Target Switzerland

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Online TahoeBlue

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Target Switzerland
« on: December 15, 2014, 03:03:16 PM »
just a thought for a thread on the source of evil; in the world ....
I find it interesting that Rothschild was originally Bauer  (or Baer? like BEAR like Berne? ) which sounds very Swiss to me ...   the Rockefeller name seems very Swiss too ...   

So are Rothschild and Rockefeller just agent fronts for the Swiss?


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_zlpSTJtimo
Who's That Little Old Man? - He's very clean

https://hendersonlefthook.wordpress.com/2014/11/08/swiss-bankers-bis-the-house-of-rockefeller/
Swiss Bankers, BIS & The House Of Rockefeller
Posted on 11/08/2014 | 3 Comments
In 2011 Rudolf M. Elmer – former head of the Cayman Islands office of the prominent Swiss bank Julius Baer – announced that he has handed over to Wikileaks information on 2,000 prominent individuals and companies that he says engaged in tax evasion and other criminal activity.  Elmer described those exposed as “pillars of society”.

The utilization of Eurodollar offshore bank accounts by the super-rich costs cash-strapped governments around the world trillions of dollars in annual revenue. In 1963 the Eurodollar market was worth around $148 million.  By 1982 it was worth $2 trillion, while the US M-1 money supply stood at $442 billion.

In 1950 US corporations footed 26% of the total US tax bill.  By 1990 they were covering only 9%, contributing to massive budget deficits and the current $14 trillion US debt.  In 2009 corporate leviathans such as Bank of America, General Electric and Exxon Mobil paid no US federal taxes. Exxon’s net profit for that year was over $45 billion.  It utilized subsidiaries in the British Crown-controlled Bahamas, Bermuda and Cayman Islands to dodge the IRS.
...
BIS was established in Basel, Switzerland in 1930. It is the most powerful bank in the world, a global central bank for the Eight Families who control the private central banks of nearly every nation. The first President of BIS was Rockefeller banker Gates McGarrah- an official at Chase Manhattan and the Federal Reserve.  McGarrah is the grandfather of former CIA director Richard Helms.  The Rockefellers and Morgans- had close ties to the City of London.  Author David Icke asserts in Children of the Matrix that the Rockefellers and Morgans were just American “gofers” for the European Rothschilds.

BIS is owned by the Federal Reserve, Bank of England, Bank of Italy, Bank of Canada, Swiss National Bank, Nederlandsche Bank, Bundesbank and Bank of France.  Historian Carroll Quigley says BIS was part of a plan, “to create a world system of financial control in private hands able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole…to be controlled in a feudalistic fashion by the central banks of the world acting in concert by secret agreements.”

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http://thecounterpunch.hubpages.com/hub/Mayer_Amschel_Bauer

Mayer Amschel Bauer changed his name from Bauer to Rothschild and became the founding father of International Finance
By thecounterpunch

In 1743 a goldsmith named Amschel Moses Bauer opened a coin shop in Frankfurt, Germany. He hung above his door a sign depicting a Roman eagle on a red shield. The shop became known as the Red Shield firm. The German word for 'red shield' is Rothschild.

Amschel Bauer had a son, Mayer Amschel Bauer. At a very early age Mayer showed that he possessed immense intellectual ability, and his father spent much of his time teaching him everything he could about the money lending business and in the basic dynamics of finance.

Meyer Amschel Bauer changed his name from Bauer to Rothschild (”Red Shield”) and added five golden arrows held in the eagle’s talons, signifying his five sons who operated the five banking houses of the international House of Rothschild: Frankfurt, London, Paris, Vienna, and Naples.
...

"Above the door of the family shop was a red shield in the shape of a hexagram"



http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/9300205/Rothschild-and-Rockefeller-their-family-fortunes.html
Rothschild and Rockefeller: their family fortunes

As a Rothschild trust prepares to buy a stake in the Rockefeller empire, how have these two dynasties managed to hold on to their wealth for so long?
By Harry Mount
8:31PM BST 30 May 2012
...


That’s why, for gilded dynasty watchers, the news of a union between these über-rich clans is so delicious: Lord Rothschild’s investment trust, RIT Capital Partners, is to buy a 37 per cent stake in Rockefeller Financial Services.


The numbers involved are pretty mind-boggling. RIT has £1.9 billion in net assets; the Rockefeller company has £22 billion. As if that wasn’t enough, these companies are just minor fragments of the two family empires. RIT was only founded in 1961; the principal family bank, NM Rothschild & Sons, was set up in 1811, and is run by Lord Rothschild’s cousin, David de Rothschild.

As we will see, there are a lot of Rothschild cousins, all of them pretty deep-pocketed, and plenty of them keen on starting new ventures. It’s symptomatic of the dynasty that Nat Rothschild, Lord Rothschild’s son, didn’t join the family bank when he left university but went to Lazard, before joining an investment management company, Atticus Capital, and then setting up a vast investment vehicle, Vallar plc.
...
As for Rockefeller Financial Services, that was founded as early as 1882, when John D Rockefeller set up one of the first investment management businesses designed to run a single family’s money. So, as well as making a fortune from their principal company – Standard Oil – the Rockefellers have been making money from their money, as it were, for 130 years.

That is what makes these two dynasties so exceptional – not just their dizzying wealth, but the fact that they have held on to it for so long: and not just the loot, but also their family companies. Other banking dynasties have fallen by the wayside – SG Warburg, founded by Siegmund Warburg in 1946, was swallowed up by Swiss Bank Corporation in 1995; its asset management side, Mercury Asset Management, was taken over by Merrill Lynch in 1997.

Barings Bank, the oldest merchant bank in London, founded in 1762, collapsed in 1995, thanks to the disastrous £827 million punt taken by Nick Leeson. Lehman Brothers remained under family control until the death of Robert Lehman in 1969 – the bank’s collapse in 2008 was the spark that lit the greatest recession since the Thirties. And who now banks with the Medicis, the leading bankers in Europe in the Middle Ages, and the financial backers behind the Renaissance?

It’s true that enormous fortunes – big enough to match 19th-century Rothschild and Rockefeller figures – have been made in recent years. Mark Zuckerberg is thought to be worth more than £12 billion since Facebook went public this month, though that figure seems to diminish a little with each Wall Street trading day. But, still, it’s unlikely that the name Zuckerberg will be associated with dynastic wealth for more than a century, as the Rothschild and Rockefeller names have been.

Part of the reason is that dotcom fortunes, like Zuckerberg’s, can be founded within the four walls of a tiny Harvard dormitory. Great banking and oil ventures needed vast manpower, and vast representation across the world, to establish a foothold in the Victorian rich lists. Those deep foundations produce a lasting infrastructure, a lasting familial obligation to the business, and that lasting association in the popular mind between a particular surname and great wealth .

Also, the Rockefeller and Rothschild families were consciously dynastic from the moment their businesses began. The founder of the Rothschild empire, Mayer Amschel Rothschild, was born in Frankfurt, Germany, the Jewish descendant of a 16th-century Rothschild, Izaak, who took his name from the sign outside his house – “Zum roten Schild” (“At the sign of the red shield”).

It was Mayer Amschel who laid the foundations of today’s Rothschild power base, by sending his five sons off to different European financial hubs: Frankfurt, Vienna, Paris, Naples and London, where his third son, Nathan Mayer Rothschild, founded the eponymous bank in the City in 1811. Almost immediately, NM Rothschild became a major force in the City, bankrolling the Duke of Wellington during the Napoleonic Wars.

John D Rockefeller got going a little later. The son of a travelling salesman, he made a fortune in food supply, before turning to oil refining in Ohio. By 1868, he owned the biggest oil refinery in the world, in partnership with his brother.

Throughout Rockefeller history, the name has stamped itself deep into the popular psyche through its philanthropy. That first John D Rockefeller founded Chicago University and Rockefeller University, as well as the Rockefeller Foundation – backer of, inter alia, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and the New School in New York.

It was his son, John D Rockefeller Junior, who built New York’s Rockefeller Centre. The Gershwins were quite right in their lyrics, Manhattan’s gazillionaires did fight to get into the soaring art deco skyscraper, and it became one of the city’s biggest pieces of prime real estate: 19 buildings across 22 acres, all in the very centre of New York, between 5th and 6th Avenues and 48th and 51st Streets.

The cliché of fabulous new wealth is “rags to rags in three generations”, but each generation of the Rockefellers kept on building up the current account, while spreading the philanthropic interests. John D Rockefeller Junior gave the land for the Museum of Modern Art, stuffed the Met with medieval masonry and set up New York’s best-kept secret, the Cloisters museum, a staggering complex of five French monasteries perched on a cliff above the Hudson River.

His five sons continued the dynastic pattern – and that dynastic importance was intensified with the use of Roman numerals: JD Junior’s son was dubbed John D Rockefeller III. His brother Nelson was Gerald Ford’s vice-president; another brother, Winthrop, was Republican Governor of Arkansas. And the youngest brother, David, is still with us, at 96, now the Rockefeller patriarch and still hurling dollar bills at charitable institutions. In 2005, he gave away £64 million to the Museum of Modern Art and Rockefeller University – each.

http://www.zimbio.com/pictures/dQE2tXQUQaZ/Crossing+Gala+Event+Hosted+IWC+Schaffhausen/mE3tv6FAwvA/David+de+Rothschild
The Crossing - Gala Event Hosted by IWC Schaffhausen



In This Photo: Kevin Spacey, Elle MacPherson, David de Rothschild
David de Rothschild, Elle Macpherson and Kevin Spacey attend 'The Crossing' gala event hosted by IWC Schaffhausen held at the Geneva Palaexpo on April 8, 2008 in Geneva, Switzerland.

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http://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/michael-rockefeller-great-grandson-of-john-d-rockefeller-jr-news-photo/151706904


SWITZERLAND-UN-ROCKEFELLER
Credit: FABRICE COFFRINI / Staff
Caption: Michael Rockefeller, great-grandson of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., stand in front of a portrait of his ancestor on September 10, 2012 during the 85th anniversary of the donation by John D. Rockfeller to endow the League of Nations Library at the United Nations offices in Geneva. AFP PHOTO / FABRICE COFFRINI (Photo credit should read FABRICE COFFRINI/AFP/GettyImages)



Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #1 on: December 15, 2014, 04:03:10 PM »
http://www.relbanks.com/europe/switzerland/rothschild-bank
Rothschild Bank AG Zurich was founded by members of the British and French Rothschild families in 1968. The Bank provides private banking and asset management services to wealthy individuals, families, trusts, and charities around the world. It offers current and fixed term deposit accounts, debit and credit cards, foreign exchange facilities, fixed-term loans, guarantees and current account overdrafts, Lombard lending and other services. The Bank’s core markets are UK, Switzerland, Germany and Asia. Rothschild Bank AG is a licenced securities dealer and an associated member of the Swiss Stock Exchange. As of March 31, 2012, the Bank had total assets of CHF 3.912 billion (US$4.3 billion), total shareholders’ equity of CHF 401.728 million and assets under management (AUM) of CHF 13.3 billion (US$14.7 billion). Rothschild Bank AG is part of Rothschild Wealth Management  Trust, a subsidiary of Rothschild Group.


Description: BOAT ON LAKE GENEVA IN FRONT OF THE CHATEAU DE ROTHSCHILD IN PREGNY, CANTON OF GENEVA, SWITZERLAND.
http://www.edmond-de-rothschild.ch/presentation/bank/ressources-humaines.aspx
edr logo ...

600 talented employees in Geneva, Fribourg and Lausanne


Our Bank is made up of close-knit teams built upon confidence at all levels. This supportive environment, conducive to personal and professional fulfilment, allows our staff to give their very best.

That we attach such importance to personalised relations with clients is no surprise, for the same bond of trust exists between our employees and the Bank.

Admittedly we demand a lot: Initiative, clear-sightedness, drive and an open mind. But in return we provide every member of our staff with a future. Continuing education, seminars and internships help to explain their professionalism.
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #2 on: December 15, 2014, 04:10:56 PM »
 http://www.edmond-de-rothschild.com/documents/in-the-press/interview-baroness-benjamin-de-rothschild-bilan-2010.pdf


Rothschilds = She is Switzerland’s most powerful lady banker.

Ariane de Rothschild now occupies the second-highest position in the Edmond de Rothschild Group after that of her husband, Benjamin. The Baroness , who trained as a trader and knows the ways of the world, agreed to meet the Swiss press for the first time.
...
SWITZERLAND IS BEHIND WHEN IT COMES TO FEMALE VALUES
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline poncho

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #3 on: December 15, 2014, 04:22:53 PM »
I've often wondered about this myself.

I knew the name Rothschild means red shield for quite some time.  It's no coincidence that that is also the flag of Switzerland.

It gets a lot more interesting when you look at things historically. 

First example:  How Switzerland is always neutral.  They need a safe haven during the chaos they create.

Second example:  All the money/art/gold looted during WW2 that was stored by Nazi's in Switzerland.  It's really eye opening when you look at how all the nations on the earth, did almost nothing to force Switzerland to give all of that back.  It's really surprising when you consider that even countries like France that were hit hard and looted, didn't ask for much of anything back.  This is especially true for Concentration camp victims.

Third example:  Where do the banking institutions originate from, and also where are many headquarters located...

I've had a suspicion for a long time, that Switzerland might be home of the enemy.  (Not saying the Swiss people are enemies.)

EvadingGrid

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #4 on: December 15, 2014, 04:29:30 PM »
Switzerland is one of the places the Knights Templar fled.
Switzerland escapes wars but profits from wars
Switzerland is a mini new world order babylon of French, German, Italian speakers
Switzerland has a peoples army, not an occupying army
Switzerland has the Bank Of International  Settlements, the central bank of central banks
Switzerland has the Gold

But heck, are'nt we supposed to look at The Brtish Empire (defunct), or The Jews, or The Catholics and NEVER EVER speak about the Swiss
 ;D

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #5 on: December 15, 2014, 04:30:10 PM »
Jp Morgan Chase = Rockefeller
http://www.letemps.ch/Page/Uuid/6f01a268-18ad-11e0-9375-71d46e7e7adc/J.P._Morgan_veut_cr%C3%A9er_400_nouveaux_emplois_en_Suisse
BANQUE mercredi 05  janvier 2011
J.P. Morgan veut créer 400 nouveaux emplois en Suisse


The US bank plans to increase its staff in Geneva, Zurich and Zug. In the city of Calvin, the number of working places in asset management to increase from 650 to 1,000 full-time positions

JP Morgan has major ambitions in Switzerland. The banking giant plans to create up to end of 2012 more than 400 new jobs at the sites of Geneva, Zurich and Zug, said Wednesday the Tages-Anzeiger. Expansion projects of the first US bank concern both wealth management business with large companies as commodity trading.
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline Jackson Holly

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #6 on: December 15, 2014, 04:36:26 PM »


… let's not forget all the LHC god particle voodoo at CERN.


St. Augustine: “The truth is like a lion; you don't have to defend it.
Let it loose; it will defend itself."

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #7 on: December 15, 2014, 04:52:25 PM »
http://www.christies.com/LotFinder/lot_details.aspx?intObjectID=2022213


Price Realized   $3,031,000
Lot Description

THE ROCKEFELLER SAPPHIRE

 A MAGNIFICENT SAPPHIRE SINGLE-STONE RING
 The rectangular-cut sapphire weighing approximately 62.02 carats, flanked by cut-cornered triangular-cut diamonds, mounted in platinum
 Signed Tiffany & Co.
 With special report 0101030 from Gubelin stating that the origin of the sapphire is Burma (Myanmar) as well as extensive additional notes discussing the exceptional rarity of the stone

Provenance

Prior to 1934, Nizam of Hyderabad
 1934-1971, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. (1874-1960)
 24 November 1971, Zurich, Switzerland, sold at auction $170,000
 8 May 1980, Zurich, Switzerland, sold at auction $1,500,000
 20 February 1988, St. Moritz, Switzerland, sold at auction $2,850,000


Pre-Lot Text

THE ROCKEFELLER SAPPHIRE

 The word "Masterpiece" is normally associated with manmade creations. Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Vincent van Gogh or Pablo Picasso are all artists whose genius have left an indelible mark on our civilization. Nature can also leave its mark, whether it be Mount Everest, the Northern Lights or the Grand Canyon, these are all phenomenon at which to marvel. In the world of gemstones there is no question that the Rockefeller Sapphire should be considered a masterpiece, the sheer scale and life of the stone being something remarkable to behold.

 The Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C. and The Tower of London house three of the most Historic sapphire's known: the Logan (422.99 carats), the Star of Bombay (181.82 carats), and the Stuart Sapphire (approximately 104 carats), which is set in theUnited Kingdom's Imperial State Crown. Others include the Catherine the Great Sapphire (337 carats), the Raspoli Sapphire (132 carats) and the extraordinary 62.02 carat Rockefeller Sapphire. When one is asked to judge a sapphire on size, shape, color, and clarity the one by which all other gems are measured is the extraordinary 62.02 carat Rockefeller Sapphire.
...
In 1934 John D. Rockefeller, Jr. purchased the sapphire from the an Indian Maharajah rumored to have been the Nizam of Hyderabad through Raymond Yard who advised him on many of his jewelry transactions. Raymond Yard was also a close friend of Raphael Esmerian (1903-1976), the world's leading gem dealer of his time. Esmerian would appraise it on a regular basis. This was an opportunity for him to look at one of his favorite gems and to speak of the stone's perfection. In the early 1940's Esmerian was consulted by Pierre Cartier to improve the stone as it was to be remounted as a brooch for Rockefeller's wife, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller (1874-1948). Cartier recut the stone to approximately 66 carats and made a brooch with calibré-cut sapphires and diamonds.

In the 1950's Rockefeller's second wife, Martha Baird Rockefeller (1895-1971) had the brooch redesigned by Raymond Yard.

In the winter of 1971, the Rockefeller family sold the jewelry from John D. Rockefeller, Jr.'s estate in Zurich.

The sapphire was purchased by Raphael Esmerian for approximately $170,000 and then sold the following year to an Italian private client. Upon this man's death, the family consigned the stone once more for auction in the spring of 1980. This time it was bought by Ralph Esmerian, Raphael's son, for approximately $1,500,000. Ralph Esmerian has continued his father's legacy by dealing in rare gems and exquisite objects in New York. It was after this purchase that the stone was repolished to it's weight of 62.02 carats and mounted in a platinum ring. In 1986 it was sold to an American private collector who only collected stones of the highest caliber. Other gems in his collection included the Ashoka, a superb D color, Internally Flawless diamond of 41.37 carats, a 20.00 carat square-cut pink diamond and an extraordinary green diamond of 3.02 carats. In 1988, this collection was sold at auction in St Moritz. The Rockefeller sapphire fetched a world record price of $2,850,000 and was purchased again by Ralph Esmerian who sold it to its present owner.

 Throughout it's life, The Rockefeller Sapphire has only had itself surrounded by the best and in this auction it is accompanied by a spectacular document compiled by Gubelin, the world renowned Gemological Laboratory in Switzerland. This report stands as testimony to the rarity of this jewel and is a unique commentary on one of nature's masterpieces.
...

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edith_Rockefeller_McCormick
Edith Rockefeller McCormick (August 31, 1872 – August 25, 1932) was an American socialite and opera patron

She was born on August 31, 1872, the fourth daughter of Standard Oil co-founder John Davison Rockefeller and schoolteacher Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman (1839—1915). Her brother was John Davison Rockefeller, Jr. (1874—1960). Her three elder sisters were Elizabeth (Bessie) (1866—1906), Alice (1869—1870), and Alta (1871—1962).

