Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years

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Offline Optimus

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Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« on: September 20, 2009, 01:25:49 PM »
The bacteria he worked with was "a weakened strain that isn't known to cause illness in healthy adults", but died from it anyway? :-\

Illinois Scientist's Death Possibly Caused by Plague Bacteria
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,552707,00.html
Sunday, September 20, 2009

CHICAGO —  The infection that killed an Illinois scientist may be connected to bacteria he researched that causes the plague, the University of Chicago Medical Center said.

The university said Saturday that its researcher studied the genetics of harmful bacteria including Yersinia pestis, which causes the illness. He died Sept. 13. His name and age have not been released.

The medical center said the bacteria he worked with was a weakened strain that isn't known to cause illness in healthy adults. The strain was approved by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for laboratory studies.

An autopsy found no obvious cause of death but did find the presence of the bacteria. More tests are planned. No other illnesses have been reported.
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Offline batman

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Re: Another Research Scientist is Dead - Possible Assassination?
« Reply #1 on: September 20, 2009, 01:31:36 PM »
there is a regular guest of Alex's who has a good page dedicated to all the scientests killed in the past few years...his first name is Steve but not too sure of his last name....

Offline Dok

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Re: Another Research Scientist is Dead - Possible Assassination?
« Reply #2 on: September 20, 2009, 01:31:45 PM »
sshhhh, wouldnt want any one to crack the code. these are real natural viruses.
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Offline NWOSCUM

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Re: Another Research Scientist is Dead - Possible Assassination?
« Reply #3 on: September 20, 2009, 01:33:13 PM »
Well since the CDC said they were safe strains it must be true.   8)
"The receptivity of the great masses is very limited, their intelligence is small, and their power of forgetting is enormous." --Adolph Hitler, "Mein Kampf"

Offline Dok

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Re: Another Research Scientist is Dead - Possible Assassination?
« Reply #4 on: September 20, 2009, 01:33:14 PM »
there is a regular guest of Alex's who has a good page dedicated to all the scientests killed in the past few years...his first name is Steve but not too sure of his last name....

hmm, i think its a kind of bird name?

http://www.stevequayle.com/index1.html
HOW TO BE SAVED
http://www.jesus-is-savior.com/how_to_be_saved.html

Ye Must Be Born Again!
http://www.jesus-is-savior.com/Basics/ye_must_be_born_again.htm

True Salvation & the TRUE Gospel/Good News!
http://www.contendingfortruth.com/?p=1060

how to avoid censorship ;)

Offline Optimus

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Re: Another Research Scientist is Dead - Possible Assassination?
« Reply #5 on: September 20, 2009, 07:04:08 PM »
CDPH: Plague death not a threat to public health
http://www.chicagobreakingnews.com/2009/09/yersenia-pestis-malcolm-j-casadaban-university-of-chicago-medical-center-genetics-research-antibioti.html
September 20, 2009 5:47 PM


Dead: Chicago genetics and cell biology professor Malcolm Casadaban, 60, is the first U.S. scientist to die after contracting the plague in 50 years


City health officials and the University of Chicago Medical Center today began the precautionary measures of offering antibiotics to the family, friends and co-workers of a geneticist who died last week from exposure to a plague-related bacterium.

Infectious disease experts couldn't completely rule out the possibility that the federally approved weakened strain of Yersenia pestis Malcolm J. Casadaban was researching at the University of Chicago had somehow become dangerous.

But largely because nobody else exposed to the bacterium or to Casadaban has developed plague symptoms, it seems more likely there was something about the professor's health or genetic makeup that made him susceptible, officials said today.

Further study is under way after an initial autopsy showed no obvious cause of death other than the presence of the bacterium, officials said.

"While the death of this individual researcher is terrible and tragic, there is currently no indication that his case of illness spread to anyone else," the Chicago Department of Public Health said in a statement. "There is currently no indication of a threat to public health."

Casadaban, 60, was working with a strain of Yersenia pestis that, stripped of its harmful components, has been used as a vaccine against the plague since the late 1960s.

Once the world's worst health scourge, the plague today affects between 1,000 and 3,000 people per year, with most of the 10 or 15 annual cases in the U.S. occurring in rural areas of the Southwest where rodents carrying the bacterium are more common, according to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Casadaban, a renowned molecular geneticist with a passion for new research, had been working to develop an even stronger vaccine for the plague, said his daughter Leigh Casadaban, 21.

"He was a brilliant, brilliant guy," Leigh Casadaban said about her father. "He had such a love for genetics."

On the morning of Sept. 13, Casadaban developed intense flu-like symptoms and arrived at the emergency room of the university's Bernard Mitchell Hospital, hospital officials said. He died 12 hours later.

Initially, doctors did not know they had a plague case on their hands, said Dr. Ken Alexander, chief of pediatric infectious disease at the medical center.

After blood test results came back Friday, the hospital notified city and state public health officials, he said.

Alexander -- who compared the bacterium Casadaban was working with to a "crocodile that doesn't have teeth" -- said the risk for an outbreak is very low.

"The more likely possibility, I'd say 999 to 1, is that there was something unusual about him," said Alexander, explaining that other strains of Yersenia bacteria linked to intestinal disease have been known to prey on people with abnormalities in their iron metabolism.

"As colleagues, we all feel we owe it to this man to find out what was different about him," Alexander said. "Given his field of research, I think that's what he would have wanted."

Casadaban's family said they were not aware of any pre-existing health problems that would have made him more susceptible to the weakened bacterium.

They remembered Casadaban as a fitness enthusiast who rode his bike to work every day and considered a family day at the Six Flags amusement park a great opportunity to log in some walking miles.

A native of New Orleans, Casadaban enjoyed teaching his family about genetics, said Leigh Casadaban, herself a genetics student at her father's alma mater, the Massachussetts Institute of Technology.

"He made it seem like it was all fun," she recalled.

Casadaban's other daughter, Brooke, 28, remembers her father as the quirky family figure who showed up to gatherings with relatives in New Orleans with new microscopes or math problems for his nieces and nephews.

Among the many topics Casadaban loved to expound upon -- the obesity gene, the "basic" nature of cloning -- her father's favorite was the notion that human beings are destined to live longer, Brooke Casadaban said.

"He really believed that life would last longer in the future," she said, noting the random nature of her father's passing. "None of us were prepared for this."
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Offline chris jones

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Re: Another Research Scientist is Dead - Possible Assassination?
« Reply #6 on: September 20, 2009, 09:10:46 PM »

These storys they spin about our scientists untimely deaths, they are insulting. How very convenient for the NWO.

My condolences to the family.

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Another Research Scientist is Dead - Possible Assassination?
« Reply #7 on: September 20, 2009, 10:45:49 PM »
Great find!
Genetic targeting?  Oh and since the CDC says it's "Safe", he probably didn't need a BSL-3 or even BSL-2 to do his "work"....

CDPH: Plague death not a threat to public health
http://www.chicagobreakingnews.com/2009/09/yersenia-pestis-malcolm-j-casadaban-university-of-chicago-medical-center-genetics-research-antibioti.html
September 20, 2009 5:47 PM
...
Infectious disease experts couldn't completely rule out the possibility that the federally approved weakened strain of Yersenia pestis Malcolm J. Casadaban was researching at the University of Chicago had somehow become dangerous.

But largely because nobody else exposed to the bacterium or to Casadaban has developed plague symptoms, it seems more likely there was something about the professor's health or genetic makeup that made him susceptible, officials said today.

Oh and I love this bit:
Quote
The more likely possibility, I'd say 999 to 1, is that there was something unusual about him," said Alexander
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

sociostudent

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Re: Another Research Scientist is Dead - Possible Assassination?
« Reply #8 on: September 20, 2009, 10:52:05 PM »
Great find!
Genetic targeting?  Oh and since the CDC says it's "Safe", he probably didn't need a BSL-3 or even BSL-2 to do his "work"....

Oh and I love this bit:

If it was his health, he would have probably already shown signs of immunodeficiency or of being immunocompromised in general. I think that had to have been haplotype/gene-specific.

sociostudent

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Re: Another Research Scientist is Dead - Possible Assassination?
« Reply #9 on: September 20, 2009, 11:04:01 PM »
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/previous_seasons/case_plague/interview.html
Dr. Stephen O'Brien

You may possess a genetic mutation. Most people would probably be aghast to learn that one of their genes is malformed. But before you start asking, "What does that mean? Will it make me sick someday? Will I pass it on to my children?" bear in mind that a mutation of the CCR5 gene -- called "delta 32" in its mutated form -- has no adverse effect on humans. In fact, possessing delta 32 could save your life, and the lives of your children.

