Petraeus traded his US Citizenship for a BS title in the Dutch West India Co.

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Offline Letsbereal

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[O/T: General David Petraeus was appointed Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Orange]
Today General David Petraeus was appointed Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Orange at the Dutch Ministry of Defence
16 March 2012,(
(google trans drom Dutch)



Dutch family

Petraeus is the first American general since World War II who received the high honor.

The former four-star general, who as the son of a Dutch father Frisian roots has received his decorations hung in the presence of Dutch (old) and his military colleagues Frisian relatives.

Commissioner of the Province of Friesland Jorritsma John handed the General's family tree dating back to the year 1599.

Petraeus responded enthusiastically to his award, he praised the good cooperation with the Netherlands and the quality of the Dutch soldiers.

He shut off applicable in Dutch: "The Netherlands, for ever!"

Be aware General David Petraeus is the wildcard in the elections!
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Offline Geolibertarian

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Be aware General David Petraeus is the wildcard in the elections!

That's what historian Webster Tarpley has been saying.
"Abolish all taxation save that upon land values." -- Henry George

"If our nation can issue a dollar bond, it can issue a dollar bill." -- Thomas Edison

Offline Letsbereal

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That's what historian Webster Tarpley has been saying.

Yep, I got that from him and found some indications in that direction myself:

General David Petraeus tipped as Republican 2012 presidential candidate
19 March 2010
, by Alex Spillius – Washington (The Telegraph)

Speculation is mounting that Gen David Petraeus could run as the Republican presidential candidate in 2012.

David Petraeus for President: Run General, run
3 April 2010
, by Toby Harnden’s American Way (The Telegraph)

With many voters yearning for an outsider, and military officers looked up to, General David Petraeus could be a powerful presidential candidate and a potentially accomplished President.

Facebook: Petraeus for President 2012

Petraeus for President in 2012
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Offline Dig

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Dutch West India Company

Founded   June 3, 1621
Founder(s)   Willem Usselincx (among others)
Defunct   1792
Number of locations   Amsterdam, Hoorn, Rotterdam, Groningen and Middelburg
Key people   Heeren XIX
Products   Privateering, tobacco, sugar, gold and African slaves

Dutch West India Company (Dutch: Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie or GWIC; English: Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants. Among its founding fathers was Willem Usselincx (1567–1647). On June 2, 1621, it was granted a charter for a trade monopoly in the West Indies (meaning the Caribbean) by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and given jurisdiction over the African slave trade, Brazil, the Caribbean, and North America. The area where the company could operate consisted of West Africa (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Cape of Good Hope) and the Americas, which included the Pacific Ocean and the eastern part of New Guinea. The intended purpose of the charter was to eliminate competition, particularly Spanish or Portuguese, between the various trading posts established by the merchants. The company became instrumental in the Dutch colonization of the Americas.


Since the Treaty of Tordesillas the shipping and trade in the Atlantic region was divided between the two Catholic countries, Spain and Portugal. However, at the end of the sixteenth century resistance and competition came up from other countries as well. The British and the Dutch succeeded more often to break the monopoly of the Spaniards and Portuguese in Asia. After the Spanish and Portuguese ports were closed to the Dutch ships, the Republic began to show interest for trading in the Atlantic region.

When the Dutch East India Company (VOC) was founded in 1602, some traders in Amsterdam did not agree with its monopolistic politics. With help from Plancius Peter, a Flemish minister who was engaged in producing maps, globes and nautical instruments, they sought for a northeastern or northwestern access to Asia to circumvent the VOC monopoly. In 1609 Henry Hudson, on behalf of the VOC, outwitted his competitors by landing on the coast of New England in his quest for the Northwest Passage to Asia. Consequently, in 1615 Isaac Le Maire and Samuel Blommaert, assisted by others, focused on finding a south-westerly route around the Tierra del Fuego, in order to circumvent the monopoly of the VOC.

One of the first sailors who focused on trade with Africa was Balthazar de Moucheron. The trade with Africa offered several possibilities to set up trading posts or factories, an important starting point for negotiations. It was Blommaert, however, who stated that in 1600 eight companies sailed on the coast of Africa, competing each other with the supply of copper, possibly from the kingdom of Loanga.[citation needed] Pieter van den Broecke was employed by one of these companies. In 1612, a Dutch fortress was built in Mouree, along the Dutch Gold Coast.