...
In 1913 she travelled to Zurich to be treated for depression by Carl Gustav Jung and contributed generously to the Zürich Psychological Society.[3] In 1919 McCormick donated land she had received from her father as a wedding gift to the Forest Preserve of Cook County, to be developed as a zoological garden, later to become Chicago's Brookfield Zoo. She returned to America in 1921 after an 8 year stay.[4]

http://www.american-buddha.com/lit.aryanchristjung.10.htm
THE ARYAN CHRIST: THE SECRET LIFE OF CARL JUNG
Chapter 10: Edith Rockefeller McCormick -- The Rockefeller Psychoanalyst
 



...
Edith Rockefeller McCormick remained in Zurich until 1921.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/rockefellers-daughter/

Hôtel Baur au Lac Zurich

Until the 1970s, when they became the focus of a controversial book, the family dynamics of the Rockefeller dynasty were one of America's best-kept secrets.

That's exactly how John D. Rockefeller, Sr. had always wanted it. Even in his personal letters, he avoided any intimate details or private confessions.

And yet, in all its Victorian restraint, Rockefeller's correspondence with his rebellious daughter Edith is surprisingly eloquent. Between the lines, these letters reveal the strong personalities and the sometimes strained relationships of these two very different Rockefellers.

Below is a sample of the correspondence, spanning the years 1915 to 1922:

Correspondence between John D. Rockefeller, Sr. and Edith Rockefeller McCormick

Hôtel Baur au Lac
Zurich
September 4, 1915

Dear Father:
I want to thank you for your birthday cheque which is always welcome.

My thoughts in regard to the early history of yours and Mother's lives together is only for family research. It is the link in our family history which you alone can give now to hand down to your children, as I will hand down to my children dates and events in Harold's and my early lives together. Mother used to tell us about your going to school, about how you were dressed the first time you called, about your wedding and the early days in Cheshire Street. I am sure that you understand what I mean.
;;;

http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/firstworldwar/index-1915.html
September 5, 1915 - Russian Czar Nicholas II takes personal command of the Russian Army, hoping to rally his faltering troops. Losses to the Czar's army from the Austro-German offensives in Galicia and Poland include over 1,400,000 casualties and 750,000 captured. Russia is also weakened economically by the loss of Poland's industrial and agricultural output. Additionally, the ongoing mass exodus of Russian troops and civilians from Poland, called the Great Retreat, spurs dangerous political and social unrest in Russia, undermining the rule of the Czar and his Imperial government.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #8 on: December 15, 2014, 05:32:54 PM »
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2804589/Outrage-Swiss-coffee-company-uses-picture-Hitler-s-face-novelty-milk-lids.html
Outrage as Swiss coffee company uses picture of Hitler’s face on novelty milk lids
By Emily Payne for MailOnline
Published: 06:59 EST, 23 October 2014  | Updated: 07:23 EST, 23


...
Lids showing the faces of Hitler and Mussolini were spotted by a group Germans while having a coffee break in a cafe in the city of Coire, in the eastern Swiss region of Graubunden

...
'This is just absolutely evil and outrageous.'

The cream lids were also found at a takeaway food kiosk in Switzerland's northern Aargau region

...

Switzerland has in the past been forced to grapple with its relationship with the Nazis during World War II, including accusations that Swiss banks abetted the National Socialist regime.

But Cerf emphasised that the accidental circulation of the plastic Hitler creamers had nothing to do with the country's social mores, but rather reflected an isolated mistake
...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iaTEHNAt5Ys
Switzerland Financed Adolf Hitler and WW2 by Swiss Industrials and Swiss Templar Nazis

Hitler in Switzerland

Bilderberg 2014  Meeting - Denmark - Copenhagen

http://schweizerkrieger.wordpress.com/2013/06/14/tagebucher-von-hitlers-chefideologen-aufgetaucht/
Surfaced diaries of Hitler's chief ideologist
...
Rosenberg was a close associate of Adolf Hitler, impressed with his writings the racial theories of the Nazis and served as Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories for the murder of millions of Jews.


Adolf Hitler and Rosenberg in Zurich in 1923   

In the book, "A Field of Red: The Communist International and the Coming of World War II" (1981, pp. 245-246) ) the authors, Anthony Cave Brown and Charles MacDonald report that in 1923, Hitler returned from Zurich "with a steamer trunk stuffed with Swiss Francs and American dollars." There were other mysterious sources of funds in Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Latvia. 


http://hitlerpages.com/pagina107.html
...
Hitler’s trip to Switzerland remains a mystery so far. It is said he went there in 1923, but exactly where he went, is unknown.
...
Hitler went to the area of Zürich on August 31, 1923 to raise money for his party. He met a club of Deutschnationalen there and, according to Brigitte Hamann, he visited the house of general Ulrich Wille and his wife Clara a day later. During the Putsch-proces Hitler denied to have ever been to Switzerland.

http://www.thechristiansolution.com/doc2014/609_BIS.html
BIS - Basel Switzerland
The Central Bank for The Central Bankers
March 2014 AD


...
Funny thing  about the end of 1929 -- it marked the beginning of the Great Depression and Germans were keenly away of what faced them in the upcoming economic troubles.  They had just been through this starting in 1919 and were not about to allow this turmoil to continue anew.

 In fact, things had gotten so bad by May 1931, that the Austrian-based default of the Creditanstalt caused a world-wide financial crisis, and Germany stopped paying reparations altogether. The following month, Herbert Hoover declared a 1 year moratorium on Germany having to pay reparations for fear of another bout of hyper -inflation.

In 1932, America elected radical socialist FDR to lead them out of the Great Depression, while Germans elected Adolph Hitler.

May 17, 1930, a day which will live in infamy, the Bank of International Settlements was inaugurated to service German reparations.  A job it performed for only a single year, at which time, this Frankenstein's monster switched to servicing Nazi gold reserves and the gold reserves of countries the Nazis conquered while amazingly,  the BIS still lives today -- stronger than ever!
 
"When David Rockefeller and Zbigniew Brzezinski founded the Trilateral Commission in 1973, the intent was to create a "New International Economic Order" (NIEO). To this end, they brought together 300 elite corporate, political and academic leaders from North America, Japan and Europe. 

Few people believed us when we wrote about their nefarious plans back then.

 Now, we look back and clearly see that they did what they said they were going to do... globalism is upon us like an 8.6 magnitude earthquake. 

The question is, "How did they do it?"

Keep in mind, they had no public mandate from any country in the world. They didn't have the raw political muscle, especially in democratic countries where voting is allowed. They didn't have global dictatorial powers. 

Indeed, how did they do it? 

The answer is the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), self-described as the "central bank for central bankers", that controls the vast global banking system with the precision of a Swiss watch."

--Global Banking, by Patrick Wood

The Bank of International Settlements (BIS) is compared to a weapon of mass destruction.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swiss_American
Notable Swiss Americans
...
Herbert Hoover (1874–1964) 31st President of the United States[12]
J. Edgar Hoover (1895–1972) first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lEJCmrhDh9U
Swiss Sleeper Agents in USA: Gen. Eisenhower, Pres. Herbert Hoover, J Edgar Hoover
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline Jackson Holly

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #9 on: December 15, 2014, 05:35:34 PM »

ROTHSCHILD = HERZ = BAUER

http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=132609.msg800915#msg800915

Did the HERZs marry into the BAUER clan and take their name for a while?
The Rothschilds were named HERZ before taking on the traditional name/logo of their business establishment. Only one man ... as far as I can trace ... called himself Bauer ... perhaps a name from a female who married into the well-known and powerful Bauer family? Does anyone else have any "peerage" info before, say, 1780s?
St. Augustine: “The truth is like a lion; you don't have to defend it.
Let it loose; it will defend itself."

Offline pac522

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #10 on: December 15, 2014, 05:41:04 PM »
Switzerland is one of the places the Knights Templar fled.
Switzerland escapes wars but profits from wars
Switzerland is a mini new world order babylon of French, German, Italian speakers
Switzerland has a peoples army, not an occupying army
Switzerland has the Bank Of International  Settlements, the central bank of central banks
Switzerland has the Gold

But heck, are'nt we supposed to look at The Brtish Empire (defunct), or The Jews, or The Catholics and NEVER EVER speak about the Swiss
 ;D

Who guards the Pope?   ;)
This country did not achieve greatness with the mindset of "safety first" but rather "live free or die".

Truth is the currency of love. R[̲̅ə̲̅٨̲̅٥̲̅٦̲̅]ution!

We are all running on Gods laptop.
The problem is the virus called the Illuminati.  ~EvadingGrid

The answer to 1984 is 1776.

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #11 on: December 15, 2014, 05:46:31 PM »
Who guards the Pope?   ;)

http://maryvictrix.com/2008/06/11/packn-heat/


Vatican security forces now include an anti-bomb squad and a rapid response team, according to Domenico Giani, the head of the Holy See’s 130-man gendarmerie.

The Vatican will also work more closely with Interpol to gather information on any threats, he said.

The Swiss Guards have also been given anti-terrorism training, and now carry SIG P75 pistols and Heckler-Koch MP5 sub-machine guns, as well as their traditional halberds.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline John_Back_From_The_Club_O

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #12 on: December 15, 2014, 06:18:50 PM »
Gerat post. 

Funny the NWO controlled Colleges / Universities NEVER discuss 'WHITE PRIVILEGE' when it comes to these characters.
The Crowd Shouted... “Give us Barabbas!” ... and People, The NWO Gave Him To You.
http://www.dominicanajournal.org/give-us-barabbas/

https://www.greatagain.gov

EvadingGrid

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #13 on: December 15, 2014, 06:37:37 PM »
Who guards the Pope?   ;)

ROFL

The Pope? How many armoured divisions has he got?

   - Uncle Joe Stalin

Offline Jackson Holly

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #14 on: December 15, 2014, 06:42:08 PM »


Pontifical Swiss Guard - wikipedia

Swiss Guard at the Bronze Door
The Corps of the Pontifical Swiss Guard or Swiss Guard (Ger: Schweizergarde, Ital. Guardia Svizzera Pontificia, Lat. Pontificia Cohors Helvetica or Cohors Pedestris Helvetiorum a Sacra Custodia Pontificis) is a small force responsible for the safety of the Pope, including the security of the Apostolic Palace.

Though, like various European powers, earlier Popes recruited Swiss mercenaries as part of an army, the Pontifical Swiss Guard was founded by Pope Julius II on 22 January 1506 as the personal bodyguard of the Pope and continues to fulfil that function.[1] It is listed in the Annuario Pontificio under "Holy See", not under "State of Vatican City".[2] At the end of 2005, the Guard had 134 members. Recruitment is arranged by a special agreement between the Holy See and Switzerland. All recruits must be Catholic, unmarried males with Swiss citizenship who have completed their basic training with the Swiss Army with certificates of good conduct, be between the ages of 19 and 30,[3] and be at least 175 cm (5 ft 9 in) in height. Members are armed with small arms and the traditional halberd (also called the Swiss voulge),[4] and trained in bodyguarding tactics.[5]
St. Augustine: “The truth is like a lion; you don't have to defend it.
Let it loose; it will defend itself."

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #15 on: December 15, 2014, 08:38:22 PM »
http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/countries_e/switzerland_e.htm
Switzerland and the WTO

This page gathers key information on Switzerland's participation in the WTO. Switzerland has been a WTO member since 1 July 1995 and  a member of GATT since 1 August 1966.





The World Trade Organisation building in Geneva
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Trade_Organization

WTO's current Director-General is Roberto Azevêdo who leads a staff of over 600 people in Geneva, Switzerland.[13] A trade facilitation agreement known as the Bali Package was reached by all members on 7 December 2013, the first comprehensive agreement in the organization's history.[14][15]



http://www.todayonline.com/business/trillion-dollar-it-trade-deal-knife-edge-wto
Trillion dollar IT trade deal on a knife-edge at the WTO
Published: 12:23 PM, December 12, 2014

GENEVA - A trillion dollar deal at the World Trade Organization to reduce tariffs in the vast information technology sector will stand or fall in the next 24 hours, trade diplomats said on Thursday.

But late on Thursday one trade official involved with the talks said a deal would be very unlikely because of a stand-off between South Korea and China, which was refusing all attempts to broker a compromise.
 
Countries representing 97 percent of global IT commerce are trying to agree on expanding the WTO's Information Technology Agreement, which would be the first global agreement on tariff cuts in more than a decade.

The accord would reduce tariffs on such products as medical equipment, GPS devices, video games consoles and next-generation semiconductors, cutting more than 200 tariff lines to zero.

...

The talks got a boost last month after a U.S.-Chinese compromise removed a long-standing block to progress - a Chinese demand for a large number of exemptions.

China was now sticking rigidly to the letter of that bilateral deal with the United States and refusing to adapt it in ways that would assuage the concerns of other WTO members, said the trade official involved in the talks, who requested anonymity.
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #16 on: December 15, 2014, 08:52:50 PM »
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switzerland%E2%80%93European_Union_relations
Switzerland–European Union relations

The relations between Switzerland and the European Union (EU) are framed by a series of bilateral treaties whereby the Swiss Confederation has adopted various provisions of European Union law in order to participate in the Union's single market.

In February 2014, the Swiss voted in a referendum to introduce quotas for all migrants in Switzerland. Such a quota system would, if implemented, violate the agreement between Switzerland and the European Union on the free movement of persons, and require the renegotiation of the various bilateral agreements between Switzerland and the European Union if they are to remain in force.



...

Proposals for EU membership

The bilateral approach has superseded Swiss enthusiasm for full membership. The popular initiative

"Yes to Europe!", calling for the opening of immediate negotiations for EU membership, was rejected in a 4 March 2001 referendum by 76.8%.

 The Swiss Federal Council, which is in favour of EU membership, had advised the population to vote against this referendum since the preconditions for the opening of negotiations had not been met.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline Jackson Holly

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #17 on: December 15, 2014, 10:15:41 PM »

… the World Health Organization in Geneva. My brother-in-law just retired from the CDC in Atlanta
(he's only early 50s) and got a three-year gig with the WHO. They moved there just last week … and we have an invitation to visit them there next summer! Hopefully, we can pull that off. However, I am NO FAN of either the CDC or WHO, and we have
talked about their vaccine pushing, the mis-handling of the ebola nightmare, and their 'population control' before … he
just says, 'not my department' … he deals with breast-feeding for better health around the world … especially
2nd & 3rd world countries.





Establishment --- wikipedia

During the 1945 United Nations Conference on International Organization, Dr. Szeming Sze, a delegate from China, conferred with Norwegian and Brazilian delegates on creating an international health organization under the auspices of the new United Nations. After failing to get a resolution passed on the subject, Alger Hiss, the Secretary General of the conference, recommended using a declaration to establish such an organization.

Dr. Sze and other delegates lobbied and a declaration passed calling for an international conference on health.[1] The use of the word "world", rather than "international",emphasized the truly global nature of what the organization was seeking to achieve.[2] The constitution of the World Health Organization was signed by all 51 countries of the United Nations, and by 10 other countries, on 22 July 1946.[3] It thus became the first specialised agency of the United Nations to which every member subscribed.[4] Its constitution formally came into force on the first World Health Day on 7 April 1948, when it was ratified by the 26th member state.[5]

The first meeting of the World Health Assembly finished on 24 July 1948, having secured a budget of US$5 million (then GBP£1,250,000) for the 1949 year. Andrija Stampar was the Assembly's first president, and G. Brock Chisholm was appointed Director-General of WHO, having served as Executive Secretary during the planning stages.[2] Its first priorities were to control the spread of malaria, tuberculosis and sexually transmitted infections, and to improve maternal and child health, nutrition and environmental hygiene. Its first legislative act was concerning the compilation of accurate statistics on the spread and morbidity of disease.[2] The logo of the World Health Organization features the Rod of Asclepius as a symbol for healing.[6]
St. Augustine: “The truth is like a lion; you don't have to defend it.
Let it loose; it will defend itself."

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #18 on: December 15, 2014, 11:15:59 PM »
http://www.rainerlife.com/travel/boat-tour-on-lake-geneva-geneva-switzerland/



Palais Wilson – Named after Woodrow Wilson, this building is currently the headquarters of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. This building was originally a luxury hotel, Hotel National, built in 1872.
From 1919 to 1946, it was the headquarters for the League of Nations

http://www.ohchr.org/en/aboutus/pages/contactus.aspx
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) welcomes your queries. However, we advise you to follow the guidelines set out below. Otherwise it may not be possible to respond to your queries.
Contact Us

OHCHR address:
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
Palais Wilson
52 rue des Pâquis
CH-1201 Geneva, Switzerland.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_Zeid_bin_Ra'ad

Prince Zeid Ra’ad Zeid Al-Hussein (born 26 January 1964 in Amman, Jordan) is the current United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. He was born to Prince Ra'ad bin Zeid head of the Royal Houses of Iraq and Syria and pretender to the Iraqi throne and his Swedish-born wife Margaretha Inga Elisabeth Lind, henceforward known as Majda Raad. Previously, he was Jordan's Permanent Representative to the United Nations. From 2007-2010 he served as Jordan's Ambassador to the United States and non-resident Ambassador to Mexico.


Prince Zeid was educated at Reed's School, Surrey before gaining a B.A. in 1987 from Johns Hopkins University, where he was an important member of the University's rugby club. He received a Ph.D. from Christ's College, Cambridge University in 1993.

Prince Zeid is Jordan’s Permanent Representative to the United Nations, a post he held previously for six and a half years from 2000-2007. From 2007-2010 he was Jordan’s Ambassador to the United States of America. He also served as Jordan’s Deputy Permanent Representative at the UN, with the rank of Ambassador, from 1996-2000
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #19 on: December 16, 2014, 11:44:15 AM »
Switzerland is one of the places the Knights Templar fled.
...

Lets deal one at a time but first I would like to point out the differences between the Knight Hospitallars and the Templars .
The Hospitallars were generally landless sons of Knights while the Templars were landless sons (or bastards) of the Aristocracy / royalty... When the Templars went off to crusade it was for the purpose to rule over the new Christian "Kingdom" lands like Jerusalem. 

Once Jerusalem was taken and a aristocracy established and lands taken , new crusading knights were not excited  about the holy land ( they started crusading in other non-papal controlled lands .

Like the Northern crusades See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Crusades

Anyway after they Lost Jerusalem only the Hospitallers had much interest in the Holy land and they actually fought with each other ,,,,

1250 - Battle of Al Mansurah - Mansoura, Egypt - the Seventh Crusade, the Capetians were defeated and put to flight; between fifteen to thirty thousand of their men fell on the battlefield. Louis IX of France was captured - Among the chiefs who either fell in this battle, or were taken prisoners, were King Louis; Alphonsus, Count of Poitiers; Charles, Count of Anjou; Ralph de Cuscy; Hugh, Earl of Flanders; Hugh Brun, Earl of Marche; Robert de Vere; all the Knights Templars, except three; and all the Knights Hospitallers


So this was the beginning of the end for the Templars - they were blamed for the capture of King Louis and the loss of the Hospitallers ,,, nine years later the two groups have it out: and the Templars lost 

1259 - A pitched  battle was fought in Syria, between the Templars and Hospitallers. The Templars were defeated
About the Templars' and Hospitallers' pride and jealousy


By 1291  we really see the end with the fall of Acre:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Acre_(1291)
The Siege of Acre (also called the Fall of Acre) took place in 1291 and resulted in the loss of the Crusader-controlled city of Acre to the Muslims.  ...  the capture of the city marked the end of further crusades to the Levant. When Acre fell, the Crusaders lost their last major stronghold of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Templars of the Levant were now without any land to rule over and everyone hating them ... they needed a  stronghold to hideout .. They had oodles of boodle ... so they left for the mountains of Switzerland and bought the place.....

see http://www.slideshare.net/ZurichFiles/zurich-files-switzerland-knights-templars-and-nazis

The Hospitallars carried on and in England were given authority over all the Templar properties to manage. This went on till Henry the VIII  was messed with by the pope ...



