF)

        International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) carcinogenic classification: Group 2A, probably carcinogenic to humans

    NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 100 ppm

    Potential Symptoms: Respiratory system, eye irritation; dermatitis with vesiculation; decreased sperm count, increased sperm abnormalities; skin absorption: nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea; lethargy; metabolic acidosis, liver and kidney damage; (carcinogenic)

    Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Skin-Marked (HE14); Acute Toxicity-Liver, Kidney (HE4); Suspected Human Carcinogen (HE2)

    Affected Organs: Respiratory system, liver, kidneys, skin, eyes, testes



https://www.osha.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_240395.html

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Offline donnay

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This is an excellent thread.  Great work, Windy and Kiwi   :)
"Logic is an enemy and truth is a menace." ~ Rod Serling
"Cops today are nothing but an armed tax collector" ~ Frank Serpico
"To be normal, to drink Coca-Cola and eat Kentucky Fried Chicken is to be in a conspiracy against yourself."
"People that don't want to make waves sit in stagnant waters."

Offline windyacres

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One thing I'm noticing is all the very heavy metals used in chemtrail ingredients.
One side effect of one mimics others when I analyze them.  It's also
interesting to see how many "organics" as in found in the earth.... these
chemicals are which tells me it's to fool, spoof medical
professionals and the  nay-sayers and debunkers use the organically found in nature
argument to troll.

 For every one post I make on this thread, I read at least
12-15 before deciding which one has the most merit and it's very interesting
on a medical standpoint what chemtrails ingredients are doing.   I need to
get back to work on this thread...

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Offline windyacres

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Strontium


Public Health Statement for Strontium

April 2004

CAS#: 7440-24-6


This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for strontium. It is one in a series of Public Health Statements about hazardous substances and their health effects. A shorter version, the ToxFAQsTM, is also available. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-800-232-4636.

This public health statement tells you about strontium and the effects of exposure.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identifies the most serious hazardous waste sites in the nation. These sites make up the National Priorities List (NPL) and are the sites targeted for long-term federal cleanup activities. Strontium and strontium-90 have been found in at least 102 and 12 of the 1,636 current or former NPL sites, respectively. However, the total number of NPL sites evaluated for strontium and strontium-90 are not known. As more sites are evaluated, the sites at which strontium and strontium-90 are found may increase. This information is important because exposure to strontium and strontium-90 may harm you and because these sites may be sources of exposure.

When a substance is released from a large area, such as an industrial plant, or from a container, such as a drum or bottle, it enters the environment. This release does not always lead to exposure. You are exposed to a substance only when you come in contact with it. You may be exposed by breathing, eating, or drinking the substance, or by skin contact.

External exposure to radiation may occur from natural or man-made sources. Naturally occurring sources of radiation are cosmic radiation from space or radioactive materials in soil or building materials. Man-made sources of radioactive materials are found in consumer products, industrial equipment, atom bomb fallout, and to a smaller extent from hospital waste and nuclear reactors.

If you are exposed to strontium, many factors determine whether you'll be harmed. These factors include the dose (how much), the duration (how long), and how you come in contact with it. You must also consider the other chemicals you're exposed to and your age, sex, diet, family traits, lifestyle, and state of health.
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1.1 What is strontium?

Strontium is a natural and commonly occurring element. Strontium can exist in two oxidation states: 0 and +2. Under normal environmental conditions, only the +2 oxidation state is stable enough to be important. Pure strontium is a hard, white-colored metal, but this form is not found in the environment. Rather, strontium is usually found in nature in the form of minerals. Strontium can form a variety of compounds. Strontium compounds do not have any particular smell. There are two types of strontium compounds, those that dissolve in water and those that do not. Natural strontium is not radioactive and exists in four stable types (or isotopes), each of which can be written as 84Sr, 86Sr, 87Sr, and 88Sr, and read as strontium eighty-four, strontium eighty-six, etc. All four isotopes behave the same chemically, so any combination of the four would have the same chemical effect on your body.