"It's highly unusual," says Dr. Stephen J. O'Brien of the National Institutes of Health in Washington D.C. "Most genes, if you knock them out, cause serious diseases like cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia or diabetes. But CCR5-delta32 is rather innocuous to its carriers. The reason seems to be that the normal function of CCR5 is redundant in our genes; that several other genes can perform the same function."

"The non-mutated form is what's called a chemokine receptor," he says. Chemokines are protein distress calls released by an injured region of your body. "The normal function of the CCR5 gene is to act as a retriever of the chemokine distress signal from these bruises, which will then be alleviated by the chemokines."

This may not sound exciting, but delta 32 is a powerful mistake. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, attacks the human immune system, infecting the white blood cells sent to destroy it. The delta 32 mutation, however, effectively blocks the crucial gateway into human cells the virus needs. In the case of Steve Crohn, whose partner was the fifth person to die from AIDS, possessing the CCR5 mutation has prevented him from contracting the virus.

O'Brien explains further, "In order to have total resistance to HIV, you have to carry two doses of the mutated gene -- one from each parent. If you get only one dose, you will not be resistant to infection. However, you may be able to delay the onset of HIV once you become infected. That's because, in patients with one copy of the mutation, the amount of 'portals' or 'doorways' that HIV can use is reduced by about 50 percent. That slows down virus replication, which is the most important factor in AIDS progression."

O'Brien's work on AIDS led him to another disease that delta 32 could prevent, the plague. "They both, upon entering the body, infect the macrophages, which are the first line of defense against bacterial infections," he says. "Over the course of evolution, many bugs and pathogens have become extinct because the body learned how to defend itself against them. So the ones that are around today, like HIV and the plague, are pretty savvy -- HIV, for example, specifically attacks and kills the very cells that are designed to kill it. Both these pathogens have developed very clever ways around our immunological defenses."

The results of the Eyam study suggest that delta 32 may have helped save Europe from the bubonic plague pandemic. It seems logical, then, that this could be confirmed by an experiment in which the plague bacterium is injected into the cells of someone possessing the delta 32 mutation.
"We have attempted to design experiments that allow us to expose the plague to the lymphocytes of different people, including Steve Crohn," O'Brien says. "But so far we haven't been able to design that kind of experiment ... to do that experiment, you would need to isolate that particular kind of cell. You would need to isolate the exact strain of the plague, and you would need to expose them together."

Nevertheless, delta 32 seems to be a formidable defense the human body has developed in response to ages of pathogenic exposure. And though we may just be getting acquainted with it, delta 32 has been protecting humans for ages. O'Brien suspects the mutation has been around since long before the Black Death. "There have been human remains dug up from graves in Scandinavia -- bodies 3,000 and 4,000 years old -- in which they actually found the mutation, through DNA typing. So there are all kinds of pieces in this puzzle that are coming together."

They certainly are, sir. They certainly are. I would assume that there was probably some splicing and dicing with DNA from those dead bodies, and they may have stumbled across a strain of y. pestis that takes out certain genotypes but leaves some alone completely, like the one that took out half of Europe. And our unfortunate friend could have been lacking in the gene mutation that would have prevented him from contracting it.

Wasn't there a quote about race-specific bioweapons from Cheney for PNAC or something?

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Another Research Scientist is Dead - Possible Assassination?
« Reply #10 on: September 20, 2009, 11:08:54 PM »
bubonic plague?, Harmless really... CDC says so

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yersinia_pestis
Human Y. pestis infection takes three main forms: pneumonic, septicemic, and the notorious bubonic plagues.[1] All three forms have been responsible for high mortality rates in epidemics throughout human history, including the Black Death (a bubonic plague) that accounted for the death of at least one-third of the European population in 1347 to 1353.

I love this thread

Univ of Chicago is building a  Rickett's lab.... Why? See Robert traub... Ticks and fleas! MARU YARU Plum Island.... Also note Richard Shope (head of Biowarfare Deitrick in the 50's...
Also note the the Japanese in WWII were heavy into ticks and fleas for biowarfare (Unit 731)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unit_731

For example:
http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/historiesofcomsn/section7.htm
History of the Commissions on Immunization and Rickettsial Diseases

This Commission of the AFEB has a proud heritage, and it was comprised of the leading rickettsiologists in the country. It was privileged to have the consultative advice of world leaders in this field such as Drs. Raymond Lewthwaite (United Kingdom), Marcel Baltazard (France), James Gear (South Africa), and Ralph Audi (United Kingdom). Drs. Smadel and Charles Wisseman were its directors for many years, with heavy and steady input from Jack Snyder, Bob Traub, John Fox, Charley Shepard, Buz Wheeler, Andy Yeomans, Ed Murray, Paul Fiset, Neil Philip, Willy Burgdorfer, Dick Ormsbee, Henry Fuller, and Lew Barker. I was privileged to serve as a full member of this Commission
...

These studies conducted in the 1950s showed that a cloud laden with living Coxsiella burnetti (Q fever) could infect sheep and humans a number of miles downwind. Drs. William Tigertt and Bud Benenson spearheaded these studies along with Commission members Drs. Richard Shope, Smadel, MacLeod, Wisseman, and Woodward.


http://www.htrl.uchicago.edu/faqabout.htm

What is the Ricketts Laboratory?
The Ricketts Laboratory will be a highly secure and safe infectious disease research facility, built and operated by the University of Chicago, funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), and sited on land owned by the U.S. Department of Energy at Argonne National Laboratory, southwest of Chicago. NIAID is one of the National Institutes of Health. The lab will cost approximately $31 million to build and will be approximately 35,000 square feet, consisting of office space, Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) and Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories, vivarium for work with small animals.

The Ricketts Laboratory is one of the original nine Regional Biocontainment Laboratory (RBL) funded under NIAID's biodefense initiative announced in the second half of 2002. In October of 2005, NIAID announced funding for an additional four RBLs, bringing the total number of RBLs in the biodefense network to thirteen. NIAID’s biodefense network includes support for the design and construction of biocontainment laboratories as regional resources for research and development of improved defenses against emerging and re-emerging diseases and naturally occurring pathogens that could be used as weapons. The biodefense network also includes two National Biocontainment Laboratories. National Biocontainment Laboratories will study the most severe pathogens, while Regional Biocontainment Laboratories like the Ricketts Laboratory will only conduct research on pathogens for which treatments are available.

The Ricketts Laboratory will support the Great Lakes Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Research, a consortium of research institutions in the upper Midwest that is also funded by NIAID.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Another Research Scientist is Dead - Possible Assassination?
« Reply #11 on: September 20, 2009, 11:42:29 PM »
Update on the "Ricketts Lab" in a strange twist the name of the lab is in honor of  "Howard T. Ricketts" and ITs ACTIVE ABSL-3... acronym "HTRL" : Notice the NI-AID is setting these "regional labs" throughout the country for better dispersement of the pathogens.... Order thru Chaos

Tick and fleas!!!!
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Taylor_Ricketts
Howard Taylor Ricketts (1871-1910) was an American pathologist after whom the Rickettsiaceae family and the Rickettsiales are named

In the earlier part of his career, Ricketts undertook research at Northwestern University on blastomycosis and later at the University of Chicago on Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Ricketts and his assistant discovered that the agent that carried the bacillus for the latter was the Rocky Mountain wood tick (the American dog tick is also a carrier). Ricketts was devoted to his research and, on several occasions, injected himself with a pathogen  in order to measure its effects.

In 1909, Ricketts became interested in typhus due to an outbreak in Mexico City and the apparent similarity of the disease to spotted fever. Days after isolating the organism that he believed caused typhus, he himself died of the disease.

http://www.htrl.uchicago.edu/news.htm#18
Current Status of the HTRL 10/22/08

Processes are almost complete to get the building fully commissioned. This will be followed by review and registration of the laboratory by the CDC. Once the CDC approval is obtained researchers and administrators will move into the new space, as early as the 1st quarter of 2009.
...