The Hospitalier Maréchal Matthieu de Clermont[1] defending the walls at the Siege of Acre, 1291, by Dominique Papety (1815–49) at Versailles.


Kingdom of Heaven Movie  -  In Red is a Templar - In Black is a Hospitaller

see:
http://www.whale.to/b/knights_templars_h.html
Knights Templars
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #20 on: December 16, 2014, 02:54:47 PM »
As an example of the Hospitaller Grand Master - NOT a royal  per se but head of the order sooo.... notice the swiss crosses on the arms though - so I guess that's why you see them depicted with red garb rather than hospitaller black ... 'cause they were noble / royal? 

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_de_Villiers

Fra ' Jean de Villiers , also John Villiers , Ioannes Villiersius , John de Villers († 1294 in Cyprus ) was from 1284/85 until his death in the 22nd Grand Master of the Order of St. John .

Jean came from the prestigious De Villiers family from the neighborhood of Beauvais in Picardy .

The Order had already in 1271 the fortress of Krak des Chevaliers and 1285 Margat and then lost his headquarters in the city of Acre laid, the last Crusader stronghold in Palestine.

1291 Acre was by the troops of the Egyptian Mamluks under their Sultan al-Ashraf Khalil besieged. Jean commanded during the siege of the troops of the Order. After seven weeks of siege, the city fell on May 18, 1291. Jean was severely wounded that day, but he succeeded and some members of the Order to escape on a ship. Decimated the Teutonic Knights were in Cyprus, near Limassol down.

On his sickbed in Cyprus, he wrote to the later Grand Master William of Villaret (then Prior of St. Gilles) and described the fall of Acre.

Jean began to mount the new headquarters of the Order in Cyprus, and promoted the development of the convent's fleet. He died in 1294, his successor was Odon de Pins selected.


Notice the Chevrons:



Grand Master of Arms (Order of St. John) Jean de Villiers

| - - - -

Now look at the Grand master of the Templars:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guillaume_de_Beaujeu
Guillaume de Beaujeu, aka William of Beaujeu, was the 21st Grand Master of the Knights Templar, from 1273 until his death during the siege of Acre in 1291. He was the last Grand Master to preside in Palestine.[citation needed]

During his tenure the new Mamluk Sultan, Qalawun, easily conquered in 1289 the County of Tripoli, which had ignored Beaujeu's warnings. In 1290 Qalawun marched on Acre, the capital of the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, but died in November before launching the attack. His son Al-Ashraf Khalil, however, decided to continue the campaign. Beaujeu led the defence of the city.

At one point during the siege, he dropped his sword and walked away from the walls. His knights remonstrated. Beaujeu replied: "Je ne m'enfuis pas; je suis mort. Voici le coup." ("I'm not running away; I am dead. Here is the blow.") He raised his arm to show the mortal wound he had received - arrow had penetrated his mail under his armpit so that only the fletches were visible. Beaujeu died of his wound and the city fell to the Mamluks, signalling the end of Crusader occupation of the Holy Land.


Coat of arms of Guillaume de Beaujeu

His replacement:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thibaud_Gaudin
Thibaud Gaudin (1229? – April 16, 1292) was the Grand Master of the Knights Templar from August 1291 until his death in April 1292.

The history of Thibaud Gaudin within the Order is rather mysterious. Born to a noble family in the area of Chartres or Blois, France, he entered the Knights Templar well before 1260, because on that date he was taken prisoner during an attack on Tiberias. His great piety was deemed worthy of the nickname of "Gaudin Monk".

In 1279, Sir Thibaud fulfilled the function of "Commander of the Land of Jerusalem",[1] the fourth most important function in the Templar hierarchy. In 1291, he rode at the side of Guillaume de Beaujeu to defend the town of Acre, besieged by the formidable army of Mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Khalil. On 18 May, upon the death of Guillaume de Beaujeu, Gaudin remained in the city of Acre. The remaining knights of the order, men, women and children found shelter in the Temple, the great fort of the Templars. Pierre de Sevry, Marshal of the Order, Thibaud Gaudin, treasurer of the order, and their knights were the last to defend Acre. After trying to break in for a whole week without success, Al-Ashraf Khalil offered the marshal of the order to embark for Cyprus with all their possessions. Pierre de Sevry agreed. An Emir and 100 mameluks were permitted to enter the fort, but they began to molest some women and boys. Furious at this act, the knights slaughtered the mameluks and barricaded themselves again. That night Pierre sent the treasure of the order with its commander, Thibaud Gaudin and some non-combatants, by boat to Sidon. Acre fell the following day.

Thibaud Gaudin arrived with some knights at Sidon, where he was elected Grand Master. The Templars were determined to stand, but because they lacked numbers to properly defend the large city, they evacuated the city and moved to the Castle of the Sea. Thibaud Gaudin went to Cyprus in the hope of gathering reinforcements. To many, this was regarded as an act of cowardice. The Templars fought bravely, but once the engineers started building a causeway, they sailed away to Tortosa. July 14, 1291 emir Al-Shujâi entered the castle and ordered its destruction. The reinforcements never came. Beirut was taken on July 21, the castle of Ibelins and its walls completely destroyed. The sultan occupied Haifa on July 30, and the monasteries of Carmel destroyed. In early August, the Franks held nothing more than two fortified towns, both occupied by Templars. However, the garrisons were too weak to face a siege, so Tortosa was evacuated on August 3 and Athlit on August 14. They left for the sea fort of Ruad, two miles off the coast of Tortosa, which would remain in their hands until 1303, when the future of the order was in jeopardy.

In October 1291, a general chapter of the order met in Cyprus. This meeting confirmed the election of Thibaud Gaudin as Grand Master and named new dignitaries in the important positions within the hierarchy of the order. On that occasion, Jacques de Molay was named Marshal, to succeed Pierre de Sevry, who died at Acre. Thibaud Gaudin tried to reorganize all the Templars after the devastation of the recent battles. Moreover, it was necessary for him to defend the Kingdom of Armenia from the encircled Turkish Seldjoukides and the island of Cyprus, occupied by a multitude of refugees. Apparently the task proved daunting for Thibaud Gaudin; he died in 1292, leaving an enormous rebuilding task for his successor.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #21 on: December 16, 2014, 04:43:35 PM »
Global Wealth Pyramid according to Credit Suisse

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #22 on: December 16, 2014, 08:48:26 PM »
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3K3jFnrnaUg
Children Slaves, Verdingkinder, Swiss Serial Killers, Gipsies, Eugenics and Pedophiles

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NW6liKaL3Vs
Contract Kids - Switzerland
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #23 on: December 28, 2014, 08:35:38 PM »
Switzerland founded French Foreign Legion for Swiss Mercenaries & the King`s Killers became Police - YouTube

HRoss makes some digs at AJ because of the crosses on his products ,,, oh well you can't have everything ...  the information is still valid ... showing the pharaonic/masonic/royal/Templar connections to the swiss and the royals   
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

EvadingGrid

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #24 on: December 30, 2014, 09:50:53 AM »
Switzerland founded French Foreign Legion for Swiss Mercenaries & the King`s Killers became Police - YouTube

You'd be hard pushed to cover the history of mercenaries and exclude the swiss !

One of the big puzzles in life is how the Swiss are allowed things and the rest of the civilised world is not !

So your country is not allowed to be neutral, your sons are to be sacrificed to Mars the God of War
So your country forbids citizens to hold proper military firearms
So your govt does not subsidize the price of ammo to encourage practice, but buys up all the ammo
So your govt has an army as the ultimate big stick to collect the taxes and enforce the laws, not a peoples militia
So your govt never allows citizens to directly vote on laws, but endlessly bangs on about what a great democracy you live in.

Funny old world ain't it ?
So what is it about Switzerland that it gets special privileges ?


Sure I've generalized, its true some other countries have some of these features, but switzerland has all of them. Ireland is allowed to be neutral, but its got a tiny population and its not at the core of europe but on the periphery. Some other countries allow citizens to vote on actual laws, but only under very controlled and only at local level. A few other countries have militia armies, but they usually small and only supplement the standing army

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #25 on: December 30, 2014, 11:54:48 AM »
http://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/obama-s-roots-traced-to-swiss-villager/15349746
Obama’s roots traced to Swiss villager
Jul 3, 2010 - 18:33 

A Swiss village has laid claim to Barack Obama’s roots – the latest European location to throw its name into the multicultural mix that is the United States president.

After three months of combing through town records, a Swiss archivist has traced Obama’s family tree to a villager from western Switzerland.

While the ancestor in question – Hans Gutknecht – was already confirmed by archivists to have lived in the French Alsace village of Bischwiller in 1720, experts suspected he might have originated from Switzerland. Now, his baptism record has been unearthed showing he was born in the village of Ried bei Kerzers.

A rustic German-speaking village near the capital Bern, Ried bei Kerzers is quintessentially Swiss. Set among wheat fields, its quiet streets are lined with huge, long-roofed farmhouses and pristine gardens.
...

Honorary citizen

The research and the resulting family tree have been assembled into a bound press pack, ready for a media launch by the village to present the findings on July 13. The American embassy in Bern was invited to the event but declined saying they could not officially attend as it was a private matter, says Heinz Etter, president of the village council.

“Then I wrote to the president. The council decided it wanted to make him an honorary citizen and wanted to present the document to him,” says Etter over coffee in the village’s only cafe. Needless to say, there has been no reply from Washington.
...
 The Republicans attacked his Arab name, Hussein. The Democrats also wanted to show the white voters that Obama also had white origins and that he was an American like everyone else.”

Today, the discovery of his Swiss roots will be “good news” for the Democrats, he noted. “We are coming up to the [US election] mid-terms. The Tea Party is still attacking Obama. His birth certificate is still under attack. This brings new proof that he is an American just like everyone else.”
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #26 on: December 30, 2014, 12:08:50 PM »
http://www.myswissvideo.com/various/00032
Swiss Roots: Dwight David (Ike) Eisenhower, 34st US President (ENG)

 Submitted by: INFOWARS.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8y06NSBBRtY


Wikipedia: Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890–1969) 34st President of the United States. The Eisenhauer (German for "iron striker") family migrated from Germany to Switzerland in the 17th century due to religious persecution, and a century later came to the United States. A misspelling in official documents changed their name, and the Eisenhower family lived in York, Pennsylvania from 1730 to the 1880s, when they moved to Kansas.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ida_Stover_Eisenhower

Ida Elizabeth Stover Eisenhower (May 1, 1862 – September 11, 1946) was the mother of U.S. President Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969), and university president Milton Stover Eisenhower (1899–1985) as well as Edgar N. Eisenhower (1889–1971), and Earl D. Eisenhower (1898–1968).

She was born in Mount Sidney, Virginia, the only daughter of Elizabeth Ida Judah Link and Simon P. Stover.

She was a lifelong pacifist,[4] so Dwight's decision to attend West Point saddened her. She felt that warfare was "rather wicked," but she did not overrule him


Dwight D. Eisenhower's first ancestor in America was Hans Nicholas Eisenhauer   ... of the doctrine of Menno Simons, the Swiss founder of the Mennonite movement


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_UQJZOXm79I
JFK Assassination Swiss Octogon Conspiracy with FBI Hoover Huber killed John F Kennedy

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #27 on: December 30, 2014, 01:34:59 PM »
Interesting also shows the Masonic - pharaonic  connections

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QjzDHc29e6U
THE VIDEO HOLLYWOOD DOESN'T WANT YOU TO SEE !!!
Published on Sep 25, 2013
Illuminati Symbols in Movies, Series & Cartoons
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #28 on: December 30, 2014, 09:37:35 PM »
http://emperors-clothes.com/articles/randy/swas2.htm
Nazis in the attic         (This is part 2

ALLEN DULLES: ARCHITECT OF THE US-NAZI NETWORK

Contemporary history records Allen Dulles as one of America's top spymasters, from his early days in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in World War II,
to his position as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the 1950s and early 1960s (until President John F. Kennedy fired him over the Bay of Pigs disaster in 1961), and finally to his membership on the controversial Warren Commission, which investigated President Kennedy's assassination. Until recently, his pivotal role in promoting a U.S. corporate relationship with the Nazis was little known. Loftus and Aarons describe the post-World War I role of Allen, and his brother, John Foster, in the following terms:

"We first turn to Dulles's creation of international finance networks for the benefit of the Nazis. In the beginning, moving money into the Third Reich was quite legal. Lawyers saw to that. And Allen and his brother John Foster were not just any lawyers. They were international finance specialists for the powerful Wall Street law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell. . . .

"The Dulles brothers were the ones who convinced American businessmen to avoid U.S. government regulation by investing in Germany. It began with the Versailles Treaty, in which they played no small role.

After World War I the defeated German government promised to pay war reparations to the Allies in gold, but Germany had no gold. It had to borrow the gold from Sullivan & Cromwell's clients in the United States.

Nearly 70 percent of the money that flowed into Germany during the 1930s came from investors in the United States, many of them Sullivan & Cromwell clients. . .

"Foster Dulles, as a member of the board of I.G. Farben, seems to have had little difficulty in getting along with whoever was in charge. Some of our sources insist that both Dulles brothers made substantial but indirect contributions to the Nazi party as the price of continued influence inside the new German order. . . ." (28)
...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allen_Dulles
Allen Welsh Dulles ( April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an American diplomat and lawyer who became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence and its longest-serving director to date. As head of the Central Intelligence Agency during the early Cold War, he oversaw Operation Ajax, the Lockheed U-2 program and the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Following the assassination of John F Kennedy, Dulles was one of the members of the Warren Commission. Between his stints of government service, Dulles was a corporate lawyer and partner at Sullivan & Cromwell. His older brother, John Foster Dulles, was the Secretary of State during the Eisenhower Administration.


...
After the outbreak of the Second World War, Dulles was recruited to work at the Office of Strategic Services and moved to Bern, Switzerland, where he lived at Herrengasse 23 for the duration of World War II.

 As Swiss Director of the OSS,[1] Dulles worked on intelligence regarding German plans and activities, and established wide contacts with German émigrés, resistance figures, and anti-Nazi intelligence officers. He was assisted in intelligence-gathering activities by Gero von Schulze-Gaevernitz a German emigrant. Dulles also received valuable information from Fritz Kolbe, a German diplomat. Kolbe supplied secret documents regarding active German spies and plans regarding the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter.



http://www.stephenhalbrook.com/law_review_articles/sunrise.pdf
Operation Sunrise was a cooperative effort of American and Swiss intelligence services
which led to the unconditional surrender of the German Wehrmacht forces in Northern Italy and
Western Austria on May 2, 1945. General Heinrich von Vietinghoff, Commander-in-Chief of
the Southwest Command and of Army Group C, surrendered nearly a million soldiers, the
strongest remaining German force. This was the first great surrender of German forces to the
Allies, and became a strong impetus for the final Allied victory over Nazi Germany on May 8,
Victory in Europe (VE) Day. Operation Sunrise helped to nip in the bud Nazi aspirations for
guerilla resistance in an Alpine redoubt.

Sunrise, sometimes referred to as “Crossword,” has special significance today beyond the
sixtieth anniversary of the German surrender. Despite Switzerland’s formal neutrality, Swiss
intelligence agents aggressively facilitated American efforts to end the war
. Ironically, the
efforts of key U.S. intelligence agents on the ground to orchestrate the surrender were hampered
and almost scuttled by leaders in Washington to appease Joseph Stalin, who wished to delay the
surrender in the West so that Soviet forces could grab more territory in the East.

The key players in the Sunrise drama were Allen Dulles,1 head of the U.S. Office of
Strategic Services (OSS)2 stationed in Bern; Major Max Waibel3 of the Swiss Army Intelligence
branch Nachrichtensammelstelle I “Rigi”; and SS-Obergruppenführer Karl Wolff,4 head of the
German police, the Gestapo, and SD intelligence in Italy
. This study traces Operation Sunrise
from the American perspective primarily through contemporaneous OSS dispatches
...


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flying_Officer_Chronograph

{ But we were not a war in 1939 !!!! So what did Harry KNow? }
The Flying Officer chronograph wristwatch (1939–present), designed and manufactured in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland by Gallet & Co., was commissioned by Senator Harry S. Truman from Missouri in 1939 for pilots and navigators of the United States Army Air Forces.

The Gallet Flying Officer Chronograph holds distinctions as the world's first time zone calculating wristwatch. It is also the second wrist-worn chronograph, preceded only by Gallet's Clamshell, to have a water resistant case.[3] The Flying Officer was initially available only to flight officers[1] and pilots of the allied forces during World War II. After the war, Gallet began to sell the Flying Officer commercially, and it remained as a popular watch for military, commercial, and civilian aviators.

Truman himself wore a Gallet Flying Officer during his terms as 33rd president of the United States (1945–1953),[4] now housed in the collection of the Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum. This historic watch was also featured in "Time in Office", an exhibit held at the National Watch and Clock Museum that showcased the actual timepieces used by past American presidents dating back to George Washington.[5]

Gallet made a specific "Red Tail" edition of their Flying Officer Chronograph during WWII. The "Red Tail" was a special edition made only available to the soldiers known today as the Tuskegee Airmen. The colors on the dial were red, silver, and black to match the colors of the planes they flew in WWII. To date only one is known to be in existence
...


Flight Officer Chronograph (1939) - Commissioned by Harry S Trumans's senatorial staff for issue to pilots and flight officers of the US Army Air Forces during WWII

http://www.galletwatch.com/PDF2/4_The_Flight_Officer_Project__letter_.pdf
4_The_Flight_Officer_Project__letter_.pdf
...
2014 marks the 75th anniversary of this legendary timepiece. In honor of three quarters of a century of service in the skies, the Gallet Group is producing two special limited edition versions of this world famous
wristwatch.
...
Harry S. Truman was a devoted admirer of Gallet timepieces and,
as it turns out, it was Truman who was solely responsible for getting the Flight
Officer onto the wrists of pilots during WWII. The relatively expensive timepiece,
considered an extravagance by the war department, was regarded as a necessity by
Truman because of its extreme usefulness as an aviation timing and navigation device.
...



So it is interesting how Trumans ends up as president with the timely death of Roosevelt... and immediately disbands the OSS and gets rid of most of them , but he creates the CIA and immediately makes DULLES his man in Bern to be the head of the new internal/external global spy agency... 

Harry was also involved with the negotiations over Nazi Assets in Switzerland ...



Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1946

http://trumanlibrary.org/publicpapers/index.php?pid=1576&st=&st1=
Letter Accepting Resignation of Randolph Paul as Special Assistant for Negotiations on German Assets in Switzerland   

June 12, 1946

 [ Released June 12, 1946. Dated June 11, 1946 ]

Dear Randolph:

 I have received your letter of May twenty-eighth informing me of the successful completion of the Allied negotiations with the Swiss Government on the subject of German assets in Switzerland.  ...

{ So are we surprised that the Swissy kept the booty? ]

http://www.nytimes.com/books/97/06/22/reviews/swiss2.html
May 8, 1997
U.S. Says Swiss Reneged on Returning Nazi Loot

WASHINGTON -- In a searing historical indictment, a U.S. government report concluded on Wednesday that the Swiss government deliberately failed to respect a 1946 agreement to return hundreds of millions of dollars in assets that Nazi Germany looted from European banks and Holocaust victims and the United States stood by.