Rocks, soil, dust, coal, oil, surface and underground water, air, plants, and animals all contain varying amounts of strontium. Typical concentrations in most materials are a few parts per million (ppm). Strontium ore is found in nature as the minerals celestite (SrSO4) and strontianite (SrCO3). After the strontium is extracted from strontium ore, it is concentrated into strontium carbonate or other chemical forms by a series of chemical processes. Strontium compounds, such as strontium carbonate, are used in making ceramics and glass products, pyrotechnics, paint pigments, fluorescent lights, medicines, and other products.

Strontium can also exist as radioactive isotopes. 90Sr, or strontium ninety, is the most hazardous of the radioactive isotopes of the chemical element strontium. 90Sr is formed in nuclear reactors or during the explosion of nuclear weapons. Each radioactive element, including strontium, constantly gives off radiation, and this process changes it into an isotope of another element or a different isotope of the same element. This process is called radioactive decay. 90Sr gives off beta particles (sometimes referred to as beta radiation) and turns into yttrium ninety (90Y); 90Y is also radioactive and gives off radiation to form zirconium ninety (90Zr), which is a stable isotope. The radioactive half-life is the time that it takes for half of a radioactive strontium isotope to give off its radiation and change into a different element. 90Sr has a half-life of 29 years.

90Sr has limited use and is considered a waste product. The radioactive isotope 89Sr is used as a cancer therapeutic to alleviate bone pain. 85Sr has also been used in medical applications. .

Quantities of radioactive strontium, as well as other radioactive elements, are measured in units of mass (grams) or radioactivity (curies or becquerels). Both the curie (Ci) and the becquerel (Bq) tell us how much a radioactive material decays every second. The becquerel is a new international unit known as the SI unit, and the curie is an older unit; both are used currently. A becquerel is the amount of radioactive material in which 1 atom transforms every second. One curie is the amount of radioactive material in which 37 billion atoms transform every second; this is approximately the radioactivity of 1 gram of radium.
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1.2 What happens to strontium when it enters the environment?

Stable and radioactive strontium compounds in the air are present as dust. Emissions from burning coal and oil increase stable strontium levels in air. The average amount of strontium that has been measured in air from different parts of the United States is 20 nanograms per cubic meter (a nanogram is a trillion times smaller than a gram). Most of the strontium in air is in the form of stable strontium. Very small dust particles of stable and radioactive strontium in the air fall out of the air onto surface water, plant surfaces, and soil either by themselves or when rain or snow falls. These particles of strontium eventually end up back in the soil or in the bottoms of lakes, rivers, and ponds, where they stay and mix with stable and radioactive strontium that is already there.

In water, most forms of stable and radioactive strontium are dissolved. Stable strontium that is dissolved in water comes from strontium in rocks and soil that water runs over and through. Only a very small part of the strontium found in water is from the settling of strontium dust out of the air.

Some strontium is suspended in water. Typically, the amount of strontium that has been measured in drinking water in different parts of the United States by the EPA is less than 1 milligram for every liter of water (1 mg/L). 90Sr in water comes primarily from the settling of 90Sr dust out of the air. Some 90Sr is suspended in water. In general, the amount of 90Sr that has been measured in drinking water in different parts of the United States by EPA is less than one tenth of a picocurie for every liter of water (0.1 pCi/L or 0.004 Bq/L).

Strontium is found naturally in soil in amounts that vary over a wide range, but the typical concentration is 0.2 milligrams per kilogram (kg) of soil (or 0.2 mg/kg). The disposal of coal ash, incinerator ash, and industrial wastes may increase the concentration of strontium in soil. Generally, the amount of 90Sr in soil is very small and is only a fraction of the total concentration of strontium in soil. Higher concentrations of 90Sr in soil may be found near hazardous waste sites, radioactive waste sites, and Department of Energy facilities located around the United States. A major portion of stable and radioactive strontium in soil dissolves in water, so it is likely to move deeper into the ground and enter groundwater. However, strontium compounds may stay in the soil for years without moving downward into groundwater. In the environment, chemical reactions can change the water-soluble stable and radioactive strontium compounds into insoluble forms. In some cases, water-insoluble strontium compounds can change to soluble forms.
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1.3 How might I be exposed to strontium?

