WikiLeaks: Educating Americans About Open Society
WikiLeaks: Educating Americans About Open Society
The open society is a concept originally developed by philosopher Henri Bergson and then by Austrian and British philosopher Karl Popper. In open societies, government is responsive and tolerant, and political mechanisms are transparent and flexible. It is as opposed to closed society. The state keeps no secrets from itself in the public sense; it is a non-authoritarian society in which all are trusted with the knowledge of all. Political freedoms and human rights are the foundation of an open society. In Karl Popper's definition, found in his two-volume book The Open Society and Its Enemies, he defines an "open society" as one which ensures that political leaders can be overthrown without the need for bloodshed, as opposed to a "closed society," in which a bloody revolution or coup d'état is needed to change the leaders. He further describes an open society as one "in which individuals are confronted with personal decisions" as opposed to a "magical or tribal or collectivist society."
In this context, tribalistic and collectivist societies do not distinguish between natural laws and social customs. Individuals are unlikely to challenge traditions they believe to have a sacred or magical basis. The beginnings of an open society are thus marked by a distinction between natural and man-made law, and an increase in personal responsibility and accountability for moral choices. (Note that Popper did not see this as incompatible with religious belief.) Popper argues that the ideas of individuality, criticism, and humanitarianism cannot be suppressed once people become aware of them, and therefore that it is impossible to return to the closed society.
Popper's concept of the open society is epistemological rather than political. When Popper wrote The Open Society and its Enemies he believed that the social sciences had failed to grasp the significance and the nature of fascism and communism because these sciences were based on faulty epistemologies. Totalitarianism forced knowledge to become political which made critical thinking impossible and led to the destruction of knowledge in totalitarian countries. Popper's theory that knowledge is provisional and fallible implies that society must be open to alternative points of view. An open society is associated with cultural and religious pluralism;
it is always open to improvement because knowledge is never completed but always ongoing.
Closed society claims to certain knowledge and ultimate truth lead to the attempted imposition of one version of reality. Such a society is closed to freedom of thought. In contrast, in an open society each citizen needs to engage in critical thinking
, which requires freedom of thought and expression and the cultural and legal institutions that can facilitate this. Democracies are examples of the "open society,"
whereas totalitarian dictatorships, theocracy, and autocratic monarchies are examples of the "closed society."
Humanitarianism, equality and political freedom are fundamental characteristics of an open society. This was recognised by Pericles, a statesman of the Athenian democracy, in his funeral oration: "... advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition. The freedom which we enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life."George Soros, a student of Karl Popper, has argued that the sophisticated use of powerful techniques of deception borrowed from modern advertising and cognitive science by political operatives such as Frank Luntz and Karl Rove casts doubt on Popper's original conception of open society. Because the electorate's perception of reality can easily be manipulated, democratic political discourse does not necessarily lead to a better understanding of reality. Soros argues that besides the requirements for the separation of powers, free speech, and free elections, we also need to make explicit a strong commitment to the pursuit of truth. "Politicians will respect, rather than manipulate, reality only if the public cares about the truth and punishes politicians when it catches them in deliberate deception."
Organisations such as the Open Society Institute and Open Society Foundation of South Africa aim to actively promote the open society through lobbying and public involvement.In 1947, Popper founded with his close friend Friedrich Hayek, Milton Friedman, Ludwig von Mises and others the Mont Pelerin Society
to defend classical liberalism, in the spirit of open society.
George Soros (Hungarian: Soros György; pronounced /ˈsɔroʊs/ or /ˈsɔrəs/, Hungarian: [ˈʃoroʃ]; born August 12, 1930, as Schwartz György) is a Hungarian-American financier, businessman and notable philanthropist focused on supporting liberal ideals and causes. He became known as "the Man Who Broke the Bank of England" after he made a reported $1 billion during the 1992 Black Wednesday UK currency crises. Soros correctly anticipated that the British government would have to devalue the pound sterling.Soros is Chairman of the Soros Fund Management and the Open Society Institute and a former member of the Board of Directors of the Council on Foreign Relations.
He played a significant role in the peaceful transition from communism to capitalism in Hungary (1984–89) and provided Europe's largest-ever higher education endowment to Central European University in Budapest. Later, the Open Society Institute's programs in Georgia were considered by Russian and Western observers to have been crucial in the success of the Rose Revolution.
