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U.S. Military Civil Disturbance Planning:
The War at Home Part One
by Frank Morales
Under the heading of "civil disturbance planning," the U.S. military is training troops and police to suppress democratic opposition in America. The master plan, Department of Defense Civil Disturbance Plan 55-2, is code-named, "Operation Garden Plot." Originated in 1968, the "operational plan" has been updated over the last three decades, most recently in 1991, was activated during the Los Angeles "riots" of 1992, and more than likely during the recent anti-WTO "battle in Seattle."
Current U.S. military preparations for suppressing domestic civil disturbance, including the training of National Guard troops and local police, are actually part of a long history of American "internal security" measures dating back to the first American Revolution. Generally, these measures have sought to thwart the aims of social justice movements, embodying the concept that within the civilian body politic lurks an enemy that one day the military might be ordered to fight.
Equipped with flexible "military operations in urban terrain" and "operations other than war" doctrine, lethal and "less-than-lethal" high-tech weaponry, U.S. "armed forces" and "elite" militarized police units are being trained to eradicate "disorder," "disturbance" and "civil disobedience" in America. Further, it may very well be that police/military "civil disturbance" planning is the animating force and the overarching logic behind the incredible nationwide growth of police paramilitary units, a growth which coincidentally mirrors rising levels of police violence directed at the American people, particularly "nonwhite" poor and working people.
Recently, Pentagon spokesman Kenneth H. Bacon "acknowledged that the Air Force wrongfully started and financed a highly classified, still-secret project, known as a black program without informing Congress last year." The costs and nature of these projects "are the most classified secrets in the Pentagon."1 Could it be that the current U.S. Air Force Civil Disturbance Plan 55-2, GARDEN PLOT, is one such program financed from this secret budget? We have a right to know. And following Seattle, we have the need to know.
U.S. military training in civil disturbance "suppression" is in full operation today. The formulation of legitimizing doctrine, the training in the "tactics and techniques" of "civil disturbance suppression," and the use of "non-lethal" weaponry, are ongoing, financed by tax dollars. The overall operation is called Garden Plot. And according to the bosses at the Pentagon, "U.S. forces deployed to assist federal and local authorities during times of civil disturbance...will follow use-of-force policy found in Department of Defense Civil Disturbance Plan-GARDEN PLOT." (Joint Chiefs of Staff, "Standing Rules of Engagement, Appendix A," 1 October 1994.)