Strontium is found nearly everywhere in small amounts, and you can be exposed to low levels of strontium by breathing air, eating food, drinking water, or accidentally eating soil or dust that contains strontium. Food and drinking water are the largest sources of exposure to strontium. Because of the nature of strontium, some of it gets into fish, vegetables, and livestock. Grain, leafy vegetables, and dairy products contribute the greatest percentage of dietary strontium to humans. The concentration of strontium in leafy vegetables, such as cabbage, grown in the United States is less than 64 mg in a kg of the fresh vegetables (i.e., 64 ppm). For most people, the intake of strontium will be moderate.

90Sr is found nearly everywhere in small amounts from past nuclear accidents and fallout from nuclear explosions. You can be exposed to low levels of 90Sr by eating food, drinking water, or accidentally eating soil or dust that contains 90Sr. Food and drinking water are the largest sources of exposure to 90Sr. Because of the nature of 90Sr, some of it gets into fish, vegetables, and livestock. Grain, leafy vegetables, and dairy products contribute the greatest percentage of dietary 90Sr to humans. The concentration of 90Sr in fresh vegetables grown in the United States is less than 9 pCi (or 0.3 Bq) in 1 kg of dried vegetables (in a hot oven). The intake of radioactive strontium for most people will be small. You can take in more 90Sr if you eat food that was grown on a radioactive strontium-contaminated hazardous waste site.
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1.4 How can strontium enter and leave my body?

Both stable strontium and radioactive strontium enter and leave the body in the same way.

If a person breathes in vapors or dust containing a chemical form of strontium that is soluble in water, then the chemical will dissolve in the moist surface inside the lungs and strontium will enter the bloodstream relatively quickly. If the chemical form of strontium does not dissolve in water easily, then particles may remain in the lung for a time. When you eat food or drink water that contains strontium, only a small portion leaves the intestines and enters the bloodstream. Studies in animals suggest that infants may absorb more strontium from the intestines than adults. If a fluid mixture of a strontium salt is placed on the skin, the strontium will pass through the skin very slowly and then enter the bloodstream. If the skin has scratches or cuts, strontium will pass through the skin much more quickly.

Once strontium enters the bloodstream, it is distributed throughout the body, where it can enter and leave cells quite easily. In the body, strontium behaves very much like calcium. A large portion of the strontium will accumulate in bone. In adults, strontium mostly attaches to the surfaces of bones. In children, whose bones are still growing, strontium may be used by the body to create the hard bone mineral itself. As a result the strontium will be stored in the bone for a long time (years). Because of the way bone grows, strontium will be locally dissolved from bone and recirculate through the bloodstream, where it may be reused by growing bone, or be eliminated. This process accounts for the slow removal of strontium from the body.

Strontium is eliminated from the body through urine, feces, and sweat. Elimination through urine may occur over long periods, when small amounts of strontium are released from bone and do not get recaptured by bone. When strontium is taken in by mouth, the portion that does not pass through the intestinal wall to enter the bloodstream is eliminated through feces during the first day or so after exposure.
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1.5 How can strontium affect my health?

To protect the public from the harmful effects of toxic chemicals and to find ways to treat people who have been harmed, scientists use many tests.

One way to see if a chemical will hurt people is to learn how the chemical is absorbed, used, and released by the body. In the case of a radioactive chemical, it is also important to gather information concerning the radiation dose and dose rate to the body. For some chemicals, animal testing may be necessary. Animal testing may also be used to identify health effects such as cancer or birth defects. Without laboratory animals, scientists would lose a basic method to get information needed to make wise decisions to protect public health. Scientists have the responsibility to treat research animals with care and compassion. Laws today protect the welfare of research animals, and scientists must comply with strict animal care guidelines.

There are no harmful effects of stable strontium in humans at the levels typically found in the environment. The only chemical form of stable strontium that is very harmful by inhalation is strontium chromate, but this is because of toxic chromium and not strontium itself. Problems with bone growth may occur in children eating or drinking unusually high levels of strontium, especially if the diet is low in calcium and protein. Ordinary strontium salts are not harmful when inhaled or placed on the skin.