It asserts the Swiss bankers' "indifference to the needs of the victims of the Holocaust and their heirs persisted until the current international pressures came to bear" within the past year, forcing Switzerland to offer reparations that amount to only a fraction of the country's profits from the war.
...
Two famous political figures whose reputations are not enhanced by Wednesday's report are President Harry S. Truman and Fred Vinson, Treasury secretary from 1945 to 1946.

Randolph Paul, the chief negotiator with the Swiss appointed by Truman, sought permission in the spring of 1946 to threaten economic sanctions against Switzerland to force the country to agree to turn over a large portion of the Nazi assets under Swiss control.


Permission was denied [ and Paul QUIT]  , however. In fact, the Truman Cabinet instructed him to accept Switzerland's offer, and to use Swiss estimates of the amount of loot in the country's possession. American intelligence officials had extensive evidence at the time that Switzerland understated those assets by nearly 100 percent.

...

| - - - - -
[ the Dulles - BIS connection: ]

http://japanfocus.org/-Peter_Dale-Scott/4109
The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 16, No. 3, April 21, 2014

The Dulles Brothers, Harry Dexter White, Alger Hiss, and the Fate of the Private Pre-War International Banking System
...

An Overview of This Essay

It has long been known that Nixon, in his interrogation of White and Hiss, was being fed information by FBI agents acting with the approval of J. Edgar Hoover. This essay will argue that Nixon also received assistance from the Dulles brothers, especially in a key meeting between the three men on August 11, 1948, five days before White’s untimely and disputed death.

At stake in the meeting was the Republican campaign of 1948, the first campaign, ultimately unsuccessful, in which “the GOP dubbed the Democrats ‘the party of treason.’”4 But deeper issues were also at stake. As we shall see, Harry Dexter White, backed by Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, had his own candidates for treasonable behavior: above all

Allen Dulles’s friend and former OSS agent, Thomas McKittrick, the American wartime president of the Bank of International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland.5

The BIS had handled Nazi looted gold when other banks had refused to do so, and at the war’s end McKittrick was “arranging deals with Nazi industrialists to guarantee their profits after the war was over.”6

In contrast, the Morgenthau-White Plan for postwar Germany called for the country to be deindustrialized and the power of the German cartels to be broken. The pre-war banking system linking American bankers to those who had backed Hitler was also to be demolished: the meeting of Allies at Bretton Woods in July 1944, organized largely by White, had passed a resolution calling for the dissolution of the BIS “at the earliest possible moment.”

A version of the Morgenthau-White Plan was approved by Truman in May 1945 as JCS (Joint Chiefs of Staff policy) 1067, which directed the U.S. forces of occupation in Germany to "...take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany."7

But both McKittrick and Allen Dulles had a quite antithetical vision for Germany – that its economy should indeed be rehabilitated, and eventually made the underpinning for a more united Western Europe.

Thus “Dulles and others began to campaign against…JCS 1067,” and for its replacement by what later came to be known as the Marshall Plan.8

On one level this was a conflict between powerful individuals: White in Washington (Morgenthau soon retired), versus the banker McKittrick and the lawyer Allen Dulles, both of whom returned after World War II to Wall Street. But it was also an institutional conflict between Washington and Wall Street, because each center was initially united behind conflicting visions for the future of Germany, and also for the future of the pre-war international banking system uniting Germany and America – at the heart of which was the BIS. Another way to say this is that it was a contest between the conflicting visions of the state (Washington) and the deep state (Wall Street).

In this contest, as in many others at this time, Washington lost, and Wall Street won.9

The Dulles brothers and their allies, who argued that Germany must be rebuilt as rapidly as possible as a bulwark against the Soviet Union, triumphed over Morgenthau and White. The BIS returned the looted Nazi gold, and the calls for its dissolution faded away.10
...

| - - -

http://tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/143053/hitlers-american-banker
Meet the American Banker Who Helped Hitler Loot Jewish Gold—While Spying for the OSS

Thomas McKittrick, head of the Swiss-based Bank for International Settlements, was a key go-between for the Axis and the Allies
By Adam LeBor | August 30, 2013 12:00 AM
...

As head of the BIS, headquartered in Basel, from 1940 to 1946, McKittrick played a crucial role in abetting Hitler’s war—and, at the same time, in revealing details about his Nazi colleagues to his friends in Washington, D.C. On McKittrick’s watch, the BIS willingly accepted looted Nazi gold, carried out foreign exchange deals for the Reichsbank, and recognized the Nazi invasion and annexation of conquered countries. By doing so, it also legitimized the role of the national banks in the occupied countries in appropriating Jewish-owned assets. Indeed, the BIS was so indispensable to the overall Nazi project that the vice-president of the Reichsbank, Emil Puhl—who was later tried for war crimes—once referred to the BIS as the Reichsbank’s only “foreign branch.” In the closing months of the war, as American GIs fought their way across Europe, McKittrick was arranging deals with Nazi industrialists to guarantee their profits after the Allied victory.

But McKittrick was also a key contact between the Allies and the Nazis, passing information back and forth from Washington to Berlin. His relationship with the Third Reich was encouraged both by factions within the State Department and by the leadership of the Office for Strategic Services, the predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency. He also served as a back-channel between anti-Nazi German business interests and the United States—and ultimately served to help preserve the power of German industry after the war, over the opposition of no less a figure than Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau.
...

| - - - -

http://www.archives.gov/research/holocaust/finding-aid/civilian/rg-84-switzerland.html

...
Switzerland, during 1941 and 1942, was drawn more even more completely into Germany's trade orbit than the other neutrals, and by 1943, Germany absorbed nearly a third of all Swiss exports- primarily manufactured items that required small amounts of raw materials, large amounts of capital, and highly skilled labor.  These included items, for which Swiss watch and machine tool industries were famous, that could not be produced at all in Germany or not in sufficient quantities to meet wartime needs.  Switzerland provided Germany with arms, ammunition, and machinery, including locomotives as well as agricultural products.  Allied bombing campaigns eventually forced Germany to move some of its arms factories to the safety of Swiss territory.

In addition, Switzerland annually exported to Germany one-half billion kilowatts of electricity, or about 40 percent of the total power supply of southern Germany, and Swiss hydroelectric power annually produced 16,000 tons of aluminum and aluminum products for Germany during the war. Moreover, the unprecedented use by Germany of the Swiss railway to transport goods to and from Italy (apart from the transit of actual materials which Switzerland banned) allowed large quantities of raw materials, foodstuffs, chemicals, and other materials to be transported to Italy and permitted Germany to mitigate some of the effects of the Allied control of the Mediterranean Sea.


...

Switzerland, more than any other European country, served as a refuge and center for Nazi financial operations.  The leading Swiss banks served as international bankers to the Germans, and as links with Germany's network of foreign holdings and interests.  Swiss francs were made available to Germany by Swiss banks' purchase of German gold.  Other foreign currencies necessary for German war efforts and trade outside Germany were also made available to Germany.   According to one historian, by the end of 1944, "it was estimated that German investments and accounts in Switzerland amounted to $600,000,000.  It was also believed that considerable amounts of German assets were represented in securities, currencies, jewels, works of art, etc., held in Swiss safety deposit boxes.  German real estate holdings in Switzerland were thought to be worth $62,500,000..." "Privately owned German accounts were reported to be in excess of 500 million Swiss francs. These," Margaret Clarke wrote, "were easy to cloak since the Secrecy Act permitted Swiss banks to hide ownership under numbered accounts." (Note 93)

Despite its assistance to the Axis, Germany and Italy often complained about the delay the Swiss took in filling their orders and the pro-Allied sentiments of the Swiss population, press and radio. The Germans were also displeased that Switzerland was a haven for spies, plotters against Hitler and the Reich, as well as a haven for Jewish and other refugees.

Switzerland was indeed a major operational center for both Allied and Axis intelligence services. During the war Switzerland was the center of intelligence battles among the Axis and Allies intelligence units.  Swiss counterintelligence arrested 387 spies, mostly Swiss, but including 100 Germans were brought to trial of whom 17 were executed.  Allen Dulles, the OSS Station Chief in Bern, from 1942 to 1945 (with OSS posts at Geneva, Zurich, Basel, and Lugano), British Intelligence operatives, and intelligence sources from many Axis and Allied countries used Switzerland as major place of operations during the war.
...
Negotiations began in early March 1946.  On the eve of these negotiations the United States estimated that up to $579 million of monetary gold had been looted in Europe by the Nazis and that Germany shipped around $400 million in gold (estimated that $289 million had been looted) to Switzerland, mostly to the Swiss National Bank, during the war. Of that $400 million, American officials estimated that some $138 million had been "washed" through Switzerland and re-exported to Portugal and Spain. But the Allies were not certain how much German and Nazi looted gold remained in Switzerland at the end of the war. Their estimates ranged from $200 million to as much as $398 million.

The Allied negotiators, in the face of Swiss intransignece and Allied interest in resuming commercial relations with Switzerland, as well as a new postwar United States emphasis on rebuilding war-torn Europe, reduced their negotiating position first to $130 million, the amount of the Allied estimate of the looted Belgian central bank gold.  In late April 1946, the Allies sought to break the stalemate with a proposal calling for Switzerland to provide $130 million in monetary gold and giving the Allies two-thirds of the revenues from the liquidation of German assets in Switzerland.  Walter Stucki, head of the Swiss delegation, responded by breaking off the negotiations.  The amount the Allies sought was the reduced to $88 million, the amount of looted Belgian gold ultimately acknowledged by the Swiss.

The negotiations resumed in early May 1946 with a two-fold Swiss proposal.  One part provided for a Swiss payment of $58.1 for the monetary gold in Switzerland.  The United States Government decided to accept this $58 million figure.  The second part of the agreement was to divide the results of the liquidation of German assets on a 50-50 basis.  United States estimates of German external assets in Switzerland ranged from $250 million to $750 million, compared to $250,000 conceded by the Swiss. No total amount of assets was agreed to, nor would the Swiss give the Allies control over the identification of the assets.

After consulting the Secretary of Treasury Vinson, Secretary of War Patterson, Senior Asistant Secretary of State Clayton, and with Senator Harley Kilgore, Randolph Paul and his negotiators decided that the United States was not willing to resort to economic sanctions to achieve better agreement. Thus, after the British and French governments agreed, the Allied-Swiss Accord was signed in Washington, D.C. on May 26, 1946 in the form of a text with a number of side notes, including a commitment by the Swiss to look "sympathetically" at assisting stateless victims through the recovery of heirless assets for their benefit.

Almost immediately after signing the Washington Accord, the United States Government began the process of unblocking frozen Swiss assets in the United States.  At the same time, serious problems arose between the Allies and Switzerland over Swiss implementation, primarily relating to a fair Reichsmark-Swiss franc rate of exchange.  Because of this problem, it was not until 1952 an agreement was reached on the terms and procedures for the liquidation of German external assets.  The Swiss, however, immediately turned over $58 million in gold to the Tripartite Gold Commission.

The Allied-Swiss agreement of August 1952 called for a lump-sum settlement of $28 million for liquidating German assets in Switzerland.  This figure was far less than that forseen in the 1946 Washington Accord.  This final lump settlement was reduced by $4.7 million that the Swiss had advanced in settlement in 1948. (Note 96)

| - - - -

Can anyone tell me why this is the only photo of McKittrick I can find?


BIS President Thomas McKittrick (1940-46)

[ this is kind of interesting: ]

Thomas H. McKittrick
Papers, 1924-1955
Mss: 78  1924-1955  M158

http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/sfa/McKittrickThomas.htm

Historical Note:

American-born banker Thomas Harrington McKittrick (1889-1970) spent the greater part of his professional life in Europe. He is noted for serving as president of the Switzerland-based Bank for International Settlements throughout World War II.

McKittrick was born in St. Louis, the son of Thomas Harrington and Hildegarde Sterling McKittrick. He began his banking career in St. Louis after graduating from Harvard College in 1911 and attending St. Louis University School of Law. He joined the National City Bank of New York in 1916 and was assigned to assist in opening a branch of the bank in Genoa. After service with the American Expeditionary Force in Europe (1918-1919),

McKittrick spent two years in the New York office of Lee, Higginson & Company.

In 1922 he transferred to Lee, Higginson's London affiliate, Higginson & Company, becoming a partner in 1924. Higginson & Company shut down most of its operations in 1939, thus ending McKittrick's association with the firm.

Later that year he was elected president of the Bank for International Settlements in Basle. He was elected to a second term in 1942 and remained in office until 1946.

The Bank for International Settlements was established as a result of the Hague Agreements of January 1930, which addressed the problem of post-World War I reparations to be paid by Germany. The B.I.S. was founded to organize payment of those reparations. It was and is a central banking institution, owned and controlled by the central banks of a number of industrialized nations. Its primary purposes are, according to Article 3 of its original Statutes, "to promote the co-operation of central banks and to provide additional facilities for international financial operations...." Meetings of the bank's governors were suspended in September 1939, but the bank continued to operate under Swiss laws of neutrality. The officers of the bank, in addition to the American McKittrick, included men from both Allied and Axis nations

[ now read this: ]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lee,_Higginson_%26_Co.

Lee, Higginson & Co. was a prominent Boston-based investment bank during the 1840s to 1932, home of many members of Boston Brahmin establishment. The bank collapsed in the Swedish match scandal in 1932 while under the leadership of Jerome Davis Greene. Also known for financing the growth of General Motors. The lavish headquarters building of Lee, Higginson in lower Manhattan, built 1928, is now the private Léman Manhattan Preparatory School.[1]

In 1935, former Lee, Higginson bankers, William M. Blair and Francis Bonner, founded investment Blair Bonner & Company, which today is William Blair & Company.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerome_Davis_Greene

Jerome Davis Greene (1874-1959) was an America banker and a trustee to several major organizations and trusts including the Brookings Institution and the Rockefeller Foundation.
...
Greene graduated from Harvard College by 1897 and became secretary to Harvard University's president and the Harvard Corporation from 1901-1910. This gave him contacts with Wall Street which made him general manager of the Rockefeller Institute from 1910-1912. Later, Greene became an assistant to John D. Rockefeller in philanthropic work for two years, then trustee to the Rockefeller Institute, to the Rockefeller Foundation, and finally to the Rockefeller General Education Board until 1939.
...
For fifteen years (1917-1932) he worked for the Boston investment banking firm of Lee, Higginson & Co; most of those years serving as its chief executive officer, as well as with its London branch
...
Round table

He became involved with the Round Table Groups, which were semi-secret discussion and lobbying groups organized by Lionel Curtis, Philip Henry Kerr (Lord Lothian), and (Sir) William S. Marris in 1908-1911. This was done on behalf of Lord Milner, the dominant Trustee of the Rhodes Trust in the two decades 1905-1925. The original purpose of these groups was to seek to federate the English-speaking world along lines laid down by Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) and William T. Stead (1849-1912), and the money for the organizational work came originally from the Rhodes Trust. By 1915 Round Table groups existed in seven countries, including England, South Africa, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India, and a rather loosely organized group in the United States (George Louis Beer, Walter Lippmann, Frank Aydelotte, Whitney Shepardson, Thomas W. Lamont, Erwin D. Canham of the Christian Science Monitor, and others). The attitudes of the various groups were coordinated by frequent visits and discussions and by a well-informed and totally anonymous quarterly magazine, The Round Table Journal, whose first issue, largely written by Philip Kerr, appeared in November 1910.
,,,

| - - - -

http://libertyparkusafd.org/lp/hancock/CD-ROMS/GlobalFederation/Global%20-%2064%20-%20Trading%20With%20the%20Enemy%20%E2%80%93%20the%20Nazi-American%20Money%20Plot.html

Trading With the Enemy: the [SWISS} Nazi-American Money Plot
By Charles Higham
New York: 1983

Chapter 1--A Bank for All Reasons

     On a bright May morning in 1944, while young Americans were dying on the Italian beachheads, Thomas Harrington McKittrick, American president of the Nazi-controlled Bank for International Settlements in Basle, Switzerland, arrived at his office to preside over a fourth annual meeting in time of war. This polished American gentleman sat down with his German, Japanese, Italian, British, and American executive staff to discuss such important matters as the $378 million in gold that had been sent to the Bank by the Nazi government after Pearl Harbor for use by its leaders after the war. Gold that had been looted from the national banks of Austria, Holland, Belgium, and Czechoslovakia, or melted down from the Reichsbank holdings of the teeth fillings, spectacle frames, cigarette cases and lighters, and wedding rings of the murdered Jews.


     The Bank for International Settlements was a joint creation in 1930 of the world's central banks, including the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Its existence was inspired by Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht, Nazi Minister of Economics and president of the Reichsbank, part of whose early upbringing was in Brooklyn, and who had powerful Wall Street connections. He was seconded by the all-important banker Emil Puhl, who continued under the regime of Schacht's successor, Dr. Walther Funk.

...

  By 1939, the BIS had invested millions in Germany, while Kurt von Schroder and Emil Puhl deposited large sums in looted gold in the Bank. The BIS was an instrument of Hitler, but its continuing existence was approved by Great Britain even after that country went to war with Germany, and the British director Sir Otto Niemeyer, and chairman Montagu Norman, remained in office throughout the war.

    In the middle of the Czech gold controversy, Thomas Harrington McKittrick was appointed president of the Bank, with Emil Meyer of the Swiss National Bank as chairman. White-haired, pink-checked, smooth and soft-spoken, McKittrick was a perfect front man for The Fraternity, an associate of the Morgans and an able member of the Wall Street establishment.

Born in St. Louis, he went to Harvard, where he edited the Crimson, graduating as bachelor of arts in 1911. He worked his way up to become chairman of the British-American Chamber of Commerce, which numbered among its members several Nazi sympathizers. He was a director of Lee, Higginson and Co., and made substantial loans to Germany. He was fluent in German, French, and Italian. Though he spent all of his career inland, he wrote learned papers on the life and habits of seabirds. His wife, Marjorie, and his four pretty daughters, one of whom was at Vassar and a liberal enemy of the BIS, were popular on both sides of the Atlantic.

     Early in 1940, McKittrick traveled to Berlin and held a meeting at the Reichsbank with Kurt von Schroder of the BIS and the Gestapo. They discussed doing business with each other's countries if war between them should come.

     Morgenthau grew more aggravated by McKittrick and the BIS as the war in Europe continued, but did not insist he be withdrawn. He was forced to rely upon Treasury Secret Service reports rather than upon Cochran for information on the BIS's doings. He learned that in June 1940, Belgian BIS director Alexandre Galopin had intercepted $228 million in gold sent by the Belgian government to the Bank of France and had shifted it to Dakar in North Africa and thence the Reichsbank and Emil Puhl.

...

 Schmidt closed in. He asked McKittrick whether he knew what had happened to the Belgian gold deposited in the Bank of France. McKittrick replied: "I know where it is. I will tell you. But it is extremely important that word does not leak out. It is in the vaults of the Reichsbank."

Evidently he realized he had said too much: that he had let slip his own role in the transaction. He added hastily: "I'm sure it will be in Berlin when you get there. Puhl is holding it for return to the Belgians after the war." This barefaced lie scarcely impressed Schmidt. The gold was already in Switzerland.      McKittrick did not end there. He admitted that the Germans had sent gold to the BIS and said, "When the war is over you'll find it all carefully segregated and documented. Anything that's been looted can be identified. When gold was offered to us, I thought it would be better to take it and hold it rather than to refuse it and let the Germans keep it for other uses."

     McKittrick continued, "I'm so sorry I can't ask you to take a look at the books and records of the Bank. When you do see them at the end of the war, you will appreciate and approve of the role that I and the BIS have played during the war." They were, of course, never released.