Univ of Chicago is building a  Rickett's lab.... Why? See Robert traub... Ticks and fleas! MARU YARU Plum Island.... Also note Richard Shope (head of Biowarfare Deitrick in the 50's...
Also note the the Japanese in WWII were heavy into ticks and fleas for biowarfare (Unit 731)

http://www.htrl.uchicago.edu/faqabout.htm

What is the Ricketts Laboratory?
The Ricketts Laboratory will be a highly secure and safe infectious disease research facility, built and operated by the University of Chicago, funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), and sited on land owned by the U.S. Department of Energy at Argonne National Laboratory, southwest of Chicago. NIAID is one of the National Institutes of Health. The lab will cost approximately $31 million to build and will be approximately 35,000 square feet, consisting of office space, Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) and Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories, vivarium for work with small animals.
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Another Research Scientist is Dead - Possible Assassination?
« Reply #12 on: September 20, 2009, 11:58:08 PM »
This is what I've been looking for...
http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/LabsAndResources/resources/dmid/NBL_RBL/site.htm
Current National Biocontainment Laboratories (NBL) and Regional Biocontainment Laboratories (RBL)
 http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/764697E5-992C-44F0-87CF-D7E208BED72A/0/rbl_revised1.jpg



National Biocontainment Laboratories (NBLs)

Boston University Medical Center
National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory (NEIDL)  http://www.bu.edu/dbin/neidl/en/
Principal Investigator: Dr. Mark Klempner
(Under construction)

University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston  Galveston National Laboratory
http://utmbcare.com/GNL/about/index.shtml
Principal Investigator: Dr. Stanley Lemon (Under construction)


Regional Biocontainment Laboratories (RBLs)

Colorado State University (Fort Collins)
Regional Biocontainment Laboratory
http://ghrc.colostate.edu/index.asp
Principal Investigator: Dr. William Farland


Duke University Medical Center (Durham) Global Health Research Building (GHRB)
http://humanvaccine.duke.edu/modules/
rsch_bldg/index.php?id=1home/index
Principal Investigator: Dr. R.Sanders Williams


George Mason University
George Mason University Biomedical Research Laboratory
http://brl.gmu.edu/
Principal Investigator: Dr. Charles Bailey
(Under construction)

Tufts University, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine (Grafton, MA)
Regional Biosafety Laboratory-New England (RBL-NE)
http://www.tufts.edu/vet/rbl/
Principal Investigator: Dr. Deborah Kochever
(Under construction)

Tulane National Primate Research Center  (Covington, LA)
Regional Biocontainment Laboratory
http://www.tulane.edu
Principal Investigator: Dr. Andrew Lackner
(Under construction)

University of Alabama at Birmingham
School of Medicine
Southeast Biosafety Laboratory Alabama (SEBLAB)
http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=61656
Principal Investigator: Dr. Richard Marchase


University of Chicago
The Ricketts Laboratory
http://www.htrl.uchicago.edu/
Principal Investigator: Dr. Keith Moffat

 
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Pacific Regional Biocontainment Laboratory
http://www.hawaii.edu/
Principal Investigator: Dr. James R. Gaines
(Under construction)

University of Louisville
The Center for Predictive Medicine
http://www.louisville.edu/community/biosafetylab/
Principal Investigator: Dr. Manuel Martinez
(Under construction)

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (Newark)
New Jersey Medical School Center for Infectious Disease Research—RBL
http://www.umdnj.edu/
Principal Investigator: Dr. Robert L. Johnson


University of Missouri-Columbia College of Veterinary Medicine
University of Missouri—Columbia Regional Biocontainment Laboratory
http://www.rbl.missouri.edu
Principal Investigator: Dr. James Coleman
(Under construction)

University of Pittsburgh
The Regional Biocontainment Laboratory at the Bioscience Tower III (BST3)
http://www.cvr.pitt.edu
Principal Investigator: Dr. Donald Burke

University of Tennessee Health Science Center (Memphis)
University of Tennessee Health Science Center Regional Biocontainment Laboratory
http://www.utmem.edu/research/RBL/
Principal Investigator: Dr. Gerald Byrne
(Under construction)
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Another Research Scientist is Dead - Possible Assassination?
« Reply #13 on: September 21, 2009, 12:16:45 AM »
In case this dissapears...

http://molbio.bsd.uchicago.edu/Faculty_and_Research/01_Faculty_Alphabetically.php?faculty_id=32

Associate Professor, Cell & Molecular Biology, Committee on Genetics, Genomics & Systems Biology
Education:
M.I.T., B.S. Biology, 1971, Harvard University, Ph.D Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, 1976 Stanford University, Postdoc, Molecular Genetics

Contact Information:
Email:
mcas@midway.uchicago.edu

Office:
920 E. 58th
Chicago, IL 60637
115 CLSC
Phone: (773) 702-1074
Fax:

Lab:
Not Yet Available

Chicago, IL 60637
Not Yet Available
Phone: NA

Malcolm Casadaban
Research Summary / Selected Publications

We are interested in molecular genetic processes and their application to new techniques for biological studies. We are using DNA transposition, non-homologous recombination, and gene fusions with reporter genes. We begin our studies and applications with the well-developed bacterium E. coli and then extend them to other prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

We have used the high frequency bacteriophage Mu transposon to fuse reporter genes and regulated promoters to other genes for studies of gene expression and regulation and also to clone genes in vivo without in vitro recombinant DNA. Genetic applications of Mu at least provide futuristic model systems for higher organisms. Other experiments with Mu involve targeting it's transposition to specific DNA regions with gene fusions of the B targeting gene to specific DNA binding proteins.

This is part of our quest for a universal, high frequency transposon, which can be used in all organisms. Our work with reporter genes involves the development of new, more sensitive reporter genes and their application to new processes including protein-protein interactions. We have focused on genes for hydrolytic enzymes, which can use a wide spectrum of substrates for chromogenic assays and growth selections. The tbg gene from Thermus aquaticus encodes a thermostable -galactosidase which can not only function at high temperatures, where most proteins from eukaryotes and mesophilic bacteria would denature, but also in adverse conditions such as with detergents on polyacrylamide gels. Potentially these hybrid proteins may have new applications in studies of protein structure and interaction.


Weber, J. M., Johnson, S. P., Vonstein, V., Casadaban, M. J. and Demirjian, D. C. (1995). "A chromosome integration system for stable gene transfer into Thermus flavus." Biotechnology (N Y) 13: 271-5.   PubMed Citation
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9634770

Vonstein, V., M. J. Casadaban, and D. C. Demirjian (1995). Molecular cloning of the pyrE gene from the extreme thermophile Thermus flavus. J. Bacteriol. 177:4540-4543.  PubMed Citation
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7635839

Demirjian, D., G. Stanfield, and M. Casadaban (1993). Altering transposition of bacteriophage Mu with a chimeric transposition protein. Protein Eng. 6 suppl., 60. 

Roncero, C., K. Sanderson, and M. Casadaban (1992). Genetic analysis of the genes involved in the synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide core in Escherichia coli: three operons in the rfa locus. J. Bacteriol. 174:3250-3260.   PubMed Citation
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1577693
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Another Research Scientist is Dead - Possible Assassination?
« Reply #14 on: September 22, 2009, 01:54:59 PM »
Notice that Casadaban was NOT a "Ricketts" specialist or Plague expert per se . Yet in the new "Ricketts Lab" he is doing something with bubonic plague?

Maybe what infected him was not the "federally approved weakened strain of Yersenia pestis" but an altered version he/they was working on?
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Plague - Another Research Scientist is Dead - Possible Assassination?
« Reply #15 on: February 25, 2011, 09:52:47 PM »
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-25/plague-kills-u-s-scientist-in-first-laboratory-case-in-50-years-cdc-says.html
Plague Death Came Within Hours, Spurred by Scientist's Medical Condition - By Tom Randall - Feb 24, 2011 9:01 PM PT

University of Chicago infectious disease specialist Ken Alexander still remembers the shock he felt almost 18 months ago when his pager shook with the message that a colleague had died from the plague.

A half-hour later, Alexander was sitting at a table in the dean’s office with researchers, lawyers, administrators and campus security officers, he recalled in an interview. The stricken colleague, Malcolm Casadaban, a 60-year-old genetics and cell biology professor, had checked into a hospital five days earlier and died within hours. Lab results were positive for the plague, and the university’s “biosafety fire alarm” had been triggered, Alexander said.

That meeting on Sept. 18, 2009, began an investigation into the medical mystery of Casadaban’s illness that concluded with a report detailing the events, published yesterday by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline Pleasured

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #17 on: October 28, 2011, 04:07:52 PM »
He was hogtied with 2 shots in the head................It's the NewSpeak Suicide ;D

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #18 on: October 28, 2011, 05:10:10 PM »
This guy was an expert in gene fusion and he was playing with Y.Pestis.

They are actively digging up and sequencing the original Black plague  and human survivors "delta 32 gene"

I keep thinking there is a plan behind this to re-introduce a new version of the plague onto the world that humans have no natural defense.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline attietewd

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #19 on: October 28, 2011, 05:40:28 PM »
Quote
Plague Death Came Within Hours, Spurred by Scientist's Medical Condition

An autopsy found the researcher had a medical condition called hemochromatosis, which causes an excessive buildup of iron in the body, according to the CDC report. The disorder affects about 1 in 400 people and goes unnoticed in about half of patients.


