Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World

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Online TahoeBlue

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Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« on: July 29, 2011, 04:04:26 PM »
http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/182689/20110719/human-neanderthal-genome-project-neanderthals-human-evolution-ice-age-archaic-lineages-neandertal-ad.htm
Non-Africans Carry Neanderthal DNA

By IB Times Staff Reporter | July 19, 2011 2:06 AM EDT

How are we able to survive in harsh and cold regions? The answer lies in our genes, which may have come from Neanderthals.

People outside Africa are found to be carrying some of the human X chromosomes originating from Neanderthals, according to a latest study.

The study confirmed a long-held belief that our human ancestors came into contact with Neanderthals. The question on everyone's mind has always been whether the physically stronger Neanderthals, who possessed the gene for language and may have played the flute, were a separate species or could have interbred with modern humans. The answer is yes and the two lived in close association.

An analysis of more than 6,000 X-chromosomes from all inhabited continents supports earlier contention that a mosaic of lineages of different time depths and different geographic provenance could have contributed to the genetic constitution of modern humans.
...

This confirms recent findings suggesting that the two populations interbred," says Damian Labuda of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Montreal and the CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center.

Neanderthals, whose ancestors left Africa about 400,000 to 800,000 years ago, were evolved in what is now mainly France, Spain, Germany and Russia, and are thought to have lived until about 30,000 years ago.

Meanwhile, early modern humans left Africa about 80,000 to 50,000 years ago.

"In addition, because our methods were totally independent of Neanderthal material, we can also conclude that previous results were not influenced by contaminating artifacts," Labuda said


http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1987568,00.html
Study: Neanderthal DNA Lives On in Modern Humans

By Jennifer Pinkowski Thursday, May 06, 2010

Correction Appended: May 8, 2010

A decade after scientists first cracked the human genome, researchers announced in the May 7 issue of Science that they have done the same for Neanderthals, the species of hominid that existed from roughly 400,000 to 30,000 years ago, when their closest relatives, early modern humans, may have driven them to extinction.

Led by ancient-DNA expert Svante Pääbo of Germany's Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, scientists reconstructed about 60% of the Neanderthal genome by analyzing tiny chains of ancient DNA extracted from bone fragments of three female Neanderthals excavated in the late 1970s and early '80s from a cave in Croatia. The bones are 38,000 to 44,000 years old.

...

The gene flow of Neanderthal DNA into early human DNA was found in only one direction: from Neanderthals to us. The study found no early modern human DNA in the Neanderthal genome. It is not clear whether interbreeding happened a few times among small populations or frequently among large populations; the genetic remnants would look the same with current technology. The Neanderthal DNA appears in the modern human genomes randomly, suggesting it offers no evolutionary benefit and is merely a genetic relic.

...

The fact that they found it across the board says that the evidence must be very widespread across modern humans," says Erik Trinkaus, an anthropologist at Washington University in St. Louis, Mo., who has long argued that the human fossils he has studied in France, Romania, the Czech Republic and other places show mixed ancestry. "If you can find evidence [of Neanderthals] after 30,000 years of [human] genetic shifting, then it must have been pretty important or prominent then." Trinkaus speculates that the genetic flow between Neanderthals and early modern humans might have been as high as 10% to 20%
...Whatever our mixing, it is human uniqueness that has also been revealed by the sequencing. By comparing the Neanderthal genome with those of modern humans, the team identified a small number of genetic changes that were newly evolved in modern humans. Some of the changes may have arisen as a result of genetic drift, but others seem to have been positively selected for — meaning they swept through populations rapidly, possibly because they gave us some advantage.

The genes in which some of the changes occurred play a role in cognitive and physical development — such as cranial features, skin pigmentation and how we metabolize energy. The study's authors don't yet know what the specific changes signify, but in living people, mutations in some of the genes related to cognitive development contribute to conditions such as Down syndrome, schizophrenia and autism.
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Some people are Neanderthal's - DNA
« Reply #1 on: July 29, 2011, 04:20:08 PM »
Even the Smithsonian Institute is getting in on the action: [ Are you a red head? ]

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/genetics/ancient-dna-and-neanderthals
Ancient DNA and Neanderthals


...
Further mtDNA sequences confirmed sequence differences between Neanderthals and modern humans. Researchers compared Neanderthal mtDNA to that of modern humans from different geographic regions. If Neanderthals had interbred with modern humans in Europe, then researchers would have expected to find more similarities between Neanderthals and Europeans than between Neanderthals and other modern humans. However, Neanderthals were equidistant from modern human groups, which is consistent with genetic separation between modern humans and Neanderthals. However, this does not explicitly disprove admixture because interregional gene flow between modern humans could have swamped the Neanderthal contribution to Europeans (Relethford 2001).

Researchers have also studied ancient DNA from anatomically modern Homo sapiens from Europe dating to the same time period as the Neanderthals. Material from two Paglicci Cave, Italy individuals, dated to 23,000 and 25,000 years old, was sequenced. The Paglicci Homo sapiens mtDNA sequences were different from all Neanderthal mtDNA sequences but were within the range of variation for modern human mtDNA sequences (Caramelli et al. 2003). Mitochondrial DNA from the Paglicci specimens as well as other ancient humans fit within the range of modern humans, but the Neanderthals remain consistently genetically distinct. This shows that early anatomically modern Homo sapiens were not very different genetically from current modern humans, but were still different from Neanderthals. Though this evidence does not disprove the idea of Neanderthal and modern human admixture, it shows that moderns and Neanderthals did not have more genetic similarities during the Pleistocene that were subsequently lost. If interbreeding did occur, Neanderthal mtDNA sequences could have been lost due to genetic drift.
...
One Million Base Pairs of the Neanderthal Sequence

Svante Pääbo’s team from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany announced the sequencing of one million base pairs of nuclear DNA of a Neanderthal specimen in 2006 (Green et al. 2006). After a long search for specimens with a sufficient amount of undamaged DNA to sequence and for the ones with the least evidence of contamination, they focused on Vindija 80, a Neanderthal discovered in Croatia in 1980 that is approximately 38,000 years old.

