A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99

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Offline Dig

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #40 on: June 30, 2009, 06:08:17 PM »
Austrian Minister confirms Baxter investigation
June 30, 2009 by birdflu666
Confirmation in the form of a letter from the Austrian Health Minister that charges were filed by against Baxter over the bird flu incident and that Austrian law enforcement are investigated can be seen under this link
http://wakenews.net/Hinausschrift_BMG-92400_0049-I_B_8_2009_20.05.2009_Burgermeister__Jane.pdf

Download site:
http://wakenews.net/html/jane_burgermeister.html



YES!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

luckee1

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #41 on: June 30, 2009, 06:10:31 PM »
Austrian Minister confirms Baxter investigation
June 30, 2009 by birdflu666
Confirmation in the form of a letter from the Austrian Health Minister that charges were filed by against Baxter over the bird flu incident and that Austrian law enforcement are investigated can be seen under this link
http://wakenews.net/Hinausschrift_BMG-92400_0049-I_B_8_2009_20.05.2009_Burgermeister__Jane.pdf

Download site:
http://wakenews.net/html/jane_burgermeister.html



wrong thread go into the search engine then go to advanced search, and type in baxter.  you will find an appropriate thread there.

Welcome to the Prison, quakergirl

here is the thread http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=113250.0

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #42 on: June 30, 2009, 06:17:57 PM »
Evidence of Genetic Warfare? More on the Mycotoxin: aflatoxin
http://www.springerlink.com/content/h551733616g572xt/

Mycotoxins are mold poisons; aflatoxins are the best known and most widely studied mycotoxins. The contamination of foods and feeds with aflatoxin can have serious consequences for human and animal health. In general, aflatoxin exposure is most likely to occur in the developing countries where food handling and storage processes are suboptimal, where malnutrition is widespread, and where few regulations exist to protect the exposed populations. Depending on dose and other variables, aflatoxins can be mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressive. Fundamental studies on the genetics, biosynthesis and molecular biology of aflatoxin producing fungi may offer insights into controlling this serious agricultural problem.

http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3403300013.html
...
Aflatoxins were first discovered in England in 1960 when more than 10,000 turkeys and ducks died within a few months. The disease contracted by these animals was called Turkey X disease and its cause was traced to Aspergillus flavus contamination of peanut meal that had originated in Brazil. The toxin was named for the short hand of its causative agent: A. fla.

Aflatoxins are the most toxic, naturally occurring carcinogens known. Aflatoxin B1 is an extremely hepatocarcinogenic compound, causing cancer of the liver in humans. Aflatoxin B1 exposure results in both steatosis (an accumulation of fat) and necrosis (cell death) of liver cells. Symptoms of aflatoxicosis are gastrointestinal including vomiting and abdominal pain. Other symptoms can include convulsions, pulmonary edema, coma and eventually death. Aflatoxins also pose a threat to developing fetuses and they are transferred from mother to infant in breast milk. Aflatoxins B1, G1 and M1 are carcinogenic in animals.

Aflatoxin poisoning occurs from ingestion of crops that have been infested with Aspergillus spp. or from eating animal products from animals that have ingested these crops. High concentrations of aflatoxins are most often found in plants with very nutritive seeds such as maize, nuts and cereal grains in Africa and rice in China and Southeast Asia. In the United States, peanuts are routinely tested for aflatoxin concentrations, and contamination has also occurred in corn, rice, and cereal grains.
...
Evidence exists that Iraq used aflatoxins in biological weapons. In December of 1990, Iraq produced 2,200 liters of aflatoxin, 1,580 liters of which were used in biological warheads. In particular, 16 R400 bombs and 2 Al Hussein (SCUD) warheads were filled with the toxin.


http://ocw.jhsph.edu/courses/publichealthtoxicology/PDFs/Lecture12_Kensler.pdf
Eat and Die

“The Poison in the Corn”—Aflatoxin

Aflatoxicoses
 Acute lethal toxicity
 Immune suppression
 Hemorrhagic anemia syndrome
 Hepatotoxicity
 Teratogenicity
 Carcinogenicity

Iraq's Biological Weapons The Past as Future?
 Between 1985 and April 1991, Iraq developed anthrax, botulinumtoxin, and aflatoxin for biological warfare; 200 bombs and 25 ballistic missiles laden with biological agents were deployed by the time Operation Desert Storm occurred. …Despite the Gulf War defeat, the Iraqi biological warfare threat has not been extinguished. …

Aflatoxin—A Human Carcinogen

Incidence of Liver Cancer (HCC)
 589,000 deaths in 1999 (WHO)
 HCC is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide
 >80% of HCC occurs in the developing world
 >400 million HBV carriers worldwide

Aflatoxin B1 binds to DNA at the guanine base in liver cells, corrupting the genetic code that regulates cell growth, thereby leading to formation of tumors.

Major Risk Factors for Liver Cancer
 Hepatitis viruses (HBV, HCV)
Aflatoxins
 Alcohol
 Oral contraceptives
 Iron overload
 Vinyl chloride
 Nutritional imbalances

Dietary Staples in Qidong (China) Consistently Contaminated with Aflatoxins
Soy Sauce
 Rice
 Peanuts
 Maize


More on USSR wheat rust anticrop efforts:
http://www.faqs.org/cia/docs/93/0000250910/THE-SOVIET-BW-PROGRAM.html
THE SOVIET BW PROGRAM
Created: 4/21/1961
OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

luckee1

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #43 on: June 30, 2009, 06:23:35 PM »
Sane, there are like 4 threads covering the Austrian - FBI lawsuit against Baxter and crew, can they be combined?