     Orvis Schmidt went on to see the executives of the Swiss National Bank, which maintained its partnership in the BIS and shared the same chairman, Ernst Weber. Schmidt raised the question of the looted gold: the $378 million in gold of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Holland, and other occupied countries, including the treasure of the Jews. He knew that by a technicality the BIS no longer siphoned the gold through directly but sent it to its associated earmarked account at the Swiss National Bank.

     The Swiss National Bank officials told Schmidt that in order to be sure they were not obtaining looted gold, they had requested a member of the Reichsbank, whom they "regarded to be trustworthy," to certify that each parcel of gold that they purchased had not been looted. Schmidt asked who that person might be. He was not surprised when the directors of the Swiss National Bank informed him that that personage was none other than Emil Puhl, who had just left ahead of his arrival.

At the Nuremberg Trials in May 1946, Walther Funk, still listed as a BIS director, testified that Puhl had American connections and had been offered a major post at Chase in New York shortly before Pearl Harbor.

Funk admitted that Puhl was in charge of gold shipments. He admitted receiving the gold reserve of the Czech National Bank and the Belgian gold, and he added, "It was very difficult to pay [in foreign exchange] in gold.... Only in Switzerland could we still do business through changing gold into foreign currency." Funk said

that Puhl had informed him in 1942 that the Gestapo had deposited gold coins, and other gold, from the concentration camps, in the Reichsbank. Puhl had been in charge of this. Jewels, monocles, spectacle frames, watches, cigarette cases, and gold dentures had flowed into the Reichsbank, supplied by Puhl from Heinrich Himmler's resources. They were melted down into gold bars; he did not add how many bars were marked for shipment to Switzerland. Each gold bar weighed 20 kilograms. An affidavit was read to Funk, signed by Puhl, confirming the facts. Puhl stated that Funk had made arrangements with Himmler to receive the gold.
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #29 on: December 31, 2014, 12:24:57 PM »
not a big fan of FDR - but when they wanted him gone - it took only 70 hours to have him buried ...

http://www.reformation.org/assassination-of-president-roosevelt.html
The Assassination Of President Roosevelt!!

On March 30, 1945, President Roosevelt arrived in Warm Springs, Georgia, for a 2-week vacation. Just 12 days later he was assassinated by poisoning. The President was only 63-years-old.

Just like the assassination of our beloved President Lincoln, the fingerprints of the British Secret Service are all over this assassination . . . and its outcome.

Dr. Ross T. McIntire was the White House physician in charge of President's Roosevelt's health. Dr. McIntire predicted that the President would be a "different man" when he returned:
...
President Roosevelt drank the poison cup at 12:40 PM, and by 3.35 PM, April 12, 1945, he was pronounced dead.

So rapidly did the funeral take place that by 11 AM, April 15, the President was laid to rest at the Roosevelt estate in Hyde Park, New York.

No more that 70 hours elapsed between the assassination and the burial of the President
...
Violating Georgia state law, no autopsy was performed on the President, as his body was rushed back to Washington City for a quick funeral service, and then burial in Hyde Park, New York.
...

Nicholas Robbins (real name Nicholas Kotzubisky) was the driver and photographer for Elizabeth Shoumatoff. Roosevelt was having his portrait painted by Russian born artist Elizabeth Shoumatoff when he took a break for lunch:

At twenty minutes to one, Arthur Prettyman, the valet, came in and set a cup of gruel, a pitcher of cream, and a glass with a green fluid beside the president. FDR grimaced and without lifting his eyes from his reading, downed the latter, a vile concoction that was supposed to increase his appetite. Daisy got up, poured cream into the gruel, and mixed it. Franklin absently took a few mouthfuls, still absorbed in his papers. (Persico, Franklin & Lucy, p. 339).

After drinking  the vile concoction, Roosevelt complained of a terrible headache.

...
From death to burial took only 70 hours!!

...

The parallels between the assassination of President Lincoln and President Roosevelt are remarkable. In both cases, a war of unprecedented destruction was ending, with the forces of evil on the retreat everywhere.

In both cases, the losers hoped to reverse the course of the war by assassinating the Commander-in-Chief and replacing him with their puppet. [Truman ] John Wilkes Booth was licensed to kill President Lincoln, and the British Secret Service had penetrated every single governmental department in Washington City.

| - - - -

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/19/books/review/Heilbrunn-t.html?_r=0

The Devious Bachelor
By JACOB HEILBRUNN
 Published: October 17, 2008

Roald Dahl is famous for his mischievous children’s stories. But as Jennet Conant reports in “The Irregulars,” he was also a British spy. Conant, who has written popular accounts of the secret development of radar and the atomic bomb, shows that Dahl, a former R.A.F. hero, parachuted himself into Washington blue-blood circles in 1942 and used his embassy post to begin spying on Britain’s closest and most important ally.
...
Dahl’s entry into Washington high-life was immeasurably smoothed by the avuncular Texas newspaper magnate and oil tycoon Charles Edward Marsh, who had moved to the capital to aid the New Deal. Marsh, who lived in a 19th-century mansion in Dupont Circle, introduced Dahl to his friends. Soon, Dahl was hobnobbing with Eleanor Roosevelt during weekends at Hyde Park, where he also met the president, allowing him to become, Conant expansively concludes, “a back-channel conduit of information” to Churchill.

In 1943 a crafty Canadian industrialist and associate of Winston Churchill, William Stephenson, tapped Dahl to join his spy network, British Security Coordination. Stephenson’s original mandate had been to help push America into World War II. After Pearl Harbor, he was assigned to keep tabs on America’s postwar plans and to counter any lingering isolationist sentiments.

Despite America’s entry into the war, a number of conservative newspapers and socialites remained rabid Roosevelt haters and loathed the British Empire. Many of them lived in Washington; according to Conant, “with the playgrounds of Europe closed to tourists, moneyed society was forced to stay home, and Washington was brimming with wealthy dowagers and their bored, unmarried daughters.” What the journalist Joseph Alsop later called the “WASP ascendancy” ruled Washington social life.

...


| - - - 

update - FLETCHER PROUTY COMMENTARY says it was the Churchill gang ... 
http://www.prouty.org/coment11.html
....
Roosevelt accepted this offer and did interview Stalin there. At the end of a long interview, he turned to the Generalissimo and asked one more question, "Why is it that my mother has never been permitted to visit Moscow even though she has made three very formal applications for the trip?"

 Stalin glared at Elliott and said, "You don't know why?"

 Elliott replied, "No!"

 Quickly, Stalin responded, "Don't you know who killed your father?"

 Roosevelt-shocked-answered, "No."

 Stalin rising from his chair, continued, "Well, I'll tell you why I have not invited her here. As soon as your father died, I asked my ambassador in Washington to go immediately to Georgia with a request to view the body." Stalin believed that if Gromyko could see the body he would confirm that the cerebral hemorrhage that had caused his death had caused extensive discoloration and distortion.

 Elliot responded that he knew nothing about that and then Stalin said, "Your mother refused to permit the lid of the coffin to be opened so that my ambassador could see the body." Adding "I sent him there three times trying to impress upon your mother that it was very important for him to view the President's body. She never accepted that. I have never forgiven her."


 This forced Elliott to ask this last question, "…but why?"

 Stalin took a few steps around the office, and almost in a rage roared, "They poisoned your father, of course, just as they have tried repeatedly to poison me."

 "They, who are they," Elliot asked


"The Churchill gang!" Stalin roared, "They poisoned your father, and they continue to try to poison me…the Churchill gang!"

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #30 on: December 31, 2014, 12:53:36 PM »
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/9722715/MI6-secrets-threatened-as-Swiss-spy-steals-a-mountain-of-data.html
MI6 secrets threatened as Swiss spy steals a mountain of data

MI6 and the CIA have been warned that intelligence may have been compromised by an agent in Switzerland who downloaded vast quantities of data onto portable hard drives and carried it out of a secure building.

By Duncan Gardham, Investigations Correspondent
8:19PM GMT 04 Dec 2012

The senior technician became so disgruntled earlier this year that he stopped showing up for work at the NDB, the Swiss intelligence service.

But the agency only realised that something was amiss when UBS, the largest Swiss bank, expressed concern about an attempt to set up a new numbered bank account, which was traced to the technician.

Swiss investigators raided his home and seized portable storage devices containing terrabytes of classified information, running into hundreds of thousands of printed pages.

He had apparently downloaded the material from the Swiss intelligence service's servers onto portable hard drives and then carried them out of government buildings in a backpack.

Investigators believe he intended to sell the stolen data to foreign intelligence agencies or commercial buyers.
...

Swiss authorities believe that the stolen data was seized before he had an opportunity to sell it but could not be absolutely sure.

As a result they have notified foreign intelligence partners including MI6 and the CIA their information may have been compromised.

The British and Americans routinely share data on counter-terrorism and other issues with the NDB, the Federal Intelligence Service.

The suspect in the spy data theft worked for the NDB, which is part of Switzerland's Defense Ministry, for about eight years.

...
The NDB is a relatively new agency which combines the functions of predecessor agencies that conducted foreign and domestic intelligence activities.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #31 on: December 31, 2014, 02:26:31 PM »
It's  is pretty interesting how little information is available on Emil Puhl  you have to go to the german wiki to get anything ]

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emil_Puhl

Emil Johann Rudolf Puhl (* 28 August 1889 in Berlin ; † 30 March 1962 in Hamburg ) was a German banker . From February 1939 to the surrender in May 1945, Puhl was Vice President of the Reichsbank . He was known as "Hitler's most important state banker and foreign currency procurer" [1] during the Second World War . On April 11, 1949 Puhl was in the Wilhelmstrasse process sentenced to five years in prison
...

Emil Puhl and the "gold wash" in Switzerland

Besides his work as executive vice president and thus "secret rulers of the Reichsbank with excellent relations with Himmler, Heydrich and the SS " [14] was a focus of Puhl's work before and during the Second World War his position as the Director of the Bank for International Settlements together with Kurt Freiherr von Schröder in neutral Switzerland
. [15]

The Switzerland to become the "gold hub of Europe", after 1939 the Nazi regime in Germany and his helpers valuable services for recovery and "laundering" of dirty, because in the occupied countries looted gold made. Switzerland and the Swiss National Bank oped from approximately four-fifths of gold sales by the Reichsbank. Puhl's role was similar to that of a "dealer" of the National bankers in Bern , the German Nazi gold and brought it against hard Swiss franc traded. These currencies were of crucial importance for the German war and armaments economy as raw materials of war otherwise with German gold nor on the world market with neither Reichsmarks were to buy. [16] "A prerequisite for the continuation of the war, therefore, was the systematic theft of gold in the countries invaded, which was exchanged for foreign exchange. " [17]

Reichsbank Vice President Puhl knew how his - but also whether the good deals euphoric - Swiss colleagues on the origin of the German looted gold to deceive. He appeared to them "always as a solid and trustworthy gentleman, not a lie as capable" held. [18] Robert MW Kempner , US chief prosecutor in the Wilhelmstrasse process, remembered Puhl as a "polite, friendly, responsive , "who had summoned all his intelligence" to come out Lord a typical officials from the case " [19]

Today, it is recognized that Puhl a "key figure of the looted gold trade" [20] during the Second World War. The Independent Commission of Experts Switzerland - Second World War (ICE) went to the end of the 1990s, including the question of how the Board of the Swiss National Bank socialize (SNB) before 1945 "so close and friendly relationship with a shady character like Reichsbank Vice President Emil Puhl" could. [21] The historian realized that Puhl was "not a Nazi activist," but he "for the objectives of Nazi gold policy" was involved. "At the same time knew Puhl masterfully to shine through skepticism about the Nazi regime during his regular visits to Switzerland and also as anti-Nazi issue. Leaders of the financial and economic knew him as a competent professional and pleasant conversation partners appreciate. " [22]

...

On April 11, 1949 Puhl was due to its prominent role in the recovery of the SS looted gold sentenced to five years in prison. [28] Puhl was from before Christmas 1949 war Landsberg prison early release. As of December 22, 1949, he was reported in Hamburg.

Shortly thereafter, Puhl succeeded, thanks to its excellent international experience in the Bank for International Settlements , [29] the re-entry into the banking business. As of March 14, 1950, the former president of the Reichsbank worked as a freelance consultant in international business of the Hamburg credit bank active (for a monthly fee of 2.500, - Mark) [30] , one of the successor companies of Dresdner Bank . In August 1950, he was called Puhl to the Executive Board and from 25 September 1952 he was a member of the Executive Board of the bank until he retired on May 23, 1957. [6] In addition, Puhl belonged from 1951 to the Supervisory Board of Kühltransit- Aktiengesellschaft and was there from 1954 Vice Chairman. [31] In November 1959, the President of the Italian Republic "the member of the Central Advisory Board of Dresdner Bank AG and the Advisory Board of the Italian trade association, Emil Puhl awarded in recognition of his services to the deepening of the German -ltalienischen economic relations, the Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit Italian
...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zOobJo6s9KA
Nuremberg Day 130 Puhl

http://avalon.law.yale.edu/imt/05-15-46.asp
...

DR. SAUTER: Now, Witness, in your affidavit under Figure 5, you say that among the articles deposited by the SS were jewelry, watches, spectacle frames, gold fillings-apparently these dental fillings-and other articles in large quantities which the SS had taken away from Jews and concentration camp victims and other persons. How do you know that?

PUHL: I know that from my interrogations at Frankfurt.

DR. SAUTER: You were told about these things during your interrogations in Frankfurt after your arrest?

PUHL: And they were shown to me.


...


http://www.archives.gov/publications/record/1998/05/nazi-gold.html
The Record - May 1998
Searching for Records Relating to Nazi Gold: Part II
 by Greg Bradsher

...

Special Finding Aids

With the help of NARA staff and others, I prepared a 300-page finding aid to the records at Archives II. This finding aid served as the appendix to the Interagency Group's report. This report and finding aid were issued on May 7, 1997, and immediately made available at the Department of State's website and sold by the US Government Printing Office. When the research widened to more countries and more subjects, and there was a great desire for an expanded finding aid to relevant records, we issued a 300-page supplemental finding aid in the fall of 1997. It was placed on the Department of State's website in November 1997. A revised and expanded finding aid, some 750 pages, was placed on the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum's website in March 1998 at http://www.ushmm.org/assets/nazigold.htm.

New Records

In 1996, the Clinton administration urged agencies to transfer relevant records to the National Archives. In 1997, the Central Intelligence Agency transferred Office of Strategic Services records, as well as biographical profile documentation on Thomas McKittrick, the wartime president of the Bank for International Settlements, and Emil Puhl, the Reichsbank vice-president.

The National Security Agency, on the day before the report was released, transferred to NARA copies of Army Security Agency intercepts of communications between the Swiss legation in Washington and the Swiss Foreign Ministry in Bern, Switzerland.

Although their records are not federal records, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York sent to NARA two cubic feet of copies of pertinent materials.

During the summer of 1997, the Department of Justice transferred to NARA a major body of Office of Alien Property Trading With the Enemy Act case files. All of the records accessioned were immediately declassified, if this had not already been done, and made available and used by researchers.

Reichsbank Records

Among the most significant bodies of records uncovered have been those of the Reichsbank's Precious Metals Department. These records were greatly sought after during the spring of 1997 by two Federal agencies and other researchers because it was believed these records would document conclusively how much of the looted German gold acquired by the Allies was composed of non-monetary gold, that is gold that came from victims of Nazi persecution, including such things as gold teeth. The records, discovered on April 1, 1997, consisted of some 70 reels of microfilm contained in a small box within a recently accessioned Federal Record Center box of Treasury Department records. There was great excitement. The microfilms, which dated back to 1948 and not accessioned by NARA until November 1996, were not in the best condition. However, NARA reproduced the microfilm and made it available to researchers on April 4, 1998.

The discovery of the records was the subject of two Associated Press stories, and on May 7, 1997, when Under Secretary Eizenstat "rolled out" the Interagency Group's report at the State Department, he had one blown-up page of the records on an easel behind him. Unfortunately, the records were found too late to be used in preparing the report, but they have been used on a regular basis by research teams for the past year. Interestingly, the story does not end at this point, because in 1948 the US Army did not microfilm all of the records. Within a month of the filming, all of the original paper records, both those filmed and not filmed, were turned over to the successor bank, and they have since disappeared. Thus, during the past year there has been a search throughout Europe to locate the original records.
...


| - - - - -

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/bank-of-england/10213988/Never-mind-the-Czech-gold-the-Nazis-stole....html
Never mind the Czech gold the Nazis stole...

The Bank for International Settlements actually financed Hitler’s war machine
By Adam Lebor
8:21PM BST 31 Jul 2013

The documents reveal a shocking story: just six months before Britain went to war with Nazi Germany, the Bank of England willingly handed over £5.6 million worth of gold to Hitler – and it belonged to another country.

The official history of the bank, written in 1950 but posted online for the first time on Tuesday, reveals how we betrayed Czechoslovakia – not just with the infamous Munich agreement of September 1938, which allowed the Nazis to annex the Sudetenland, but also in London, where Montagu Norman, the eccentric but ruthless governor of the Bank of England agreed to surrender gold owned by the National Bank of Czechoslovakia.

The Czechoslovak gold was held in London in a sub-account in the name of the Bank for International Settlements, the Basel-based bank for central banks. When the Nazis marched into Prague in March 1939 they immediately sent armed soldiers to the offices of the National Bank. The Czech directors were ordered, on pain of death, to send two transfer requests.

The first instructed the BIS to transfer 23.1 metric tons of gold from the Czechoslovak BIS account, held at the Bank of England, to the Reichsbank BIS account, also held at Threadneedle Street.

The second order instructed the Bank of England to transfer almost 27 metric tons of gold held in the National Bank of Czechoslovakia’s own name to the BIS’s gold account at the Bank of England.
...

Thanks to Norman and the BIS, Nazi Germany had just looted 23.1 tons of gold without a shot being fired. The second transfer order, for the gold held in the National Bank of Czechoslovakia’s own name, did not go through. Sir John Simon, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, had instructed banks to block all Czechoslovak assets.

The documents released by the Bank of England are revealing, both for what they show and what they omit. They are a window into a world of fearful deference to authority, the primacy of procedure over morality, a world where, for the bankers, the most important thing is to keep the channels of international finance open, no matter what the human cost. A world, in other words, not entirely different to today.

The BIS was founded in 1930, in effect by Montagu Norman and his close friend Hjalmar Schacht, the former president of the Reichsbank, known as the father of the Nazi economic miracle. Schacht even referred to the BIS as “my” bank.
The BIS is a unique hybrid: a commercial bank protected by international treaty. Its assets can never be seized, even in times of war. It pays no taxes on profits. The Czechoslovaks believed that the BIS’s legal immunities would protect them. But they were wrong.

The Bank of England’s historian argued that to refuse the transfer order would have been a breach of Britain’s treaty obligations with regard to the BIS. In fact there was a powerful counter-argument that the Nazi invasion of Czechoslovakia had rendered any such obligations null and void as the country no longer existed.

A key sentence in the Bank of England documents is found on page 1,295. It reads: “The general attitude of the Bank of England directors of the BIS during the war was governed by their anxiety to keep the BIS to play its part in the solution of post-war problems”. And here the secret history of the BIS and its strong relationship with the Bank of England becomes ever more murky.
...'
During the war the BIS proclaimed that it was neutral, a view supported by the Bank of England. In fact the BIS was so entwined with the Nazi economy that it helped keep the Third Reich in business. It carried out foreign exchange deals for the Reichsbank; it accepted looted Nazi gold; it recognised the puppet regimes installed in occupied countries, which, together with the Third Reich, soon controlled the majority of the bank’s shares.