They estimated that 7.9% of the changes in human DNA compared with that of the chimpanzee occurred after the split with Neanderthals. They dated the split between the ancestors of modern humans and Neanderthals to 465,000 to 569,000 years ago. They also found that the effective population size of the Neanderthals was small. Their success in sequencing this amount of DNA indicated that a large-scale project to sequence the Neanderthal genome is possible.
...
Red-Headed Neanderthals

Ancient DNA has been used to show aspects of Neanderthal appearance. A fragment of the gene for the melanocortin 1 receptor (MRC1) was sequenced using DNA from two Neanderthal specimens from Spain and Italy, El Sidrón 1252 and Monte Lessini (Lalueza-Fox et al. 2007). Neanderthals had a mutation in this receptor gene that has not been found in modern humans. The mutation changes an amino acid, making the resulting protein less efficient. Modern humans have other MCR1 variants that are also less active resulting in red hair and pale skin.

The less active Neanderthal mutation probably also resulted in red hair and pale skin, as in modern humans.

The specific MCR1 mutation in Neanderthals has not found in modern humans (or occurs extremely rarely in modern humans). This indicates that the two mutations for red hair and pale skin occurred independently and does not support the idea of gene flow between Neanderthals and modern humans. Pale skin may have been advantageous to Neanderthals living in Europe because of the ability to synthesize vitamin D.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Some people are Neanderthal's - DNA
« Reply #2 on: July 29, 2011, 04:33:34 PM »
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal
...

Neanderthal cranial capacity is thought to have been as large as that of a Homo sapiens, perhaps larger, indicating their brain size may have been comparable, as well.

In 2008, a group of scientists created a study using three-dimensional computer-assisted reconstructions of Neanderthal infants based on fossils found in Russia and Syria, showing that they had brains as large as modern humans' at birth and larger than modern humans' as adults.[8] O

On average, the height of Neanderthals was comparable to contemporaneous Homo sapiens. Neanderthal males stood about 165–168 cm (65–66 in), and were heavily built with robust bone structure. They were much stronger than Homo sapiens, having particularly strong arms and hands.[9] Females stood about 152–156 cm (60–61 in) tall.[10]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cro-Magnon
The Cro-Magnon ( /kroʊˈmæɡnən/; French [kʁomaɲɔ̃]) were the first early modern humans (early Homo sapiens sapiens) of the European Upper Paleolithic. The earliest known remains of Cro-Magnon-like humans are radiometrically dated to 35,000 years before present.

Cro-Magnons were robustly built and powerful. The body was generally heavy and solid with a strong musculature. The forehead was straight, with slight browridges and a tall forehead.[1]

Cro-Magnons were the first humans (genus Homo) to have a prominent chin.

The brain capacity was about 1,600 cc (100 cubic inches), larger than the average for modern humans.[2]

The Cro-Magnons were long limbed and adult males would often reach 6 feet 3 inches (190 cm).[
...
The term "Cro-Magnon" soon came to be used in a general sense to describe the oldest modern people in Europe
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Current scientific literature prefers the term "European Early Modern Humans" (or EEMH), instead of "Cro-Magnon". The oldest definitely dated EEMH specimen[6] with a modern and archaic (possibly Neanderthal) mosaic of traits is the Cro-Magnon Oase 1 find,[7] which has been dated back to around 45,000 calendar years before present.
...
Several works on genetics, blood types and cranial morphology indicate that the Basque people may be part descendents of the original Cro-Magnon population.[26]

A 2006 study of Basque DNA has shown a 1% incidence of mtDNA haplogroup U8a dated to the time of Cro-Magnon but noted that the low incidence of this ancestry and recent gene flow from neighbouring populations means the current Basque population cannot be considered reliable examples of the physical charactertics of Cro-Magnon
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #3 on: November 19, 2013, 04:58:02 PM »
Lord of the Rings’-type world

http://www.nature.com/news/mystery-humans-spiced-up-ancients-rampant-sex-lives-1.14196
Mystery humans spiced up ancients’ rampant sex lives

Genome analysis suggests interbreeding between modern humans, Neanderthals, Denisovans and a mysterious archaic population.
Ewen Callaway
 19 November 2013

New genome sequences from two extinct human relatives suggest that these ‘archaic’ groups bred with humans and with each other more extensively than was previously known.

The ancient genomes, one from a Neanderthal and one from a different archaic human group, the Denisovans, were presented on 18 November at a meeting at the Royal Society in London. They suggest that interbreeding went on between the members of several ancient human-like groups living in Europe and Asia more than 30,000 years ago, including an as-yet unknown human ancestor from Asia.