Offline Dig

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #44 on: June 30, 2009, 06:32:29 PM »
Sane, there are like 4 threads covering the Austrian - FBI lawsuit against Baxter and crew, can they be combined?

links?
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately


Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #46 on: July 01, 2009, 01:04:26 PM »
http://nue.okstate.edu/crop_information/The_Story_of_Wheat.htm

The story of wheat  -  Ears of plenty
Dec 20th 2005
From The Economist print edition
The story of man's staple food
...

On General Douglas MacArthur's team in Japan at the end of the second world war a wheat expert named Cecil Salmon collected 16 varieties of wheat including one called “Norin 10”, which grew just two feet tall, instead of the usual four. Salmon sent it back to a scientist named Orville Vogel in Oregon in 1949. Vogel began crossing Norin 10 with other wheats to make new short-strawed varieties.

In 1952 news of Vogel's wheat filtered down to a remote research station in Mexico, where a man named Norman Borlaug was breeding fungus-resistant wheat for a project funded by the Rockefeller Foundation. Borlaug took some Norin, and Norin-Brevor hybrid, seeds to Mexico and began to grow new crosses. Within a few short years he had produced wheat that yielded three times as much as before. By 1963 95% of Mexico's wheat was Borlaug's variety, and the country's wheat harvest was six times what it had been when Borlaug set foot in the country.

In 1961 Borlaug was invited to visit India by M. S. Swaminathan, adviser to the Indian minister of agriculture. India was on the brink of mass famine. Huge shipments of food aid from America were all that stood between its swelling population and a terrible fate. One or two people were starting to say the unsayable. After an epiphany in a taxi in a crowded Delhi street, the environmentalist Paul Ehrlich wrote a best-seller arguing that the world had “too many people”. Not only could America not save India; it should not save India. Mass starvation was inevitable, and not just for India, but for the world.

Borlaug refused to be so pessimistic. He arrived in India in March 1963 and began testing three new varieties of Mexican wheat. The yields were four or five times better than Indian varieties. In 1965, after overcoming much bureaucratic opposition, Swaminathan persuaded his government to order 18,000 tonnes of Borlaug's seed. Borlaug loaded 35 trucks in Mexico and sent them north to Los Angeles. The convoy was held up by the Mexican police, stopped at the border by United States officials and then held up by the National Guard when the Watts riots prevented them reaching the port. Then, as the shipment eventually sailed, war broke out between India and Pakistan

Natural-born mutants
As it happened, the war proved a godsend, because the state grain monopolies lost their power to block the spread of Borlaug's wheat. Eager farmers took it up with astonishing results. By 1974, India's wheat production had tripled and India was self-sufficient in food; it has never faced a famine since. In 1970 Norman Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for firing the first shot in what came to be called the “green revolution”.

Today scientists use thermal neutrons, X-rays, or ethyl methane sulphonate, a harsh carcinogenic chemical—anything that will damage DNA—to generate mutant cereals. Virtually every variety of wheat and barley you see growing in the field was produced by this kind of “mutation breeding”.

Soon after Norman Borlaug went to India in 1963, a remarkable thing began to happen. The world population growth rate, in percentage terms, had been climbing steadily since the second world war (bar a two-year drop in 1959-60 caused by Mao Xedong). But in the mid 1960s it stopped rising. And by 1974 it was falling significantly. The number of people added each year kept on rising for a while, but even that peaked in 1989, and then began falling steadily. Population was still growing, but it was adding a smaller and smaller number each year.

Demographers, who had been watching the exponential rise with alarm, now forecast that the population will peak below ten billion—ten gigapeople—not long after 2050. Such a low forecast would have been unthinkable just two decades ago. Already, in developing countries, the number of children born per woman has fallen from six to three in 50 years. It will have reached replacement-level fertility (where deaths equal births) by 2035.

This is an extraordinary development, unexpected, undeserved—and apparently unnatural. Human beings may be the only creatures that have fewer babies when they are better fed. The fastest-growing populations in the world over the next 50 years will be those of Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Somalia, Uganda and Yemen. All except in Yemen are in Africa. All are hungry. All remain untouched by Borlaug's green Revolution: all depend on primarily organic agriculture.

In 10,000 years the population has doubled at least ten times. Yet suddenly the doubling has ceased. It will never double again. The end of humanity's population boom will happen in the lifetimes of people alive today. It is the moment when Malthus was wrong for the last time.

Of course feeding ten billion will not be trivial. It will require at least 35% more calories than the world's farmers grow today, probably much more if a growing proportion of those ten billion are to have meat more than once a month. (It takes ten calories of wheat to produce one calorie of meat.) That will mean either better yields or less rainforest—which is why fertilisers, pesticides and transgenes are the best possible protectors of the planet. The story of wheat is not finished yet.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #47 on: July 01, 2009, 01:46:14 PM »
Something happened in 2006...:

http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/36400500/Sr47-Faris-ChromosomeRes.pdf
Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a durum
wheat-Aegilops speltoides chromosome translocation conferring
resistance to stem rust

23 July 2008.
...
in 1999, a new pathotype of stem rust known as race Ug99 (or TTKS) was detected in Uganda (Pretorius et al. 2000). Most currently deployed stem rust resistance genes, including the widely utilized gene Sr31, are ineffective against Ug99 (Singh et al. 2006) . Jin & Singh (2006) reported that only 16% of hard red spring wheat cultivars, 48% of hard red winter wheat cultivars, and 27% of soft winter wheat cultivars in the USA have resistance to Ug99. The genes conferring resistance in most of these cultivars were thought to be Sr24, Sr36, SrTmp, and an unknown gene derived from rye on a chromosome 1AL.1RS translocation in Amigo and its  derivatives. However, new variants of Ug99 with virulence on lines containing Sr24 were identified in
2006 (Jin et al. 2008), or on lines with Sr36 (Y. Jin & T. Fetch, unpublished), rendering a portion of the
previously Ug99-resistant wheats ineffective against the new variants.