In the United States, he is known for donating large sums of money in an effort to defeat President George W. Bush's bid for re-election in 2004. In 2010, he donated $1 million in support of Proposition 19, which would have legalized marijuana in the state of California. He was an initial donor to the Center for American Progress, and he continues to support the organization through the Open Society Foundations. The Open Society Institute has active programs in more than 60 countries around the world with total expenditures currently averaging approximately $600 million a year.
In 2003, former Federal Reserve Chairman Paul Volcker wrote in the foreword of Soros' book The Alchemy of Finance.
Open Society: Reforming Global Capitalism by George Soros
According to the CIA in May 2001 as dictated by John C. Gannon, CIA and Advisor of the ANSER Homeland Security Institute (established officially 5 months before 9/11 attacks)...Mastering open source information will be an imperative, not an option, for the intelligence business because it will increasingly contain the answers to critical national security questions.
So what do they mean by "OPEN"?
They mean controlled, they mean your mind is OPEN to their manipulation and not CLOSED to it. They talk about it as a revolution in thinking, it is not, it is a revolution in controlling the mind, the codes, the sources of everything. OPEN means OPEN to the I-BEAM, PROJECT BLUEBEAM, MK ULTRA, MASS MIND CONTROL...
You are being psyopped by "invasive measures" to accept "non-invasive" ones
...such as "non-invasive" MIND CONTROL
Here's a brief synopisis:
You know how they can fly planes by remote control... dropping bombs on innocent people thousands of miles away?
Now, subsitute the plane with a human being.
They want to remote control human beings, and whatever devices are attached to human beings, by using remote control via computers that can communicate directly with your central nervous system. You are a node on the network. You will be controlled by a computer programmed to make the most of what you have to offer in terms of your biological ability: you can be made to put a nail into a piece of wood, the same way, all day, every day... or you can be made to fire a gun at an enemy you may not even be aware of - you won't have to think about that, the computer will decide for you. You may not even be aware of what you're doing - they have an app for that. You might be watching reruns of American Idol on your embedded display unit (your eyes), while the computer uses your body to wage war.
It seems clear that the latest and greatest technology is developed for the military; for applications of dominance and control. The only time we see 'helpful' applications of this technology is when they need some positive PR to get continued funding. The slide below is presenting the real agenda:MASTERING OPEN SOURCE AND MASTERING OPEN TECHNOLOGY ALLOWS INTEROPERABILITY AND CENTRAL CONTROL OVER THE CODE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THOSE WHO MASTER IT!
* Use brain activity to control an existing machine
So someone (or something) will "USE" your brain activity to control an "existing machine". There's nothing that says it couldn't be a machine using your brain to control another machine. Your brain will provide the right feedback information needed by the controlling machine in order to decide what the right next step will be.
Machine A --------> You and your brain ------------> Machine B
I don't know why people in the military can't see that they are the "brain" in the middle. Their brains are needed -- but NOT because of their intelligence or ability to think strategically -- that strategic thinking, experience and intelligence won't be necessary. The brain is necessary only because it functions to process signals; it's a cpu without need for a disk full of information; relying only on bootup code - because the intelligence is in the offsite remote computer that drives the brain. Literally - it will drive the brain. The only reason the brain is needed is because it processes signals and will provide feedback to the controlling computer, like running your pc's resident applications but using a remote server to do the grunt work. You are the device, the remote server. You will be accessed remotely and driven by algorithms that use your feedback to calculate next steps and give you further instructions. This use of your brain's intellect brings too much risk to the 'mission'. If you are using your brain to THINK, then your decisions will be susceptible to influence by your emotions: compassion, pity, fear, joy, love, jealousy, bravery. They don't want that to affect your decisions; they want ONLY that part of your brain that is the primitive automatic/autonomic response mechanism built into your central nervous system, where there is no concept of 'conscience'.
PTECH WAS A "MASTERING OF OPEN SOURCE AND OPEN TECHNOLOGY" ALLOWING A GHOST IN THE MACHINE TO CONTROL ALL PERCEPTION/INPUTS/VALUES THROUGHOUT THE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE TO TRIGGER RULES/DECISIONS/ACTIONS OF ALL ENTERPRISE MIDDLEWARE AND END POINTS!
MASTERING OPEN SOCIETY ALLOWS INTEROPERABILITY AND CENTRAL CONTROL OF HUMANS INTO THE HIVE MIND!
CYBERNETICS REPRESENTS THE "MASTERING OF OPEN SOCIETY" ALLOWING A GHOST IN THE HIVE MIND TO CONTROL ALL PERCEPTION/INPUTS/VALUES IN THE SUBCONSCIOUS OF THE MEMBER OF THE OPEN SOCIETY TO TRIGGER RULES/DECISIONS/ACTIONS OF EACH PERSON!