“It’s like having a lion, where we took out all its teeth and all its claws,” Alexander said. “But in the case of Dr. Casadaban, the lion didn’t even need to have teeth. There was so much iron that it was freely available and easy to get.”

full article:[/b]
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-25/plague-kills-u-s-scientist-in-first-laboratory-case-in-50-years-cdc-says.html


How did he get the plague if the vaccine was inactivated?  He had an underlying genetic condition called Hemochromatosis.  His body did not dispose of iron in the normal way but stored it in his liver.  The teeth and claws were supposedly removed from the plague so that it no longer would get iron in the typical way which is through the red blood cells.  The plague did not need its teeth and claws to get the iron out of Casadaban, it just went into his liver and thrived. These guys are so stoooooooopid!
“Thus, condemnation will never come to those who are in Christ Jesus…”

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #20 on: October 28, 2011, 06:44:01 PM »
A LIVE Plague vaccine has been developed - ( fti. Bub. Plague  lives in the western states {Nev Calif Az.} field mice and other rodents )

http://azte.technologypublisher.com/technology/6269

AzTE Case # | M10-055L
Case ID: M10-055L
Web Published: 1/20/2011
Description:
Plague is endemic in many areas of the world, including even the western United States. The etiological agent of the disease, Yersinia pestis, infects both humans and rodents. Once a potential host is exposed, Y. pestis can rapidly invade the lymphatic system to produce systemic and often fatal disease.

Recent efforts to create a safe and effective plague vaccine have focused on the development of recombinant subunit vaccines that elicit antibodies against multiple Y. pestis antigens. These live, attenuated vaccine strains, however, are produced by selection rather than genetic manipulation and thus have generated concerns about their genetic composition and stability.

To address this problem, researchers at the Biodesign Institute of Arizona State University have developed a recombinant Yersinia bacterium as a live vaccine agent to generate both a humoral and cellular immune response in a host.

This engineered strain provides the same advantages as the subunit vaccines in simultaneous priming against more than one antigen and thereby enhancing the likely-hood of broad-based protection. In addition, because the strain is genetically engineered, there is no instability in the genotype and no possibility of reversion to a wild type infectious agent.[ no something entirely new and deadly ]


http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167587702001940
Abstract

Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii serologic status to gain insight into the natural history of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and to characterize the spatial distribution of the two agents.

We found 11.7% of specimens positive to Y. pestis and 35.5% positive to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. The two pathogens had distinct spatial clusters: Y. pestis was more prevalent in eastern portions of the state and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coastal regions. Prevalence of Y. pestis increased with increasing elevation, whereas prevalence of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii decreased with increasing elevation. There were differences in the proportions of positive animals on a yearly basis to both pathogens

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #21 on: June 15, 2013, 03:27:37 PM »
There seems to be an obsession for the origins of the plague and the age old leprosy ... hmmm....

http://www.archaeology.org/news/996-130614-leprosy-origins-disease-dna

TÜBINGEN, GERMANY—A team of scientists has compared samples of the bacterium that causes leprosy, Mycobacterium leprae, taken from five medieval skeletons from Europe with samples from 11 modern strains.

The DNA was so well preserved that the scientists were able to determine that a type of the disease found in Europe 1,000 years ago is the same as what is found in the Middle East now. Johannes Krause of the University of Tübingen says this suggests that the disease was spread by European armies during the Crusades. The disease carried to the New World by European explorers is also similar to the one found in the Americas today. The oldest known case of leprosy in the world has been identified in a 4,000-year-old skeleton from India.

 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-22857578
Medieval skeletons give clues to leprosy origins

The genetic code of leprosy-causing bacteria from 1,000-year-old skeletons has been laid bare.

Similarities between these old strains of the bug and those prevalent today have given scientists unique insights into the spread of the disease.

It has revealed, for example, the key role played by the medieval Crusades in moving the pathogen across the globe.

...

The DNA comparison showed that one type of leprosy found in Europe 1,000 years ago is the same as one present in the Middle East now.

This strengthened the view that the disease spread during the Crusades, said Johannes Krause, from the University of Tübingen, Germany, one of the authors of the work. This was a period when Christian armies fought for control of what they called the Holy Land

...

Another of the medieval strains is similar to one found in the Americas today. This suggests the disease was not something the first American settlers carried with them when they originally migrated from Asia, but is a more recent development that was probably introduced when Europeans colonised the continent, added Prof Krause.

...
"One really surprising finding was that the DNA was so well preserved, better than any ancient DNA I have ever studied," he said.

Oh tumors that's interesting...

http://www.archaeology.org/news/942-130606-neanderthal-bone-tumor-oldest
Neanderthal Tumor Is 120,000 Years Old

ZAGREB, CROATIA—Evidence of a bone tumor has been discovered in a 120,000-year-old Neanderthal fossilized rib fragment from Croatia. Although the fossil was excavated more than 100 years ago, previous studies of it did not recognize the signs of fibrous dysplasia, a non-cancerous growth that replaces spongy bone with a soft mass. “They range all the way from being totally benign, where you wouldn’t recognize them, to being extremely painful. The size of this one, and the bulging of it, probably caused the individual pain,” said David Frayer of the University of Kansas. High quality x-rays and micro CT scanning detected the bone’s abnormalities, which are caused by a spontaneous genetic mutation

 Potato famine anyone?

 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-22596561

20 May 2013 Last updated at 23:05
Irish potato famine pathogen identified By Helen Briggs
 
BBC News

Scientists have used plant samples collected in the mid-19th Century to identify the pathogen that caused the Irish potato famine.

A plant pest that causes potato blight spread to Ireland in 1845 triggering a famine that killed one million people.

DNA extracted from museum specimens shows the strain that changed history is different from modern day epidemics, and is probably now extinct.

Other strains continue to attack potato and tomato crops around the world.

The fungus-like infection causes annual losses of enough potatoes to feed hundreds of millions of people a year

| -- - -- - -

http://www.archaeology.org/news/861-130510-plague-byzantine-bacteria

BAVARIA, GERMANY—The bacterium Yersinia pestis, which caused the disease known as the Black Death in the fourteenth century, has been identified in DNA samples taken from 19 skeletons of people who died in sixth-century southern Germany.

It is thought that these people were felled by the Justinianic Plague, which killed more than 100 million people between the sixth and eighth centuries. Named for the Byzantine emperor Justinian I, the plague is thought to have contributed to the decline of the Roman Empire. “It is always very exciting when we can find out the actual cause of the pestilences of the past,” said Barbara Bramanti of Johannes Gutenberg Univeristy.

http://www.livescience.com/29498-plague-helped-destroy-roman-empire.html

/...
Plague may have helped finish off the Roman Empire, researchers now reveal.

Plague is a fatal disease so infamous that it has become synonymous with any dangerous, widespread contagion. It was linked to one of the first known examples of biological warfare, when Mongols catapulted plague victims into cities.



The same plague bacterium that caused the Justinianic Plague also is responsible for the Black Death that killed nearly two-thirds of Europe in the mid-1300s. Here, skeletal remains from a Black Death gravesite from 1348 in London.

...
To help solve this mystery, scientists investigated ancient DNA from the teeth of 19 different sixth-century skeletons from a medieval graveyard in Bavaria, Germany, of people who apparently succumbed to the Justinianic Plague
...
"After such a long time — nearly 1,500 years, one is still able to detect the agent of plague by modern molecular methods," researcher Holger Scholz, a molecular microbiologist at the Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology in Munich, Germany, told LiveScience.

The researchers said these findings confirm that the Justinianic Plague crossed the Alps, killing people in what is now Bavaria. Analysis of the DNA suggests that much like the later two pandemics of plague, this first pandemic originated in Asia, "even if historical records say that it arrived first in Africa before spreading to the Mediterranean basin and to Europe," Bramanti told LiveScience.

After the Modern Plague spread worldwide, it became entrenched in many rural areas, and the World Health Organization still reports thousands of cases of plague each year. However, doctors can now treat it with modern antibiotics.

The researchers now hope to reconstruct the whole genome sequence of the plague strain in these ancient teeth to learn more about the disease, Scholz said.

The scientists detailed their findings online May 2 in the journal PLOS Pathogens.
CREDIT: Crossrail

http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003349
Yersinia pestis DNA from Skeletal Remains from the 6th Century AD Reveals Insights into Justinianic Plague

...
By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #22 on: July 08, 2013, 03:02:46 PM »
Research continues into finding and reviving the "Black death" :

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/aug/17/black-death-rats-off-hook
Black Death study lets rats off the hook

Plague of 1348-49 spread so fast in London the carriers had to be humans not black rats, says archaeologist

Rats weren't the carriers of the plague after all. A study by an archaeologist looking at the ravages of the Black Death in London, in late 1348 and 1349, has exonerated the most famous animal villains in history.

"The evidence just isn't there to support it," said Barney Sloane, author of The Black Death in London. "We ought to be finding great heaps of dead rats in all the waterfront sites but they just aren't there. And all the evidence I've looked at suggests the plague spread too fast for the traditional explanation of transmission by rats and fleas. It has to be person to person – there just isn't time for the rats to be spreading it."