Trade with the Caribean, for salt, sugar and tobacco, was hampered by Spain and delayed because of peace negotiations. Spain offered peace on condition that the Dutch Republic would withdraw from trading to Asia and America. Spain refused to sign the peace treaty, if a West Indian Company would be established.

Grand Pensionary Johan van Oldenbarnevelt offered to only suspend trade with the West in exchange for the Twelve Years' Truce. The result was that during a few years the company sailed under a foreign flag in South America. However, ten years later, Stadtholder Maurice of Orange, proposed to continue the war with Spain, but also to distract attention from Spain to the Republic. In 1619, his opponent Johan van Oldenbarnevelt was beheaded, and when two years later the truce expired, the West Indian Company was established

The first West Indian Company

The WIC was organized similary to the Dutch East India Company (Dutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, abbreviated as VOC). Like the VOC, the company had five offices, called chambers (kamers), in Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Hoorn, Middelburg and Groningen, of which the chambers in Amsterdam and Middelburg contributed most to the company. The board consisted of 19 members, known as the Heeren XIX (the Lords Nineteen). The validity of the charter was set at 24 years. Only in 1623 funding was arranged, after several bidders were put under pressure. The States-General of the Netherlands and the VOC pledged one million guilders in the form of capital and subsidy. Unlike the VOC, the WIC had no right to deploy military troops. When the Twelve Years' Truce in 1621 was over, the Republic had a free hand to re-wage war with Spain. Privateering became one of the major goals within the WIC. The arming of merchant ships with guns and soldiers to defend themselves against Spanish ships was of great importance. On almost all ships in 1623 40 to 50 soldiers were stationed, possibly to assist in the hijackingof enemy ships.[1] It is unclear whether this first expedition was the expedition by Jacques l'Hermite to the coast of Chile, Peru and Bolivia, set up by Stadthouder Maurice with the support of the States General and the VOC.

The company was initially relatively successful; in the 1620s and 1630s, many trade posts or colonies were established. The largest success for the WIC in its history was the seizure of the Spanish silver fleet, which carried silver from Spanish colonies to Spain, by Piet Heyn in 1628; privateering was at first the most profitable activity. In 1629 the WIC gave permission to a number of investors in New Netherlands to found patroonships. The New Netherland area, which included New Amsterdam, covered parts of present-day New York, Connecticut, Delaware, and New Jersey. Other settlements were established on the Netherlands Antilles, several other Caribbean islands, Suriname and Guyana. In Africa, posts were established on the Gold Coast (now Ghana) and briefly in Angola. It was a neo-feudal system, where patrons were permitted considerable powers to control the overseas colony. In the Americas, fur (North America) and sugar (South America) were the most important trade goods, while African settlements traded slaves—mainly destined for the plantations on the Antilles and Suriname—gold, and ivory. The company was the dominant slave trading entity of the time, and probably in all of history.[2]


The settlers Albert Burgh, Samuel Blommaert, Samuel Godijn, Johannes de Laet[3] had little success with populating the colony of the New Netherland, and to defend themselves against local Indians. Only Kiliaen Van Rensselaer managed to maintain his settlement in the north along the Hudson. Samuel Blommaert secretly tried to secure his interests with the founding of the colony of New Sweden on the Delaware in the south. The main focus of the WIC now went to Brazil. Only in 1630 the West India Company managed to conquer a part of Brazil. In 1630, the colony of New Holland (capital Mauritsstad, present-day Recife) was founded, taking over Portuguese possessions in Brazil. In the mean time, the war demanded so many of its forces that the Company had to operate under a permanent threat of bankruptcy.[4] In fact, the WIC went bankrupt in 1636 and all attempts at rehabilitation were doomed to failure.[5]

Because of the ongoing war in Brazil the situation for the WIC in 1645, at the end of the charter, was very bad. An attempt to compensate the losses of the WIC with the profits of the VOC failed because the directors of the VOC didn't want to.[6] Merging the two companies was not feasible. Amsterdam was not willing to help out, because it had too much interest in peace and healthy trade relations with Portugal. This indifferent attitude of Amsterdam was the main cause of the slow, half-hearted policy, which would eventually lead to losing the colony.[7] In 1647 the Company made a restart using 1.5 million guilders, capital of the VOC. The States General took responsibility for the warfare in Brazil.

