Ebolavirus - Just the Facts

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Ebolavirus - Just the Facts
« on: October 20, 2014, 02:59:35 PM »

This thread is for facts only. ANY posts not related to a documented fact might be marked by strike through or simply deleted. If you are going to reply please try to keep it short and simple and factual. This is not a thread for opinions. Opinions may be deleted. This is not a thread for theories. Theories may be deleted. This thread is an experiment in disipline and focus. Let's try and stay focused. Trust me we can spread plenty of truth with just the facts.


That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons of history.
~Aldous Huxley

He who has a why to live can bear almost any how. - ~Friedrich Nietzsche

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Re: Ebolavirus - Just the Facts
« Reply #1 on: October 20, 2014, 02:59:48 PM »

INTRODUCTION

Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a disease caused by one of five different Ebola viruses.

Four of the strains can cause severe illness in humans and animals. The fifth, Reston virus, has caused illness in some animals, but not in humans.

Ebola is extremely infectious but not extremely contagious. It is infectious, because an infinitesimally small amount can cause illness. Laboratory experiments on nonhuman primates suggest that even a single virus may be enough to trigger a fatal infection.

http://www.nbc-2.com/story/26782160/ebola-fact-sheet-statistics-and-timeline#.VEVXExYfhlM

Ebola virus disease - Fact sheet N°103 - Updated September 2014
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/



REQUIRED READING

Ebola and Marburg virus disease epidemics: preparedness, alert, control, and evaluation
Interim manual version 1.2
World Health Organization

Page Link > http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/ebola/manual_EVD/en/

Document Link > http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/130160/1/WHO_HSE_PED_CED_2014.05_eng.pdf?ua=1&ua=1


That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons of history.
~Aldous Huxley

He who has a why to live can bear almost any how. - ~Friedrich Nietzsche

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Re: Ebolavirus - Just the Facts
« Reply #2 on: October 20, 2014, 03:02:03 PM »
FACT 1

Ebola virus disease in humans is caused by four of five viruses in the genus Ebolavirus.

The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV),
Sudan virus (SUDV),
Taï Forest virus (TAFV), and one called, simply,
Ebola virus (EBOV, formerly Zaire Ebola virus).

Ebola virus is the only member of the Zaire ebolavirus species and the most dangerous of the known EVD-causing viruses, as well as being responsible for the largest number of outbreaks.

The fifth virus, Reston virus (RESTV), is not thought to cause disease in humans, but has caused disease in other primates.

These five viruses are closely related to marburgviruses.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola_virus_disease


That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons of history.
~Aldous Huxley

He who has a why to live can bear almost any how. - ~Friedrich Nietzsche

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Re: Ebolavirus - Just the Facts
« Reply #3 on: October 20, 2014, 03:04:48 PM »
FACT 2

Local traditions around burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased person can also play a role in the transmission of Ebola.


"One way that Ebola is transmitted is through direct contact with an infected person. This most often occurs at a burial ceremony where mourners touch recently deceased victims."
http://ebola.emedtv.com/ebola/transmission-of-ebola.html


That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons of history.
~Aldous Huxley

He who has a why to live can bear almost any how. - ~Friedrich Nietzsche

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Re: Ebolavirus - Just the Facts
« Reply #4 on: October 20, 2014, 03:06:42 PM »
FACT 3

People remain infectious as long as their blood and body fluids, including semen and breast milk, contain the virus.

Men who have recovered from the disease can still transmit the virus through their semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery from illness.


That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons of history.
~Aldous Huxley

He who has a why to live can bear almost any how. - ~Friedrich Nietzsche

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Re: Ebolavirus - Just the Facts
« Reply #5 on: October 20, 2014, 03:10:04 PM »
FACT 4

On very rare occasions, accidental inoculation with Ebola or Marburg has occurred
among persons working in maximum containment biosafety laboratories in
industrialized countries. In 2009 in Germany, a scientist accidentally pricked herself with
a needle contaminated with the Ebola virus. In less than 48 hours, an experimental
recombinant vaccine developed in Canada was made available for post-exposure
treatment. This was the first human use of the vaccine. The decision to use the vaccine
was taken following consultations among German and Canadian experts. Since 2007,
scientists have shown that the vaccine was highly effective for post-exposure protection
of experimentally infected primates. The scientist survived, but it is unclear whether this
was due to the vaccine treatment or if she was never infected through the needlestick.