Origins of Garden Plot
" Knowledge makes a man unfit to be a slave."—Frederick Douglass
Rochester, New York, is the former home of Frederick Douglass's North Star newspaper. In 1964, it erupted in one of the first large-scale urban outbursts of the decade. Precipitated by white police violence against the black community, the July uprising lasted several days, subsiding only after the arrival of 1,500 National Guardsmen. In "the fall of 1964, the FBI, at the direction of President Johnson, began to make riot control training available to local police departments, and by mid-1967 such training assistance had been extended to more than 70,000 officials and civilians."2
On July 29, 1967, President Johnson issued Executive Order 11365, establishing the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. It is more commonly known as the Kerner Commission, named for its chair, former Major General, and then Governor of Illinois, Otto Kerner. The creation of the commission came hot on the heels of the violence in Detroit, a conflict which left 43 dead, several hundred wounded, and more than 5,000 people homeless. Johnson sent troubleshooter Cyrus Vance, later Secretary of Defense, as his personal observer to Detroit. The commission issued its final report, completed in less than a year, on March 1, 1968.
Although the Kerner Commission has over the years become associated with a somewhat benign, if not benevolent character, codifying the obvious, "we live in two increasingly separate Americas," etc., the fact is that the commission itself was but one manifestation of a massive military/police counterinsurgency effort directed against U.S. citizens, hatched in an era of emergent post-Vietnam "syndrome" coupled with elite fears of domestic insurrection. While the movement chanted for peace and revolution, rebellious, angry and destructive urban uprisings were occurring with alarming frequency, often the result of the usual spark, police brutality, white on black crime. The so-called urban riots of 1967-1968 were the zenith, during this period, of social and class conflict. "More than 160 disorders occurred in some 128 American cities in the first nine months of 1967."3
The executive order establishing the commission called for an investigation of "the origins of the recent major civil disorders and the influence, if any, of organizations or individuals dedicated to the incitement or encouragement of violence."4 The work of the commission was funded from President Johnson's "Emergency Fund." The executive order sought recommendations in three general areas: "short term measures to prevent riots, better measures to contain riots once they begin, and long term measures to eliminate riots in the future."5 Their two immediate aims were "to control and repress black rioters using almost any available means,"6 and to assure white America that everything was in hand. Commission members included Charles B. Thorton, Chairman and CEO, Litton Industries, member of the Defense Industry Advisory Council to the DoD and the National Security Industrial Association, John L. Atwood, President and CEO, North American Rockwell Corporation ("Commission Advisor on Private Enterprise"), and Herbert Jenkins, Atlanta Chief of Police and President of the International Association of Chiefs of Police.
During the early stages of staff recruitment, commission Deputy Executive Director Victor H. Palmieri "described the process as a war strategy"7 and so he might, given the overwhelming presence within the commission and its consultants of military and police officials. One quarter of more than 200 consultants listed were big-city police chiefs, like Daryl F. Gates, the former Los Angeles police chief. Numerous police organizations, including the heavily funded Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (financiers of SWAT), guided the commission's deliberations. No less than 30 police departments were represented on or before the commission by their chiefs or deputy chiefs.
A key player within the commission, "consultant" Anthony Downs, stated at the time that, "it would be far cheaper to repress future large-scale urban violence through police and military action than to pay for effective programs against remaining poverty."8 As for the military, twelve generals, representing various branches of the armed services appeared before the commission or served as contractors. The commission's "Director of Investigations," Milan C. Miskovsky, was "on leave as assistant general counsel of the treasury, and formerly connected to the Central Intelligence Agency."9
The Kerner Commission's "study" of "civil disorder" led directly to (civilian) recommendations regarding the role of the military in domestic affairs. The report "commends the Army for the advanced status of its training." Further, it states that "the Department of the Army should participate fully in efforts to develop nonlethal weapons and personal protective equipment appropriate for use in civil disorders." In addition, "the Army should investigate the possibility of utilizing psychological techniques to ventilate hostility and lessen tension in riot control, and incorporate feasible techniques in training the Army and National Guard units."
Under the heading, "Army Response to Civil Disorders," the commission report states that "the commitment of federal troops to aid state and local forces in controlling a disorder is an extraordinary act.... An Army staff task group has recently examined and reviewed a wide range of topics relating to military operations to control urban disorders: command and control, logistics, training, planning, doctrine, personnel, public information, intelligence, and legal aspects." The results of the Army brass's study was subsequently, "made known to the National Guard and to top state and local civil and law enforcement officers in order to stimulate review at the state and local level."10
The Army Task Force which assisted the Kerner Commission issued its own report in early 1968. In it, the Pentagon took a multi-pronged approach to solving the civil disturbance problem. "Expanding the suggestion of Cyrus Vance, Military Intelligence—working with the FBI, local, county and state police forces—undertook a massive domestic intelligence gathering operation...the Senior Officers Civil Disturbance Course was instituted at the Military Police Academy in Georgia.... Security forces ranging from Army troops to local police were trained to implement their contingency plans.... Contingency plans, called planning packets, were prepared for every city in the country that had a potential for student, minority or labor unrest."11
In addition, "the Army Task Force that had designed this program took on a new name, the Directorate of Civil Disturbance Planning and Operations. The Army Task Force transformation into the Directorate occurred during the massive rioting that broke out in black ghettos of 19 cities after the assassination of Martin Luther King in April 1968."12 At that time "seven army infantry brigades, totaling 21,000 troops were available for riot duty. And a huge, sophisticated computer center kept track of all public outbursts of political dissent, thereby furnishing the first of the Army Task Force's prescribed remedies: intelligence."13
By June of 1968, the Directorate had become the Directorate of Military Support, setting up shop in the basement of the Pentagon. "Better known as the domestic war room, the Directorate had 150 officials to carry out around-the-clock monitoring of civil disorders, as well as to oversee federal troop deployments when necessary. At the cost of $2.7 million, this massive directorate also developed policy advice for the secretary of the Army on all disturbances and maintained intelligence packets on all major U.S. cities."14
Even though the full extent of U.S. military intelligence activities during this period is far from generally known, "by 1968, many Justice Department personnel knew that the military was preparing to move in massively if needed to quash urban riots, and some officials feared the development of a large national military riot force. It was well known among top officials that the Department of Defense was spending far more funds than the Justice Department on civil disorder preparations...indicative of the growing trend at the federal level toward repression and control of the urban black rioters."15
By 1971, Senator Sam Ervin, later of Watergate renown, had convened his Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights which "revealed that Military Intelligence had established an intricate surveillance system covering hundreds of thousands of American citizens. Committee staff members had seen a master plan—Garden Plot-that gave an eagle eye view of the Army-National Guard police strategy."16 "At first, the Garden Plot exercises focused primarily on racial conflict. But beginning in 1970, the scenarios took a different twist. The joint teams, made up of cops, soldiers and spies, began practicing battle with large groups of protesters. California, under the leadership of Ronald Reagan, was among the most enthusiastic participants in Garden Plot war games."17
As time went on, "Garden Plot evolved into a series of annual training exercises based on contingency plans to undercut riots and demonstrations, ultimately developed for every major city in the United States. Participants in the exercises included key officials from all law enforcement agencies in the nation, as well as the National Guard, the military, and representatives of the intelligence community.... According to the plan, joint teams would react to a variety of scenarios based on information gathered through political espionage and informants. The object was to quell urban unrest...."18
Unrest of a different sort took place on the evening of February 27, 1973. At that time, a group of Native Americans occupied a trading post in the village of Wounded Knee on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. By March 2, the takeover had "triggered the army contingency plan for domestic disturbances. Emergency Plans White—now coded as Garden Plot—brought the Army into South Dakota.... Three army colonels, disguised as civilians, and reconnaissance planes assisted," while "the Justice Department used the army to conduct intelligence for civilian law enforcement around Wounded Knee."19 Information on other instances in which Garden Plot was "triggered" over the intervening years is presently locked in Pentagon vaults.
In essence, the contemporary roots of militarized efforts to suppress domestic rebellion lie in the U.S. Army's master plan, "Department of Defense Civil Disturbance Plan 55-2, GARDEN PLOT." Since at least 1968, the military has expended millions of dollars in this effort. The plan is operative right now, most recently during and after the Los Angeles uprising of 1992. A view into details of this plan is possible by way of an examination of "United States Air Force Civil Disturbance Plan 55-2, GARDEN PLOT," which is the "implementing" and "supporting plan for the Department of the Army (DA) Civil Disturbance Plan—GARDEN PLOT—dated 1 March 1984 [which] provides for the employment of USAF forces in civil disturbances." It is specifically drawn up "to support the Secretary of the Army, as DOD Executive Agent for civil disturbance control operations (nicknamed GARDEN PLOT), with airlift and logistical support, in assisting civil authorities in the restoration of law and order through appropriate military commanders in the 50 States, District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and U.S. possessions and territories, or any political subdivision thereof." The plan "is effective for planning on receipt and for execution on order."20