He added: "It was certainly the Black Death but it is by no means certain what that disease was, whether in fact it was bubonic plague."
...
However, Sloane found a valuable resource in records from the Court of Hustings, of wills made and then enacted during the plague years. As the disease gripped – in October 1348 rather than the late summer others suggested, reaching its height in April 1349 – the numbers of wills soared as panic-striken wealthy citizens realised their deaths were probably imminent.
...
John of Reading, a monk in Westminster, left one of the few witness accounts. He described deaths happening so fast there was "death without sorrow, marriage without affection, self-imposed penance, want without poverty, and flight without escape".
...
Sloane wants to dig up Charterhouse, where he believes 20,000 bodies lie under the ancient alms houses and modern buildings, including the Art Deco block where the fictional character Hercule Poirot lives in the television series. And, if anyone finds a mass medieval rat grave, he would very much like to know.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #23 on: October 16, 2014, 04:55:18 PM »
Why think about the plague when we have Ebola?

EBOLA Here we see the Musselemen use the black death as a tool of war: 

http://contagions.wordpress.com/2012/06/28/plague-at-the-siege-of-caffa-1346/


Plague at the Siege of Caffa, 1346
June 28, 2012Asia, biosecurity, Black Death, history of medicine, Italy, microbiology, Plague   
 
The first stage of the Black Death among Europeans was said to begin with the whoosh of a Mongol trebuchet. Gabriele De’ Mussi, a lawyer from near Genoa writing in about 1348, is believed to have recorded the account of the earliest use of plague as  weapon of war at Caffa in 1346.


“The dying Tartars, stunned and stupefied by the immensity of the disaster brought about by the disease, and realizing that they had no hope of escape, lost interest in the siege. But they ordered corpses to be placed in catapults and lobbed into the city in the hope that the intolerable stench would kill everyone inside. What seemed like mountains of dead were thrown into the city, and the Christians could not hide or flee or escape from them, although they dumped as many bodies as they could into the sea. As soon as the rotting corpses tainted the air and poisoned the water supply, and the stench was so overwhelming that hardly one in several thousand was in a position to flee the remains of the Tartar army. Moreover one infected man could carry the poison to others, and infect people and places with the disease by look alone. No one knew, or could discover, a means of defense.” (Horrox, p. 17).


...
Although refugees from Caffa may have only been one stream of disease transmission, ships from Caffa could have been important for two reasons.

First, ships from Caffa could have been a primary disease stream even if they didn’t directly reach Genoa or Venice. Following what we now know about super-spreading phenomena a few ships stopping at multiple ports could radically effect transmission dynamics as plague entered Europe.

Additionally, at least in Genoa and possibly Venice, the events at Caffa and its refugees formed a foundation narrative for a tragedy of biblical proportions. A few survivors from Caffa who eventually made their way home, possibly changing ships multiple times, may have arrived about the same time as the plague with horror stories of the plague in ships and ports along their route.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline ncjoe

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #24 on: October 16, 2014, 06:02:28 PM »
http://www.stevequayle.com/index.php?s=147 dead scientists...something I was thinking about...someone I know who has a lot of knowledge told me that something that can exist in the sub atomic world and atomic world is consider to be magical...Ebola is really small possibly sub atomic...but not quite what I mean...sub atomic kinda involves another dimension ...so if ebola is magical that means it can infect life forms in the sub atomic world...so its truly a mother f**ker of a virus ....

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #25 on: October 16, 2014, 07:34:07 PM »
related: Black death (bacteria) dna sequenced  2011/10/12

Scientists sequence the full Black Death genome and find the mother of all plagues



This is an updated version of an old piece, edited to include new information. Science progresses by adding new data to an ever-growing picture. Why should science writing be different?

The road of  East Smithfield runs through east London and carries a deep legacy of death. Two cemeteries, established in the area in the 14th century, contain round 2,500 of bodies, piled five deep. These remains belong to people killed by the Black Death, an epidemic that killed between 30 and 50 percent of Europe in just five years. It was one of the biggest disasters in human history and seven centuries on, its victims are still telling its story.

In the latest chapters, Verena Schuenemann from the University of Tubingen and Kirsten Bos from McMaster University have used samples from East Smithfield to reconstruct the full genome of the bacterium behind the Black Death. This species –  Yersinia pestis – still causes plague today, and the modern strains are surprisingly similar to the ancient one.

Compared to the strain that acts as a reference for modern plague, the ancient genome differs by only 97 DNA ‘letters’ out of around 4.6 million. Y.pestis may not be the same bacterium that butchered medieval Europe 660 years ago, but it’s not far off. Indeed, Schuenemann and Bos found that all of the strains that infect humans today descended from one that circulated during the Black Death. Even now, people are still succumbing to a dynasty of disease that began in the Dark Ages.

The Black Death is supposedly the second of a trilogy of  plague pandemics. It came after the Plague of Justinian in the sixth to eighth centuries, and preceded modern plague, which infects some 2,000 people a year. But some scientists and historians saw features in the Black Death that separates it from other plague pandemics – it spread too quickly, killed too often, recurred too slowly, appeared in different seasons, caused symptoms in different parts of the body, and so on.

These differences have fuelled   many alternative theories for the Black Death, which push Y.pestis out of the picture. Was it caused by an Ebola-like virus? An outbreak of anthrax? Some as-yet-unidentified infection that has since gone extinct? In 2000, Didier Raoult tried to solve the debate by sequencing DNA from the teeth of three Black Death victims, exhumed from a French grave. He found Y.pestis DNA. “We believe that we can end the controversy,” he wrote. “Medieval Black Death was plague.”

Raoult was half-wrong. The controversy did not end. Some people argued that it’s not clear if the remains came from Black Death victims at all. Meanwhile, Alan Cooper analysed teeth from 66 skeletons taken from so-called “plague pits”, including the one in East Smithfield. He found no trace of Y.pestis. Other teams did their own analyses, and things went back and forth with a panto-like tempo. Oh yes, Y.pestis was there. Oh no it wasn’t. Oh yes it was.

In 2010, Stephanie Haensch served up some of the strongest evidence that Y.pestis caused the Black Death, using DNA extracted from a variety of European burial sites. Schuenemann and Bos bolstered her conclusion by taking DNA from bodies that had been previously exhumed from East Smithfield, and stored in the Museum of London. “We sifted through every single intact skeleton and every intact tooth in the collection,” says Bos. They extracted DNA from 99 bones and teeth and found Y.pestis in 20 of them.

Schuenemann and Bos took great care to ensure that their sequences hadn’t been contaminated by modern bacteria. Aside from the usual precautions, they did all of her work at a facility that had never touched a Y.pestis sample, they had the results independently confirmed in a different lab, and they found traces of DNA damage that are characteristic of ancient sequences. They also failed to find any Y.pestis DNA in samples treated in exactly the same way, taken from a medieval cemetery that preceded the Black Death. Finally, it’s clear that the people exhumed from East Smithfield did indeed die from the Black Death – it’s one of the few places around the world that has been “definitively and uniquely” linked to that pandemic.

Even though they had its DNA, deciphering the ancient bacterium’s genome was difficult. The DNA was so heavily fractured that Schuenemann and Bos only managed to extract enough from four of their teeth. They lined up the fragments against a modern plague genome, and looked for overlaps between the remaining stragglers. In the draft that they’ve published, every stretch of DNA has been checked an average of 28 times.

By comparing this ancient genome with 17 modern ones, and those of other related bacteria, Scheuenemann and Bos created a family tree of plague that reveals the history of the disease. They showed that the last common ancestor of all modern plagues, lived between 1282 and 1343 before it swept through Europe, diversifying as it went. The East Smithfield strain was very close to that ancestral strain, differing by only two DNA letters.

This raises some questions about the plague of Justinian. The team think that it was either the work of an entirely different microbe, or it was caused by a strain of Y.pestis that is no longer around and likely left no descendants behind. It was the supposed second pandemic – the Black Death – that truly introduced Y.pestis to the world. This global tour seeded the strains that exist today.

By the time it hit East Smithfield, the plague was already changing. Schuenemann and Bos found that one of their four teeth harboured a slightly different version of Y.pestis, which was three DNA letters closer to modern strains than the other ancient ones. Even in the middle of the pandemic, the bacterium was mutating.

In the intervening centuries, Y.pestis has changed but not by much. None of the few differences between the ancient and modern genomes appear in genes that affect how good the bacterium is at causing diseases. None of them can obviously explain why the Black Death was so much more virulent than modern plague. “There’s no particular smoking gun,” says Hendrik Poinar, who was one of the study’s leaders.

That’s somewhat anticlimactic. In August, Poinar told me: “We need to know what changes in the ancient [bacterium] might have accounted for its tremendous virulence… There is really no way to know anything about the biology of the pathogen, until the entire genome is sequenced.” Now that the full genome is out, it seems to offer precious few clues.