“What it begins to suggest is that we’re looking at a ‘Lord of the Rings’-type world — that there were many hominid populations,” says Mark Thomas, an evolutionary geneticist at University College London who was at the meeting but was not involved in the work.
...
Most surprisingly, Reich said, the new genomes indicate that Denisovans interbred with another extinct population of archaic humans that lived in Asia more than 30,000 years ago, which is neither human nor Neanderthal
...
The meeting was abuzz with conjecture about the identity of this potentially new population of humans. “We don’t have the faintest idea,” says Chris Stringer, a paleoanthropologist at the London Natural History Museum, who was not involved in the work. He speculates that the population could be related to Homo heidelbergensis, a species that left Africa around half a million years ago and later gave rise to Neanderthals in Europe. “Perhaps it lived on in Asia as well,” Stringer says.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online chris jones

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #4 on: November 19, 2013, 08:09:13 PM »
The photo of the skull is a twin of ancient Egypt's Pharaohs/royalty, also found in South America among others geographical areas.
Scientists, mainstram, attributed this to the banding of the skull from infancy causing it to expand.
 Those who question contemporary theories (the public word of the mountain) are not given much attention as per the norm.
 I question everything, HEY-why not?
 Biblical accounts of giants roaming the earth is in the book, not many have disputed this.
No rant, but I do remember a guy saying there are more mystery's on this earth than in all the heavens.
 Just to mention, there are super wealthy who collect ancient art, who have isolated discovery's that would open the eyes of the G.P,- (what they consider the ignorant masses). They pay enormous sums of money to search/secure historical artifacts and have for centuries. The scale of information the *COLLECTORS have is beyond our comprehension.  The Vatican vaults for example have a couple of details we will never be privy to.
 OK, a rant.. Human nature-has it been altered though the millenniums, most certainly technology , lifestyles etc. But the down and basic nature of mankind is one thing that has not evolved, hidden a tad better,- the elites feeding ground is the nature of mankind.
  Mass manipulation is historic, a elite science.
 

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #5 on: November 20, 2013, 11:31:43 AM »
http://www.livescience.com/41244-deformed-skull-burial-in-france.html
Deformed, Pointy Skull from Dark Ages Unearthed in France
By Tia Ghose, Staff Writer   |   November 15, 2013


A woman's deformed skull was found in one of the tombs, which dates to around 1,650 years ago. (~360AD)

...
The necropolis, found in the Alsace region of France, contains 38 tombs that span more than 4,000 years, from the Stone Age to the Dark Ages



http://www.livescience.com/41245-images-deformed-skulls-tombs-france.html
...
they found 18 tombs from either the late Roman period or the early Dark Ages, about 1,650 years ago. One of the tombs held a woman, likely an aristocrat, who had a deformed, flattened forehead.

"The deformation of the skull with the help of bandages (narrow strips of cloth) and small boards is a practice coming from central Asia," Lefranc said in an email. "It was popularized by the Huns and adopted by many German people."

In those times, the deformed, alienlike skull was a privilege reserved for the aristocracy.
...
The wealthy lady's tomb also contained gold pins, belts known as chatelaines, pearls, a comb made of a stag antler, and a bronze mirror that likely came from the Caucasus region or central Asia, he said.

The team speculates that the 1,650-year-old graves held mercenary soldiers from the East and their families, who were employed by the Roman Army during the waning days of the Roman empire.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_cranial_deformation
...
Intentional head moulding producing extreme cranial deformations was once commonly practised in a number of cultures widely separated geographically and chronologically, and so was probably independently invented more than once. It still occurs today in a few places, like Vanuatu.

Early examples of intentional human cranial deformation predate written history and date back to 45,000 BC in Neanderthal skulls, and to the Proto-Neolithic Homo sapiens component (12th millennium BC) from Shanidar Cave in Iraq.[1][2] It occurred among Neolithic peoples in Southwest Asia

The earliest written record of cranial deformation dates to 400 BC in Hippocrates' description of the Macrocephali or Long-heads, who were named for their practice of cranial modification.[4]

In the Old World, Huns[5] and Alans[6] are also known to have practised similar cranial deformation. In Late Antiquity (AD 300-600), the East Germanic tribes who were ruled by the Huns, adopted this custom (Gepids, Ostrogoths, Heruli, Rugii and Burgundians). In western Germanic tribes, artificial skull deformations have rarely been found

The New international encyclopaedia, Volume 9  
...
In blood the French combine many races—prehistoric Teutonic blond longheads, Alpine or Celtic shortheads, and Mediterranean brunette longheads.

The stature of conscripts is given as 1.646 meters, and the general cranial index at 83.4, ranging from 75 to 88. But anthropometric characteristics -have to be studied with caution, since the tall light-complexioned type, with blue or gray eyes, predominates in the north;
the short-headed brunette type, marked by dark eyes and low stature, prevails in the middle and south;
and the Mediterranean type, brunette, dark-eyed and short, occurs in parts adjoining Italy and Spain.

The southern French may be called "Iberio-Celtic" and the northern French "Teuto-Celtic," the language of both being Italic.

A retrospect of French ethnology includes:
(1) the modern period of racial coalescence since the Crusades, embracing also nationality and speech;
(2) incursions of Saracens (arrested by Charles Martel, 732 A.D.), Burgundians, Franks (who gave their name to the country), and Visigoths, the last three being Teutons;
(3) the Roman conquest and all that it means in racial mixtures, no less than in sovereignty and speech;
(4) the earlier settlements of Belgian longheads, Celts, or Gauls, and Aquitanian and Ligurian brunettes;
(5) Semitic and Felasgian settlements, made by Phoenician and Greek colonists, of little account, however, to the ethnologist;
(6) the peoples of the earliest Iron and the Bronze age, with a variety of skull types;
(7) the Neolithic authors of menhirs and dolmens, exhibiting intermixture of brachycephals and dolichocephals;
(8) the CroMagnon and the Neanderthal or "Spy man," Paleolithic contemporaries of the cave bear, mammoth, and reindeer, and, back of that, the rudest stone ages, when men are alleged to have lived with the mastodon and Elephas antiquus.