U.S. Air Force 55-2—Garden Plot
" The long title of the plan is United States Air Force Civil Disturbance Plan 55-2, Employment of USAF Forces in Civil Disturbances. The short title...is USAF Civil Disturbance Plan 55-2. The nickname assigned by Department of the Army is GARDEN PLOT."
The plan opens with some basic "assumptions," namely that "civil disturbances requiring intervention with military forces may occur simultaneously in any of the 50 States, District of Columbia, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, U.S. possessions and territories." And like the current situation in Vieques, Puerto Rico, "civil disturbances will normally develop over a period of time." In the event it evolves into a confrontational situation, under Garden Plot, it is a "presidential executive order" that "will authorize and direct the Secretary of Defense to use the Armed Forces of the United States to restore law and order."
According to the Air Force plan, the military will attempt "to suppress rebellion whenever the President considers that unlawful obstructions, combinations, or assemblages, or rebellion against the authority of the United States, make it impractical to enforce the laws of the United States in any state or territory by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings...(10 USC 332)." Applying its own version of equal protection under the law, the military can intervene "when insurrection, domestic violence, unlawful combinations, or conspiracies in a state so hinder or obstruct the execution of the laws as to deprive individuals of their constitutional rights, privileges, and immunities or when the insurrection impedes the due course of justice, and only when the constituted authorities of the state are unable, fail or refuse to protect that right, privilege, immunity, or to give that protection (10 USC 333)." In other words, the Army makes an offer of "protection" that the citizenry can't refuse.
According to the Air Force plan's "Classification Guidance," the roughly 200 page document "is UNCLASSIFIED and does not come within the scope of direction governing the protection of information affecting national security. Although it is UNCLASSIFIED, it is FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY as directed by AFR 12-30. This plan contains information that is of internal use to DOD and, through disclosure, would tend to allow persons to violate the law or hinder enforcement of the law." Consequently, the plan's "operations orders and operating procedures must be designed to provide the highest degree of security possible." Therefore "the entire staff should identify known or suspected opposition awareness of previous operations and operations plans," while "procedures should be designed to eliminate the suspect sources to the degree possible." And "in the event of organized opposition... some sort of advisory intelligence gathering capability should be assumed."
The Air Force document warns, under the heading of "Open Literature Threat," presaging current military discourse on "info-war," that "any information/document, though seemingly unclassified, which reveals information concerning this Plan is a threat to OPSEC (operational security)" This is especially true given the nature of the "Human Intelligence (HUMINT) Threat." Recognizing that, "prior to and during sustained military operations in Support of the Plan, the potential HUMINT threat could be considerable," the plan recommends that "every effort should be made to reduce vulnerability to this threat by adhering to OPSEC procedures and safeguarding Essential Elements of Friendly Information (EEFI)."
Under "Operations to be Conducted: Deployment," the Air Force plan states that "a civil disturbance condition (CIDCON) system has been established to provide an orderly and timely increase in preparedness for designated forces to deploy for civil disturbances control operations, will be on an as required basis for USAF resources for such operations as aerial resupply, aerial reconnaisance, airborne psychological operations, command and control communications systems, aeromedical evacuation, helicopter and weather support." The Air Force does have some experience in this area. "In response to the U.S. invasion of Cambodia, student unrest broke out. Under Operation Garden Plot, from April 30 through May 4, 1970, 9th Air Force airlift units transported civil disturbance control forces from Ft. Bragg to various locations throughout the eastern U.S."21 In fact, two years earlier, "Air Force Reserve C-119 and C-124 units participated in Garden Plot operations set up to quell domestic strife that followed the assassination of Martin Luther King."22
Although the section on "Counterintelligence Targets and Requirements" is "omitted," the plan does specify its targets, namely, those "disruptive elements, extremists or dissidents perpetrating civil disorder." A "civil disturbance" is defined as a "riot, acts of violence, insurrections, unlawful obstructions or assemblages, or other disorders prejudicial to public law and order. The term civil disturbance includes all domestic conditions requiring the use of federal armed forces pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 15, Title 10, United States Code." Conditions precipitating Garden Plot activation are "those that threaten to reach or have reached such proportions that civil authorities cannot or will not maintain public order." As for legal authority, "the Constitution of the United States and numerous statutes provide the President with the authority to commit Federal military forces within the United States... DOD Directive 3025.12 provides guidance in committing Federal armed forces."
The "application of forces should be in the following order: local and state police, Army and (in support role) Air National Guard under State control, Federal civil law enforcement officials, federal military forces to include Army and (in support role) Air National Guard." According to the plan, "State Adjutants General prepare civil disturbance plans for the employment of National Guard units under state control." Specifically, "as a general rule for planning purposes, the minimum forces to be supported in any single objective area is 5,000. The maximum to be supported is 12,000 for any objective area other than Washington, D.C., and 18,000 for Washington, D.C." The "objective areas" are "those specified by the Presidential Proclamation and Executive Order in which the Secretary of Defense has been directed to restore law and order," and as "further defined by the Letter of Instruction issued to Task Force Commanders by the Chief of Staff, US Army."
In order to avoid the unseemly implications of "martial law," "requirements for the commitment of Federal military forces will not result in the declaration of a National Emergency." In this regard, the "Public Affairs Objectives" include the development of "procedures for the public release of appropriate information regarding...civil disturbance control operations." Media and other queries "concerning employment of control forces...may be locally answered by an interim statement that the Department of Defense policy is not to comment on plans concerning the possible employment of military units and resources to carry out assigned missions."
Concerning "Force Requirements," the plan states that, "US Army and Marine Corps units designated for civil disturbance operations will be trained, equipped and maintained in readiness for rapid deployment, (with) ten brigades, prepared for rapid deployment anywhere in CONUS. A Quick Reaction Force (QRF) will be considered to be on a 24-hour alert status and capable of attaining a CIDCON 4 status in 12 hours...." Upon receipt of orders, "the Task Force Commander assumes operational control of the military ground forces assigned for employment in the objective area," including "special operations assets."

Continuation in part 2


Continued from part 1

The "Summary of the Counterintelligence and Security Situation" states that "spontaneous civil disturbances which involve large numbers of persons and/or which continue for a considerable period of time, may exceed the capacity of local civil law enforcement agencies to suppress. Although this type of activity can arise without warning as a result of sudden, unanticipated popular unrest (past riots in such cities as Miami, Detroit and Los Angeles serve as examples), it may also result from more prolonged dissidence." USAF Garden Plot advises that "if military forces are called upon to restore order, they must expect to have only limited information available regarding the perpetrators, their motives, capabilities, and intentions. On the other hand, such events which occur as part of a prolonged series of dissident acts will usually permit the advance collection of that type of information..."
The United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), "provides training programs and doctrine for civil disturbance operations to military services." The U.S. Army Force Command (FORSCOM) "organizes, trains, and maintains in readiness Army forces for civil disturbance operations," while the Director of Military Support (DOMS) "conducts, on a no-notice basis, exercises which direct headquarters of uniformed services, appropriate CONUS command, and other DOD components, having GARDEN PLOT responsibilities to assume a simulated increased preparedness for specified forces." In addition, the DOMS "maintains an around-the-clock civil disturbance command center to monitor incipient and ongoing disturbances."
The document, the United States Air Force's "implementing plan" for the U.S. Army's Civil Disturbance Plan 55-2, GARDEN PLOT, goes on to detail every aspect of military "suppression" of "rebellion against the authority of the United States," including who pays, who bills and how to secure "loans" to cover the costs "attributable to GARDEN PLOT." Ominously, under "Resources Employed Without Presidential Directive," the document states that when the "immediate employment of military resources is required in cases of sudden and unexpected civil disturbances or other emergencies endangering life or federal property, or disrupting the normal processes of Government, expenses incurred will be financed as a mission responsibility of the DOD component employing the military resources."