...
Discussion
The occurrence and spread of virulent stem rust races, such as TTKS (Ug99) and its variants, poses a
serious threat to global wheat production.
Few modern cultivars or adapted germplasms possess
adequate resistance. It has been predicted that the route of spread of Ug99 could follow that of a Yr9-
virulent pathotype of P. striiformis which, in the late 1980s, originated in Africa and subsequently spread
to the Arabian peninsula, Syria, and eastward to Pakistan and India (Singh et al. 2006). It is therefore
vital that new sources of resistance and effective resistance genes be identified, characterized, and
deployed into adapted germplasm and varieties. Here, we showed that the stem rust resistance
gene(s) present in DAS15 is effective against Ug99
, and we characterized the chromosomal segment harbouring the resistance gene in the T2BL-2SL&2SS translocation. Other genes shown to be effective
against Ug99 include Sr25, Sr26, Sr32, Sr37, Sr39, Sr40, Sr43, and Sr44 (Singh et al. 2006, Jin et al.
2007).

However, most of these genes, like the one described in this work, are derived from wild relatives
of wheat
and are located on chromosome translocations that include large donor segments that harbour
genes possibly deleterious to agronomic and quality traits
. As well as assessing the initial translocations,
attempts should be made to further induce homoeologous recombination using ph1 mutants, irradiation,
or other means to produce lines with smaller chromosome segments containing the resistance gene but
lacking other genes with deleterious effects.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #48 on: July 03, 2009, 09:40:10 PM »
Developing... UG99 creates Wheat rust.. and in humid countries promotes mold. Mold promote mycotoxins like aflatoxin. Aflatoxin causes Liver cancer and can kill people with Hepatitis B and C (liver failure). Both ug99 and Hepatitis C are possibly engineered bio-weapons.

Aflatoxin - Hepatitis - Liver Cancer - Genetic Warfare - Eugenics - New Genocide


http://kentagextension.blogspot.com/2009/06/wheat-scab-and-don-mycotoxin.html
Tuesday, June 23, 2009
Wheat, Scab, and DON Mycotoxin
Wheat harvest has just begun in Delaware. With significant levels of scab present, there may be elevated levels of the DON mycotoxin. The following is more information.

Wheat harvest is underway in southern Indiana and with high levels of Fusarium head blight (scab) in many fields this year, it is possible that wheat may be contaminated with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, also known as DON or vomitoxin. DON is produced by the fungal pathogen that causes Fusarium head blight, and it is especially toxic to swine, but consumption of high levels of the toxin can impact the health of many animals. It is important to check fields to determine if scab is present. If the disease is present, increasing the fan speed on the combine at harvest can blow out the lighter scab-infected kernels, which contain most of the DON.

http://www.extension.org/pages/Mold_and_Mycotoxin_Issues_in_Dairy_Cattle:_Effects,_Prevention_and_Treatment

Deoxynivalenol (DON) or Vomitoxin
Deoxynivalenol is a Fusarium-produced mycotoxin, commonly detected in feed. It is sometimes called vomitoxin because it was associated with vomiting in swine. Surveys have shown DON to be associated with swine disorders including feed refusals, diarrhea, emesis, reproductive failure, and deaths
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #49 on: July 03, 2009, 10:51:34 PM »
More on the Wheat scab epidemic in the U.S. :

http://www.ars.usda.gov/Main/docs.htm?docid=9765
The scab epidemic in wheat and barley
A scab (Fusarium Head Blight) epidemic has ravaged the Red River Valley of northwest Minnesota since 1993. Unusually wet weather and high temperatures caused the outbreak in which farmers have lost an estimated $2 billion. Scab damages wheat and barley crops, reducing yields, damaging quality and sometimes producing vomitoxin, a substance harmful to animals and humans.

Why is scab a problem?
When infected with scab wheat and barley don't produce as much grain as healthy plants. The grain produced is of poor quality, so it brings a lower price if it can be sold at all. Millers will not buy scabby wheat for flour. Brewers will not make beer from scabby barley. Farmers who have some scab in their grain may sell it for reduced prices for use in animal feed, but even that market is not available when the grain has too much scab. In the worst infected areas, the only choice is to destroy the grain field without harvesting it. Continued crop failures from scab have driven many Minnesota wheat and barley farmers into bankruptcy. Other agriculture-related industries have suffered with fewer customers and loss of income.
 
What causes it?
Scab is caused by the Fusarium fungus, which grows especially well on dead straw or corn stalks left on the ground after harvest. During wet weather, Fusarium produces masses of spores that spread through the air or splash onto grain heads in rain storms. Scab is usually worse following long periods of high moisture. It is also worse when wheat or barley is grown near corn fields or in fields where corn was grown the previous year.
 
Am I in danger?
The vomitoxin that scab sometimes produces can make animals and humans sick if they eat too much of it. However, the possibility of a person ingesting it is very low. Grain sold for use as animal feed must meet strict federal standards, even though little vomitoxin is transferred into the meat or milk of animals that eat contaminated grain. Federal regulations also pose strict limits on the amount of vomitoxin allowed in grain purchased for human food. Milling and baking further reduce vomitoxin levels. Brewing companies will not purchase grain with even a trace of a vomitoxin. In the unlikely event that vomitoxin ends up in the food supply despite all the industry safeguards, a person will have to eat enormous quantities of the product for the toxin to have any effect.
 
The Cereal Disease Lab is investigating ways to control and prevent scab.

Puccinia pathway

Wheat production (green) and the annual spread of rust epidemics.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

nofakenews

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #50 on: July 03, 2009, 10:59:59 PM »
The ug99 can wipe out 80% of the world wheat and just think the last time this did major damage was in 1962 but on a side issue I'm reminded of the gov filling up the world seed vaults as if they know some attack is coming like a dirty bomb/nuke/chemical/biological or something to that nature but they have been working on reducing the population with various methods and a good video to watch is the disappearing male.