EVERYONE IS A NODE ON A COMPUTER SCREEN!
Pentagon's militarization of social networks will be the goal of next false flag
Marines on patrol in Afghanistan's Helmand province walk near a blast crater from a homemade explosive device. Roadside bombs are the leading killer of U.S. troops in Iraq and Afghanistan. The American military has turned to mathematics and social network analysis to help identify bombers and their supporters. With his doctorate from Princeton, Army Gen. David Petraeus, the U.S. commander in Afghanistan, has become the prime example of a special breed of soldier: the warrior-scholar, trained in history and politics as well as how to fight wars. Now there's a variation on the theme: the warrior mathematician, adept in the complex modeling that has become a key part of military planning. With roadside bombs the leading killer of U.S. troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, military commanders have turned increasingly to the use of social network analysis to identify the key players in the groups responsible for the bombs, which the military calls improvised explosive devices, or IEDs. The approach is rooted in the belief that a roadside bomb is never the work of one individual alone.So what the hell are they talking about...
'Attack The Network'
"Someone has to build it, someone has to place it, someone has to do surveillance on the place where you place it," said Kathleen Carley, a professor of computer science at Carnegie Mellon University and the unofficial godmother of social network analysis as applied to the IED problem. "If you're trying to defeat IEDs, what you're talking about is understanding that whole process — who is involved, how they are connected to each other — so that you can figure out where the best place is to intervene," Carley said. The idea is that an analysis of the social network behind roadside bombing attempts will make it possible to identify which members of the group are most vital to the operation and most important to stop, in order to disrupt the entire network. "Any organization has relationships," said Army Maj. Ian McCulloh, deputy director of the Counter-IED Operations Integration Center in Baghdad and one of Carley's former students. "Civilian firms have used social network analysis for decades to map out those relationships and identify the organization's vulnerabilities. The same principles apply to threat networks. This helps us identify their vulnerabilities," he said. The U.S. military's biggest success so far in the use of network analysis was the capture of Saddam Hussein in December 2003. He was found after soldiers diagrammed the social networks of his chauffeurs and others close to him. The technique is now used extensively to identify the key figures in insurgent groups in both Iraq and Afghanistan. "Attack the Network" is the motto of the anti-IED effort. Much is at stake. Of 3,486 U.S. service members killed in Iraq since 2003 by hostile action, 2,196 have died as a result of IED explosions, according to figures released by the Pentagon and other sources. In Afghanistan, nearly 90 percent of U.S. military deaths due to hostile action — 1,075 as of Dec. 2 — have been caused by IEDs.
Connecting The Dots
McCulloh, who received his doctorate in network science from Carnegie Mellon, is an expert in the application of relational algebra to the study of IED networks. He teaches other soldiers in the analytical techniques. While on leave last month from his post in Baghdad, McCulloh taught a one-week class in "Advanced Network Analysis and Targeting" to a group of Iraq-bound soldiers at Fort Bragg in North Carolina. Each of the soldiers was to be involved with the anti-IED effort in Iraq, primarily in the selection of targets for military operations. In this case, Habib Muhammed, who is connected to three others in the network, is the "most central" node. One of the goals listed in McCulloh's course guide is to help soldiers "mathematically quantify influential network nodes ... in order to provide warfighters with objective measures for the relative values of various potential targets." For many of the soldiers in the course, the mathematics instruction was daunting. "I took some math in high school, but mainly it was statistics," said Chief Warrant Officer John Fleshman, an 18-year Army veteran. "Fortunately, Major McCulloh breaks it down to high school level." Fleshman, an artillery targeting officer, said the mathematics he learned in his Fort Bragg class made it easier to identify the most important targets for anti-IED and other counterinsurgency operations. "You have to know where to look, and this helps you know where to look," he said. In McCulloh's class, "connecting the dots" is taken literally. He shows his students how to visualize a network of all of the people involved in an IED cell. On a computer screen, each individual is a "node,"
displayed as a dot linked by lines to other dots.
Some nodes are more important than others,
depending on their "betweenness" scores, determined, basically, by how well connected an individual is to others in the network. "From these guys and these guys, it's a lot shorter to go through D than it is to go through E and F," McCulloh points out to one of his soldier students. "So that's what gives D high betweenness centrality. He also has an average shorter distance to everybody, so in many ways, D is the highly central node." When the U.S. military is looking for key people to capture or kill, you do not want to be identified as "a highly central node."