Pentagon Directives
" Department of Defense Directive 3025.12, Military Assistance for Civil Disturbances (MACDIS)" became effective on February 4, 1994, when signed by then Defense Secretary William Perry. It states that, "the President is authorized by the Constitution and laws of the United States to suppress insurrections, rebellions, and domestic violence under various conditions and circumstances. Planning and preparedness by the Federal Government and the Department of Defense for civil disturbances are important, due to the potential severity of the consequences of such events for the Nation and the population." Further, "the Secretary of the Army, as DoD Executive Agent, shall provide guidance to the other DoD Components, through DoD 3025.12-R, the DoD Civil Disturbance Plan (GARDEN PLOT), or both, in accordance with this Directive."
DoDD 3025.12 makes it clear that "MACDIS operations are unprogrammed emergency requirements for the Department of Defense," and that in order to "ensure essential control and sound management of all military forces employed in MACDIS operations, centralized direction from the DoD Executive Agent (the Army) shall guide planning by the DoD component." Thus, "MACDIS missions shall be decentralized through the DoD Planning Agents or other Joint Task Force Commanders only when specifically directed by the DoD Executive Agent."
According to the directive, the "Army and Air National Guard forces have primary responsibility for providing military assistance to state and local governments in civil disturbances." Accordingly, "the Army National Guard State Area Commands (STARCs) shall plan for contingency use of non-Federalized National Guard forces for civil disturbance operations." The directive further outlines policy, guidelines, and legal justification for "military assistance for civil disturbances," including policy regarding domestic law enforcement, designating the Army as "the principal point of contact between the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Justice (DoJ) for planning and executing MACDIS."23
The militarization of domestic "law enforcement" is founded, in part, upon "Department of Defense Directive 5525.5, DoD Cooperation with Civilian Law Enforcement Officials," dated January 15, 1986, five years after congressional "drug warriors" passed the Military Cooperation with Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies Act. Referencing the 1971 version of DODD 3025.12 (above), the directive states that, "it is DoD policy to cooperate with civilian law enforcement officials to the extent practical...consistent with the needs of national security and military preparedness." In addition, "the Military Departments and Defense Agencies may provide training to Federal, State, and local civilian law enforcement officials."
Apparently, military Judge Advocates (lawyers) have no problem with the 1878 Posse Comitatus Act (18 USC 1385), which states: "Whoever, except in cases and under circumstances expressly authorized by the Constitution or Act of Congress, willfully uses any part of the Army or the Air Force as a posse comitatus or otherwise to execute the laws shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than two years or both." Nor is there much concern shown for "the historic tradition of limiting direct military involvement in civilian law enforcement activities." Even though the Act is cited within the directive as "the primary restriction on military participation in civilian law enforcement activities," it is rendered null and void in deference to "actions that are taken for the primary purpose of furthering a military or foreign affairs function." In fact, "under guidance established by the Secretaries of the Military Departments and the Directors of the Defense Agencies concerned, the planning and execution of compatible military training and operations may take into account the needs of civilian law enforcement officials for information when the collection of the information is an incidental aspect of training performed for a military purpose."24
"United States Army Field Manual 19-15, Civil Disturbances," dated November 1985, is designed to provide hands-on "guidance for the commander and his staff in preparing for and providing assistance to civil authorities in civil disturbance control operations." The Army manual opens by noting that, "the DA Civil Disturbance Plan, known as Garden Plot, provides guidance to all DOD components in planning civil disturbance missions." Its thirteen chapters cover, in depth, every aspect of military "tasks and techniques employed to control civil disturbances and neutralize special threats." Subjects include the nature of civil disturbances, participants ("the crowd"), federal intervention, information planning ("intelligence"), control force operations, crowd control operations, threat analysis ("criminal activists"), about which "law enforcement sources can provide useful information," riot control agents, extreme force options, apprehension, detention, and training.
According to the Army manual, "civil disturbances in any form are prejudicial to public law and order." They "arise from acts of civil disobedience," and "occur most often when participants in mass acts of civil disobedience become antagonistic toward authority, and authorities must struggle to wrest the initiative from an unruly crowd." They are caused by "political grievances" and "urban economic conflicts," or maybe even by "agents of foreign nations," but mostly, "urban conflicts and community unrest arise from highly emotional social and economic issues." And in a statement that resonates with the "benign neglect" of some years ago, the manual points out that disturbances may arise because "economically deprived inner-city residents may perceive themselves treated unjustly or ignored by the people in power."
Utilizing Garden Plot language, the manual states that "the president can employ armed federal troops to suppress insurrection, domestic violence, unlawful assemblies, and conspiracy if such acts deprive the people of their constitutional rights and a state's civil authorities cannot or will not provide adequate protection." Never mind the Congress or Constitution, "federal intervention in civil disturbances begins with the issuance of a presidential proclamation to the citizens engaged in the disturbance." In other words, the President reads "the riot act" and "a control force" is sent in to "isolate the disturbance area." The goal is to "isolate the people creating the disturbance from those who have not yet become actively involved."
According to FM 19-15, the Army can gather intelligence on civilians if their "activities can be linked directly to a distinct threat of a civil disturbance that may involve federal forces." This is especially important, given that "during civil disturbances many people engage in unlawful behavior." Therefore, "when at all possible, civil law enforcement agents are integrated with the military control force team making apprehensions," and "if police are not available, military personnel may search people incident to an apprehension." Useful measures for "isolating an area include barriers, patrols, pass and ID systems, and control of public utilities." Also, "imposing a curfew is a highly effective control measure in many civil disturbances." Army "saturation patrols," "integrated with civil police patrols," blanket the area, creating "the psychological impression of the control force being everywhere at once."
The Army field manual points out that when "control forces" resort to "forceful measures," they can turn to a host of weaponry, including "the M234, which is a nondeadly force measure, to the machine gun, which is the most deadly force measure." The manual states that "machine guns, 7.62 millimeter and below, may accompany units on civil disturbance missions." In addition, the "control forces" can utilize the M234 launcher, which is "a riot control weapon" mounted on an M16 rifle which "fires a projectile that causes pain on impact." In addition, "the riot shotgun is an extremely versatile weapon. Its appearance and capability have a strong psychological effect on rioters."
The concept of martial rule, as distinct from martial law, is not written, and therefore is an eminently more workable arrangement for "law enforcement forces." That is because, as FM 19-15 points out, "martial rule is based on public necessity. Public necessity in this sense means public safety." According to the manual, U.S. state authorities "may take such action within their own jurisdictions." And yet, "whether or not martial rule has been proclaimed, commanders must weigh each proposed action against the threat to public order and safety. If the need for martial rule arises, the military commander at the scene must so inform the Army Chief of Staff and await instructions. If martial rule is imposed, the civilian population must be informed of the restrictions and rules of conduct that the military can enforce." Realizing the power of free speech, the manual suggests that "during a civil disturbance, it may be advisable to prevent people from assembling. Civil law can make it unlawful for people to meet to plan an act of violence, rioting, or civil disturbance. Prohibitions on assembly may forbid gatherings at any place and time." And don't forget, "making hostile or inflammatory speeches advocating the overthrow of the lawful government and threats against public officials, if it endangered public safety, could violate such law."
During civil disturbance operations, "authorities must be prepared to detain large numbers of people," forcing them into existing, though expanded "detention facilities." Cautioning that "if there are more detainees than civil detention facilities can handle, civil authorities may ask the control forces to set up and operate temporary facilities." Pending the approval of the Army Chief of Staff, the military can detain and jail citizens en masse. "The temporary facilities are set up on the nearest military installation or on suitable property under federal control." These "temporary facilities" are "supervised and controlled by MP officers and NCOs trained and experienced in Army correctional operations. Guards and support personnel under direct supervision and control of MP officers and NCOs need not be trained or experienced in Army correctional operations. But they must be specifically instructed and closely supervised in the proper use of force...."
According to the Army, the detention facilities are situated near to the "disturbance area," but far enough away "not to be endangered by riotous acts." Given the large numbers of potential detainees, the logistics (holding, searching, processing areas) of such an undertaking, new construction of such facilities "may be needed to provide the segregation for ensuring effective control and administration." It must be designed and "organized for a smooth flow of traffic," while a medical "treatment area" would be utilized as a "separate holding area for injured detainees." After a "detainee is logged in and searched," "a file is initiated," and a "case number" identifies the prisoner. In addition, "facility personnel also may use hospital ID tags. Using indelible ink, they write the case number and attach the tag to the detainee's wrist. Different colors may be used to identify different offender classifications...." Finally, if and when it should occur, "release procedures must be coordinated with civil authorities and appropriate legal counsel." If the "detainee" should produce a writ of habeas corpus issued by a state court, thereby demanding ones' day in court, the Army will "respectfully reply that the prisoner is being held by authority of the United States."
Finally, apparently the new millennium has brought with it a renewed desire on the part of the military to circulate the particulars of the Garden Plot plan among the troops. This past January 28, the Army's Center for Lessons Learned published various sections of the most recent, February 15, 1991 version of the plan on its web site.25 The timing is indeed interesting. Some of the online sections include "Annex A: Task Organization, Forces, and Reaction Times to Department of Defense Civil Disturbance Plan," "Annex D: Logistics...Intelligence and the Basic Plan" and the "Alert Order," "Annex G: Communications and Information Management." Only the material is restricted to military personnel, for now.