Animal studies showed that eating or drinking very large amounts of stable strontium can be lethal, but the public is not likely to encounter such high levels of strontium. In these unusually high amounts, so much strontium was taken into bone instead of calcium that growing bones were weakened. Strontium had more severe effects on bone growth in young animals than in adults.

It is not known whether stable strontium affects reproduction in people. The effect of stable strontium on reproduction in animals is not known. The Department of Health and Human Services has determined that strontium chromate is expected to be a carcinogen, but this is because of chromium. There is no information that any other form of stable strontium causes cancer in humans or animals.

The harmful effects of radioactive strontium are caused by the high energy effects of radiation. Since radioactive strontium is taken up into bone, bone itself and the soft tissues nearby may be damaged by radiation released over time. Because bone marrow is the essential source of blood cells, blood cell counts may be reduced if the dose is too high. This has been seen in humans who received injections of radioactive strontium (89Sr) to destroy cancer tissue that had spread to the bone marrow. Lowered blood cell counts were also seen in animals that breathed or swallowed radioactive strontium. Numerous problems occur when the number of blood cells is too low. A loss of red blood cells, anemia, prevents the body from getting sufficient oxygen, resulting in tiredness. A loss of platelets may prevent the blood from clotting properly, and may result in abnormal bleeding, especially in the intestines. A loss in white blood cells harms the body's ability to fight infectious disease.

Radiation damage may also occur from exposure to the skin. Medically, radioactive strontium probes have been used intentionally to destroy unwanted tissue on the surface of the eye or skin. The eye tissues sometimes become inflamed or abnormally thin after a long time. Thinning of the lower layer of the skin (dermis) has also been reported in animal studies as a delayed effect.

It is not known whether exposure to radioactive strontium would affect human reproduction. Harmful effects on animal reproduction occurred at doses that were more than a million times higher than typical exposure levels for the general population.

Radioactive strontium may cause cancer as a result of damage to the genetic material (DNA) in cells. An increase in leukemia over time was reported in individuals in one foreign population who swallowed relatively large amounts of 90Sr (and other radioactive materials) in river water contaminated by a nuclear weapons plant. Cancers of the bone, nose, and lung (in the case of a breathing exposure), and leukemia were reported in animal studies. In addition, skin and bone cancer were reported in animals that received radiation at high doses to the skin. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that radioactive strontium is carcinogenic to humans, because it is deposited inside the body and emits beta radiation. The EPA has determined that radioactive strontium is a human carcinogen.
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1.6 How can strontium affect children?

This section discusses potential health effects from exposures during the period from conception to maturity at 18 years of age in humans.

Children are exposed to stable strontium in the same manner as adults: usually in small amounts in drinking water and food. Young children who have more hand-to-mouth activity or who eat soil may accidentally eat more strontium. Infants and children with active bone growth absorb more strontium from the gut than adults.

Excess stable strontium causes problems with growing bone. For this reason, children are more susceptible to the effects of stable strontium than adults who have mature bone. Children who eat or drink unusually high levels of stable strontium may have problems with bone growth, but only if the diet is low in calcium and protein. Children who drink milk, especially milk fortified with vitamin D, are not likely to have bone problems from exposure to excess stable strontium. The amount of stable strontium that is usually taken in from food or water or by breathing is too low to cause bone problems in children. No developmental studies in humans or animals examined the effect on the fetus when the mother takes in excess strontium. However, no problems are expected with fetal bone growth because only small amounts of strontium are transferred from the mother across the placenta to the fetus. Evidence suggests that stable strontium can be transferred from the mother to nursing infants through breast milk, but the presence of calcium and protein in milk protects against bone problems during nursing.

Children take in, use, and get rid of radioactive strontium in the same ways as stable strontium. Children are likely to be more vulnerable than adults to the effects of radioactive strontium because relatively more goes into bone when it is growing. Also, children are potentially more vulnerable than adults to radiation damage because they keep radioactive strontium in bone for a longer time.