Indeed, the BIS was so useful for the Nazis that Emil Puhl, the vice-president of the Reichsbank and BIS director, referred to the BIS as the Reichsbank’s only “foreign branch”.

The BIS’s reach and connections were vital for Germany. So much so, that all through the war, the Reichsbank continued paying interest on the monies lent by the BIS. This interest was used by the BIS to pay dividends to shareholders – which included the Bank of England. Thus, through the BIS, the Reichsbank was funding the British war economy.

After the war, five BIS directors were tried for war crimes, including Schacht. “They don’t hang bankers,” Schacht supposedly said, and he was right – he was acquitted.


Buried among the typewritten pages of the Bank of England’s history is a name of whom few have ever heard, a man for whom, like Montagu Norman, the primacy of international finance reigned over mere national considerations.

Thomas McKittrick, an American banker, was president of the BIS. When the United States entered the war in December 1941, McKittrick’s position, the history notes, “became difficult”. But McKittrick managed to keep the bank in business, thanks in part to his friend Allen Dulles, the US spymaster based in Berne. McKittrick was an asset of Dulles, known as Codename 644, and frequently passed him information that he had garnered from Emil Puhl, who was a frequent visitor to Basel and often met McKittrick.

Declassified documents in the American intelligence archives reveal an even more disturbing story. Under an intelligence operation known as the “Harvard Plan”, McKittrick was in contact with Nazi industrialists, working towards what the US documents, dated February 1945, describe as a “close cooperation between the Allied and German business world”.

Thus while Allied soldiers were fighting through Europe, McKittrick was cutting deals to keep the Germany economy strong. This was happening with what the US documents describe as “the full assistance” of the State Department.

The Bank of England history also makes disparaging reference to Harry Dexter White, an official in the Treasury Department, who was a close ally of Henry Morgenthau, the Treasury Secretary. Morgenthau and White were the BIS’s most powerful enemies and lobbied hard at Bretton Woods in July 1944, where the Allies met to plan the post-war financial system, for the BIS to be closed. White, the Bank history notes rather sneeringly, had said of the BIS: “There is an American president doing business with the Germans while our boys are fighting the Germans.”

Aided by its powerful friends, such as Montagu Norman, Allen Dulles and much of Wall Street, the BIS survived the attempts by Morgenthau and White to close it down. The bank’s allies used precisely the argument detailed on page 1,295 of the Bank of England’s history: the BIS was needed to plan the post-war European economy.

From the 1950s to the 1990s the BIS hosted much of the planning and technical preparation for the introduction of the euro. Without the BIS the euro would probably not exist. In 1994, Alexander Lamfalussy, the former BIS manager, set up the European Monetary Institute, now known as the European Central Bank.

The BIS remains very profitable. It has only about 140 customers (it refuses to say how many) but made a tax-free profit of about £900 million last year. Every other month it hosts the Global Economy Meetings, where 60 of the most powerful central bankers, including Mark Carney, Governor of the Bank of England, meet. No details of meetings are released, even though the attendees are public servants, charged with managing national economies.
...

| - - - - - -

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montagu_Norman,_1st_Baron_Norman

...
Norman was a close friend of the German Central Bank President Hjalmar Schacht, who was a supporter of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, and served in Hitler's government as President of the Reichsbank and Minister of Economics. As such, Schacht played a key role in implementing the policies attributed to Hitler. Norman was also so close to the Schacht family that he was godfather to one of Schacht's grandchildren.[3] Both were members of the Anglo-German Fellowship and the Bank for International Settlements.

While in the past Norman's role in the transferring of Czech gold to the Nazi regime in March 1939 was uncertain, careful investigation by historian David Blaazer into the Bank of England's internal memos has established that Norman knowingly authorized the transfer of Czech gold from Czechoslovakia's No. 2 account with the Bank of International Settlements to the No. 17 account, which Norman was aware was managed by the German Reichsbank. Within ten days the money had been transferred to other accounts. In the fall of 1939, two months after the outbreak of World War II, Norman again supported transfers of Czech gold to Hitler's Germany. On this occasion His Majesty's Government intervened to block Norman's initiative[4] He retired from the bank in 1944.

Following his retirement, he was raised to the peerage as Baron Norman, of St Clere in the County of Kent, on 13 October 1944.[5] In addition to receiving the Distinguished Service Order, Norman was sworn of the Privy Council in 1923[6] and was created a Grand Officer of the Order of the Crown.[7]

...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #32 on: January 01, 2015, 11:59:17 AM »
More about Swiss spies in WWII and Dulles in Bern:

Interesting that these people controlled the failure of Hitler assassination attempts ... hmmm....

fyi I have yet to have identified the "Swiss citizens for spying for the nazis" you'd think I could find some article or history as to who these people were, if they were  nor have I seen who the 17 "people" thaty were executed by the swiss in wwii (not in wiki) ...   


Quote
http://www.archives.gov/research/holocaust/finding-aid/civilian/rg-84-switzerland.html
...
Switzerland was indeed a major operational center for both Allied and Axis intelligence services. During the war Switzerland was the center of intelligence battles among the Axis and Allies intelligence units.  Swiss counterintelligence arrested 387 spies, mostly Swiss, but including 100 Germans were brought to trial of whom 17 were executed.  Allen Dulles, the OSS Station Chief in Bern, from 1942 to 1945 (with OSS posts at Geneva, Zurich, Basel, and Lugano), British Intelligence operatives, and intelligence sources from many Axis and Allied countries used Switzerland as major place of operations during the war

http://cryptome.org/dirty-work/cia-who-where.htm
...
Switzerland
JUBILAEUMSTRASSE 93 / 3005 Bern /  (031) 43-00-11

CIA personnel have been identified operating under cover in the Embassy in Bern, as well as in the U. S. Mission to the European Office of the United Nations in Geneva and the Consulate General in Zurich.

Switzerland is one of the CIA's most important operational centers because of the many international organizations based in Geneva. Not only does the Agency collect a great deal of information about Third World countries there, but it also has a continual program aimed at recruitment of diplomats to work for the CIA upon returning home.

In addition, the Agency makes use of liberal Swiss banking practices to provide cover for many of its ongoing international financial operations.

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http://blogs.archives.gov/TextMessage/2012/11/09/allen-dulles-and-no-23-herrengasse-bern-switzerland-1942-1945/
Allen Dulles and No. 23 Herrengasse, Bern, Switzerland, 1942-1945

by Guest Blogger on November 9, 2012
Today’s post is written by Dr. Greg Bradsher.

Seventy-years ago, on November 9, 1942, forty-nine year old Allen W. Dulles arrived in Bern, Switzerland to head up the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) operations in Switzerland.  Dulles was lucky to be in Switzerland.  His train passed from Vichy France into Switzerland only minutes before the Germans closed the border.  The Germans had taken this action the same day Allied troops landed in North Africa.

Although OSS Director William Donovan wanted Dulles to work in the OSS London Office, Dulles preferred Switzerland, the only neutral country with a common land frontier with Germany and the best point from which to observe what was going on, not only in Germany, but also in Italy and France.  Donovan agreed and Dulles was attached to the American Legation as a Special Assistant to the Minister. “My real tasks,” Dulles wrote, “however, were to gather information about the Nazi and Fascist enemy and quietly render such support and encouragement as I could to the resistance forces working against the Nazis and Fascists in the areas adjacent to Switzerland which were under the rule of Hitler or Mussolini.”

...
Herrengasse, in the picturesque, medieval section of Bern, near its cathedral, was an arcaded and cobblestoned street ran along the ridge high above the river AareIt was near where he had lived and worked twenty-four years before in the last months of World War I.   “Between my apartment and the river below,” Dulles would later write, “grew vineyards which afforded an ideal covered approach for visitors who did not wish to be seen entering my front door on the Herrengasse. From the terrace above I had an inspiring view of the whole stretch of the Bernese Alps.” The house at 23 Herrengasse was the last house of a row of adjoining townhouses built in the fourteenth century by the Bernese city government to house dignitaries. The street itself ended there in a cul-de-sac, and the land fell sharply away beyond a low wall down to the vineyard terraces that slopped down to the Aare, which made a horseshoe bend around the ancient city walls. 

...


During World War II Dulles conducted much of his intelligence-gathering business at his home.  Because of the constant stream of visitors there was no real secret about Dulles being an intelligence operative or his home was being used for intelligence work.  A circumspect concern for Swiss sensibilities dictated however that he at least seek a headquarters that could claim diplomatic immunity so he established an office at No. 24 Duforstrasse with Gerald Mayer, whose Office of War Information propaganda operation had taken office space on the first floor of the building.

The general knowledge that Dulles was America’s spymaster in Switzerland resulted in him being constantly bombarded by visitors, including refugees, exiles, spies, secret-service agents, diplomats of countries which were either neutral or German satellites, German officials working in Switzerland, and Anti-Nazis.  Many such visitors were legitimate.  But many were not.  According to Hans Bernd Gisevius, Abwehr chief in Switzerland, serving under the cover as Vice-Consul in the German Consulate General in Zurich, who worked with him, Dulles was particularly troubled by the flourishing guild of professional spies, the traders in espionage materials, who would visit German agents in the morning, the British secret service in the afternoon, and the Dulles office on the Herrengasse in the evening, offering to each their carefully prepared and sensational reports.  Dulles listened to most of those who came.  He must have thought back to the time when he had passed up an opportunity to meet with Lenin during his World War I diplomatic service in Bern.

In the summer of 1945 Dulles left his residence at No. 23 Herrengasse, where he had acquired a vast amount of useful intelligence for the Allies during the war, and would take up a position as head of the OSS in Germany. In 1953 he would become Director of Central Intelligence, i.e., head of the Central Intelligence Agency, serving in that position until 1961.
...

| - - - - -

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Bernd_Gisevius

Hans Bernd Gisevius (July 14, 1904 – February 23, 1974) was a German diplomat and intelligence officer during World War II. A strong (but covert) opponent of the Nazi regime, he served as a liaison in Zürich between Allen Dulles, station chief for the American OSS and the German Resistance forces in Germany.[1]
...

When World War II started, Gisevius joined the German intelligence service, the Abwehr, which was headed by Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, who was an opponent of Hitler. Canaris had surrounded himself with Wehrmacht officers opposed to Hitler and he welcomed Gisevius into this group. Working from the consulate in Zurich, Hans Gisevius was involved in secret talks with the Vatican. Canaris arranged for appointment of Gisevius as Vice Consul in Switzerland, where Gisevius met with Allen Dulles in 1943 and agreed to serve as a liaison for the German opposition to Hitler, an assembly which counted among its members General Ludwig Beck, Abwehr Chief Canaris, and Mayor Carl Goerdeler of Leipzig.[4] Several members of the conspiratorial circle against Hitler including Gisevius, "all kept homes within easy walking distance of each other."[5]

According to Gisevius, the original plot to kill Hitler earlier (namely, before the acquiescence of Great Britain over the Sudetenland) was literally derailed by Neville Chamberlain whose actions he claims "saved Hitler."[6]

Upon returning to Germany, he was investigated by the Gestapo, but released. In 1944, after the failed July 20th assassination attempt against Hitler, Gisevius first hid at the home of his future wife, the Swiss national Gerda Woog, and fled to Switzerland in 1945, making him one of the few conspirators to survive the war. There, he contacted the Swiss authorities.

Peter Hoffmann's biography of Hitler assassination conspirator Claus Graf von Stauffenberg ("Stauffenberg, A Family History," 1992) indicates that after the failure of Stauffenberg's bomb plot in July 1944, Gisevius went into hiding until January 23, 1945, when he escaped to Switzerland by using a passport that had belonged to Carl Deichmann, a brother-in-law of German Count Helmuth James von Moltke, who was a specialist in international law serving in the legal branch of the Foreign Countries Group of the OKW (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, "Supreme Command of the Armed Forces").

Through the help of the American Allen Dulles in Berne, Switzerland and of the German Legation (in Berne)'s Georg Federer, the passport was modified and a visa obtained for Gisevius that enabled him to escape to Spain.

Post World War II

Gisevius served as a key witness for the prosecution at the Nuremberg Trials in the case against Hermann Göring, his former boss in the Prussian Ministry of the Interior ...
...

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reference:

https://www.fas.org/irp/agency/army/cic-wwii.pdf
Counter Intelligence Corps History and Mission in World War II

Purpose and Scope. The material in this manual is designed to furnish information on the historical development of the Counter Intelligence Corps. It covers the period from 1917 to 1945, with special emphasis on the war years. An attempt has been made, from the documents available, to describe the history and mission of the Counter Intelligence Corps in the various theaters of operations.

http://lists101.his.com/pipermail/intelforum/2004-December/007912.html
Swiss Intelligence and Allen Dulles
...
With modest means a reliable Intelligence Service was set up shortly before WWII started. At first, Swiss Intelligence had an  annual budget allowance of less than $15,000! This motivated Roger Masson, the head of the Intelligence Service since 1936, to associate private intelligence organizations like Bureau Ha,
named after a Swiss citizen by the name of Hans Hausamann who had extraordinary connections and became a valuable contact and with time a close personal friend of Allen Dulles.

Bureau Ha, for example, had channels leading directly into Hitler's headquarters and knew orders often before they even reached the German commanders. One of Hausamann's most important agents was Rudolf Roessler aka Lucy, who also worked for the Soviet spy ring of Alexander Rado.

Dulles and Hausamann met regularly, normally once a week, in Zurich and exchanged information of mutual interest. Therefore, the OSS had no interest in persuading the Swiss in any way to curtail their own Intelligence Service.

The constantly changing international political-military and strategic situation forced Switzerland to expand their own intelligence gathering but also to set up an efficient Counter-Intelligence Service. Swiss Counter-Intelligence was hyper-alert and effective---so much so, that with time Admiral Canaris, head of the German
Abwehr, decided to stop sending spies to Switzerland because they were all captured rather quickly
and an increasing number were executed by firing squad. For the Axis powers as for the Allies, neutral Switzerland was both interesting as a place to fight against the enemy and for establishing contact with the other side. Allen Dulles, e.g., established close contact with Hans Bernd Gisevius who under diplomatic cover of a German vice-consul in Zurich, was an agent of the Abwehr.
...

https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/Vol49no2/bookshelf_11.htm

...
Pierre Th. Braunschweig. Secret Channel To Berlin: The Masson-Schellenberg Connection and Swiss Intelligence in World War II. Havertown, PA: Casement Publishers, 2004. 521 pages, endnotes, bibliography, photos, index.

In his foreword to Secret Channel To Berlin, Joseph P. Hayes, the first director of the CIA’s Center for the Study of Intelligence, points out that the book is “impressively relevant to many of the most significant issues in Intelligence today.” These include the character of sources recruited and the validation of information collected. Author Pierre Braunschweig echoes this theme in the first sentence of his Preface by quoting former Director of Central Intelligence John McCone: “Every war of this century, including World War II, has started because of inadequate intelligence” (xv). These problems have not yet been solved in the 21st century, but it may be hoped that the new generation of intelligence officers will benefit from the historical lessons revealed in this book.[10]

Secret Channel tells the story of the Masson Affair, the controversial clandestine relationship between two World War II intelligence officers, SS Brigadier General Walter Schellenberg, head of the Nazi Reich Security Central Office (RHSA), and Colonel-Brigadier Roger Masson, head of Swiss military intelligence.

As Masson explained in an unauthorized interview with the London Daily Telegraph after the war, he had met multiple times with Schellenberg to prevent a German invasion and annexation of Switzerland, an operation he said had been authorized by Hitler in 1943. That Masson had met with a subordinate of SS Chief Heinrich Himmler for any reason, even to gain crucial intelligence, did not sit well with many in the Swiss government after the war. Masson’s claim—that Schellenberg opposed Hitler’s order and ultimately convinced him that since Switzerland would fight if invaded but would remain neutral if left alone—was more than many could accept.

The alternative view was that Schellenberg considered the war lost even at that relatively early date and was appearing cooperative while seeking favorable treatment for himself in a country where he might seek refuge when hostilities ended. Sorting all this out after the war involved investigations and harsh criticism of Masson. He did not help matters when he attempted to assist his former contacts—Schellenberg and his deputy—when they were arrested after the war. The idea of “good Nazis” was too much to accept; Masson was forced to resign.

Braunschweig’s post-war investigation of the affair indicates there was more to Masson’s secret channel to Schellenberg than initially became public.

The contacts went on for years, included reciprocal trips to Germany and Switzerland, and were concerned with more than preventing a German invasion of Switzerland. In one instance, the author tells how Allen Dulles, the OSS chief in Bern during the war, learned from a “first rate source”[11] that Masson and other Swiss military intelligence officials were meeting with high-level SS officers in Switzerland (201).

Furthermore, said Dulles’s source, Schellenberg had been critical of the results in his subsequent report to Berlin. Dulles mentioned this to Hans Hausamann, the head of Bureau Ha, a private Swiss intelligence service with links to Masson and other Swiss government officials. When Masson learned the details, he did not “believe for one moment” that Schellenberg had spoken negatively (204). He informed the German minister to Switzerland of the charge and followed up by sending an emissary to Berlin to discuss the matter. In his response, Schellenberg denied making the comments and Braunschweig suggests that the rumors that reached Dulles “might have been part of a plot by the German Abwehr” against the RSHA. Whatever the reality, the events were one of several actions that raised questions about Masson’s judgment and involvement in politics that irritated Swiss politicians. Masson was subsequently banned from travel to Germany.


Similarly, Dulles could not have been pleased that Masson’s mention of the charges to Schellenberg put his source at risk. He would later find other reasons to criticize Masson—his attempts to place Schellenberg in contact with the Allies, for example. In one cable to OSS headquarters, Dulles noted that Swiss intelligence, “again inquired whether I had any interest in making contact with Schellenberg . . .” to discuss the “time-worn idea of opening [the] western front but holding [the] east front. I told Masson [the] west front was already opened up without Schellenberg’s help” (251). Dulles later told Bureau Ha that “there is written evidence from Berlin that . . . Masson has been supplying Berlin with information that is very damaging to the Allies” (262).

After the war, Masson claimed that Schellenberg had performed “services” for Switzerland that justified their continued wartime contacts (248). Braunschweig analyzes these claims and the reciprocal services rendered by Masson to Schellenberg and the Nazis. He also looks at Schellenberg’s real objectives based on evidence developed after the war. His overall assessment is that Masson received less than he gave up and Schellenberg’s so-called contributions to the Swiss were not well substantiated.

The details are complex but thoroughly documented—nearly half the book is devoted to the annotated endnotes, many added or expanded for the English edition. But Masson never changed his view that establishing the contacts was the right thing to do, although he did allow that he might have been deceived somewhat from time to time about Schellenberg’s motives. In the end, Secret Channel gives us an unusual glimpse into Swiss intelligence while documenting what must be the poster-boy case for an officer falling in love with his agent and for what happens when intelligence gets too close to policy.


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http://archive.adl.org/braun/dim_14_1_neutrality_europe.html#.VKWFH7nTmHs
Co-Opting Nazi Germany: Neutrality in Europe During World War II
By Jonathan Petropoulos

It is time for Switzerland, Sweden, Portugal and Spain to acknowledge that there were no truly neutral countries on the European continent during World War II.
It is now time for those four nations to acknowledge that they were part of the Nazis' New Order and that they bear some responsibility for the tragic history of the Thirties and Forties.