Frank Morales is an Episcopal priest and independent researcher and pamphleteer who is active on Manhattan's Lower East Side. An expanded version of this rticle can be found on CovertAction Quarterly's web site. Part Two will be published in the next issue.
1. New York Times, "Pentagon Misused Millions in Funds, House Panel Says," July 22, 1999, p. A1. See also, on the subject of "unacknowledged Special Access Programs" wherein "the USAF's $7.4 billion budget for classified procurement is more than a third of the service's total budget," Bill Sweetman, "In search of the Pentagon's billion dollar hidden budgets: how the US keeps its R&D spending under wraps," International Defense Review, Jane's Defense Weekly, Jan. 2000, www.janes.com/defence/editors/ pentagon.html.
2. James W. Button, Black Violence: The Political Impact of the 1960's Riots, (Princeton: University Press, 1978), p. 116.
3. Ibid., p.121. Also see Cyrus R. Vance, Final Report of Cyrus R. Vance, Special Assistant to the Secretary of Defense, Concerning the Detroit Riots, July 23 through August 2, 1967.
4. Michael Lipsky and David J. Olson, Commission Politics: The Processing of Racial Crisis in America (New York: Transaction Books, 1971), p. 161. The Executive Order is reprinted in U.S. Riot Commission Report (New York: Bantam Books, 1968), pp. 34-35.
5. Lipsky and Olson, op cit., n. 4., p. 163, citing a transcription of Lyndon B. Johnson, "Statement by the President," July 29, 1967.
6. Op. cit., n. 2, p. 107.
7. Lipsky and Olson, op. cit., n. 4, p. 165.
8. Anthony Downs, Opening Up the Suburbs: An Urban Strategy for America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973), p. 176. Downs, a leading "housing expert," believed that the key to effective urban based counterinsurgency was the notion of "spatial deconcentration," or the "adequate outmigration of the poor" from the cities. Downs wrote Chapters 16 and 17 of the Kerner Report which deal with "housing." He is the leading exponent of "deliberate dispersal policies" designed to "disperse the urban poor more effectively." The origins of "homelessness" (state repression) lie here.
9. Lipsky and Olson, op. cit., n. 4, p. 168.
10. Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, Washington, D.C., March 1, 1968, pp. 279-81.
11. Ron Ridenhour and Arthur Lubow, "Bringing the War Home," New Times Magazine, 1975, p. 20.
12. Ibid.
13. Ibid.
14. Op. cit., n. 2, p. 133.
15. Ibid.
16. Op. cit., n. 11, p. 18.
17. Donald Goldberg and Indy Badhwar, "Blueprint for Tyranny," Penthouse Magazine, Aug. 1985, p. 72.
18. Ibid.
19. Joan M. Jensen, Army Surveillance in America, 1775-1980 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991), pp. 257-58. This excellent historical account actually does what it says, tracing American "internal security measures" right back to the "founders."
20. United States Air Force Civil Disturbance Plan 55-2, Garden Plot, Headquarters, United States Air Force, June 1, 1984 (roughly 200 pages, not paginated).
21. Federation of American Scientists, Military Analysis Network, "Garden Plot," Nov. 1998.
22. U.S. Air Force News Service, Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, "Air Force 50th Anniversary: April History," March 25, 1997, p. 2. In fact, Garden Plot may have been operative prior and during the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. William F. Pepper, attorney for the late James Earl Ray, as well as the King family in their current attempts to get to the bottom of the murder, claims, in Orders To Kill (Secaucus, N.J.: Carroll and Graf, 1995), p. 424, that the orders to kill King, which were delivered to Special Forces operatives in Memphis were tied to Garden Plot. Pepper states that the orders to kill King "appeared to come from the office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and were issued under the umbrella of the anti-black terrorist operation Garden Plot which was a part of the overall U.S. Command antiriot operation which was activated with the outbreak of any major riot."
23. Department of Defense Directive 3025.12, "Military Assistance for Civil Disturbances (MACDIS), Feb. 4, 1994" (web7.whs.osd.mil/text/ d302512p. txt). Note: DoDD 3025.12 is one of 4 correlated directives that deal with civil disturbance. The others include DoDD 3025.1, "Military Support to Civil Authorities (Jan. 1993)," DoDD 3025.15, "Military Assistance for Civil Authorities (Feb. 1997)," and DoDD 3025.1-M, "Manual for Civil Emergencies (June 1994)."
24. Department of Defense Directive 5525.5, "DoD Cooperation With Civilian Law Enforcement Officials," Jan. 15, 1986 (http://www.ngb.dtic.mil/referenc/briefngs/wmd/DODD5525.5DoD Cooperation with Civilian Law Enforcement Officials.htm).
25. See for example, Headquarters, Department of the Army, Washington, D.C., 20310-0440, "DOD Civil Disturbance Plan," Feb. 15, 1991. Site posted Jan. 28, 2000, at http://freddie.forsecom.army.mil/ maca/GARDENPLOT/preface.doc.