Also in 1962 was the founding of Codex Alimentarius...  ::)

Offline Dig

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All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #52 on: July 22, 2009, 03:29:55 PM »
On a note I found on another article was that there is NOT enough fungicide for the U.S. if Ug99 strikes there.

http://chem11.proboards.com/index.cgi?board=gaiasphere&action=print&thread=1844
...
Even rich countries face problems. The US has been fighting soybean rust with fungicide ever since spores blew in on hurricane Ivan in 2004. If Ug99 arrives as well, the US could be in trouble because it doesn't make enough fungicide for both crops. Kitty Cardwell of the US Department of Agriculture says there might be enough if the US fights Ug99 the same way as it is tackling soya rust: spotting outbreaks with a fast DNA-based field test and posting the results on an interactive website (www.sbrusa.net), so farmers spray only when danger looms. Ultimately, says Ward, the only real answer "is to get new, resistant varieties out there".

RustMapper-Web provides Google Earth visualization of Ug99 status in a browser.http://www.cimmyt.org/gis/rustmapper/rustmapper_web.html

http://www.agweek.com/articles/?id=5095&article_id=14663&property_id=41
COVER STORY: The race against Ug99
Matt Bewley,Agweek
Published: 07/20/2009

FARGO, N.D. — Wheat breeders in the United States and around the world are anxiously waiting to begin crossing a newly developed resistant wheat hybrid with their commercial varieties in hopes of stopping the destructive black stem rust known as Ug99.

The Ug99 fungus first was discovered in Ugandan wheat fields in 1999 (hence the name) and since has spread on the wind to several other African countries. In 2007, Ug99 jumped the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia to land 700 miles away in western Iran. Everywhere it goes, it damages up to 70 percent of the wheat crop and, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, has become more virulent since it started to spread.

Thus, as its range increased unchecked, U.S. agriculture began to take notice.

“Ug99 is really tough because so much of the world’s wheat, including ours domestically, is susceptible to this, and it is dangerous,” says Dr. Michael Edwards, research leader at the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Cereal Crops Research Unit in Fargo, N.D.

The last outbreak of stem rust in North America occurred in the 1950s, destroying 42 percent of the North Dakota crop as well as lesser, though still ruinous, portions of the rest of the U.S. crop.

The concerns

The immediate concerns are for the impoverished countries that have suffered multiple years of failed wheat crops and that five of the countries now in Ug99’s path produce about 160 million acres of wheat annually, or about 25 percent of the world wheat crop. About 80 percent of the varieties available there are based on the SR24 gene, which confers resistance to the past strains of stem rust. According to a United Nations report, the fungus “recently invaded Iran faster than predicted and could cause mass starvation if it hits India before new resistant strains are ready.”

In response, 17 international research organizations, including USDA’s Agricultural Research Service, have joined forces to find an answer for Ug99. Working together under an umbrella of funding and coordination, the Durable Rust Resistance in Wheat project was initiated.

The coordination efforts are being managed by Cornell University’s College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. They are ensuring that research work is not being duplicated and that multiple approaches to the problem are being investigated.

Its primary goal is to “mitigate that threat through coordinated activities that will replace susceptible varieties with durably resistant varieties, created by accelerated multilateral plant breeding,” a release says.

The news for the U.S. seems to be better for the time being, given the distance from these Ug99 outbreaks. However, if the disease did find its way to the Northern Plains through some means other than the wind, it would find very fertile fields for its purposes because every one of the wheat varieties raised in North Dakota, South Dakota and Minnesota are based on that same SR24 gene that Ug99 is defeating halfway around the world.

Fortunately, multiyear fungicide trials are uncovering effective controls against Ug99. Among them are Folicur and Stratego.

The catch

Research geneticist Dr. Steven Xu works with Edwards in Fargo, combating leaf spot, scab and the Hessian fly, a threat to wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma.

“In 2007, we got a call to work on the international effort to combat this disease,” he says.

Xu and his team at ARS have been tasked with developing a resistant wheat that can be bred with advanced commercial lines to produce a viable hybrid that is resistant to Ug99.

There is a catch, though. Because genetically engineered wheat, as a food crop, has not yet been accepted by most countries, Xu and everyone else involved in the research efforts have to create a Ug99-resistant breed without the benefits of much of modern genetic engineering.

“This not gene-splicing,” Xu says. “It’s not Roundup Ready, so to speak.”

The good news is that he is one of just a few active research geneticists who are experienced in the older science of chromosome engineering. In the 1980s, almost all of the wheat genetic labs were using chromosome engineering, then the leading edge of genetics technology, he says.

However, it is a very labor-intensive discipline because identifying successful hybrids had to be done without being able to verify the presence of actual genes. Back then, all they could do was test the plant’s behavior. If they were trying to introduce a gene that caused a wheat stalk to be stronger, then they would have to raise it to maturity before they knew anything. It was an even longer process to verify whether the plant had picked up any of the hundreds or thousands of undesirable genetic instructions from the donor plant. Therefore, with the advent of the quicker, computer-based molecular biology, which both manipulated and identified genes, most research facilities dropped chromosome engineering in favor of the quicker, cheaper discipline.

“Very few people are still working on the traditional cytogenetic work, or chromosome engineering,” Xu says.

The Fargo laboratory and one in Kansas are the only ARS facilities left that work in chromosome engineering. Therefore, the project leaders at Cornell divided up the search for resistant wheat through chromosome engineering between the two facilities.

Goat grass

There are nine known rust-resistant genes that are effective against Ug99, Xu says. His team will work with four of the resistant wild grass genes and the Kansas team with the other five.

Xu now is working on SR39, the most promising of the four genes assigned him. His goal is to insert SR39 into wheat through traditional crossing.