...
It must be stressed that in Switzerland -- and in the other neutral continental countries -- there were many who opposed the Third Reich and acted in a humane -- even self-sacrificing -- manner. As noted above, the Swiss did provide sanctuary for some individuals fleeing the Nazis. The Swiss authorities intervened on occasion to prevent business dealings which they knew or suspected to be unlawful. Göring's art dealer, Walter Andreas Hofer, for example, was denied an entry visa in May 1944 (the grounds were not specified -- only that "entrance cannot be granted in view of the present circumstances"33). The Swiss were also determined to thwart spying by Nazi Germany: 17 citizens were executed for passing military secrets to the Reich.34 However, Switzerland served as a Continental base for Allied businessmen and spies. Moreover, Allen Dulles and his colleagues in the Office of Strategic Services could not have operated as effectively as they did in Switzerland without the support of many Swiss nationals. Colonel Max Waibel, for example, helped Dulles innumerable times -- for instance, during the negotiations concerning the German surrender in Italy.35

 It seems clear that even now, many Swiss cannot, in effect, acknowledge the disquieting aspects of their nation's wartime behavior. Consider the recent statement by the Swiss envoy Thomas Borer in December 1996 to the U.S. Congressional Committee on Banking and Financial Services: "The Swiss have a reputation for being no-nonsense people, attached to values of hard work and exacting precision. There lies in our national character a strong preference for realism over fantasy, for compromise rather than ideology. Having said that, however, there has never been any lack of idealism in the land of the Red Cross, the Geneva Conventions, and of the European headquarters of the United Nations. They serve as an acknowledgment of the tolerance and understanding that have long been part of the fabric of Swiss society. Among many other such examples stands the fact that almost a century ago Theodor Herzl convened the first Zionist Congress on Swiss territory, in the city of Basel."36 Implicit in this assertion is the suggestion that Switzerland could not, would not, have acted less than admirably during the war. Another description of Switzerland's sense of its own national identity was provided by the New York Times journalist Roger Cohen: "The neutral state stood in the middle between the globe's conflicting forces. It connoted a certain decency, cold and formal perhaps, but incompatible with the concealment of Nazi plunder or other skullduggery."37 And still another journalist has described Switzerland's conception of itself: "a proud neutral country -- founder of the Red Cross, defender of democratic values, oasis of peace and multiethnic harmony."38

This sense of themselves helps explain why the Swiss have been so stung by the recent denunciations aimed at their country's wartime and postwar activities (criticism involving the latter revolves around the reluctance of Swiss financial institutions to return the assets of Holocaust victims to heirs). For example, Switzerland's recent ambassador to the United States, Carlo Jagmetti, has said, concerning the current scandal over his nation's wartime banking practices: "This is a war which Switzerland must conduct on the foreign and domestic front and must win."39 Besides the anti-Semitic undertones of Ambassador Jagmetti's statement (he was referring to Jews as the opponents in this war), his views evince a reluctance to engage Swiss history in an honest manner.40 Of course, Switzerland is not the only nation with a problematic relation to its past; the reader will not be surprised to learn that Sweden, Spain and Portugal are also afflicted with the same conundrum. The moral ambiguities and divided political loyalties of the past make for histories which are difficult to master. But it is time for Switzerland, Sweden, Portugal and Spain to acknowledge that there were no truly neutral countries on the European continent during World War II. It is now time for those four nations to acknowledge that they were part of the Nazis' New Order and that they bear some responsibility for the tragic history of the Thirties and Forties.
...


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http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?209271-WWII-Two-German-spies-of-Swiss-nationality-shot-on-7th-December-1944
WWII, Two German spies of Swiss nationality shot on 7th December 1944

The Swiss Newspaper "Neue Zürcher Zeitung" had an interesting article today (couldn't find it online) about two Swiss, who were found guilty of spying for Germany and were shot in 1944. The two sources I found were written by Walter Schaufelberger.

 The story begins, when Walter Schaufelberger heard different explanations, why a certain part of field was named Hitler Place. After doing some research, he found documents, affirming claims that spies were executed there. It was a strange twist, that his own father was  Auditor and judicial officer who was the prosecutor in that case. Now 86 years old, he remembers his father being repeatedly pale  and tight-lipped and had never talked with his family about this case.

 "Gradually, I learned, however, that his depression was a result of executions, which he had ex officio attend."

 The case involved two Swiss citizens, Walter L. and Hermann G.

 They were part of the largest German spy ring in Switzerland and were directed from Stuttgart. Their main job was to scout bunker and other military installations as well as ammunition and explosives-factories. They were further interested in companies owned and run by Jews. In the first part of the operation, messengers were used to relay information, later they used radio.

 Both spies were born 1897. Walter L. dropped out of university and had difficulties keeping a steady job. Hermann G. was born in Germany as a Swiss national. He wanted to join the German army, but was rejected. So he joined the Swiss army where he run into problems with the criminal justice. Without a job, he collected welfare. He left the National Front (the Swiss Nazi Party) and joined the Social Democratic Party as a cover. Being unemployed, he voluntary served in the army, preferably in the Swiss large bunkers near Sargans (Festungstruppen).

 Walter L. was not paid for his work, but he was promised some Jewish owned companies, when the Germans took power.

 Hermann G., who had received training in the use of the radio in Stuttgart and was the radio operator, and received periodic payments, totaling about SFr. 30'000.00 during the period of summer 1941 till autumn 1942.

 This huge increase of wealth made the neighbours suspicious. This led to their arrest and to a fast unanimous conviction. The Federal Assembly of Switzerland dismissed the petition of mercy on 7th December 1944 with 181:26 for Walter L. and 204:10 for Hermann G.

 Few hours later, at nightfall, 40 soldiers and two officers led the convicted to a gravel pit, still named Verrätergruber (traitor pit) and shot them.

 The convicted were placed eight meters away of the firing squad, 40 shots were fired, eight shots did not hit.

 Walter Schaufelberger claims that he received written death threats from the SS-Reichssicherheitshauptamt.

 Source: NZZ (Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 23.02.2012, page 17) and
http://www.ktv-sh.ch/Ressourcen/Wanderung-628/Reportage%20628.%20Wanderung.pdf
 in German
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #33 on: January 01, 2015, 01:05:18 PM »
http://leaksource.info/2013/06/14/there-is-an-nsacia-hybrid-agency-that-may-explain-snowdens-involvement-in-sigint-and-humint/
There is an NSA/CIA Hybrid Agency That May Explain Snowden’s Involvement in SIGINT and HUMINT

In Archive, CIA, NSA, Snowden, Surveillance on June 14, 2013 at 3:43 AM
...
Evidence is mounting that Snowden was working for the SCS in Geneva. The Swiss Foreign ministry has confirmed that Snowden was declared by the U.S. State Department as an “attaché” assigned to the mission from March 2007 to February 2009. Snowden’s name would not necessarily appear on the State Department’s diplomatic list because it only specifies “key” foreign service officers and not normally Diplomatic Telecommunications Service personnel, of which Snowden was likely one. In 2009, Snowden left the CIA to work for Dell Computers and thereafter went to work for Booz Allen Hamilton as a contractor for the NSA at “NSA Hawaii,” the Regional security Operations Center located at Kunia on Oahu and which is responsible for eavesdropping on the Asia-Pacific region.

Snowden told The Guardian that he witnessed CIA agents routinely getting a Swiss banker drunk and then encouraging him to drive home. After the banker was arrested for drunk driving, the CIA offered to bail him out of trouble if he became a CIA source.

Snowden’s involvement with the SCS would have also given him access to information on CIA stations, CIA official cover agents assigned to U.S. diplomatic posts like Geneva, and surveillance priorities for NSA, such as those depicted on a Top Secret map contained in a slide on NSA’s BOUNDLESSINFORMANT global electronic surveillance program
...
The SCS is also used to recruit foreign nationals who would be helpful in providing access to government and commercial networks and databases. Chief targets for such recruitment are database managers, systems administrators, and computer security technicians, in other words, people like Snowden. Even Swiss bankers with access to secret accounts would be targeted by the SCS to provide system passwords and remote access techniques to banking networks. The Swiss government has sent a diplomatic note to the U.S. government demanding an explanation of Snowden’s allegations about the recruitment of the Swiss banker. Swiss counter-intelligence is rated among the best in the world.
...

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #34 on: January 01, 2015, 01:39:23 PM »
http://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/swiss-confirm-cia-flights-allegations/5107916
Swiss confirm CIA flights allegations
Apr 5, 2006 - 07:45

The authorities have confirmed claims in a report by Amnesty International (AI) that six suspected CIA flights landed in Switzerland.

The Federal Civil Aviation Office had previously refused to comment on the findings, only reaffirming that four flights were known to have touched down in Geneva.

There have been widespread allegations in the media and by non-governmental organisations that the CIA ;the American intelligence service ;ran secret jails abroad for terror suspects and flew some through European airports in so-called "rendition" flights.

The AI report, "Below the radar: Secret flights to torture and 'disappearance'", which was published on Wednesday, used data from the United States air authorities from 2001-2005 to track the alleged flights in Europe.

It found that three planes used by the CIA landed five times in Geneva and once in Zurich.

On Wednesday these claims were confirmed by the Aviation Office.

...

Repercussions

The CIA affair has had repercussions in Switzerland. In February the Swiss government granted permission for overflights by non-commercial US aircraft until the end of 2006, after receiving requested clarifications concerning CIA planes from Washington.

According to the government, the US authorities stated they had used neither Swiss airports nor Swiss airspace to transport prisoners.

The news came just days after a parliamentary sub-committee cleared the Swiss cabinet of having knowledge of such flights over Swiss airspace.

Only one suspicious case is still being investigated by the Swiss Federal Prosecutor's Office.

The CIA matter is also being investigated Swiss senator Dick Marty, on behalf of the Council of Europe. His interim report in January found European governments probably knew about CIA abductions and the transfer of detainees through European airspace.


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http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/12/international/europe/12cia.html?pagewanted=print&_r=0
January 12, 2006
Swiss Investigate Leak to Paper on C.I.A. Prisons in Eastern Europe

By DOREEN CARVAJAL,
International Herald Tribune
 
PARIS, Jan. 11 - Switzerland is conducting criminal investigations to track down the source of a leak to the Zurich-based newspaper SonntagsBlick of what it reported was a secret document citing clandestine C.I.A. prisons in Eastern Europe.

The Sunday weekly published what it reported was a summary of a fax in November from Egypt's Foreign Ministry to its London embassy that said the United States had held 23 Iraqi and Afghan prisoners at a base in Romania. It also referred to similar detention centers in Bulgaria, Kosovo, Macedonia and Ukraine.

"The Egyptians have sources confirming the presence of secret American prisons," said the document, dated Nov. 15 and written in French to summarize the contents of the fax.

"According to the embassy's own sources, 23 Iraqis and Afghans were interrogated at the Mikhail Kogalniceau base at Constanza, on the Black Sea."

The leaked fax, which the newspaper said was sent by satellite and intercepted by the Swiss Strategic Intelligence Service, was signed by Egypt's foreign minister, Ahmed Aboul Gheit, the report said.
...
The Swiss Army's chief prosecutor opened an investigation of Mr. Grenacher and two of his reporters to determine whether military secrets were exposed and to find the source of the leaks. The Swiss attorney general's office is also investigating the issue, adding another layer to its existing investigation of whether there were C.I.A. flights in Swiss airspace.

Germany and Denmark are also examining accusations that the agency used their airspace to transport terrorism suspects.

The United States has acknowledged flights but not the existence of prisons. A C.I.A. spokeswoman declined to comment on the report in the newspaper.

Conceivably, the journalists could face five years in prison for revealing military secrets, although no one prosecuted under the law has ever served any prison time, the authorities said.

Martin Immenhauser, a spokesman for the military prosecutor, said of the document: "Nobody has told us that it's not authentic. I think you can say that it's 99 percent certain that it's authentic."
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #35 on: January 01, 2015, 02:39:02 PM »
http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/02/11/what-cold-war-cia-interrogators-learned-from-the-nazis.html
What Cold War CIA Interrogators Learned from the Nazis
...

As the Cold War progressed, the program expanded and got stranger still. In 1948, Operation Paperclip’s Brigadier General Charles E. Loucks, Chief of U.S. Chemical Warfare Plans in Europe, was working with Hitler’s former chemists when one of the scientists, Nobel Prize winner Richard Kuhn, shared with General Loucks information about a drug with military potential being developed by Swiss chemists. This drug, a hallucinogen, had astounding potential properties if successfully weaponized.

In documents recently discovered at the U.S. Army Heritage Center in Pennsylvania, Loucks quickly became enamored with the idea that this drug could be used on the battlefield to “incapacitate not kill.” The drug was Lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD.


It did not take long for the CIA to become interested and involved. Perhaps LSD could also be used for off-the-battlefield purposes, a means through which human behavior could be manipulated and controlled. In an offshoot of Operation Paperclip, the CIA teamed up with Army, Air Force and Naval Intelligence to run one of the most nefarious, classified, enhanced interrogation programs of the Cold War. The work took place inside a clandestine facility in the American zone of occupied Germany, called Camp King. The facility’s chief medical doctor was Operation Paperclip’s Dr. Walter Schreiber, the former Surgeon General of the Third Reich. When Dr. Schreiber was secretly brought to America—to work for the U.S. Air Force in Texas—his position was filled with another Paperclip asset, Dr. Kurt Blome, the former Deputy Surgeon General of the Third Reich and the man in charge of the Nazi’s program to weaponize bubonic plague. The activities that went on at Camp King between 1946 and the late 1950s have never been fully accounted for by either the Department of Defense or the CIA.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Hofmann

Albert Hofmann (January 11, 1906 – April 29, 2008)[1][2] was a Swiss scientist known best for being the first person to synthesize, ingest, and learn of the psychedelic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Hofmann was also the first person to isolate, synthesize, and name the principal psychedelic mushroom compounds psilocybin and psilocin.[3]
...
Hofmann became an employee of the pharmaceutical-chemical department of Sandoz Laboratories (now a subsidiary of Novartis), located in Basel as a co-worker with professor Arthur Stoll, founder and director of the pharmaceutical department.[7] He began studying the medicinal plant squill and the fungus ergot as part of a program to purify and synthesize active constituents for use as pharmaceuticals.
...

http://www.businesspundit.com/10-global-businesses-that-worked-with-the-nazis/
10 Global Businesses that Worked With the Nazis

...
4. Novartis

Bayer, though notorious for its origins as a sub-division of the manufacturer that made the Zyklon B gas used in the Nazi gas chambers, isn’t the only pharmaceutical company with skeletons in its closet. The Swiss chemical companies Ciba and Sandoz merged to form Novartis, most famous for its drug, Ritalin.

In 1933, Ciba’s Berlin branch fired all of the Jewish members of its board of directors and replaced them with more “acceptable” Aryan personnel; meanwhile, Sandoz was busy doing the same with its chairman.

The companies manufactured
dyes, drugs and chemicals for the Nazis during the war. Novartis has owned up to its culpability and tried to make amends in the manner of other complicit firms by contributing $15 million towards a Swiss fund for compensation to the victims of the Nazis.

...

| - - - - - -

http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/ciencia_industryweapons13.htm
...

The CIA drug story begins in 1943, when the organization was still known as the OSS. A Dr. Albert Hoffmann was experimenting in the Sandoz Laboratories in Switzerland (Sandoz was then controlled by the Warburg family). Although Sandoz has been manufacturing a substance known as LSD, or lysergic acid, since 1938, it had only been used in experiments with monkeys.

A later form of this substance, LSD-25, produced amazing psychotropic effects, as Dr. Hoffmann accidentally discovered, when he absorbed a small quantity of rye fungus, the base for the drug, while he was working. This happened during August of 1943, at the height of the Second World War.

Dr. Hoffmann later reported,

"There surged upon me an uninterrupted stream of fantastic images of extraordinary plasticity and vividness and accompanied by an intense kaleidoscopic-like play of colors ... I thought I was dying or going crazy." 

This was the first "trip," the precursor of millions of such experiences by drug cultists. By 1958, Dr. Hoffmann had expanded his interests to Mexican mushrooms and mescaline, both of which then became very popular among leading bankers in New York, and among prominent Hollywood personalities.

 At the time of the discovery of LSD, Allen Dulles was posted in Switzerland, as though by precognition. It was under his leadership that the CIA became transformed into the foremost operation of Dope, Inc. He was then engaged in various activities with officials of the Nazi regime. To this day, no one has been able to ascertain whether he was trying to preserve the Hitler regime, or to overthrow it.

 
The most likely assumption is that he was trying to preserve it to a point, lest the war end too soon for the profit-minded munitions makers, but at the same time to prevent any sort of victorious ending for his Nazi cohorts. The notes of Gotterdammerung had already been sounded. Dulles' association with the Hitler regime went back to a fateful meeting in Cologne in 1933, when he and his brother, John Foster Dulles, assured Hitler the money would be forthcoming to guarantee the fruition of his goals as he had set them forth in "Mein Kampf."

 
Allen Dulles later became a director of the Schroder Bank, which handled Hitler's personal bank account. Interestingly, enough, no one has ever been able to trace one cent of Hitler's considerable personal fortune, which he had received from the sale of his books and other income. Unlike his opponent, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Hitler had no trust fund from his mother (the proceeds from the China opium trade).

Dulles, as an international spymaster, would probably have been aware of Dr. Hoffmann's experiments. After he had returned to the United States and became director of the newly created CIA, Dulles ordered 10 kg of LSD from Sandoz, the stated purpose being "for use in drug experiments with animals and human beings.

As there are some 10,000 doses per gram, this meant that Dulles ordered one hundred million doses of LSD. Meanwhile, a Dr. Timothy Leary had been hired by the National Institute of Health to experiment with psychedelic drugs, including LSD. Leary had already been forced to resign from West Point, and was later fired from the faculty at Harvard, perhaps the only person who could say this.

Leary's NIH study was financed by a grant from the Uris Foundation of New York City. It continued from 1953 to 1956, when it was moved to the U.S. Public Health Service, the experiments going on until 1958, and also at HEW from 1956 to 1963. A CIA Memo dated November 1, 1963 featured glowing accounts of the work of Dr. Leary and his associate, Dr. Richard Alpert (who also was later fired from the staff at Harvard).

They invented the turn on, tune in, drop out movement which incapacitated the youth of America for an entire generation. The movement, in which the CIA always had a proprietary interest, was given academic status when it was launched from the ivy-covered halls of Harvard by Leary and his group.

After their forced departure from Harvard, they were ensconced in a million dollar estate in New York by the wealthy Mellon heir, Tommy Hitchcock. Their movement swept over the campuses of American universities and destroyed the educational opportunities for thousands of American youths.
 

A later governmental investigation of the CIA, which was chaired, naturally enough, by Nelson Rockefeller, made this comment in its Rockefeller Report to the President on CIA activities,

"Beginning in the late 1940s, the CIA began to study the properties of certain behavior-influencing drugs ... all the records concerning the program were ordered destroyed in 1973, including a total of 152 separate files. CIA also contracted with the then Bureau of Narcotics to have mind-influencing drugs given to unwitting subjects in 'normal life-settings.' "

The above referred to several unfortunate incidents, in which CIA employees, who had been given doses of LSD without their knowledge, committed suicide under its malign influence.

The families of these victims learned many years later of the true circumstances of these "suicides" and successfully sued the government to obtain financial settlements.
...


| - -- -

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 65


SCOPOLAMINE STABLE, Roche. — Scopomannit. — An aqueous solution of pure scopolamine hydrobromide, protected against decomposition by the addition of 10 per cent, of mannite, supplied in ampules, each containing 1.2 c.c. (1 c.c. contains 0.0003 gm. scopolamine hydrobromide).