Instead, the team thinks that a constellation of other factors might have made the Black Death such a potent pandemic. At the time, medieval Europe went through a drastic change in climate, becoming colder and wetter. Black rat numbers shot up, crops suffered and people went hungry. “It’s hard to believe that these people living in 1348 London weren’t being infected by various viruses,” says Poinar. “So you probably had an immune compromised population living in very stressful conditions, and they were hit by Y.pestis, maybe for the first time.” They were both physically and culturally unprepared. Their immune systems were naive, they didn’t know what the disease was, and they didn’t know how to treat or prevent it.

In later centuries, it was a different story. Medical treatments helped to cope with the symptoms and affected people were quickly quarantined. Today, we have antibiotics that help to treat plague, and these would be effective against the Black Death strain. We have evolved too. People who were most susceptible to plague were killed, which probably left the most resistant survivors behind. Next, Poinar wants to look at the DNA of people buried in pre-plague and post-plague cemeteries to see if the Black Death had altered our own genome.

Sequencing the Black Death genome may not tell us about why it was so deadly, but it still reveals how the bacterium evolved. Now, Schuenemann and Bos can look at how Y.pestis transformed from a bacterium that infects rodents to one that kills humans and how it evolved over time. That knowledge could be very important, especially since plague is rebounding as a “re-emerging” disease.

The Black Death strain is the second historical pathogen whose genome has been sequenced and certainly the oldest (the first was the 1918 pandemic flu). There are many others to look at, including the Justinian plague strain, and historical versions of tuberculosis, syphilis and cholera.

In the meantime, the East Smithfield bodies have told their story and Bos and Schuenemann are letting them rest. They were very careful with the teeth that they yanked DNA from, and they are now returning these samples to the Museum of London. Having yielded their secrets, they’ll be stuck back into their old skeletons.

Reference: Bos, Schuenemann, Golding, Burbano, Waglechner, Coombes, McPhee, DeWitte, Meyer, Schmedes, Wood, Earn, Herring, Bauer, Poinar & Kruase. 2011. A draft genome of Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death. Nature http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10549

Schuenemann, Bos, deWitte, Schmedes, Jamieson, Mittnik, Forrest, Coombes, Wood, Earn, White, Krause & Poinar. 2011. Targeted enrichment of ancient pathogens yielding the pPCP1 plasmid of Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death. PNAS http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1105107108

PS Oddly, the team’s new paper, where they publish the full Black Death genome, somewhat refutes their first one, where they had only sequenced fragments. Previously, they identified two mutations in the ancient DNA that weren’t seen in any other strain. But those two mutations aren’t there in the full genome, and it now seems that they were a mistake. Ancient DNA can be chemically damaged so that Cs change into Ts. That’s probably what happened in the previous study. Schuenemann and Bos are more confident that their new sequences are correct. They treated their samples with a method that repairs the C-to-T changes, and they went over every bit of DNA 30 times.

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/notrocketscience/2011/10/12/scientists-sequence-the-full-black-death-genome-and-find-the-mother-of-all-plagues/

http://www.nature.com/news/2011/111025/full/478444a.html
Plague genome: The Black Death decoded
28 October 2011


The genome of a 660-year-old bacterium is revealing secrets from one of Europe's darkest chapters.
...

East Smithfield, originally called the Churchyard of the Holy Trinity, is one of a handful of burial sites known to have been used only during the Black Death. In the 1980s, excavation of this 'plague pit' turned up nearly a third of the 2,400 bodies estimated to be buried there, some piled five deep.
...
This month, geneticists reported that they have reconstructed the genome of Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes bubonic plague, recovered from remains at East Smithfield1.

The sequence — the first from an ancient bacterial pathogen — may help to explain how a disease could wreak so much havoc. It also marks a renaissance in genetic studies of ancient diseases, a field that has suffered a controversial history but that is now being revitalized. "There will be a race now for all the ancient pathogens," says Hendrik Poinar, a palaeogeneticist at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada, who co-led the sequencing efforts.
...
DNA evidence would seem to offer a definitive answer. In 2000, a team led by Didier Raoult, a microbiologist at the University of the Mediterranean in Marseilles, France, said it had proved the link between the bacterium and the disease. The researchers reported2 that they had successfully recovered Y. pestis  DNA from the teeth of a child and two adults dug up from a fourteenth-century mass burial site in Montpellier. The team identified the bacterium using a sensitive technique called the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a portion of a gene from Y. pestis  called pla. "We believe that we can end the controversy," the team wrote2. "Medieval Black Death was plague."
...
Achtman says that it is possible that Black Death was not spread by rat-dwelling fleas, as Y. pestis  is today, but by other animals, which could have enhanced transmission. Or another circulating pathogen could have contributed, as in the 'Spanish flu' pandemic that killed up to 100 million people worldwide in 1918–19, often with the help of bacterial pneumonia.

Whatever questions remain about the Black Death, scientists are now keen to apply the latest sequencing methods to other ancient epidemics. "I've completely gone from thinking, 'ancient pathogens are a load of crap,' to 'hold on, maybe some of this stuff works'," says Gilbert, whose team has started to sequence DNA from pathogens that plagued ancient crops. Researchers could identify ancient microbes and chart their spread and their evolutionary relationships with contemporary strains. For example, Europeans who travelled to the New World may have introduced new forms of tuberculosis to North America and brought syphilis back to Europe.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #26 on: September 10, 2016, 07:28:27 PM »
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/archaeology/plague-cause-discovered-great-1665-london-crossrail-dna-testing-don-walker-bubonic-a7231956.html
Cause of 1665 Great Plague of London confirmed through DNA testing


The Great Plague of London killed almost a quarter of the city's population at the time
Katie Forster |
@katieforster |
Thursday 8 September 2016|

Researchers have confirmed the cause of the 1665 Great Plague by studying DNA from a mass burial pit discovered in east London last year.
...
A significant proportion of the samples tested positive for yersina pestis, the bacterium responsible for the 1348 Black Death epidemic and the 1855 bubonic plague outbreak in China.
...

“It’s significant because we had this famous, severe outbreak of plague in 1665, but until very recently, there was quite a lot of doubt about what had caused it,” he said.

...

“They identified what had caused the black death in the middle of the 14th century was yersina pestis, the plague bacterium, but they weren’t sure what caused later outbreaks of the plague. It appears now that it was the same bacterium, that lasted throughout those centuries.”
...

“It spread like through wildfire in London in 1665. Was there a mutation in the disease that suddenly meant it was affecting us? It stopped affecting us at the end of the century, and we don’t really know why.”

| - - -

http://www.livescience.com/55939-justinianic-plague-genome-update.html
World's 1st Plague Pandemic Bacteria Gets New Genetic Analysis
By Greg Uyeno, Staff Writer |  August 30, 2016 06:01pm ET

With a single tooth from an ancient human skeleton found in Germany, scientists have now created the most complete genetic picture yet of the bacteria that caused the world's first plague pandemic.


The Justinianic Plague killed 50 million people from the sixth to eighth centuries
, and was caused by the same species of bacteria, Yersinia pestis, as the Black Death, which struck Europe during the Middle Ages.
...


World's 1st Plague Pandemic Bacteria Gets New Genetic Analysis

With a single tooth from an ancient human skeleton found in Germany, scientists have now created the most complete genetic picture yet of the bacteria that caused the world's first plague pandemic.

The Justinianic Plague killed 50 million people from the sixth to eighth centuries, and was caused by the same species of bacteria, Yersinia pestis, as the Black Death, which struck Europe during the Middle Ages.

The new genetic analysis reveals that three of the genes of this bacteria likely contributed more to the spread of the plague than previously thought. In addition, the researchers found mutations that were unique to the strain of Yersinia pestis that caused the Justinianic Plague.

"We now have a complete Justinianic re-constructed genome, as opposed to the partial draft genome that was published in 2014," Michal Feldman, the lead author of the new study and a researcher at the Max Planck Institutes in Germany, told Live Science in an email.


That earlier study was led by David Wagner, an ecologist at Northern Arizona University. The new findings are "a validation of what we found previously with a different sample, which is exciting," Wagner told Live Science.

...

The new study revealed mutations in three genes — named nrdE, fadJ and pcp — which the researchers said are associated with plague virulence. However, Wagner noted he was skeptical of this conclusion. "There's not a lot of background to suggest these things are associated with virulence," he said.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline attietewd

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #27 on: September 16, 2016, 09:56:39 PM »
Quote
Posted by: attietewd
« on: October 28, 2011, 05:40:28 PM »

Plague Death Came Within Hours, Spurred by Scientist's Medical Condition

An autopsy found the researcher had a medical condition called hemochromatosis, which causes an excessive buildup of iron in the body, according to the CDC report. The disorder affects about 1 in 400 people and goes unnoticed in about half of patients.