France has experienced in this long stretch of time and evolution of culture the whole range of climates in which man can exist, ranging from arctic to tropical, together with their fauna and flora.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alemanni
The Alemanni (also Alamanni, Alamani[1]) were a confederation of Suebian Germanic tribes located on the upper Rhine river. First mentioned by the Romans in 213, the Alemanni captured the Agri Decumates in 260, and later expanded into present-day Alsace, and northern Switzerland, establishing the German language in those regions.

In 496, the Alemanni were conquered by Frankish leader Clovis and incorporated into his dominions. The legacy of the Alemanni survives in the names of Germany in several languages.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landesmuseum_W%C3%BCrttemberg
Landesmuseum Württemberg

The Landesmuseum Württemberg (Württemberg State Museum) is the main historical museum of the Württemberg part of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. It emerged from the 16th-century “Kunstkammer” (art chamber) of the dukes, later kings, of Württemberg who resided in Stuttgart.


Turricephalus of a 30 to 40 year old Alamannic woman of the early 6th century

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baden-W%C3%BCrttemberg


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Die_Nibelungen

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brunhild




Brynhildr (also spelled Brunhild, Brünnhilde, Brynhild) is a shieldmaiden and a valkyrie in Germanic mythology, where she appears as a main character in the Völsunga saga and some Eddic poems treating the same events. Under the name Brünnhilde she appears in the Nibelungenlied and therefore also in Richard Wagner's opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen. She may be inspired by the Visigothic princess Brunhilda of Austrasia. The history of Brynhildr includes fratricide, a long battle between brothers, and dealings with the Huns. She is also known as Sigrdrífa, as written in the poem Sigrdrífumál.

http://www.bioanth.org/Dingwall/index.htm
http://www.bioanth.org/Dingwall/Dingwell.1931.Chapter.I.pdf



http://www.csen.org/aciaa_article/Eurasian%20Women%20Warriors3.htm
...
The Siberian Plateau: Pazyryk and Ukok Priestesses

Sergei Rudenko’s excavations of the great Pazyryk frozen burials, although robbed of precious metal objects that would have augmented our knowledge of these people’s belief systems, contained organic objects (materials normally lost) that provided remarkable insight into the elite and the chieftain rank. The Early Iron Age Pazyryks nomadized in a very small venue of high pastures in the southern Siberian Gorny Altai. Frozen in time by permafrost in great kurgans, the quantity of preserved wooden carvings, leather and felt saddlery, and various forms of textiles reveal, among others, previously unsuspected long-distant trade contact with the China, e.g., a Chinese mirror and embroidered silks, as well as with the Achaemenid Persian Empire, e.g., a tied wool carpet depicting Medes leading horses, a scene similar to one carved at Persepolis in southern Iran.[38]

         Although the Achaemenids chronicled Tigrahaudas, the Saka with pointed hats, the concept of a large headdress as a status marker originated centuries earlier and much farther to the west. In Anatolia, priestesses, Enareis,[39] and goddesses, as depicted in sculpture and on cylinder seals wore brimless high-headdresses called polos. Scythians may have assimilated this hat; females wear them as seen on gold plaques. The style and its underlying concept of status traveled east along the Silk Route or was introduced into western China by nomads coming from the north. A fifth century BCE desiccated priestess from the Subashi cemetery at the edge of the Taklimakan Desert wore a brimmed, high pointed headdress. Another from Tarim Basin was buried in an even more elaborated high hat with two points.[40]

         In 1995, the Russian archaeologist, Natalia Polsomak, made another remarkable find in the permafrost of the southern Siberian Ukok plateau.[41] The young woman the archaeologist excavated was about 25 years old when interred; she wore a caftan and full skirt, and an impressive conical hat three feet high that measured fully a third of the hollowed out log that served as her sarcophagus. The headdress was made of molded felt stretched over a wooden frame. Its decorations, carved from wood and covered with gold foil, were images of eight massive felines, representing either Tien Shan snow leopards or Siberian tigers, and the symbolic birds associated with the Tree of Life.[42] Tattooing on her torso, executed in Animal Style included winged snow leopards and on the left arm,[43] in zoomorphic juncture, a deer with griffin heads terminating the tines. A silver mirror in a red leather case lay beside her torso.

         The costume of this ancient priestess is paralleled by shamanic costumes worn into recent times by the Evenki, Ket, Ostyak, Tofa, and other Siberian taiga tribes. Elements of the deer (reindeer, moose, elk, or maral) were incorporated into a costume, e.g., an entire deer hide was used and strips of deer hide were sewn to dangle from the costume.[44] A mirror (or other shiny object) was frequently incorporated into the breastplate.[45] Depictions of birds combined with those of the deer augmented representation of shamans’ animal helpers. The shamans’ drum, made from a special wood, referred to the Tree of Life that grew in the center of the tribal or clan territory, the birthplace of the shaman’s deer-helper. The shaman believed that deer were winged [46] and could fly like swan. Birds and deer represented realistically or in zoomorphic juncture, were powerful and protective animal spirits; they also provided transportation for the shaman to fly to the Otherworld or Underworld in search of souls.