So, think no conspiracy, google turns up 141,000 hits, and alltheweb turns up 4,630,000 hits.

Google - can't trust 'em, can't live without 'em. Hmmmmmmm

Alternative search engines are absolutely critical. Google can't be relied on by everyone. This topic is extremely relevant to today's martial law push and information needs to get out to the people that haven't heard about it. Censorship needs to stop.

This is a site I used to be a regular on until it was shut down permanently. If anyone had somehow come across it in their searching travels, it is called 'WAKE UP AMERICA" OR "HARD TRUTH". Both sites were the same. They were attacked a couple times previously, and I'm not sure what happened to the owner of the site, but he was a definite advocate for freedom of truth and liberty.

You can peruse some of the previous articles by checking out http://www.theforbiddenknowledge.com/hardtruth/wake_up_america.html . They tried to back up what they could until the site's demise.

Here's what they had posted.


Operation Garden Plot
The United States Civil Disturbance Plan 55-2.
Donald L. Cline

The following information was obtained under the Freedom of Information Act. The information herein is DECLASSIFIED and does not come within the scope of directions governing the protection of information affecting the national security.

It took a little more than three years to obtain a full copy of Operation Garden Plot from the U.S. Government, and was done so under the freedom of information act for unclassified documents. The implications within the full context of this document should make the hair on the back of your head stand on end!!!!!

In this document signed by the Secretary of the Army, is hereby assigned as DOD Executive Agent for civil disturbance control operations. Under Plan 55-2 he is to use airlift and logistical support, in assisting appropriate military commanders in the 50 states, District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and US possessions and territories, or any political subdivision thereof.

The official name of this project is called "Operation Garden Plot."

Under this plan for the deployment of Operation Garden Plot, the use of CIDCON-1 will be mandatory. This direct support of civil disturbance control operations is to be used by the Army, USAF, Navy, and Marine Corp. with an airlift force to be comprised of MAC Organic Airlift Resources, airlift capable aircraft of all other USAF major commands, and all other aerial reconnaissance and Airborne Psychological Operations. This is to include control communications systems, aero-medical evacuation, helicopter and Weather Support Systems.

If any civil disturbance by a resistance group, religious organization, or other persons considered to be non-conformist takes place, under Appendix 3 to Annex B of Plan 55-2 hereby gives all Federal forces total power over the situation if local and state authorities cannot put down said dissenters.

Annex A, section B of Operation Garden Plot defines tax protesters, militia groups, religious cults, and general anti-government dissenters as Disruptive Elements. This calls for the deadly force to be used against any extremist or dissident perpetrating any and all forms of civil disorder.

Under section D, a Presidential Executive Order will authorize and direct the Secretary of Defense to use the Armed Forces of the United States to restore order.

2 TAB A APPENDIX 1 TO ANNEX S USAF CIVIL DISTURBANCE PLAN 55-2 EXHIBIT POR:SGH, JCS Pub 6, Vol 5, AFR 160-5 hereby provides for America's military and the National Guard State Partnership Program to join with United Nations personal in said operations. This links selected U.S. National Guard units with the Defense Ministries of "Partnership For Peace." This was done in an effort to provide military support to civil authorities in response to civil emergencies.

Under Presidential Decision Directive No. 25, this program serves to cement people to relationships between the citizens of the United States, and the global military of the UN establishments of the emerging democracies of Central and Eastern European countries. This puts all of our National Guardsmen under the direct jurisdiction of the United Nations.

Section 3: This plan could be implemented under any of the following situation:

(1) SITUATION. Spontaneous civil disturbances which involve large numbers of persons and/or which continue for a considerable period of time, may exceed the capacity of local civil law enforcement agencies to suppress. Although this type of activity can arise without warning as a result of sudden, unanticipated popular unrest (past riots), it may also result from more prolonged dissidence.

This would most likely be an outgrowth of serious social, political or economic issues which divide segments of the American population. Such factionalism could manifest itself through repeated demonstrations, protest marches and other forms of legitimate opposition but which would have the potential for erupting into spontaneous violence with little or no warning.

(2) SITUATION. Planned acts of violence or civil disobedience which, through arising from the same causes as (1) above, are seized upon by a dedicated group of dissidents who plan and incite purposeful acts designed to disrupt social order.

This may occur either because leaders of protest organizations intentionally induce their followers to perpetrate violent acts, or because a group of militants infiltrates an otherwise peaceful protest and seeks to divert it from its peaceful course.

Subsection C: (2) Environmental satellite products will be continue to be available.

(d) Responsibilities. Meteorological support to civil disturbance operations will be arranged or provided by AWS wings.

The 7th. Weather Wing (7WW) is responsible for providing / arranging support for Military Airlift Command (MAC) airlift operations. The 5th Weather Wing (5WW) is responsible for supporting the United States Army Forces Command.

Civil disturbance may threaten or erupt at any time in the CONUS and grow to such proportions as to require the use the Federal military forces to bring the situation under control.

A flexible weather support system is required to support the many and varied options of this Plan.