Efforts to provide the German scientist with a greater chance of surviving possible
infection with a deadly agent like Ebola are commendable and justified.
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/130160/1/WHO_HSE_PED_CED_2014.05_eng.pdf?ua=1&ua=1


That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons of history.
~Aldous Huxley

He who has a why to live can bear almost any how. - ~Friedrich Nietzsche

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Re: Ebolavirus - Just the Facts
« Reply #6 on: October 21, 2014, 05:11:41 AM »
FACT 5

Reston virus (abbreviated RESTV) was first described in 1990 as a new "strain" of Ebola virus (EBOV), a result of mutation from Ebola virus. It is the single member of the species Reston ebolavirus, which is included into the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Reston virus is named after Reston, Virginia, US, where the virus was first discovered.

RESTV was discovered in crab-eating macaques from Hazleton Laboratories (now Covance) in 1989. This attracted significant media attention due to the proximity of Reston to the Washington, DC, metro area and the lethality of a closely related Ebola virus. Despite its status as a level-4 organism, Reston virus is non-pathogenic to humans, though hazardous to monkeys; the perception of its lethality was compounded by the monkey's coinfection with Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reston_virus

Airborne Ebola: A Flight of Fancy
Many mentions in the media in the last few weeks, including the NYT and CIDRAP articles have further fueled the debate with references to a 2012 Canadian pig study and the Hot Zone, the well-known dramatized account of the Reston Virginia Ebola epizootic. And regardless of how eloquently Ebola experts refute the claims with solid evidence, it continues to smolder in all forms of internet publications and social media.

Some argue vehemently that the Hot Zone clearly tells us that Ebola Reston was airborne, and that the 2012 pig study clearly showed that transmission of Ebola Zaire from pigs to monkeys was airborne as well...

...there are scientific studies published on the Reston incident, one of which discusses the transmission routes that were suspected. In it they conclude that “aerosols or droplets” were likely involved in transmission, but that they could not rule out other routes. It’s important to note here that aerosol and droplet transmission, do not airborne transmission make. Inhaling droplets in close proximity is not what “airborne” means...
http://globalbiodefense.com/2014/09/29/airborne-ebola-flight-fancy/#sthash.ZUeDhbjq.dpuf

Must Read
Debunking Airborne Ebola: What You Need To Know About Aerosols, Droplets and Fomites
http://www.pathogenperspectives.com/2014/08/debunking-airborne-ebola-what-you-need.html


That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons of history.
~Aldous Huxley

He who has a why to live can bear almost any how. - ~Friedrich Nietzsche

Offline Brocke

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Re: Ebolavirus - Just the Facts
« Reply #7 on: October 21, 2014, 06:43:41 AM »
FACT 6

Known Cases and Outbreaks of Ebola Virus Disease, in Chronological Order:

The following timeline from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention includes major Ebola outbreaks since its discovery in 1976 and was last updated Sept. 17, 2014.
  • 1976 — Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of the Congo, reported the first case of Ebola. There were 318 reported human cases that year and 280 deaths (88 percent mortality).
  • 1976 — In Sudan: 284 reported cases, 151 deaths (53 percent).
  • 1976 — England, 1 reported case, 0 deaths
  • 1979 — Sudan: 34 reported cases, 22 deaths (65 percent)
  • 1989-1990 — Philippines: 3 (asymptomatic) reported cases, 0 deaths
  • 1990 — USA: 4 (asymptomatic) reported cases, 0 deaths
  • 1994 — Gabon: 52 reported cases, 31 deaths (60 percent)
  • 1995 — DRC: 315 reported cases, 250 deaths (81 percent)
  • Jan. to April 1996 — Gabon: 37 reported cases, 21 deaths (57 percent)
  • July 1996 to Jan. 1997— Gabon: 60 reported cases, 45 deaths (74 percent)
  • 1996 — South Africa: 2 reported cases, 1 death (50 percent)
  • 1996 — Russia: 1 reported case, 1 death, (100 percent)
  • 2000-2001 — Uganda: 425 reported cases, 224 deaths (53 percent)
  • Oct. 2001 to March 2002 — Gabon: 65 reported cases, 53 deaths (82 percent)
  • Oct. 2001 to March 2002 — Republic of Congo: 57 reported cases, 43 deaths (75 percent)
  • Dec. 2002 to April 2003 — Republic of Congo: 143 reported cases, 128 deaths (89 percent)
  • Nov. to Dec. 2003 — Republic of Congo: 35 reported cases, 29 deaths (83 percent)
  • 2004 — Sudan: 17 reported cases, 7 deaths (41 percent)
  • 2004 — Russia: 1 reported case, 1 death (100 percent)
  • 2007 — DRC: 264 reported cases, 187 deaths (71 percent)
  • Dec. 2007 to Jan. 2008 — Uganda: 149 reported cases, 37 deaths (25 percent)
  • Nov. 2008 — Philippines: 6 (asymptomatic) reported cases, 0 deaths
  • Dec. 2008 to Feb. 2009 — DRC: 32 reported cases, 15 deaths (47 percent)
  • May 2011 — Uganda: 1 reported case, 1 death (100 percent)
  • June-Oct. 2012 — Uganda: 11* cases, 4* deaths (36.4 percent)
  • June-Nov. 2012 — DRC: 36* cases, 13* deaths (36.1 percent)
  • Nov. 2012 to Jan. 2013 — Uganda: 6* cases, 3* deaths (50 percent)
  • March 2014 to present — Multiple countries: 3,017* cases, 1,513* deaths (50 percent)