| - - -

The Ukok Plateau

Ukok Plateau is a remote and pristine grasslands area located in the heart of southwestern Siberia, the Altai Mountains region of Russia near the borders with China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia. The Pazyryk is the name of an ancient people who lived in the Altai Mountains on this plateau who are associated with some spectacular archeological findings, including mummies found frozen in the permafrost. Many ancient Bronze Age tomb mounds have been found in the area and have been associated with the Pazyryk culture which closely resembled that of the legendary Scythian people to the west. The term kurgan is in general usage to describe such log-barrow burials. Excavations of this site have continued to yield fascinating archaeological findings. One famous finding is known as the "Ice Princess" excavated by Russian archaeologist, Natalia Polosmak. Three tattooed mummies (c. 300 BC) were extracted from the permafrost of the Ukok Plateau in the second half of the 20th century

http://bruceleeeowe.wordpress.com/weird-sciences-home-page/ancient-and-lost-civilizations/inca-civilization/mummy/

Siberian Ice MaidenIn the summer of 1993, a team of Russian archaeologists led by Dr. Natalia Polosmak discovered the Siberian Ice Maiden in a sacred area known as the Pastures of Heaven, on the Pontic-Caspian steppe in the Altay Mountains near the Mongolian border. Mummified, then frozen by unusual climatic conditions in the fifth century B.C. along with six decorated horses and a symbolic meal for her last journey, she is believed to have been a shaman of the lost Pazyryk culture.

The maiden’s well-preserved body, carefully embalmed with peat and bark, was arranged to lie on her side as if asleep. She was young; her hair was still blonde; she had been 5 feet 6 inches tall. Even the animal style tattoos were preserved on her pale skin: creatures with horns that develop into flowered forms. Her coffin was made large enough to accommodate the high felt headdress she was wearing, which had 15 gilded wooden birds sewn to it. On a gold buckle retrieved from another tomb, a similar woman’s headdress intertwined with branches of the tree of life are depicted. Her blouse was originally thought to be made of wild “tussah” silk but closer examination of the fibers indicate the material is not Chinese but came from somewhere else, perhaps India. She was clad in a long crimson woolen skirt and white felt stockings.

Near her coffin was a vessel made of yak horn, and dishes containing gifts of coriander seeds: all of which suggest that the Pazyryk trade routes stretched across vast areas of Asia. Similar dishes in other tombs was thought to have held Cannabis sativa, confirming a practice described by Herodotus but after tests the mixture was found to be coriander seeds, probably used to disguise the smell of the body.

Her body was covered with vivid blue tattoos of mythical animal figures. The best preserved tattoos were images of a donkey, a mountain ram, two highly stylized deer with long antlers and an imaginary carnivore on the right arm. A man found with her (nicknamed “Conan”) was also discovered, with tattoos of two monsters resembling griffins decorating his chest and three partially obliterated images which seem to represent two deer and a mountain goat on his left arm. The Ice Maiden has been a source of controversy, as alleged improper care after her removal from the ice resulted in rapid decay of the body; and since the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Altai Republic has demanded the return of various “stolen” artifacts, including the Ice Maiden, who is currently stored in Novosibirsk in Siberia.

Two years after the discovery of the “Ice Maiden” Dr. Polosmak’s husband, Vyacheslav Molodin, found a frozen man, elaborately tattooed with an elk, with two long braids that reached to his waist, buried with his weapons.

http://sino-platonic.org/complete/spp240_sacred_display.pdf



...

Bangles have also been found in excavations of Danube cultures. The ritual pit of the Lady — or priestess — of Tărtăria shows signs of a great honoring of this elderly woman. A Spondylus
gaederopus armlet was found in her ritual pit; just as with that belonging to the elderly woman from the Indus/Sarasvatī Valley, the bangle of the Lady of Tărtăria showed signs of having been deeply
worn — that is, worn throughout a lifetime.69 (Figure 51) This bangle may have been one sign of her office, rather than the customary ware of other women of the culture. Indeed, we postulate that this
may have been the first use of bangles/armlets.



 A like phenomenon is the transition of tall “witches’” or priestesses’ hats to bridal hats in Central Asia. (Figure 52) That is, the hats became generalized to ceremonial garb for young women, where before they were attached to what were probably priestesses in special female burials — for example in the Tarim Basin (Figure 53) and in the Altai Mountains (Figure 54);70 therefore, in like manner, perhaps the bangle was originally a marker of a priestess or shaman, exemplified by the spondylus shell bracelet found in the burial pit of the Lady of
Tărtăria. Later, the bangle would have become a more general marker for women in the Indus Valley and then in historic India.

http://penn.museum/documents/publications/expedition/PDFs/52-3/mair.pdf

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRq1Yu0vBjo
Rev. Don's Vlog for April 29, 2010 - The Witches of Subeshi

http://www.experienceproject.com/stories/Love-Shamans-The-Elders-Of-Humanity/2166317
ENORMOUS CONE HEADS OF PARACAS PERU
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=JnERUZNqwbc