“Unfortunately, all of the genes effective against Ug99 are not from wheat,” he says. “These are from wheat grasses.”

The wheat grasses he refers to are wild grasses of various heights, sometimes referred to as “goat grass.” Being a grass, it is related to wheat, though only as a very distant relative.

He and his team have to identify, isolate and cross one of these Ug99-resistant wild grass genes into some kind of wheat without the wheat becoming more of a wild grass than a food crop.

“Basically, what we need to do is introduce this gene to the cultivars of wheat and try to only incorporate the gene itself and eliminate the garbage, the genetic junk,” he says.

That “genetic junk” would impose other wild grass characteristics on the wheat, not just the ability to fend off Ug99. Another part of his challenge comes with where SR39 is found.

Traffic cops and primitive wheat

But to do this, they have to get by the cops.

“These grasses are sufficiently distant, as relatives from wheat, that this is not an easy thing to do,” Edwards says.

If they were to try to cross their wild grass with just any wheat, there would be a problem. Nature has endowed all wheat with what is called a “Ph gene.” Edwards calls it the traffic cop for wheat genes.

“These are naturally occurring regulatory genes in the wheat plant to help protect the integrity of the plant’s genes,” he says. “They prevent nonviable combinations.”

These cops normally would prevent successful crosses between wild grass and wheat.

But there is a primitive Chinese spring wheat in Xu’s genetic arsenal that has a “dysfunctional” traffic cop, Edwards says.

Xu can slip genetic material, the chromosomes that resist Ug99, past these traffic cops and safely into the genetic makeup of the primitive wheat. The Chinese spring wheat then can be successfully crossed with modern commercial breeds.

“In a sense, the Chinese spring is a bridge between the wild relative and the commercial wheat,” Edwards says.

Process of elimination

After he’s got that bridge working, Xu and his team still need to get rid of the genetic junk that resides in the goat grass with the Ug99-fighting material. Doing this requires a long, painstaking process of elimination.

He’d started by crossing wild grass plants with 1,100 primitive wheat plants. Of those crosses, 588 had at least some of the Ug99-resistant gene in their own genetic makeup.

Xu’s team then had to find which of those had only the tiny portion that resists Ug99. They use a fluorescent scanning technique, which requires microscopic inspection of each plant at the chromosome level. This also is slow, time-consuming work.

But they just recently have finished the screening of all 588 plants and found 175 that carry the resistance, but without all the genetic junk.

“These 175 plants are now close to maturity in the greenhouse,” Xu says.

The new hybrid

In theory, the new genetics of the 175 hybrids will not affect yield, maturity cycles or any of the other characteristics important to modern commercial wheat.

“But we still need to test it,” he says. “In the last phase of the project, we introduce it to the commercial cultivars and then do the testing for yield and quality.”

“This germ plasm has to be crossed with a commercial variety, an advanced line that one of the breeders would have in their program, and pick up the higher quality of their line,” Edwards says. “Then you can have a hybrid of this germ plasm and the variety and have the best of both worlds.”

Xu expects the new SR39 hybrids to be ready for commercial breeders by the end of the year, after which ARS immediately will release the germ plasm to the public.

“Being the ARS, we are open to anybody by policy,” Edwards says.

They already have a long list of breeders and researchers waiting to test the new wheat.

“People are waiting for this worldwide,” Xu says.

They will start by shipping 50 seeds to the Nation Seed Storage Laboratory in Fort Collins, Colo., for safe keeping. After that, the breeders will get 5,000 seeds and, with a little luck and a few years, be able to release new varieties of wheat that can stand up to Ug99 to growers all over the world.

After that, Edwards hopes he will be able to say that no news is good news.

“It’s sort of ironic that, if they are successful, no one will know what the big deal was because it won’t become an epidemic,” Edwards says.

But research will at least have been reminded of the value of combining new and old technologies and of traffic cops and primitive wheat.

Rust fighters

Fungicides being used successfully against Ug99 in Africa and the Middle East:
Alto Super, Amistar, Amistaxtra, Apache, Arpege, Artea, Bayfidan, Bayleton, Bison, Bravo, Caramba,
Charisma, Cotaf 5C, Evidan, Falcon, Flamenco, Folicur, Horizon, Impact, Impulse, ,Kolasal
Mancozeb, Micronit, Ogam, Opus, Ortiva, Orius, Planete, Punch, Rombus, Sanazole, Score, Silvacur
Soprano, Stratego, Tilt , Vista Top
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline Ghost in the Machine

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #53 on: July 22, 2009, 04:12:43 PM »
Fort Detrick is Satan's Lair..
101010

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #54 on: July 19, 2010, 12:35:42 PM »
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100526134146.htm
Virulent New Strains of Ug99 Stem Rust, a Deadly Wheat Pathogen

ScienceDaily (May 28, 2010) — Four new mutations of Ug99, a strain of a deadly wheat pathogen known as stem rust, have overcome existing sources of genetic resistance developed to safeguard the world's wheat crop.

Leading wheat experts from Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas, who are in St. Petersburg, Russia for a global wheat event organized by the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative, said the evolving pathogen may pose an even greater threat to global wheat production than the original Ug99.

The new "races" have acquired the ability to defeat two of the most important stem rust-resistant genes, which are widely used in most of the world's wheat breeding programs.

"With the new mutations we are seeing, countries cannot afford to wait until rust 'bites' them," said Dr. Ravi Singh, distinguished senior scientist in plant genetics and pathology with the Mexico-based International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). "The variant of Ug99 identified in Kenya, for example, went from first detection in trace amounts in one year to epidemic proportions the next year."

"Already, most of the varieties planted in the wheat fields of the world are vulnerable to the original form of Ug99. We will now have to make sure that every new wheat variety we release has iron-clad resistance to both Ug99 and the new races," said Singh.