“It’s like having a lion, where we took out all its teeth and all its claws,” Alexander said. “But in the case of Dr. Casadaban, the lion didn’t even need to have teeth. There was so much iron that it was freely available and easy to get.”

full article:[/b]
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-25/plague-kills-u-s-scientist-in-first-laboratory-case-in-50-years-cdc-says.html

How did he get the plague if the vaccine was inactivated?  He had an underlying genetic condition called Hemochromatosis.  His body did not dispose of iron in the normal way but stored it in his liver.  The teeth and claws were supposedly removed from the plague so that it no longer would get iron in the typical way which is through the red blood cells.  The plague did not need its teeth and claws to get the iron out of Casadaban, it just went into his liver and thrived.  These guys are so stoooooooopid!


One thing they learned is how to kill off a specific population while leaving the rest alone...a targeted genocide...people with hemochromatosis (which by the way is ONE in every TWO HUNDRED).  Not too bad a swipe of the population in reaching their goal.
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Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #28 on: September 17, 2016, 08:48:13 PM »

One thing they learned is how to kill off a specific population while leaving the rest alone...a targeted genocide...people with hemochromatosis (which by the way is ONE in every TWO HUNDRED).  Not too bad a swipe of the population in reaching their goal.

interesting ... that is an Irish specific genetic malady:


http://www.americanhs.org/irish%20in%20the%20blood.htm
Irish in the blood
Although often misdiagnosed, an ancient blood disease is still making its presence known in those of Irish extraction.
by Colleen Dougher

Sandra Thomas loves a good St. Paddy’s Day party.

It’s not the great Irish music and dance, the corned beef and cabbage, or even the abundant supply of Guinness. It’s just that having all those people of Celtic heritage gathered in one place makes her mission so much easier.

For 16 years, Thomas, who runs American Hemochromatosis Society out of her Delray Beach home, has been using St. Paddy’s Day as a way to tell people about what she calls "The Celtic Curse," a disease that deposits iron in the heart, joints, liver, pancreas and pituitary gland, and eventually "rusts" the insides of bodies.

Her group does everything from distributing literature at Irish festivals to placing fliers in Palm Beach County Irish pubs and using the opportunity to contact the media about this common, yet little-known genetic disorder.

While no one is immune to hemochromatosis, those with Irish, Scottish or British heritage have a significantly higher chance of carrying the gene mutation that may cause them to develop the potentially deadly disorder.

Some researchers believe that hemochromatosis originated more than 40,000 years ago in the area we now know as Ireland with a single person whose genes mutated so that he or she could over-absorb iron to compensate for an iron-poor diet.

Today, with iron-enriched foods, iron supplements and plenty of red meat, there’s no need to pull in extra iron, yet many still carry the ancient mutated genes that cause their bodies to do so, at toxic levels.
 
Left untreated, hemochromatosis can lead to everything from early menopause and infertility to diabetes, heart failure, cirrhosis, primary liver cancer and even death. But if caught before damage is done, hemochromatosis patients can be saved, and their health restored through a process called bloodletting, or phlebotomies.

Initially, a patient may be required to have a pint of blood drawn once or twice a week, until excess iron is depleted. Each time blood is drawn, the brain tells the red blood cells they need iron, so the blood taps the iron stored in organs and tissues. Eventually, and sometimes this takes a few years, the stores of iron are depleted. Afterward, a patient will be required to have phlebotomies maybe three or four times a year to keep iron from accumulating.

Despite the simple cure, many hemochromatosis patients remain untreated and die from diseases caused by iron overload. Even though many exhibit symptoms and simple, relatively inexpensive tests are available, they’re often not administered
....

| - - -

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hemochromatosis/symptoms-causes/dxc-20167290
;...

Symptoms

Some people with hereditary hemochromatosis never have symptoms. Early signs and symptoms often overlap with those of other common conditions. Common symptoms include:
•Joint pain
•Abdominal pain
•Fatigue
•Weakness


Later signs and symptoms of the disease may include:
•Diabetes
•Loss of sex drive
•Impotence
•Heart failure
•Liver failure

When signs and symptoms typically appear

Hereditary hemochromatosis is present at birth. But, most people don't experience signs and symptoms until later in life — usually between the ages of 50 and 60 in men and after age 60 in women. Women are more likely to develop symptoms after menopause, when they no longer lose iron with menstruation and pregnancy.
...


Gene mutations that cause hemochromatosis

A gene called HFE is most often the cause of hereditary hemochromatosis. You inherit one HFE gene from each of your parents. The HFE gene has two common mutations, C282Y and H63D.

Genetic testing can reveal whether you have these mutations in your HFE gene.
If you inherit 2 abnormal genes, you may develop hemochromatosis. You can also pass the mutation on to your children. But, not everyone who inherits two genes develops problems linked to the iron overload of hemochromatosis.
•If you inherit 1 abnormal gene, you won't develop hemochromatosis. You are considered a gene mutation carrier and can pass the mutation on to your children. But, they wouldn't develop disease unless they also inherited another abnormal gene from the other parent
...

Ethnicity. People of Northern European descent are more prone to hereditary hemochromatosis than are people of other ethnic backgrounds. Hemochromatosis is less common in African-Americans, Hispanics and Asian-Americans.
...

Complications

Untreated, hereditary hemochromatosis can lead to a number of complications, especially in your joints and in organs where excess iron tends to be stored — your liver, pancreas and heart. Complications can include:
•Liver problems. Cirrhosis — permanent scarring of the liver — is just one of the problems that may occur. Cirrhosis increases your risk of liver cancer and other life-threatening complications.
•Pancreas problems. Damage to the pancreas can lead to diabetes.
Heart problems. Excess iron in your heart affects the heart's ability to circulate enough blood for your body's needs. This is called congestive heart failure. Hemochromatosis can also cause abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias).
Reproductive problems. Excess iron can lead to erectile dysfunction (impotence), and loss of sex drive in men and absence of the menstrual cycle in women.
•Skin color changes. Deposits of iron in skin cells can make your skin appear bronze or gray in color.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline attietewd

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #29 on: September 19, 2016, 01:19:41 AM »
Thank you TahoeBlue for your very informative article.  My Hubby is of Celtic heritage (Scottish) and has Hemochromatosis.  He has been getting phlebotomy's for years.  He only had the one gene but got it from both of his parents.  We have one son who has one gene, does not have the disease but can pass it on to his kids.  We have another son who has both genes of it and has the disease as well.  We never knew Hubby's Mother had the disease or that his Dad was a carrier until Hubby was diagnosed with it.   His mother died of cirrhosis of the liver.  She was not a drinker and we thought that odd at the time.  More than 20 years later we came to understand what happened to his Mom.  Thank God for the phlebotomies.
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Offline decemberfellow

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #30 on: September 19, 2016, 01:22:15 AM »
Bump:  interesting  but bedtime.
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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #31 on: January 13, 2017, 02:05:28 PM »
https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2599633/scientists-race-to-develop-vaccine-for-the-plague-amid-fears-terrorists-could-use-the-medieval-disease-to-kill-millions/
BIOWAR FEARS Scientists race to develop vaccine for the PLAGUE amid fears terrorists could use the Medieval disease to kill millions

A leading researcher has warned the disease could be weaponized to deadly effect should it fall into the wrong hands
 Exclusive
 By COREY CHARLTON 

13th January 2017, 11:12 am

LEADING scientists are frantically working to develop a vaccine for the PLAGUE amid fears terrorists could kill millions if they weaponized the deadly bacteria.

The Medieval disease famously wiped out one third of Europe’s population in the 13th and 14th centuries in one of the most devastating pandemics in human history now known as the Black Death.

Today the disease – which has a 90 to 100 per cent mortality rate – has been classed by the World Health Organisation as a “re-emerging human pathogen”.

Dr Ashok Chopra, a professor of microbiology and immunology at the University of Texas, is leading studies he hopes will develop a vaccine to counter all three strains.
...
He told The Sun Online: “We are specifically looking at pneumonic plague because the mortality rate associated with pneumonic plague is very high – almost 100 percent.”

Bubonic plague is the most commonly recognised strain of the disease – but the pnuemonic variant is much more virulent, and unlike bubonic, is spread via airborne particles.

“If terrorists use those organisms – they could utilise the bacteria. It could lead to mass deaths in a very short period of time. It would spread very, very quickly.

...
...