Children would be expected to have the same types of effects from exposure to radioactive strontium as exposed adults. Children can be exposed to radioactive strontium at levels higher than background without showing increases in cancer rates. Evidence from one foreign population showed that children who drank water containing unusually high levels of radioactive strontium for 7 years showed an increase in leukemia. High levels of radioactive strontium cause more bone damage and higher bone cancer rates when animals are exposed before birth or as juveniles rather than as adults. In humans and animals, radioactive strontium can be transferred into milk or across the placenta into the fetus.
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1.7 How can families reduce the risk of exposure to strontium?

If your doctor finds that you have been exposed to significant amounts of strontium, ask whether your children might also be exposed. Your doctor might need to ask your state health department to investigate. Public health officials may publish guidelines for reducing exposure to strontium when necessary.

It is possible that higher-than-normal levels of stable strontium may occur naturally in soil in some places or that higher levels of radioactive strontium may be found in soil near hazardous waste sites. Some children eat a lot of dirt. You should prevent your children from eating dirt. Make sure they wash their hands frequently, and before eating. If you live near a hazardous waste site, discourage your children from putting their hands in their mouths or from engaging in other hand-to-mouth activities.

Since strontium is so common in the environment, and is naturally present in food and water, we cannot avoid being exposed to it. For several reasons, having a balanced diet with sufficient vitamin D, calcium, and protein will be protective by reducing the amount of ingested strontium that is absorbed.
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1.8 Is there a medical test to determine whether I have been exposed to strontium?

All people have small amounts of stable strontium in their bodies, mostly in bone. It can be measured in the blood, hair, feces, or urine. The amount is usually measured by its mass (grams). Measurements in urine can show whether you have been exposed recently to larger-than-normal amounts of strontium. Measurements in hair can reveal whether you were exposed to high amounts of strontium in the past. Most physicians do not test for strontium in their offices, but can collect samples and send them to a special laboratory. X-rays can show changes in bone that may occur from exposure to high amounts of strontium, but these changes may have other causes (a diet low in vitamin D or a high exposure to some other trace metal).

If a person has been exposed to radioactive strontium, special tests can be used to measure radioactive strontium in blood, feces, or urine. These tests are most useful when done soon after exposure, since radioactive strontium quickly enters into bone and takes many years to be completely removed from bone. Radioactive strontium can be measured by its mass (in grams) or by its radiation emissions. These emissions, which differ for the various isotopes of strontium, are used to tell the amount of radioactive strontium (in curies or bequerels) and the radiation dose that it gives to your body (in sieverts or rem). In a procedure that is similar to being x-rayed, specialized equipment can measure radioactive strontium that has been incorporated into bone.
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1.9 What recommendations has the federal government made to protect human health?

The federal government develops regulations and recommendations to protect public health. Regulations can be enforced by law. Federal agencies that develop regulations for toxic substances include the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC).

Recommendations provide valuable guidelines to protect public health but cannot be enforced by law. Federal organizations that develop recommendations for toxic substances include the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and the FDA.

Regulations and recommendations can be expressed in not-to-exceed levels in air, water, soil, or food that are usually based on levels that affect animals; they are then adjusted to help protect people. Sometimes these not-to-exceed levels differ among federal organizations because of different exposure times (an 8-hour workday or a 24-hour day), the use of different animal studies, or other factors.

Recommendations and regulations are also periodically updated as more information becomes available. For the most current information, check with the federal agency or organization that provides it. Some regulations and recommendations for strontium include the following:

EPA recommends that drinking water levels of stable strontium should not be more than 4 milligrams per liter of water (4 mg/L).

The Department of Energy (DOE) established derived air concentrations (DAC) for workplace exposure to radiation at DOE facilities. The DAC ranges from 0.000000002 microcuries per milliliter (μCi/mL) (2x10-9 μCi/mL of air = 70 μBq/mL of air) for radioactive particles remaining in the lung for 100 days to 0.000000008 μCi/mL (8x10-9 μCi/mL of air = 300 μBq/mL of air) for radioactive particles remaining in the lung for less than 10 days. The USNRC established an annual intake limit of 20 μCi (7 MBq) for on-the-job exposure to 90Sr in air.