EBOLA OUTBREAKS Chronology 1976-2014
The first outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) ocurred in The Democratic Republic of Congo, in 1976 having 318 cases and 280 deaths for a case fatality of 88%. Since then 24 more outbreaks has occured in multiples African countries. The current outbreak is affecting seven countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, United States of America and Spain). As of October 14th, a total of 9,216 confirmed, probable and suspected cases and 4,555 deaths have been reported, for 48% of case fatality. As of October 9th, Democratic Rpublic of Congo repoted 68 cases of Ebola virus disease and 49 deaths. The outbreak in Dem. Rep. of Congo is a distinct and independent event, with no relationship to the outbreak in West Africa. Currently there are two outbreaks running in Africa.
http://healthintelligence.drupalgardens.com/content/chronology-ebola-virus-disease-outbreaks-1976-2014

Numbers reflect laboratory confirmed cases only.

Infographic link http://www.goinvo.com/images/features/ebola/Ebola-07.png


That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons of history.
~Aldous Huxley

He who has a why to live can bear almost any how. - ~Friedrich Nietzsche

Offline Brocke

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Re: Ebolavirus - Just the Facts
« Reply #8 on: October 22, 2014, 03:11:33 PM »
FACT 7

Statistical choices may be skewing the case fatality rate estimates

The Ebola virus that is causing the raging epidemic in West Africa is famously lethal. In previous outbreaks it has killed as many as 90% of the people it infects. That’s why the figures in World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) latest “Situation Report” look like they might be a rare glimmer of good news. Although the rate of infections is picking up speed at an alarming rate, the report says the fatality rate is 53% overall, ranging from 64% in Guinea to just 39% in Sierra Leone.

But there’s a catch: The apparent low proportion of deaths probably depends more on the way health officials are calculating the number than on the deadliness of the virus—or the quality of care patients are receiving. Indeed, the dramatic increase in cases in recent weeks is one of the main reasons the reported death rate appears to be artificially low.

There are several ways to calculate what officials call the “case fatality rate,” or CFR, of a disease outbreak. One of the simplest is to divide the number of deaths by the number of total cases. That is what WHO does in its recent CFR calculations.

But that method doesn’t take into account that many living patients—recently diagnosed and very ill—will not survive. So it underestimates the death rate. And that effect is exaggerated when an outbreak is expanding quickly. The calculation also misses patients who were confirmed as Ebola cases, but then left the hospital before being discharged, says Andrew Rambaut, an evolutionary biologist who studies infectious disease at the University of Edinburgh in the United Kingdom. Many of those patients later died but are not counted in the death statistics.

Another way to calculate the rate is to ignore current patients and count only patients who have officially recovered and been released from treatment or who are known to have died. Those numbers seem to paint a more sobering picture. According to the 7 September update from the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, 268 patients have been treated and released, and 426 confirmed Ebola cases have died. Those numbers suggest a 61% fatality rate. But that isn’t completely accurate either, notes Marc Lipsitch, an epidemiologist at the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston: Survivors may have longer average hospital stays than patients who die. That would lead to a CFR that is artificially high.

A more accurate way to calculate the rate is to compare the outcomes in patients who were infected around the same time and wait long enough until all have either recovered or died. Rambaut notes that there were 23 survivors among the 77 patients included in a recent paper looking at the evolution of the virus. That’s a CFR of 70%...

...On the other hand, researchers already know that many Ebola victims never made it to hospitals and died at home (often infecting family and other caregivers). That means their deaths aren’t counted—reducing the CFR.

Exactly how many unrecorded Ebola deaths have occurred will never be known. Health officials are keeping track of suspected and probable cases, many of which are people who died before they could be tested. Whether to include those numbers in CFR calculations is another source of potential bias. And there are different patterns of testing in different regions: Some places have done more testing on post-mortem cases, for example. “How these biases balance is always the big question,” Lipsitch says.

http://news.sciencemag.org/africa/2014/09/how-deadly-ebola-statistical-challenges-may-be-inflating-survival-rate


That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons of history.
~Aldous Huxley

He who has a why to live can bear almost any how. - ~Friedrich Nietzsche

Offline Owais

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Re: Ebolavirus - Just the Facts
« Reply #9 on: November 02, 2014, 01:59:10 AM »
What is new fact for Ebola virus.