Same Conclusions, But Faster
Military commanders and intelligence analysts have long understood the need to study relationships among individuals on the enemy side. What's new is how sophisticated and mathematical the process has become. McCulloh, a brainy young officer who also teaches at West Point, thinks the Army needs more warrior-mathematicians like himself. Still, the lanky redhead had to learn some humility when he went to work a couple of years ago in Afghanistan alongside grizzled intelligence veterans. "I thought I was going to go in there with my network analysis and my academic background, and I was going to find all of the hidden nodes, the key guys," McCulloh says. "I was going to find bin Laden and all the guys that were leading the terrorism. And I was actually a little disappointed to find that everybody I found in any of the data sets that I looked at, we already knew about." The veterans had used hunches and intuition to figure out the networks. But McCulloh says his math and computer science training did help him work more quickly than the old-timers could. "The first network I looked at probably had about 200 to 300 nodes in it," he says. "It took an analyst with 26 years of experience about five days to look through it and identify where they felt the key vulnerabilities were. I was able to put it into the software that I use and do some basic network analysis and in about 15 to 20 minutes I had the same conclusion."
Advantages To Mathematical Precision
As with any computer operation, the quality of the analysis depends on the quality of the data going in. Carley, the Carnegie Mellon University professor who has been working with the military since she got out of college, says if soldiers are to understand a roadside bombing network, they need information — from people they capture, from informants and from intercepted phone calls. "You try to find things about who else they know," Carley says, "who they're related to, where they've been in the past, where were they trained, what other kind of groups did they belong to, things like that." In this regard, Carley says, network analysis presents yet another advantage. A computer-generated network diagram can help soldiers "see" what data they are missing and still need to gather. The mathematical precision that comes with this analysis also gives soldiers more confidence in their judgments than might be the case with hunches and intuition. That's important to military lawyers who have to approve an operation to capture or kill someone. Maj. Eugene Vindman, a JAG officer, or judge advocate general, says McCulloh's network analysis course put him and other military lawyers in a better position to carry out oversight responsibilities in Iraq. "[You could] maybe do a little bit of analysis on your own or ask some intelligent questions of the targeteers," Vindman says, "to make sure that the target they've identified is not a guy that might have made a wrong phone call to a bad guy but actually has enough links to that bad guy through other activities to actually be a bad guy and therefore be a legal military target."
The Problem: Assessing The Enemy
Soldiers who will be involved in the effort to prevent roadside bombs, known as improvised explosive devices, or IEDs, are presented with the following scenario:
You are an infantry patrol leader and your unit encounters the following chain of events:Raheim, a known enemy operative, was found carrying a cell phone which he has used to maintain constant contact with two individuals, Jalil Al Tikrit and Farrah Imir. Text messages on Raheim's phone reveal a plot by Jalil Al Tikrit and another unknown individual to place an IED in a culvert along a supply route commonly used by U.S. forces. Raheim is immediately taken into custody and handed over to local authorities. Hours later, a local shopkeeper named Ibraheem is seen talking to a man named Habib Muhammed, but Ibraheem was not seen with anyone else. Later, an unidentified individual and Habib Muhammed are captured in a culvert. Habib Muhammed was found to be carrying a credit card owned by Farrah Imir along with a list of supplies in Farrah Imir's handwriting that seems to be a manifest for building and placing an IED. As you ponder the events of the day, it dawns on you that the unknown individuals are not unknown at all. You know their identities. The task: Build a model of the network of individuals and use it as part of your analysis to develop a target.
Answer: The Network
In the exercise above and the solution below, each individual is a "node," displayed as a dot linked by lines to other dots. Some nodes are more important than others, depending on their "betweenness" scores, determined, basically, by how well connected an individual is to others in the network.
When a "highly central node" emerges, that is a person the military may try to capture or kill.
Courtesy of Kathleen Carley and Course Guide,
Advanced Network Analysis and Targeting:
A Social Networks Approach to Targeting,
by Ian McCulloh, Anthony Johnson, and Helen Armstrong.
HIGHLY CENTRAL NODE = Node that can influence others outside of the Central Control Perception Management Messaging Systems.
HIDDEN NODE = Closed "node" or someone who does not wish to be a mind controlled slave in the so called "OPEN SOCIETY".
MEASURING BETWEENNESS = IBM Analytics to do continual loop sense and response autonomy based on trillions of data gathering censors interoperably capable of information flow.
EVERYONE GETTING THE PICTURE OF WHAT THESE FUTURE SHOCK TRILATERAL TERRORISTS ARE PLANNING?