EPA set standards for the concentration of 90Sr in community water supplies. The average annual concentration of 90Sr in water supplies should not exceed 8 pCi/L (0.3 Bq/L). EPA also established maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) in drinking water for radionuclide activities to protect against harmful effects of 90Sr. For beta particles like strontium, the MCL is 4 mrem per year (4x10-5 Sv per year). The USNRC set a workplace value of 31 μCi (1.1 MBq) for the amount of 90Sr that can be taken in by mouth in a year without any harmful effects.
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References

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2004. Toxicological profile for strontium. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.


http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/PHS/PHS.asp?id=654&tid=120



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Offline windyacres

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Strontium 


What is STRONTIUM-90?
Strontium is a soft, silvery metallic element found in rocks, soil, dust, coal and oil. Strontium found in nature is
not radioactive and is sometimes called stable strontium.
Strontium-90 is a radioactive form of strontium. Strontium-90 is formed in nuclear reactors or during the
explosion of nuclear weapons.

The half-life of strontium-90 (the time it takes for half of the strontium to give off
its radiation and change into another substance) is 29 years.
Where can strontium-90 be found and how is it used?
Strontium-90 is found in spent fuel rods in nuclear reactors and is considered a waste product. It is found
almost everywhere in small amounts, due to past nuclear accidents and fallout from nuclear explosions.

Strontium-90 is a part of polluted soils at sites where nuclear fission was used, including research reactors
and nuclear power plants.
Strontium-90 is used as a radioactive tracer in medical studies and in studies of agricultural crops. It is also
used in beacons for navigating, remote weather stations and space vehicles. Strontium-90 is used in electron
tubes to treat eye diseases and as a radiation source in industrial thickness gauges.

How can people be exposed to strontium-90?
It is unlikely that people will be exposed through breathing, drinking, or touching strontium-90. Food and
drinking water are the largest sources of exposure to strontium-90. Some strontium-90 gets into fish,
vegetables and livestock. It can also be found in grain, leafy vegetables and dairy products.

However, the
amount of radioactive strontium taken in by most people is small, unless they eat food that was grown on a
waste site polluted with radioactive strontium.
How does strontium-90 work and how can it affect my health?

It is possible to breathe in particles or dust containing a chemical compound of strontium-90. If this compound
dissolves in water, the chemical will dissolve in the moist surface inside the lungs. Strontium will then enter
the blood quickly. If the chemical form of strontium does not dissolve in water easily, a small amount may
remain in the lungs.


When you eat food or drink water containing strontium, only a small amount leaves the intestines and enters
the blood. Strontium can also pass through the skin.

Once strontium enters the blood, it flows to other parts of the body. It enters and leaves cells easily. In the
body, strontium acts very much like calcium. A large portion of the strontium will build up in bones. In adults,
strontium mostly attaches to the surfaces of bones. In children, strontium may create the hard bone mineral
itself, thus being stored in the bones for many years. Eventually, strontium will dissolve from the bones and
return to the blood to be used again to grow bone, or to be expelled through urine, waste matter or sweat.

The
harmful effects of strontium-90 are caused by the high energy effects of radiation.
Since radioactive strontium is taken up into bone, the bone itself and nearby soft tissues may be damaged by
radiation released over time. Bone marrow is the most important source of red blood cells, which are depleted
if the strontium-90 level is too high. Some cancer patients are given injections of radioactive strontium (89Sr) to
destroy cancer tissue in the bone marrow.
Problems from lowered red blood cell counts include anemia, which causes excessive tiredness, blood that
does not clot properly, and a decreased resistance to fight disease.


www.dhss.delaware.gov/dhss/dph/files/strontiumfaq.pdf

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Offline windyacres

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Re: De-Constructing Chemtrail Ingredients and their effects on Human Health
« Reply #18 on: September 14, 2016, 01:29:16 AM »
In doing research and just recently I was able to watch two chemtrail videos
a kind person sent me ,  and in those two videos, confirmed what
I'm seeing researching things.   Three (3) key ingredients.  Key
ingredients as in the main ingredients.

Aluminum
Strontium
Barium

And also depending on lab analysis's ,  Aluminum Oxide.

I've just started the "Strontium" portion of the ingredients,
and from what I've seen, these are  some very medically wicked chemicals
and what they do to human health!

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