Actions, Uses and Dosage.—The same as Scopolaminae hydrobromidum, U. S. P. (See Useful Drugs or Physician's Manual of the U. S. P. and N. F.).

Manufactured by F. Hoffmann-LaRoche and Co., Basel, Switzerland (The Hoffmann-LaRoche Chemical Works, New York). No U. S. patent. German patent No. 266,415. U. S. trademarks Nos. 103,288 and 103,289.

Scopolamine stable, Roche, is prepared from freshly manufactured scopolamine hydrobromide having an optical activity of — 26.0° for the sodium line (determined in an aqueous solution containing the equivalent of 4.5 Gm. of anhydrous scopolamin hydrobromide in 100 Cc. at a temperature of 15 C. in a 100 millimeter tube) and a melting point of 195 C. by dissolving in an aqueous 10 per cent, solution of mannite.

That scopolamine stable, Roche, contains all of its scopolamine in an un-decomposed state may be determined by comparing its action with that of a freshly prepared solution of scopolamine hydrobromide. For this purpose the manufacturers recommend the method of Lunger, in which the frog heart is stopped by muscarine, or, better, by pilocarpine, and the systolic heat is reestablished by the addition of scopolamine, which is antagonistic to both muscarine and pilocarpine.

http://www.menstuff.org/issues/byissue/daterape.html
...

Hailed in a recent Vice documentary as 'the world's scariest drug,' scopolamine is tasteless, odourless and has a reputation for being something of a 'zombie' drug -- meaning victims are still very much active while they're on it, remembering precious little of those activities the next day.

In 2012, there were nearly 1,200 cases of scopolamine and other 'zombie' drugs being used on unsuspecting targets, GlobalPost reports. Among the victims? Well-known politicians, foreign embassy staff and average Colombian citizens.

“They go out to party and then wake up two or three days later on a park bench,” Maria Fernanda Villota, a nurse at San Jose University Hospital in Bogota, told GlobalPost.

The hospital, she says, receives several scopolamine victims every week. “They arrive here without their belongings or their money
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #36 on: January 01, 2015, 08:26:13 PM »


http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/31/news/31iht-swiss_ed3_.html
New Studies Detail Swiss Ties With Hitler's Germany
By Elizabeth Olson
Published: August 31, 2001

Some of the Switzerland's largest companies, including Nestle, ignored reports of Nazi atrocities and pursued business-as-usual with neighboring Germany, according to the reports that were issued Thursday as part of a five-year examination of Switzerland's actions in World War II.

The studies showed that although most Swiss citizens were unaware of the ties, the political and business arrangements with Hitler's regime helped the Nazi war effort.
...

One of the studies issued Thursday delved into corporate archives from the prewar years, which found that some large Swiss firms had cooperated with Hitler's regime in order to win contracts.

"The protagonists from the private sector were quite evidently concerned first and foremost with business results," said Mr. Bergier, who chairs the commission.

In addition, the Swiss government ignored official neutrality when it gave Germany and Italy credits to buy Swiss-made machinery and weapons, the commission found. This was a kind of "toll" by the Axis powers, said Stefan Frech, a historian and one of the studies' authors.

Among the 100 companies examined were the Basel-based chemical companies Ciba and Sandoz, which have since merged to form Novartis, and Hoffmann-LaRoche, now known as Roche Holding. The researchers found that, for example, Ciba's branch in Berlin let go its Jewish board of directors and replaced them with "Aryan" Germans in 1933.

During the prewar years, some Swiss companies had chemical and pharmaceuticals factories in Germany. One of the commission reports focused on forced labor, concluding that Roche and other companies used such labor at their German sites.

In response, Roche officials said the drugmaker did not use Jewish laborers or those from concentration camps, but mostly people from Eastern Europe.
...

http://www.gene.com/media/press-releases/12007/2009-03-26/roche-completes-acquisition-of-genentech
Roche Completes Acquisition of Genentech

Basel, Switzerland and South San Francisco, California -- March 26, 2009 -- 

Roche (SWX: ROG.VX; RO.S, OTCQX: RHHBY) and Genentech (NYSE: DNA) announced today that Roche has completed its acquisition of Genentech pursuant to a short-form merger in which Genentech became a wholly-owned member of the Roche Group. Roche had announced earlier in the day the successful completion of its tender offer, which expired on Wednesday, March 25. In connection with the merger, all remaining public shareholders will, subject to appraisal rights, receive $95.00 per share for their shares.

Genentech's common stock will no longer be traded on the New York Stock Exchange after Thursday, March 26.

About Roche

Headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, Roche is one of the world's leading research-focused healthcare groups in the fields of pharmaceuticals and diagnostics. As the world's biggest biotech company and an innovator of products and services for the early detection, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, the Group contributes on a broad range of fronts to improving people's health and quality of life. Roche is the world leader in in-vitro diagnostics and drugs for cancer and transplantation, and is a market leader in virology. It is also active in other major therapeutic areas such as autoimmune diseases, inflammatory and metabolic disorders and diseases of the central nervous system. In 2008 sales by the Pharmaceuticals Division totaled 36.0 billion Swiss francs, and the Diagnostics Division posted sales of 9.7 billion francs. Roche has R&D agreements and strategic alliances with numerous partners, including majority ownership interest in Chugai, and invested nearly 9 billion Swiss francs in R&D in 2008. Worldwide, the Group employs about 80,000 people. Additional information is available on the Internet at www.roche.com.

About Genentech

Founded more than 30 years ago, Genentech is a leading biotechnology company that discovers, develops, listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol DNAmanufactures and commercializes medicines to treat patients with significant unmet medical needs. The company has headquarters in South San Francisco, California and is .. For additional information about the company, please visit www.gene.com.

| - - - -

http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/prescription/rohypnol.html

Rohypnol is a tranquilizer about ten times more potent than Valium. The drug is available as a white or olive-green pill and is usually sold in the manufacturer’s bubble packaging. Users crush the pills and snort the powder, sprinkle it on marijuana and smoke it, dissolve it in a drink or inject it.

ROHYPNOL EFFECTS

Rohypnol has been used to commit sexual assaults because it renders the victim incapable of resisting, giving it the reputation of a “date-rape” drug.

Rohypnol users often describe its effects as “paralyzing.” The effects start twenty to thirty minutes after taking the drug, peak within two hours and may persist for eight or even twelve hours. A person can be so incapacitated (made unable to act) they collapse. They lie on the floor, eyes open, able to observe events but completely unable to move. Afterwards, memory is impaired and they cannot recall any of what happened.

The person experiences loss of muscle control, confusion, drowsiness and amnesia.

Rohypnol is sold in Europe and Latin America as a sleeping pill, but it is illegal in the United States.

| - - -
http://www.drugs.com/international/rohypnol-roche.html

Flunitrazepam is reported as an ingredient of Rohypnol Roche in the following countries:
•Austria

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flunitrazepam
...
It was developed by a team led by Leo Sternbach at Hoffman La-Roche in produced the common precursors to 1,4-benzophenones in 1963.[3] A series of tests showed that an N-methyl & '2F-fluoro produced the most potent hypnotic of the series that started with an earlier Sternbach invention, Nitrazepam.


http://www.haaretz.com/news/features/this-day-in-jewish-history/.premium-1.617935
This Day in Jewish History / Death of chemist who discovered Valium

Leo Sternbach helped turn Hoffman-La Roche into a big pharma, with 230 product patents, most famously Valium, the most prescribed drug in the U.S. in the 1970s.

 By David B. Green    |  Sep. 28, 2014 | 1:34 AM
...

After working in Vienna and then, beginning in 1937, in Zurich at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Sternbach moved in 1940 to Basel, where he was employed by Hoffman-La Roche. The following year, fearful of a possible invasion by Hitler’s Germany, the company arranged to transfer Sternbach and other Jewish scientists in its employ to its offices in the United States. 

[ Now think of all the Jews that were kept in Germany for thye death camps ... How did they arrange these visa's for the Swiss Roche chemists?   Special people, special privileges ...]


Sternbach and his wife, the former Herta Kreuzer (who was not Jewish), arrived in Jersey City, New Jersey, in June 1940, and he began working at the Roche laboratory in Nutley, N.J. In his early years at Roche, Sternbach discovered a way to synthesize biotin – also known as vitamin H – which is important for strengthening nails and hair, and he worked on anaesthetics for bloodless surgery.
...
Sternbach decided to revisit a class of compounds he had first experimented with 20 years earlier while doing postdoctoral work in Poland. Though his goal then had been to synthesize certain dyes, he had a hunch regarding a formula he had studied at the time.

After testing 40 new variations on that compound, and finding them all pharmacologically inert, he was instructed to put the project aside and begin work on antibiotics. But when a clean-up of the lab revealed one more compound that had not been evaluated, he had it sent off for testing. The report he received back from Roche’s head of testing declared the substance had “hypnotic, sedative, and anti-strychnine effects in mice similar to meprobamate” (the chemical moniker of Miltown).

This formed the basis of the benzodiazepines – a class of nonsedating, antianxiety drugs that Roche first introduced in 1960, in the form of Librium, and then in improved form three years later as Valium.

Valium was the most prescribed drug in the United States in the years 1969-1982. At its peak, in 1978, some 2.3 billion doses of Valium were sold. Along with being short on side effects, Valium is also nontoxic, so taken alone it could not cause a fatal overdose. It is, however, addictive.

Hoffman-La Roche paid Sternbach $1 for the patent, and also a bonus of $10,000, as it did in cases of blockbuster drugs, and he was happy to continue working there for the rest of his career, as director of chemistry, and even after his retirement as a consultant, until shortly before his death.

Late in life, Sternbach told reporters that he had always tried out his drugs on himself, and that Valium had had the effect of making him drowsy, so that, “my wife doesn’t let me take it.” His drug of choice, he said, was blended Scotch.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #37 on: January 02, 2015, 02:26:18 PM »
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XqhthJzqJAo
The Elite Swiss Boarding School - World's Most Powerful People Send Their Kids
why isn't THE NAME OF THE SCHOOL listed in the title or in the video at any place?  Thumbs down.




http://www.forbes.com/2007/12/12/europe-boarding-schools-biz-cx_vr_1212boarding.html
Europe's Most Expensive Boarding Schools

...

No. 1: Le Rosey, Château de Rosey in Rolle, Switzerland. Dubbed the “school of kings” for the number of royals who have attended, Le Rosey is, at 50,000 euros ($73,150) a year, also the world’s most expensive international school. Apart from getting a chance to rub shoulders with Rothschilds and Borgheses, there’s a lakeside château on 28 acres, 10 tennis courts, a Jacuzzi, a sauna and steam rooms, and a sailing center. The school moves to a separate winter campus between January and March.

College Alpin Beau Soleil, Villars-sur-Ollon, Switzerland, ranks close behind in the tuition race, at 48,000 euros ($70,220). An international boarding school in the mountains near Geneva, with views of the Rhone Valley, the school features a restaurant on the ski slopes, a performing arts center and a riding center.

“I think people are partly attracted by the beauty of the country and all the outdoor possibilities it offers, in a safe environment,” Sarah Frei, marketing director of the Swiss school Brillantmont (No. 5 on the list), says of the country. “As we are located in the heart of Europe, students can go on weekend trips to Paris or Rome.”
\| - - - -

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_alumni_of_Institut_Le_Rosey
Notable Roseans[edit]

Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran
Aga Khan IV, spiritual leader of Ismaili Muslims
Baudouin of Belgium, King of the Belgians
Juan Carlos I of Spain, former King of Spain
Richard Helms, Director of the CIA (1966-1973)


Jose Ferrer, Academy Award-winning actor, uncle of George Clooney
Firouz Nosrat-ed-Dowleh III, Prince of Qajar Dynasty (1889-1937) [2]
Aga Khan IV, the Aga Khan (born 1936), Imām of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims[3]
Princess Zahra Aga Khan (born 1970), eldest child of the Aga Khan[4]
King Albert II of Belgium (born 1934)[5]

Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia (born 1945), claimant to the Serbian Throne[6]
Sir Thomas Arnold (born 1947), British politician, retired Member of Parliament[7]
Tae Ashida (born 1964), Japanese fashion designer[8]
King Baudouin I of Belgium (1930–1993)[9]
Bijan (1944–2011), Iranian-American fashion designer[10]
Borghese family members, of the Italian noble House of Borghese[11]
Garech Browne (born 1939), member of the Guinness brewing family and patron of Irish Arts[12]
Arpad Busson (born 1963), Swiss financier[13]
Ian Campbell, 12th Duke of Argyll (1937–2001), Clan Chief of the Clan Campbell[14]

John Casablancas (born 1942), founder of Elite Model Management[15]
Julian Casablancas (born 1978), musician, band member of The Strokes[16]
David Cecil, 6th Marquess of Exeter (previously Lord Burghley), winner of the 400m hurdles at the 1928 Summer Olympics[17]ll[18]
Joe Dassin (1938-1980), French-American singer and composer
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent (born 1935), member of the British Royal Family and President of the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club[19]
Benno Elkan (1877–1960), German-born British sculptor, one of the first Roseans[20]
Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice and Piedmont (born 1972), of the Italian House of Savoy[21]
Ghida Fakhry (born 1970), Washington, D.C. co-anchor of Al Jazeera English[22]
Dodi Al-Fayed (1955–1997), movie producer, romantically linked to Diana, Princess of Wales, died in a car accident together in Paris[23]
Francesca von Habsburg (born 1958), art collector and the wife of Karl Habsburg-Lothringen
José Ferrer (1909–1992), Academy Award-winning actor[24]
King Fuad II of Egypt (born 1952), the last King of Egypt[25]
Alexandra von Fürstenberg (born 1972), former daughter-in-law of fashion designer Diane von Fürstenberg and one of the Miller Sisters
Prince Egon von Fürstenberg (1946–2004), fashion designer, of the House of Fürstenberg[26]
Pia Getty (born 1966), socialite, one of the Miller Sisters[27]
Toulo de Graffenried, Baron de Graffenried (1914–2007), Swiss motor racing driver[28]
Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg (born 1981)[29]
Albert Hammond, Jr. (born 1980), singer, musician, band member of The Strokes[30]
Juliet Hartford daughter of Huntington Hartford owner of Paradise Island and A&P supermarket Heiress
H. John Heinz III (1938–1991), United States Senator, married to Teresa Heinz[31]
Richard Helms (1913–2002), Director of Central Intelligence and United States Ambassador to Iran[32]

Hermon Hermon-Hodge, 3rd Baron Wyfold (1915–1999), member of the British House of Lords[33]
Hohenzollern family members, of the Prussian royal House of Hohenzollern[34]
John Caldwell Holt (1923–1985), American author and educator, pioneer in youth rights theory[35]
Sir Alistair Horne (born 1925), British historian, biographer[36]
J.B. Jackson (1909–1996), French-born American writer, landscape designer[37]
King Juan Carlos I of Spain (born 1938)[38]
Sir Michael Kadoorie (born 1941), Hong Kong business magnate[39]
Rhonda Ross Kendrick (born 1971), actress, daughter of Diana Ross[40]
Adnan Khashoggi family, the children of Saudi arms dealer Adnan Khashoggi[41]
Michael Korda (born 1933), writer, former Editor-in-Chief of Simon & Schuster[42]
James Laughlin (1914–1997), American poet and book publisher[43]
Sean Taro Ono Lennon (born 1975), musician, son of John Lennon and Yoko Ono[44]
Warner LeRoy (1935–2001), owner of Tavern on the Green and the Russian Tea Room[45]
Marie-Chantal, Crown Princess of Greece (born 1968), member of the Greek Royal Family and one of the Miller Sisters[46]
Molson family members, of the Molson Breweries Canada family[47]
Leona Naess (born 1974), British singer-songwriter[48]
Stavros Niarchos family, the children of Greek shipping magnate Stavros Niarchos[49]
Nicholas Negroponte (born 1943), founder and Chairman Emeritus of the MIT Media Lab[50]
Álvaro Noboa (born 1950), Ecuadorian businessman, candidate for the Ecuadorian Presidency[51]
King Ntare V of Burundi (1947–1972), the last King of Burundi[52]
Justine Kasa-Vubu, politician, daughter of former President of the DRC, Joseph Kasa-Vubu[53]
Ali Reza Pahlavi I (1922–1954), brother of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavī[54]
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavī (1919–1980), the last Shah of Iran[55]
Pahlavī family members, of the Pahlavī dynasty of the Persian Empire[56]
Prince Rainier III of Monaco (1923–2005)[57]
Andrea di Robilant, Italian fiction writer[58]
Winthrop Paul Rockefeller (1948–2006), Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas, member of the Rockefeller Family[59]
Alexis von Rosenberg, Baron de Rédé (1922–2004), art collector, socialite[60]
Tracee Ellis Ross (born 1972), actress, daughter of Diana Ross[61]
Rothschild family members, of the banking and finance dynasty[62]
Robin Russell, 14th Duke of Bedford (1940–2003)[63]
Tatiana Santo Domingo (born 1983), Brazilian and Colombian socialite and heiress.[64]
Olympia Scarry (born 1983), Installation Artist, Socialite and granddaughter of Richard Scarry.[65]
David Verney, 21st Baron Willoughby de Broke, UKIP peer
Taittinger family members, French champagne producers[66]
Mayuko Takata (born 1971), Japanese actress, Iron Chef judge[67]
Elizabeth Taylor family, the children of Elizabeth Taylor and Michael Wilding[68]
Irving Thalberg Jr. (1930–1987), American philosopher, son of Irving Thalberg and Norma Shearer[69]
Harold Tittman III, American diplomat and author[70]
Tad Szulc (1926–2001), non-fiction writer, New York Times Correspondent[71]
David Verney, 21st Baron Willoughby de Broke (born 1938), member of the British House of Lords[72]
Thady Wyndham-Quin, 7th Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl, Irish peer[73]
Adam Zamoyski
Fardad Fateri (born 1964) American business executive and CEO
Matthew de Unger Brown (born 1984) Convicted Fraudster and Arms Broker [74]

http://pocho.com/pnshotflash-classmates-say-kim-jong-un-a-fun-dude/


North Korean strongman Kim Jong Un is actually “a fun dude,” according to his classmates at the elite Swiss prep school Institut Le Rosey.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #38 on: January 02, 2015, 05:18:06 PM »
http://www.healthcare.basel.bayer.com/en/company/about-us/


About us
Bayer Consumer Care AG (BCC AG), located in Basel, Switzerland, is an international Bayer Healthcare company with around 500 employees from 50 countries, with a 50/50 split between genders.

Bayer Consumer Care AG was founded in 2005, upon the completion of its acquisition of Roche Consumer Health. Basel hosts the worldwide Consumer Care headquarters – together with Whippany (NJ), USA.

Also located in Basel is the global steering of the Diabetes Care business and the Pharma hub for Oncology and Ophthalmology.

https://career.bayer.ch/en/
Check out our Video Center and learn more about all of the cool things you could be part of if you choose an opportunity at Bayer .

Working in Switzerland? We give you some insights in everything you need to know about entry, residence and employment.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Target Switzerland
« Reply #39 on: January 02, 2015, 05:35:21 PM »
http://pamelageller.com/2010/01/oh-what-an-enormous-slaughterhouse-the-world-is.html/



During an interview conducted in the late 1930s (published in 1939), Carl Jung, the Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychiatry, was asked “…had he any views on what was likely to be the next step in religious development?” Jung said:


We do not know whether Hitler is going to found a new Islam. He is already on the way; he is like Muhammad. The emotion in Germany is Islamic; warlike and Islamic. They are all drunk with wild god. That can be the historic future.
(hat tip Al via Andrew Bostom)
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5