http://www.ancient-origins.net/unexplained-phenomena-opinion-guest-authors/world-wide-mysterious-phenomena-elongated-skulls-00939
...
A correlation between deformation and the appearance of social classes has also emerged.  .  In many cultures, a deformed head was an indicator of increased social position.  Extending throughout Europe, a large number of elongated skulls have been discovered in ancient tombs.  These finds by themselves suggest that the interred individuals were viewed as having some kind of elevated social standing which warranted a more elaborate burial.  Parallel finds have been unearthed in Peru.  Some of the most ill-shaped heads were discovered in some of the largest and finest tombs side by side with skulls of normal size and proportion.  A chief or members of the royal family, for example, may exhibit increased deformation, while a priest, shaman or individuals with local eminence may display a less intense modification.  Thus, he who has the longest head was the most noble.  Studies into indigenous cultures like the Native American Chinooks of the Pacific Northwest relay that slaves were never permitted to practice this ritual.  The ancient Macrocephali people of Africa, of whom the word macrocephalic is derived, believed that men of low birth had no right to observe this custom.  This may explain in part why this modification was not equally employed by all members of a community.
...
In addition to the physical manipulation of the cranium, other measures were employed by many cultures to accentuate this modified form.  In some cultures, the hair was pulled back and braided, put into a bun or topknot to further accentuate the elongated shape of the head.  Pointed hats are also believed to have been worn to exaggerate the shape of the head.  The pointed hat that adorned the head of many of the Egyptian pharaohs is an example of this tradition.  In Egypt only the nobility were allowed to wear tall pointed hats symbolizing their elevated status.  The donning of pointed hats was not limited to Egyptian royalty.  Several conical brimless extremely long gold hats have been discovered in central Europe with the earliest one dating to about 1400 BCE.  These obviously were not worn by the common man.  In ancient Greece, slaves that were released from bondage were allowed to wear a pointed hat called a pileus.  Did this indicate their increased social status?  Early art also shows image after image of individuals wearing pointed hats.  Were they emulating this ancient tradition with their clothing?  Even today, the guest of honor at a birthday party will don a pointed hat to symbolize his importance.  Could this tradition be a remnant of a long forgotten past?

Why did people around the world begin this practice?  It has been concluded, especially with circumferential compression, that hats, bands or other apparatus was intentionally applied and was not the unintentional outcome to child rearing practices.  Unfortunately, the original meaning or ritual significance has essentially been lost and in many cases has been replaced by the blind following of an ancient tradition.  In the few traces of beliefs that have survived we do find a consistency and general theme which may reveal at least in part some of our ancestor's underlying motivations.  Many cultures believe that an elongated head indicates increased intelligence.  It was also thought to enhance one's beauty or was a trait to be admired.  Some cultures believe it will make them look fierce in war.
...
- See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/unexplained-phenomena-opinion-guest-authors/world-wide-mysterious-phenomena-elongated-skulls-00939#sthash.T86C1SUY.dpuf
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #6 on: November 20, 2013, 01:37:11 PM »
http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/news/index.php?start_from=28

http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/news/index.php?subaction=showfull&id=1320077805&start_from=28&template=Headlines&#disqus_thread


The Denisovans, mysterious cousins of the Neanderthals, occupied a vast realm stretching from the chill expanse of Siberia to the steamy tropical forests of Indonesia - suggesting the third human of the Pleistocene displayed a level of adaptability previously thought to be unique to modern humans.

Our first tantalising glimpse of the Denisovans came last year with DNA analysis of a bone and tooth found in a Siberian cave. The DNA was distinct enough from Neanderthals' to suggest tens of thousands of years of independent evolution.

Before they disappeared, the Denisovans found time to interbreed with Homo sapiens. As a result, 5 per cent of the Denisovan genome lives on - not in the inhabitants of Siberia but in Papua New Guineans, living thousands of kilometres to the south-east.
...
Across Asia in two waves

The genes of Denisovans in modern humans are helping to reveal how our species colonised Asia, Australia and the Pacific islands.

Mark Stoneking of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, found Denisovan DNA in modern humans living in east Indonesia, Polynesia, Australia and Papua New Guinea. People from mainland Asia and west Indonesia didn't have any though, suggesting they are descendants of a second wave of modern humans across Asia - this time without Denisovan interbreeding. He suspects modern humans settled in the Middle East and migrated eastwards twice.

Independent support comes from Eske Willerslev of the Natural History Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen. His team sequenced the genome of an Indigenous Australian and compared it with Han Chinese, European and African genomes. They calculated that the Indigenous Australians split from the others between 75,000 and 62,000 years ago. The Chinese and European populations split between 38,000 and 25,000 years ago. That, again, suggests two migrations across Asia.

To view the full article click here
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21128323.200-the-vast-asian-realm-of-the-lost-humans.html%3Cbr%20/%3E


http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2012/08/30/genome-mysterious-extinct-human-completed-scientists-say/
Genome of mysterious extinct human completed, scientists say
Published August 30, 2012

The genome of a recently discovered branch of extinct humans known as the Denisovans that once interbred with us has been sequenced, scientists said Thursday.

Genetic analysis of the fossil revealed it apparently belonged to a little girl with dark skin, brown hair and brown eyes, researchers said. All in all, the scientists discovered about 100,000 recent changes in our genome that occurred after the split from the Denisovans. A number of these changes influence genes linked with brain function and nervous system development, leading to speculation that we may think differently from the Denisovans. Other changes are linked with the skin, eyes and teeth.

"This research will help [in] determining how it was that modern human populations came to expand dramatically in size as well as cultural complexity, while archaic humans eventually dwindled in numbers and became physically extinct," said researcher Svante Pääbo at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.

Future research may turn up other groups of extinct humans in Asia "in addition to Neanderthals and Denisovans," Pääbo told LiveScience.

Although our species comprises the only humans left alive, our planet was once home to a variety of other human species. The Neanderthals were apparently our closest relatives, and the last of the other human lineages to vanish.

However, scientists recently revealed another group of extinct humans once lived at the same time as ours. DNA from fossils unearthed in Denisova Cave in southern Siberia in 2008 revealed a lineage unlike us and closely related to Neanderthals. The precise age of the Denisovan material remains uncertain — anywhere from 30,000 to 80,000 years of age.