ANNEX H: XXOW, AWSR 55-2, AWSR 23-6, AFR 23-31, AR 115-10, AFR 105-3.

Subsection B:

Concept of Environmental Support. Environmental support will be provided by elements of Air Weather Service (AWS) in accordance with refs a-f. The senior staff meteorologist deployed int the Task Force Headquarters (TFH) will be the staff weather officer (SWO) to the TFH.

Centralized environmental support products are requested in accordance with AWSR 105-18. Weather support is provided by weather units located at existing CONUS bases or by deployed SWOs and / or weather teams to the objective areas.

Support MAC source will be provide in accordance with the procedures in MARC 103-15. MAC forces will be provided in accordance with the procedures in AFR 105-3.

Air Force Global Weather Central: Provides centralized products as requested.

JCS Pub 18 - Doctrine for Operations Security AFR 55-30
Operations Security

    1. GENERAL
    Opposition forces or groups may attempt to gain knowledge of this plan and 'use that knowledge to prevent or degrade the effectiveness of the actions outlined in this plan. In order to protect operations undertaken to accomplish the mission, it is necessary to control sources of information that can be exploited by those opposition forces or groups.

    OPSEC is the effort to protect operations by identifying and controlling intelligence indicators susceptible to exploitation. The objective of OPSEC, in the execution of this plan, is to assure the security of operations, mission effectiveness, and increase the probability of mission success.

    The denial Of information to an enemy is inherently a command responsibility. However, since the operations Officer at any level of command is responsible to his commander for the Overall planning and execution of operations, he has the principal staff interest in assuring maximum protection of the operation and must assume primary responsibility instability for ensuring that the efforts of all other staff elements are coordinated toward this end. However., every other individual associated with, or aware of, the operation must assist in safeguarding the security of the operation.


    a. The basic objective of OPSEC is to preserve the security Of friendly forces and thereby to enhance the probability of Successful mission accomplishment. "Security" in this context relates to the protection of friendly forces. It also includes the protection of operational information to prevent degradation of mission effectiveness through the disclosure of prior knowledge of friendly operations to the opposition.

    b. OPSEC pervades the entire planning process and must be a matter of continuing concern from the conception of an operation, throughout the preparatory and execution phases, and during critiques, reports, press releases, and the like conducted during the post operation phase.

    Specific operations orders and standard operating procedures "MUST be developed with the awareness that the opposition may be able to identify and exploit vulnerable activities.

Released under Freedom of Information Act on March 30th, 1990. All material presented here has been declassified and supersedes USAD Operations Plan355-10 of July 16, 1973. Information released by USAF under supervision of Alexander K. Davidson, BRIG. GEN, USAF, Dep. Director of Operations.

APPENDEX 5 TO ANNEX E TO USAF CIVIL DISTURBANCE PLAN 55-2 Annex Z. Other References: 10 United States Codes 331,332,333,8500,1385, MARC 105-1, MARC 105-18, AR 115-10, AFR 105-3, PDD-25.