Offline Brocke

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Re: Ebolavirus - Just the Facts
« Reply #10 on: December 24, 2014, 04:10:51 PM »

FACT 8

Ebola is bad, but Tuberculosis is worse and they coexist in the same regions with similar symptoms in the early stages.



Tuberculosis has killed more people than any infectious disease in history, claiming over a billion lives in the last two hundred years. And now we see that against extremely drug-resistant TB strains, even the most modern medicines are proving to be no more effective than the antiquated treatments offered in the infamous sanitariums.



How many people have TB?
One-third of the worlds population is thought to have be infected with M. tuberculosis, with new infections occurring in about 1% of the population each year. In 2007, an estimated 13.7 million chronic cases were active globally,while in 2013, an estimated 9 million new cases and 1.5 million associated deaths occurred,mostly in developing countries.

The worst case
Miliary TB is a rare form of active disease that occurs when TB bacteria find their way into the bloodstream. In this form, the bacteria quickly spread all over the body in tiny nodules and affect multiple organs at once. This form of TB can be rapidly fatal.


Ebola in the Context of TB

by Sandy K Johnson | Monday, October 27, 2014

As tuberculosis rages, the intense focus on Ebola presents a quandary for health-care experts who have been trying for years to put a dent in TB’s toll. It is a teaching moment even amid the fear and hysteria, they told the National Press Foundation.

Here is what three TB experts said Monday in interviews with NPF:

Dr. E. Jane Carter, current president of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease and an associate professor at Brown University:

Ebola is an opportunity to explore the link between epidemics and poor health systems, she said. "I think we have a real opportunity in looking at why Ebola came out of West Africa. The issue was the weakness of health care and the health-care systems for those countries. This has direct implications on all health care but particularly I think also TB,” Carter said.

“What we really need to do to improve global health is to improve access to care and to strengthen health-care systems globally. I hope that we are going to be able to walk away from the Ebola epidemic in West Africa with that clear message. A strong health-care system preexisting would have taken care of this issue and it would not be a global issue now."

The U.S. government’s response has been focused on “fear and hysteria,” she said. Her recommendation? “They should take a breath. What is the science? What do we need to fight this?”

Dr. Lucica Ditiu, executive secretary of the STOP TB Partnership. Ditiu tried to put Ebola into context of the against the centuries-long battle with TB.

“You know, the reality is that we are scared now of Ebola (which is spread through cointact), but you know MDR-TB is spread through air so … as long as we breathe, we are all at risk of inhaling that and getting infecting with MDR-TB,” she said.

Ditiu noted the Ebola death toll of 5,000 people since last spring. “But I will dare to say that the world will pay this price sooner or later on MDR-TB as well. Because … just in South Africa alone there are 5,000 cases of tuberculosis dying a month just in one country.

“I really hope that this cold shower that Ebola is giving to all of us about the health systems being unable to cope with this will [help us] learn on how to deal with big issues like MDR-TB that will become even bigger … than Ebola one day.”

Dr. Mario Raviglione, director of global TB for the World Health Organization called the Ebola epidemic “a human tragedy.”

“What we understand is that people in Sierra Leone, Liberia or Guinea (who) have been working as district coordinators for tuberculosis have … essentially shifted their priority towards containing Ebola,” he said. He noted that technicians are afraid to analyze Ebola samples for fear of getting the illness and that people are staying away from hospitals for the same reason.

“So every program, every activity is being in a way touched by the Ebola crisis over there and the sooner this is solved and faced the better it will be for every other health program in that part of the world,” Raviglione said.


Indicators of diagnosis, notification and treatment of multidrug-resistant TB, by region or country and year
https://extranet.who.int/sree/Reports?op=vs&path=/WHO_HQ_Reports/G2/PROD/EXT/MDRTB_Indicators_charts


That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons of history.
~Aldous Huxley

He who has a why to live can bear almost any how. - ~Friedrich Nietzsche

Offline Stevie440

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Re: Ebolavirus - Just the Facts
« Reply #11 on: January 30, 2015, 04:46:05 PM »
The ebola virus, will IMO not be the final virus to kill a large amount of the population. However, its goal is primarily to create fear, and to test its use.
"The flame of will power burns in all of us"

Offline Al Bundy

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Re: Ebolavirus - Just the Facts
« Reply #12 on: July 31, 2015, 02:58:56 PM »
World Health organiyation (WHO): discovered vaccine for Ebola virus. Heal 100 %.  ???

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/31/ebola-vaccine-trial-proves-100-successful-in-guineahttp://