The reddish-brown, wind-borne fungus known as Ug99 has decimated up to 80 percent of Kenyan farmers' wheat during several cropping seasons, and scientists estimate that 90 percent of the wheat varieties around the world lack sufficient resistance to the original Ug99. Starting five years ago, in response to evidence of Ug99's virulence, researchers expanded breeding programs and collaborated with each other in a kind of "shuttle breeding diplomacy" to identify wheat varieties that could resist the new strain. But the new mutations -- identified last year in South Africa -- will make wheat crops more vulnerable as pathogens now will find new wind trajectories for migration.

First discovered in Uganda in 1999, the original Ug99 has also been found in Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan, Yemen and Iran; a Global Cereal Rust Monitoring System, housed at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), suggests it is on the march toward South Asia and beyond. Its trajectory and evolution are of particular concern to the major wheat-growing areas of Southern and Eastern Africa, the Central Asian Republics, the Caucasus, the Indian subcontinent, South America, Australia and North America.

"We do not have as much information as we would like on the aggressiveness of the pathogen," said David Hodson, Head of the GIS Unit at FAO. "The original race, Ug99, does not seem to have increased as much as originally feared, given its highly virulent nature. But the new variants pose a grave challenge that we are addressing in collaborations around the world."

The wheat rust pathogen enters the stems of a wheat plant and destroys the vascular tissue. There are three rusts that pose threats to wheat, but stem rust, of which Ug99 is a variant, is the most feared. It causes plants to fall over and can lead to the loss of an entire harvest. The introduction of one variant in just one part of the world can cause enormous losses, according to the scientists.

Hodson noted that wheat scientists and farmers alike are now mobilizing to identify and fight the virulent new forms of Ug99. Scientists at the meeting in St. Petersburg, hosted by the N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, said they are staying a few steps ahead of the rapidly evolving pathogen. They note that collaborative research and breeding programs are producing promising new lines that exhibit excellent defenses against Ug99 and its "daughter" stem rust strains.

"We are ready," said Dr. Mahmoud Solh, Director General of the Syria-based International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). "Wheat rust researchers around the world have united in an unprecedented collaboration to monitor the spread of wheat rust, find new sources of rust resistance from wild relatives of wheat, and deploy varieties with durable resistance."

But the burning question, according to Dr. Solh and his colleagues, is whether policymakers will provide the sustained support needed to remain prepared for future challenges.

"Wheat is the primary source of calories for millions of people worldwide, and accounts for around 30 percent of global grain production and 44 percent of cereals used as food," said Dr. Solh. "Globally, wheat provides nearly 55 percent of the carbohydrates and 20 percent of the food calories we consume every day."

The last major stem rust epidemic swept across North America's wheat fields in the early 1950s, when the disease destroyed as much as 40 percent of the continent's spring wheat crop. The crisis gave birth to a new form of international cooperation among wheat scientists worldwide. Spearheaded by Nobel Laureate wheat scientist Norman Borlaug, the initiative developed wheat varieties that resisted stem rust for more than four decades.

"The problem is that once they get to an epidemic level, they are very hard to stop," Singh said. "In a raging epidemic, even chemicals are of limited use."

Ironically, the very success of their work eventually led to complacency; in the 1990s, for instance, just before the discovery of Ug99, the United States had only one scientist with expertise in stem rust. Before his death last year, Borlaug drew the world's attention to the threat the emerging pathogen poses to world food security, and warned of its newfound ability to overcome the resistance that had kept stem rust at bay for more than 40 years.

And now virulent mutations of Ug99 have appeared in South Africa, according to new research presented in St. Petersburg.

"My greenhouse work showed that from a collection of 129 South African commercial cultivars and advanced breeding lines tested, 47 percent are susceptible in the seedling stage to one or both of the new stem rust races," said study author Zak Pretorius, Professor of Plant Pathology at the University of the Free State, South Africa.

Pretorius said that while most of the plants will have adult immunity, as they have additional genes to protect them, "it does point to the vulnerability of our best materials to the Ug99 race group in terms of commonly used resistance genes."

"Ug99 has exposed how vulnerable the global wheat crop is," said Robert Park, wheat pathologist at the Plant Breeding Institute of the University of Sydney. "We found that there's very little in terms of good resistance in farmers' fields. But we cannot expect the problem to be solved in five years. Ug99 research, monitoring and breeding is an ongoing effort -- an arms race that must be supported by sustained funding."

Stem rust race Ug99 and its derivatives are serious threats to global wheat production in Asia and Africa. If not checked through effective research, seed production, and distribution of resistant varieties, Ug99 may become another cause of food shortages in many countries. The best strategy to protect wheat from the menace of race Ug99 is replacement of susceptible varieties with new high-yielding, resistant varieties.

Two CGIAR centers (CIMMYT and ICARDA), in collaboration with national research centers of countries under threat, have developed high-yielding Ug99-resistant varieties that are now being multiplied and distributed with the financial assistance of USAID in the most threatened areas.

Iran is the furthest along in producing seed, and Egypt in introducing it, but most of the countries considered at risk "will be producing at least 5 percent quality seed of their national potential seed market for wheat in the crop cycle 2010-11," according to CIMMYT scientist Arun Kumar Joshi, who presented his findings on the outcomes of first efforts to introduce new varieties throughout North Africa, the Middle East and Afghanistan. The objective is to have sufficient seed of resistant lines to plant at least 5 percent of the entire wheat area by 2012.

"If achieved, this will be a major step towards food security," said Joshi. He and his colleagues note in their paper the urgency of the project to replace wheat throughout the vulnerable region. "Given favorable conditions [Ug99] threatens to spread into other wheat-producing regions of Africa and Asia, and potentially, the entire world. The threat is particularly acute in South Asia, which produces 20 percent of world wheat for a population of 1.4 billion people."