Plans For Civilian Internment:
Stalag 17 American Style
By Mary Louise
Patriot America.com
Ted Gunderson.com
Along the Danube River in Austria about forty miles from Vienna, a prison camp called Stalag 17 was one of many prisoner of war facilities during WWII, containing wooden barracks surrounded by double fences of barbed wire and guard towers. The 1953 Billy Wilder film "Stalag 17" is a close reproduction of the actual facilities, although the actors were obviously not as hungry, dirty, and overcrowded as the real prisoners were.
Similar facilities exist in America, many in remote areas across our country adjacent to major highways, railroads, and airports. The infrastructure for incarcerating and executing resisters and dissenters in the coming American Holocaust has been already set up, according to the 1968 government plans code-named Operation Cable Splicer and Operation Garden Plot (FM 19-15), sub programs of the Rex 84 Program.
Field Manual 3-19.40 or FM 19-40 is the August 2001 version of Military Police Internment/Resettlement Operations. This publication supersedes the FM 19-40 of February 1976 and FM 19-60 of May 1986 by order of the Secretary of the Army signed by administrative assistant, Joel B. Hudson.
Pending the approval of the Army Chief of Staff, currently Eric. K. Shinseki, the military can detain and jail citizens en masse. Rex 84 called for many military bases to be closed and turned into prisons, based on the pretext that if a mass exodus of illegal aliens crossed the border, they would be quickly rounded up and detained in detention centers by FEMA. A more honest and realistic scenario would be the detention of Americans.
Under "Rex" the President could declare a state of emergency, empowering the head of FEMA to take control of the internal infrastructure of the U.S. and suspend the Constitution. The President could invoke Executive Orders 11000 through 11004 which would draft all citizens into work forces under governmental supervision, empower the postmaster to register all men, women, and children, seize all airports and aircraft, and seize all housing to establish forced relocation of all citizens.
Congressman Henry Gonzales clarified the question of the existence of civilian detention camps by stating, "The truth is yes - you do have these standby provisions and the plans are here...whereby you could, in the name of stopping terrorism...evoke the military and arrest Americans and put them in detention camps."
Equipped with flexible "military operations in urban terrain" and "operations other than war" doctrine, lethal and "less-than-lethal" high-tech weaponry, US "armed forces", and "elite" militarized police units are being trained to eradicate "disorder", "disturbance", and "civil disobedience" in America. The American corporate/military directorship has the power to enforce its definition of "disorder" and sees our Constitutional Republic as a threat and permanent counter-revolution as a "national security" requirement.
Their rationale for civil disturbance "tactics and techniques" contingency planning is simple: self-preservation. They are systematically organizing to protect their interests, profits, and plots against growing opposition to their criminal activities, while rapidly consolidating an infrastructure of repression designed to "suppress rebellion against the authority of the United States".
According to the Pentagon, "US forces deployed to assist federal and local authorities during times of civil disturbance will follow use-of-force policy found in Department of Defense Civil Disturbance Plan - Garden Plot." The United States Air Force Civil Disturbance Plan 55-2 - Garden Plot, is the implementing and supporting plan for the Department of the Army Civil Disturbance Plan - Garden Plot (March 1984), which provides for the employment of USAF forces in assisting civil authorities with airlift and logistical support.
The Amtrak Railcar Repair Facility at Beech Grove, Indianapolis, contains at least ten maintenance barns covering 129 acres, two separate fences with the tops leaning inward, high security NSA-style people turnstiles, and high intensity/security lighting for 24-hour operation. One barn is large enough to put four box cars. Under martial law, this box car (gas chamber) facility will be used for the handling and execution of category RED and BLUE people, hence becoming a death camp
The box car building fence is marked with special 'RED/BLUE Zone' signs that correspond to the RED/BLUE Lists which surfaced in June and July of 1996, when an FBI agent got hold of the Region Three BLUE List from a CIA agent and found his own name on it. The Red List is for pick-up and execution before preparations for martial law are initiated and the BLUE List is for execution at a later date, within six weeks of actual martial law declaration. There are no 're-education' plans for either category, just execution.
They will take people from their homes and put them in a black van, drive them to a helicopter that will fly them to a big CH-47 Chinook helicopter.... all black, unmarked, and illegally operating under the Treaty of Open Skies. Then people will be flown to one of 38 cities to board a 747, 737, or 727 and taken to a temporary detention facility, where if RED listed will be taken to a red camp.
This RED/BLUE List policy parallels the Nazi plan by Heinz Hohne in "The Story of the Nazi SS: The Order of the Death's Head" (published 1966) and is the same blueprint the Nazi's used for rounding up people in 1934. The horrors of Nazi death camps are in store for Americans and yet there are those who don't think it can happen again..... especially here in the Land of the Free and Home of the Brave.
The Indianapolis News ran an article on January 27, 1995 entitled 'Amtrak Lays off 212 at Beech Grove: 170 Lose Jobs at Maintenance Center Today' with the following information, "Late last year, Congress ordered Amtrak to spend at least $5.9 million patching holes in the roof and fixing masonry on the walls of the giant machine sheds at Beech Grove" which leads to the question, why? These buildings have been 'sealed' airtight and constructed to allow gas to be blown into all the buildings via the newly installed, two-story, hot air heating furnances so why perform renovations worth $6 million and then lay off people? Because the 'slots' of the 212 Americans who were laid off will be filled with foreigners, who will have no qualms about gassing Americans in the newly renovated gas chambers, in the Dachau and Auschwitz of America.
In 1996, the US Army Military Police Corps restructured its four combat support missions into five functions, which describe Military Police capabilities in support of US forces deployed worldwide. These functions are maneuver and mobility support, area security, law and order, internment/resettlement, and police intelligence operations. While our own troops are sent all over the globe, who do you think will be minding the store? Foreign troops have been brought and trained to do just that, as they will not have the same objections to imprisoning Americans that American troops would be inclined to have.
Unlike enemy prisoner of war (EPW) and civilian internee operations in the past, internment/resettlement (I/R) operations include additional detained persons and the handling, 'protecting', and accounting for dislocated civilians as well as conducting battlefield confinement of US military prisoners. A civilian internee (CI) is a person who is interned during armed conflict or occupation if considered a security risk or if 'protection' is needed because of committing an offense (insurgent, criminal) against the detaining power, a dislocated civilian (DC) is a civilian who has left his/her home for various reasons, and a displaced person (DP) has been dislocated because of war, natural disaster, or political/economic turmoil.
Besides FEMA, the other federal agencies that provide advice, assistance, and resources to plan, implement, and accomplish internal settlement operations are: Departments of Transportation, Agriculture, and Justice, US Agency for International Development, Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, US Information Agency, Public Health Service, and Immigration and Naturalization Service.
There are three principle types of civilian organizations which are international (IO), nongovernmental (NGO), and international humanitarian (IHO). An international organization is established by intergovernmental agreements and operates at the international level which includes the United Nations of course. The UN is involved in the entire spectrum of "humanitarian assistance" including UN Disaster Relieve Coordinator (UNDRC) and UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The UNDRC coordinates assistance to persons compelled to leave their homes because of disasters and the UNHCR facilitates repatriation, reintegration, or asylum of refugees among other things.
The internment of civilians is authorized and directed, as determined by US military to be necessary. The internees are to be escorted to the receiving area where the internment process begins. The processing actions start in the processing area with being assigned temporary internment serial numbers (ISNs), removing and labeling clothing, showers and haircuts, medical evaluation, immunizations and reimmunizations as prescribed, and medical records with dates and places of inspection, immunization, and disinfection. The movement of the internee will be supervised to the next station, where basic personal items will be issued before being escorted to the processing line, to be assigned a permanent ISN and ID documents are initiated. Then, it is on to being fingerprinted, photographed, and issued an ID card. After CIs have been formally processed into the internment facility and entered into the Internment/Resettlement Information System (IRIS) database, the internment/resettlement information center (IRIC) forwards the information to the national IRIC for dissemination to 'protecting' powers.
An internee committee is a form of self-government within a facility that will be allowed in order to minimize the impression that CIs are prisoners.
When use of force is deemed necessary, to 'protect' internees/facilities and to control unruly and rebellious internee populations, squad to platoon sized QRFs (quick-reaction forces) are trained and organized to respond to civil disturbances inside and outside the facility. The application of any or all of the priorities of force depends on the situation encountered. The six priorities of force are verbal persuasion, show of force, chemical aerosol irritants, use of physical force other than weapons fire, presentation of deadly force, and deadly force. Deadly force is authorized for self-defense, protection of assets, serious offenses of violence or threats, arrests and apprehensions, and escapes.
Non Lethal Weapons (NLWs) are designed to reinforce deterrence to accomplish discouraging hostile actions, limit escalation, protect US forces, and take military action in situations where the use of lethal force is not the preferred. The two riot control agents to be used to quell riots and disperse crowds are CS (O-Chlorobenzylidine-Malonitrile) and OC (Oleoresin Capsicum). The latter is derived from a blend of 300 varieties of pepper plants and 750 times more powerful than CS.
FM 3-19.40 is approved for public release and can be downloaded at
There are more pleasant things that I would much rather discuss in addition to pursuing personal lifetime dreams and goals, however with tyranny overshadowing the American Dream, it is impossible to go on with business as usual, much less making dreams come true. In school we were required read to "The Diary of Anne Frank", "1984", "Brave New world", and "Animal Farm" which led to an interest in war movies to gain a better understanding of WWI, WWII, and the Vietnam War.
A question that haunted me was how could Hitler rise to power with his satanic/occult fascism and why did the German people allow it. I learned long ago that many Germans and Christians died along with the Jewish population, and what happened in Nazi Germany could also happen in America if people were not vigilant. Stalag 17 type facilities are in America and just waiting for occupants, only this time it will succeed on a grand scale unless multitudes of decent people refuse to accept or condone tyranny and death, while there is still time and while we still can.


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