Due to the Peace of Westphalia the hijacking of Spanish ships was no longer allowed. Many merchants from Amsterdam and Zeeland decided to work with marine and merchants from Hamburg, Glückstadt (then Danish), England and other countries. In 1649, the WIC obtined a monopoly on gold and slaves in the kingdom of Accra (present-day Ghana). In 1662 there were contacts with the owners of the Asiento, which were obliged to deliver 24,000 slaves.[8] In 1663 en 1664 the de WIC sold more slaves than Portuguese and English together.[9]

The first West India Company conducted a long agony, and its end in 1674 was painless.[10] The reason that the WIC could drag on for twenty years was due to its valuable West African possessions.

The second West Indian Company

When the WIC could not repay its debts in 1674, the company was dissolved. But because of high demand for trade with the West (mainly slave trade), and the fact that still many colonies existed, it was decided to establish the Second Chartered West India Company (also called New West India Company) in 1675 . This new company had the same trade area as the first. All ships, fortresses, etc. were taken over by the new company. The number of directors was reduced from 19 to 10, and the number of governors from 74 to 50. The new WIC had a capital that was slightly more than 6 million guilders around 1679, which was largely supplied by the Amsterdam Chamber.

After the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, it became apparent that the Dutch West India Company was no longer capable of defending its own colonies, as Sint Eustatius, Berbice, Essequibo, Demerara, and some forts on the Dutch Gold Coast were rapidly taken by them. In 1791, the company's stock was bought by the Dutch government, and on 1 January 1792, all territories previously held by the Dutch West India Company reverted to the rule of the States-General of the Dutch Republic. Around 1800 it was tried to create a third West Indian Company, without any succes.

See also
Atlantic slave trade
British East India Company
Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions
Dutch colonization of the Americas
Dutch East India Company
Economic History of the Netherlands (1500 - 1815)
French East India Company
List of director generals of New Netherland

^ (Dutch)Klein, P.W. (1965) De Trippen in de 17e eeuw, p. 150.
^ (Dutch)Heijer, H. den (1994) De geschiedenis van de WIC, p. 97.
^ (Dutch)Dillen, J.G. van, (1970) Van Rijkdom tot Regenten, p. 169.
^ (Dutch)Dillen, J.G. van, (1970) Van Rijkdom tot Regenten, p. 127.
^ (English) Boxer, C.R. (1957) The Dutch in Brazil 1624 - 1654. Oxford, Clarendon Press. ISBN
^ (Dutch) Brakel, S. van (1918) Bescheiden over den slavenhandel der Westindische Compagnie, p. 50, 67. In: Economisch-Historisch Jaarboek IV.
^ (Dutch)Binder, F. e.a. (1979) Dirck Dircksz. Wilre en Willem Godschalk van Focquenbroch(?) Geschilderd door Pieter de Wit te Elmina in 1669. Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 27, p.7-29.
^ (Dutch)Klein, P.W. (1965) De Trippen in de 17e eeuw, p. 182.

Further reading
Schmidt, Benjamin, Innocence Abroad: The Dutch Imagination and the New World, 1570-1670, Cambridge: University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0521804080

External linksFind more about Dutch West India Company on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dutch Portuguese Colonial History Dutch Portuguese Colonial History: history of the Portuguese and the Dutch in Ceylon, India, Malacca, Bengal, Formosa, Africa, Brazil. Language Heritage, lists of remains, maps.
Facsimile of 15 WIC- books Relating about the events in Brazil in the 17th century (PT & NL)
WIC ship halve maan The GWC ship the Halve Maan.
Charter of the Dutch West India Company Text of the Charter of the Dutch West India Company: 1621
Netherlands West India Company GWC
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline chris jones

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   Whats in a name?

Offline Letsbereal

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Some more background info:

Petraeus vs. Obama - Political agenda at play? 16 Aug 2010

That's the Way Those Bastards Think  6 Apr 2010
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