Wealthy farmers have chemical tools for dealing with wheat rust, but according to Joshi, chemical control is costly and unaffordable for most resource-poor farmers, whereas the direct costs of growing resistant varieties in the developing world are close to zero.

"Cultivation of resistant wheat varieties has reduced chemical use across about two-thirds of the 215 million hectares sown with wheat worldwide," said Joshi. "In contrast, the cost of fungicide use for controlling rust diseases in Australia in 2008 is estimated at USD8/ha, plus the cost of applying the chemicals."

The scientists gathering in St. Petersburg note that the unprecedented effort to combat Ug99 has important benefits for global wheat production overall. The researchers reported widespread outbreaks of a new strain of stripe, or yellow rust, in Central, West Asia, North Africa (CWANA) and the Caucasus (CAC) region, "which is expected to cause billions of dollars in crop losses, and disrupt regional government's food security plans through loss of yield," said Solh. He said that ICARDA scientists were working with regional partners to deploy new resistance genes for stripe rust. He also noted that there are existing resistant varieties which could be more widely adopted.

"The focus of the global Ug99 research team is far broader than Ug99 alone," said Ronnie Coffman, Director of the Durable Rust Resistance in Wheat Project at Cornell University. "The primary goal is to secure the world's wheat crop and make poor wheat farmers less vulnerable to crop diseases and other emerging constraints, such as drought and the other effects of climate change."

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #55 on: July 19, 2010, 12:42:41 PM »
http://southeastfarmpress.com/grains/future-threat-us-wheat-growers-0709/
UG99: A future threat to U.S. wheat growers
Jul 9, 2010 10:02 AM, By Roy Roberson, Farm Press Editorial Staff
...
With all the military personnel we have circulating through the Middle East, it’s going to be difficult, if not impossible, to prevent the disease-causing spores from coming back to the U.S on equipment or clothing,” Stromberg says.
...
Needless to say, wheat and barley farmers in the upper Southeast don’t need UG99 or other disease variants.

Wheat production for the 2009-2010 season may end up dropping more than 50 percent due to the combined effects of disease, flooding and drought during critical head development stages.

Keeping a watchful out for UG99 and similar disease variants is critical to rebuilding the losses in wheat production.


Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline larsonstdoc

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #56 on: July 19, 2010, 01:19:07 PM »



  It's as scary as it gets when we lose things  like wheat and honey bees.

  Food and water is all we really need.
I'M A DEPLORABLE KNUCKLEHEAD THAT SUPPORTS PRESIDENT TRUMP.  MAY GOD BLESS HIM AND KEEP HIM SAFE.

Offline jofortruth

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    • The Great Deception
Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #57 on: July 19, 2010, 01:51:56 PM »
Then combine this with the destruction of the Commodity markets (including Wheat) by Goldman Sachs and their derivatives scams, and you have motive!

"The Food Bubble" (THIS IS OUTRAGEOUS!)
http://harpers.org/archive/2010/07/0083022
http://www.democracynow.org/2010/7/16/the_...how_wall_street

Quote
NOTES:

* 2005-2008 Goldman was restructuring the Commodity Markets while people starved.

* 1903 - 2003 the prices of wheat was low, then Goldman comes in 1991 and started restructuring the commodity markets and the prices skyrocketed on Hard Red Spread Wheat. Where the markets usually had bonified hedgers of Farmers and Millers, then the Speculators took over and drove the price up illicitly.

* The Goldman type speculators were in it for the profits, they had no interest in the wheat.  :angry:

* Goldman started the Commodities Index Fund and started buying LONG on wheat futures, and kept rolling it over which made the prices skyrocket. They also created DEMAND SHOCK which is artificial demand for a product that makes the prices skyrocket. It went to $12/bushel up to $25 in 2008. Ironically 2008 was the greatest wheat producing year.

* Goldman then protected themselves by REPLICATION. They put their money into Tbills and then gave it to their day traders to leverage, AS PEOPLE STARVED.

* 2008 food riots started in 30 countries and all hell broke out as people died.


Audio at another site: (All about greed)
http://www.abc.net.au/rn/latenightlive/sto...010/2952641.htm
Don't believe me. Look it up yourself!

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #58 on: January 17, 2015, 01:25:12 PM »
http://newsok.com/genetically-modified-wheat-is-in-the-works-again-but-are-we-ready-for-it/article/feed/784296
Genetically modified wheat is in the works again, but are we ready for it?
Published on NewsOK   Modified: January 15, 2015 at 11:22 am •  Published: January 15, 2015

CHESTERFIELD, Mo. — At the heart of Monsanto’s global research operation is a structure with a rather ordinary name. But on the fourth floor of Building GG is a room where the future of wheat may be changing.

The facility has dozens of rooms just like it. But inside this particular 10-foot by 20-foot growth chamber — whose mirrored walls and sun-bright lamps can imitate the weather of any U.S. field — is a batch of young wheat plants.

They’re part of an intensive effort to use breeding and gene manipulation to make a new kind of wheat. The plants represent several years’ worth of work aimed at creating a plant that’s resistant to a trio of herbicides.


The research has the attention of supporters and critics alike.

The supporters tout the work being done at the Chesterfield Village Research Center as critical to feeding a growing global population, while the critics say the world isn’t ready for the genetic modification of a dinner table staple.

For Creve Coeur-based Monsanto, it is an expensive and time-consuming quest. It costs $150 million or more to add just one new genetic trait to a seed. Add a long development timeline — including field trials and regulatory approvals — and it could be another decade before the company is ready to put its new wheat seeds in farmers’ hands.
,,,

A decade ago, the agriculture giant was on the verge of seeking regulatory approval for a Roundup-Ready version of hard red spring wheat, typically used for bread flour.