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online egypt

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #32 on: January 13, 2017, 02:40:49 PM »


In the meantime, they say squirrels and rodents have the plague.  This is the reason given for closing campgrounds.  Do they really have plague?  Or, do they just want us not able to enjoy the forests?

love, e

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #33 on: January 13, 2017, 02:50:32 PM »

In the meantime, they say squirrels and rodents have the plague.  This is the reason given for closing campgrounds.  Do they really have plague?  Or, do they just want us not able to enjoy the forests?

love, e

yes,  they REALLY have plague ...  but it is endemic to very small unpopulated areas. ( I live in the sierra's - I am aware) . 
Coyotes eat the squirrels AND THEY "carry" plague ,,,, and FLEAS that feed on the mice and the coyotes carry the plague ...

Cases of people getting plague are NOT in the press accept locally .   If these infected persons were left untreated  ,,,, hmmm...


https://www.nps.gov/yose/planyourvisit/plague.htm
...
Plague is widespread in much of California, including in the Sierra Nevada mountains and foothills
. In a typical year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports about ten cases of plague in humans per year in the western United States. However, during 2015, 16 human plague cases were reported.
...

| - - -
http://abcnews.go.com/Health/girl-bubonic-plague-saved-quick-thinking-doctor/story?id=17170384
Girl With Bubonic Plague Saved by Quick-Thinking Doctor
By Kevin Dolak
CHANDANI PATEL and M.D.
Sept. 6, 2012

A pediatric critical care doctor's quick, outside-the-box thinking saved the life of a 7-year-old girl who'd contracted a rare case of bubonic plague while camping in southwest Colorado.

Sierra Jane Downing
had come upon a half-eaten squirrel while on a picnic with her family on Aug.19 in Pagosa Springs. A passionate animal lover, the young girl asked her parents if she could bury the animal. Her mother said no.

"We told her to stay away from it, but when she went down to the creek to play with her 13-year-old sister, Sierra Jane went back to the squirrel, put her sweatshirt down next to it, and then picked up the sweatshirt and put it around her waist," her mother, Darcy Downing, told ABC News.

Five days later, Sierra Jane woke up with a fever and was vomiting, and by 9 p.m. her father found her lying on the bathroom floor. When he picked her up to bring her back to bed, the girl threw up again and then had a seizure.

At that point the girl's dad knew something was very wrong, and he rushed her to the local hospital near their Pagosa Springs home.

Sierra Jane's clear chest X-ray and only slightly elevated white blood cell count offered local doctors no clue that Sierra Jane had contracted the disease that wiped out one-third of Europe's population in the 14th century.

,...

Dr. Jennifer Snow, the pediatric critical care specialist whose quick thinking proved so important, ran some blood tests on Sierra Jane, as the girl was in disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, meaning her blood would not clot. Snow then reinterviewed the family about where Sierra Jane had been and what she might have been exposed to.

"Mom told us the story of the exposure to the dead squirrel, and exposure to mouse droppings in chicken coops, and exposure to a dead skunk," Snow told ABC News.

By then Snow was getting an inkling of what Sierra Jane might have contracted. Snow did an immediate literature search, and found a report of a 16-year-old with fulminant septic shock in the chest whose cause of death was listed as bubonic plague.
...
This is the first case of bubonic plague that either Snow or Drummond had seen in their careers
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online donnay

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #34 on: January 13, 2017, 02:55:08 PM »
More Fake News?

BIOWAR FEARS Scientists race to develop vaccine for the PLAGUE amid fears terrorists could use the Medieval disease to kill millions

A leading researcher has warned the disease could be weaponized to deadly effect should it fall into the wrong hands

LEADING scientists are frantically working to develop a vaccine for the PLAGUE amid fears terrorists could kill millions if they weaponized the deadly bacteria.

The Medieval disease famously wiped out one third of Europe’s population in the 13th and 14th centuries in one of the most devastating pandemics in human history now known as the Black Death.

Read more:  https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2599633/scientists-race-to-develop-vaccine-for-the-plague-amid-fears-terrorists-could-use-the-medieval-disease-to-kill-millions/
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Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #35 on: January 13, 2017, 03:05:25 PM »
Bio warfare scientists do not exist in the US. They are called bio-DEFENSE scientists!

More Fake News?

BIOWAR FEARS Scientists race to develop vaccine for the PLAGUE amid fears terrorists could use the Medieval disease to kill millions

...
LEADING scientists are frantically working to develop a vaccine for the PLAGUE amid fears terrorists could [will] kill millions if [when] they weaponize d the deadly bacteria.
/...

Read more:  https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2599633/scientists-race-to-develop-vaccine-for-the-plague-amid-fears-terrorists-could-use-the-medieval-disease-to-kill-millions/
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #36 on: January 13, 2017, 04:08:47 PM »

Reading Ecoscience:  Population Resources Environment it's really plain how they love the plague, death & famine.
Why else would they dig up corpses to get the plague microbes?  Then, it appears in the wildlife like Lyme's.

The evil mad scientists scenario needs to be addressed.  There should be laws against messing with wiping out huge populations and mankind in general.  There is no point, warfare or otherwise that is acceptable.  The Nuremburg Charter which contains the Nuremburg Code have been passed internationally, but there seems to be a disconnect...especially since there is existing United States legislation that considers us guinea pigs and allows experimentation on us...


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuremberg_Code






Offline Satyagraha

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Re: Plague - first U.S. scientist to die of the plague in 50 years
« Reply #37 on: January 13, 2017, 04:57:01 PM »
Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v413/n6855/abs/413523a0.html
Nature 413, 523-527 (4 October 2001) | doi:10.1038/35097083; Received 8 May 2001; Accepted 16 August 2001

The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the systemic invasive infectious disease classically referred to as plague1, and has been responsible for three human pandemics: the Justinian plague (sixth to eighth centuries), the Black Death (fourteenth to nineteenth centuries) and modern plague (nineteenth century to the present day). The recent identification of strains resistant to multiple drugs2 and the potential use of Y. pestis as an agent of biological warfare mean that plague still poses a threat to human health. (Continued)

-------------------------

So let's see who's doing this study...

Oh, here we go...

1. The Sanger Centre, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK

The Sanger Centre is part of the Wellcome Trust: the former Glaxo-Wellcome which split off (Glaxo became Glaxo-Smith-Klein)...
Look .. they just elected a new Chaiman...

Eliza Manningham-Buller to be next Chair of the Wellcome Trust
https://wellcome.ac.uk/press-release/eliza-manningham-buller-be-next-chair-wellcome-trust
Press release / Published: 10 March 2015

--------------------------------------------------------

She must be some kind of high-level scientist, right??? Like REALLY qualified in the area of genetic research...
Wrong.

Let's check out her CV:

---------------------------------------------------------

"The Wellcome Trust is pleased to announce the appointment today of Eliza Manningham-Buller as the Trust's Chair-elect.
Baroness Manningham-Buller, who is currently a Governor of the Wellcome Trust, will succeed Sir William Castell as Chair when he retires from the role on October 1, 2015. She was appointed following an open recruitment process, and will be the first woman to chair the Wellcome Trust.

Eliza Manningham-Buller was Director-General of the UK Security Service (MI5) between 2002 and 2007, leading the service through significant change. She was made a life peer in 2008, and sits on the cross benches in the House of Lords where she is a member of the Science and Technology Committee. She is a Lady Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter and a Dame Commander of the Order of the Bath, and gave the BBC Reith Lectures in 2011."

----------------------------------------------------------

Ok, well... we know what her qualifications are.

Who else is interested in the Plague?

----------------------------------------------------------


2. Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK

3. Chemical and Biological Sciences, Dstl, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ, UK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porton_Down

Porton Down is a United Kingdom government military science park. It is situated slightly northeast of Porton near Salisbury, in Wiltshire, England. To the northwest lies the MoD Boscombe Down airfield operated by QinetiQ. On maps, the land surrounding the complex is identified as a "Danger Area".[1]
It is home to the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, known as Dstl. Dstl is an Executive Agency of the Ministry of Defence (MoD), and the site is believed to be one of the United Kingdom's most sensitive and secretive government facilities for military research, including chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) defence. The Dstl site occupies 7,000 acres (28 km2).[2]


4. Department of Medical Microbiology, St Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London EC1A 7BE, UK

5. Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 2AZ, UK

----------------------------------------------------------

This is one of many studies of the Plague... this one was published in Oct. of 2001.
If the Plague shows up as a bioweapon, we can be pretty sure it wasn't developed by a bunch of guys in caves.
It's being developed (and this is only ONE of many studies) by the military. The Globalists' military.

More at these links:

Subtle genetic modifications transformed an enteropathogen into a flea-borne pathogen.
Elisabeth Carniel, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 2014

Silencing urease: a key evolutionary step that facilitated the adaptation of Yersinia pestis to the flea-borne transmission route.
Iman Chouikha et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 2014

Global discovery of small RNAs in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis identifies Yersinia-specific small, noncoding RNAs required for virulence.
Jovanka T Koo et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 2011

RovA, a global regulator of Yersinia pestis, specifically required for bubonic plague.
Jason S Cathelyn et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 2006


And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40