"The Denisovan genome is particularly close to my heart, because it was the first time that a new group of extinct humans was discovered and defined just from DNA sequence evidence and not from the morphology of bones," Pääbo said.

Denisovan genes unzipped

Now, based on only a tiny sample of genetic material from a finger bone, scientists have sequenced the complete genome of the Denisovans (pronounced deh-NEESE-so-vans), as they are now called.

To make the most of what little genetic material they had, the researchers developed a technique that unzipped the double strands of DNA in the bone, doubling the amount of DNA they could analyze. This enabled them to sequence each position in the genome about 30 times over, generating an extremely thorough genome sequence. [See Photos of Denisovan Fossils]

"We have very few errors in the sequences, even less errors than we often have when you sequence a person today," Pääbo said. "With just a few technical reservations, there is actually today no difference in what we can learn genetically about a person that lived 50,000 years ago and from a person today, provided that we have well-enough preserved bones."

Comparing the Denisovan genome with ours confirmed past research suggesting the extinct lineage once interbred with ours and lived in a vast range from Siberia to Southeast Asia. The Denisovans share more genes with people from Papua New Guinea than any other modern population studied.

In addition, more Denisovan genetic variants were found in Asia and South America than in European populations. However, this likely reflects interbreeding between modern humans and the Denisovans' close relatives, the Neanderthals, rather than direct interbreeding with the Denisovans, researchers said.

Denisovans began to diverge from modern humans in terms of DNA sequences about 800,000 years ago. Among the genetic differences between Denisovans and modern humans are likely changes that "are essential for what made modern human history possible, the very rapid development of human technology and culture that allowed our species to become so numerous, spread around the whole world, and actually dominate large parts of the biosphere," Pääbo said.
...
These current Denisovan findings have allowed the researchers to re-evaluate past analysis of the Neanderthal genome. They discovered modern humans in the eastern parts of Eurasia and Native Americans actually carry more Neanderthal genetic material than people in Europe, "even though the Neanderthals mostly lived in Europe, which is really, really interesting," Reich said.

The researchers would now like to upgrade the Neanderthal genome to the quality seen with the Denisovan genome. The genetic techniques they used could also be employed in forensic investigations, and in analyzing other fossil DNA, said researcher Matthias Meyer, also at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

The scientists detailed their findings online today in the journal Science.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altai_Mountains



The Altai Mountains (Altay Mountains) are a mountain range in East-Central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters. The northwest end of the range is at 52° N and between 84° and 90° E (where it merges with the Sayan Mountains to the east), and extends southeast from there to about 45° N and 99° E, where it gradually becomes lower and merges into the high plateau of the Gobi Desert.
...
The Altai mountains were home to the Denisovan branch of hominids who were contemporaries of Neanderthals and of Homo Sapiens (modern humans), descended from Hominids who reached Asia earlier than modern humans. The Denisova hominin, dated to 40,000 years ago, was discovered in the Denisova Cave of the Altai mountains in southern Siberia in 2008.

Knowledge of the Denisovan humans derives primarily from DNA evidence and artifacts, as no complete skeletons have yet been recovered. DNA evidence has been unusually well preserved because of the low average temperature in the Denisova caves.

The Altai Mountains have been identified as being the point of origin of a cultural enigma termed the Seima-Turbino Phenomenon[8] which arose during the Bronze Age around the start of the 2nd millennium BC and led to a rapid and massive migration of peoples from the region into distant parts of Europe and Asia.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seima-Turbino_Phenomenon
Seima-Turbino refers to burial sites dating around 1500 BC found across northern Eurasia, from Finland to Mongolia.

The buried were nomadic warriors and metal-workers, travelling on horseback or two-wheeled chariots. These nomads originated from the Altai Mountains.[1] The culture spread from these mountains to the west.[2] Although they were the precursor to the much later Mongol invasions, these groups were not yet strong enough to attack the important social sites of the Bronze Age.[3]
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #7 on: November 20, 2013, 02:30:17 PM »


http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110809/full/476136a.html
Ancient DNA reveals secrets of human history
Modern humans may have picked up key genes from extinct relatives.
 Ewen Callaway


...
The past months have seen a swathe of discoveries, from details about when Neanderthals and humans interbred, to the important disease-fighting genes that humans now have as a result of those trysts
...
In December last year, Pääbo's team released the genetic blueprint of another population of ancient humans — unlike ourselves or the Neanderthals — that was based on DNA recovered from a 30,000–50,000-year-old finger bone found in a cave in Denisova in southern Siberia2. Palaeoanthropologists call these groups archaic humans, distinguishing them from modern Homo sapiens, which emerged in Africa only around 200,000 years ago.

Pääbo is amazed at how quickly the Neanderthal genome has been mined. At a genomics meeting last year, for example, Cory McLean, a graduate student at Stanford University in California, was scheduled to talk immediately after Pääbo presented the Neanderthal genome. Inspired, McLean had trawled through the just-released genome in the days before his talk. He discovered that Neanderthals, like humans, lacked a stretch of DNA that orchestrates the growth of spines on the penises of other primates, and promptly presented the find just after Pääbo presented his3.