But in May 2004, Monsanto halted the program, citing changing market conditions. It was clear that growers — worried about consumer backlash — weren’t ready.

“There was massive opposition,” said Bill Freese, a GMO critic and science policy analyst for the Center for Food Safety

...

“We came to the conclusion that we had to do something,” said Paul Penner, president of the National Association of Wheat Growers. “It’s no fun raising wheat if you are making a loss on it.”

So in 2008, the group asked its members if they were ready for GMO wheat.
A survey went to 21,000 growers in the organization. A third of them answered, with 76 percent saying yes.


...
With many wheat growers now clamoring for the same seed enhancements enjoyed by soybean and corn farmers, Monsanto changed course again.

In the summer of 2009, the company revived its wheat program and grabbed the raw seed materials needed by its scientists, spending $45 million on WestBred, a Montana wheat breeding company.
...

In late 2013, a scare went through the global wheat market after an Oregon farmer found a rogue GMO wheat plant growing in one of his fields. This was a dozen years after Monsanto ended its testing in that state.

The discovery of that single plant sent shock waves through the industry, with several key overseas buyers — including Japan and South Korea — suspending purchases of U.S. wheat, over fears of contamination.

.../

“The last thing we need is another herbicide-resistant crop,” he said. “It’s just a really bad idea. And we should realize that by now.”
...

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: A 'time bomb' for world wheat crop ug99
« Reply #59 on: September 25, 2015, 12:19:25 PM »
bump - recreated

http://www.cimmyt.org/en/what-we-do/wheat-research/item/scientists-to-detail-state-of-ug99-food-security-threat-at-sydney-meeting-2
Scientists to detail state of Ug99 food security threat at Sydney meeting
on Wednesday, 02 September 2015. Posted in Wheat research, Press releases

By Julie Mollins

SYDNEY, Australia, Sept 2 (CIMMYT) -- Australian wheat farmers are facing troubles on various fronts, including low market prices, export competition from Black Sea countries, potential weather difficulties from a looming El Nino weather system and a national outbreak of stem, stripe and leaf rust diseases, which can cause devastating crop losses.

The country, which produced almost 23 million tons of wheat in 2013, has not yet succumbed to Ug99, a swift moving stem rust disease that will be the focus of a workshop expected to attract 500 delegates hosted by the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative (BGRI) in Sydney, Australia, from September 17 to 20, 2015.

Since 1998, Ug99 has been sweeping its way across Africa to the Middle East from its origin in Uganda. Altogether 11 confirmed races in the Ug99 lineage have been detected in Ethiopia, Eritrea, Iran, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen and Zimbabwe, showing that the pathogen has evolved and expanded widely, according to new research. Most recently, the disease, which reduces grain to useless papery chaff, was detected in Egypt, the country announced earlier this year.

Although significant progress to combat the disease has been made over the past 10 years, the pathogen has continued to evolve and migrate to new areas,” said Hans Braun, head of the Global Wheat Program at the Mexico-based International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and the CGIAR Research Program on Wheat.
...

While milder variants of rust diseases can often be kept in check on a national level through such measures as monitoring and use of fungicides, the main deterrent involves farmers slowly replacing susceptible wheat with resistant varieties.

“Ug99 poses a real challenge because it has taken hold in the developing world and it’s leaping across international borders at an alarming pace,” Braun said. “Ug99 is extremely difficult to wipe out. The migration of the disease indicates it’s widespread and can affect wheat production and food security on a global scale. No wheat-growing nation is safe – all governments must unite to invest resources to tackle it.”

...

By 2050, the current global population of 7.3 billion is projected to grow 33 percent to 9.7 billion, according to the United Nations. Demand for food, driven by population, demographic changes and increasing global wealth will rise more than 60 percent, according to a recent report from the Taskforce on Extreme Weather and Global Food System Resilience. Wheat currently provides 20 percent of calories and 20 percent of protein to the global human diet.


| - - - - -


http://www.ars.usda.gov/Main/docs.htm?docid=14649
An emerging virulent stem rust race and vulnerability of wheat in the U.S. and worldwide

New virulence in East Africa
In a nursery in Uganda, Africa in 1999, susceptible type stem rust pustules (collection designated Ug99) were found on wheat lines known to have the stem rust resistance gene Sr31, a gene for which no virulence had been reported previously anywhere in the world.  Similar virulence was observed in 2001 in Kenya and 2003 in Ethiopia.   (Race identification of earlier observations prior to 2001 could not be confirmed because of a lack of samples).   Race typing (race TTKS based on Pgt system of nomenclature, see Phytopathology 78:526-533) and DNA confirmed the presence in Kenya in 2005.  Sr31is on the 1B/1R chromosomal translocation, a piece of rye chromosome that has been introduced into many wheat cultivars.  In addtion to Sr31, the leaf rust resistance gene Lr26 and the stripe rust resistance gene Yr9are also on the 1B/1R translocation.

Stem rust vulnerability of wheat worldwide--the Sr31 factor


Stem rust resistance gene Sr31 is widely utilized in wheat worldwide, particularly in the India subcontinent, China, Europe, and South America.
  From the CIMMYT report: Impacts of International Wheat Breeding Research in Developing Countries, 1966-97, developing countries planted 69 million hectares (~170 million acres) of spring wheat in 1997, of which nearly 80% were planted to CIMMYT-related varieties.   Susceptibility of this material will provide little barrier to the spread of a virulent race (e.g. TTKS).

 Current research emphasis

•Screening U.S. wheat in Kenya against stem rust race TTKS
•Characterizing sources of resistance
•Mapping effective resistance genes

Germplasm evaluation


•Ug99 field and greenhouse evaluations
•Stem rust resistance screening nursery data (BGRI)
•Contact at Cereal Disease Laboratory

Yue Jin ( [email protected])
USDA-ARS, Cereal Disease Laboratory

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5