Since then, scientists have fleshed out the details of one of the biggest surprises from the Neanderthal genome: humans living outside Africa owe up to 4% of their DNA to Neanderthals. One explanation might be that humans migrating out of Africa mated with Neanderthals, probably resident in the Middle East, before their offspring fanned out across Europe and Asia.
...
More than genes

The denizens of Denisova also bred with contemporary humans, according to Pääbo and Reich's analysis2. But the only traces of their DNA to be found in modern humans were in residents of Melanesia, thousands of miles away from Denisova, suggesting that the Denisovans had once lived across Asia. In 2008, Pääbo's team set up a lab in Beijing to screen fossils that might contain Denisovan DNA, in the hope of learning more about them and their interactions with modern humans. Currently, the bone that yielded the Denisovan genome, and a single molar from the same cave, are their only known fossil remains, but other archaic human fossils from Asia could bear traces of this group.

Most of the Neanderthal genome was sequenced from bones found in Vindija cave, Croatia. Most of the Neanderthal genome was sequenced from bones found in Vindija cave, Croatia.Max Planck Inst. Evol. Anthropol.

Even before the Neanderthal genome made its debut in May 2010, scientists had argued that humans may have acquired not just DNA from archaic humans, but useful traits too. Human gene variants linked to brain development and speech were proposed as candidates, only to be scotched after closer inspection of the Neanderthal genome. However, a study presented at a Royal Society symposium in London in June suggests that humans owe important disease-fighting genes to Neanderthals and Denisovans. Interbreeding endowed humans with a 'hybrid vigour' that helped them colonize the world, said Peter Parham, an immunogeneticist at Stanford University School of Medicine, California, at the symposium.
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #8 on: November 22, 2013, 04:31:30 PM »
More and more evidence that modern man came out of Siberia !!!

http://www.nature.com/news/americas-natives-have-european-roots-1.14213
Americas’ natives have European roots
The oldest known genome of a modern human solves long-standing puzzles about the New World's genetic heritage.
Ed Yong
20 November 2013




The remains of a boy from palaeolithic Siberia — shown here in a burial reconstruction at the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg — revealed that he had European genes

The 24,000-year-old remains of a young boy from the Siberian village of Mal’ta have added a new root to the family tree of indigenous Americans. While some of the New World's native ancestry clearly traces back to east Asia, the Mal’ta boy’s genome — the oldest known of any modern human — shows that up to one-third of that ancestry can be traced back to Europe.

The results show that people related to western Eurasians had spread further east than anyone had suspected, and lived in Siberia during the coldest parts of the last Ice Age.

“At some point in the past, a branch of east Asians and a branch of western Eurasians met each other and had sex a lot,” says
....
Genetically, this individual had no east Asian resemblance but looked like Europeans and people from west Asia,” says Willerslev
...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mal'ta-Buret'_culture



The Mal'ta-Buret' culture is an archaeological culture of the Upper Paleolithic (ca. 18,000 to 15,000 BP) on the upper Angara River in the area west of Lake Baikal in the Irkutsk Oblast, Siberia, Russian Federation. The type sites are named for the villages of Mal'ta (Мальта), Usolsky District and Buret' (Буреть), Bokhansky District.

Mal'ta consists of semi-subterranean houses that were built using large animal bones to assemble the walls, and reindeer antlers covered with animal skins to construct a roof that would protect the inhabitants from the harsh elements of the Siberian weather. Much of what is known about Mal'ta comes from Russian archaeologist Mikhail Gerasimov. Known in the anthropological community primarily for his contributions to a process called forensic sculpture (the recreation of the face of an individual from skeletal remains), Gerasimov first achieved fame for his excavation of Mal'ta in 1927
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline JohnBFTOR

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #9 on: November 22, 2013, 09:35:23 PM »
... and to think I thought this thread was about our current 'fearless' leaders.  ::)   I'm still trying to figure out just exactly what they are.
Some say that I've been Delphied I'm not sure what it means.  They say that I'm a victim of some much bigger scheme. Do you believe it?
http://www.iror.org/delphied.asp

Have you been Delphied?

Mass Hopenosis
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y32uFsgFmeQ

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #10 on: November 22, 2013, 10:56:12 PM »
... and to think I thought this thread was about our current 'fearless' leaders.  ::)   I'm still trying to figure out just exactly what they are.

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline JohnBFTOR

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #11 on: November 22, 2013, 11:03:54 PM »


Well, it does seem to posses a little Obummer and W DNA I have to admit.
Some say that I've been Delphied I'm not sure what it means.  They say that I'm a victim of some much bigger scheme. Do you believe it?
http://www.iror.org/delphied.asp

Have you been Delphied?

Mass Hopenosis
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y32uFsgFmeQ

Offline Valerius

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #12 on: November 22, 2013, 11:08:52 PM »
If they were able to breed, then they were all humans. That's the definition of a species.
"No man can put a chain about the ankle of his fellow man without at last finding the other end fastened about his own neck."  -Frederick Douglass

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #13 on: December 04, 2013, 02:22:20 PM »
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/05/science/at-400000-years-oldest-human-dna-yet-found-raises-new-mysteries.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&smid=tw-nytimes&_r=0
At 400,000 Years, Oldest Human DNA Yet Found Raises New Mysteries
By CARL ZIMMER
Published: December 4, 2013

Scientists have found the oldest DNA evidence yet of humans’ biological history. But instead of neatly clarifying human evolution, the finding is adding new mysteries
...

The fossil, a thigh bone found in Spain, had previously seemed to many experts to belong to a forerunner of Neanderthals. But its DNA tells a very different story. It most closely resembles DNA from an enigmatic lineage of humans known as Denisovans. Until now, Denisovans were known only from DNA retrieved from 80,000-year-old remains in Siberia, 4,000 miles east of where the new DNA was found.
...

Hints at new hidden complexities in the human story came from a 400,000-year-old femur found in a cave in Spain called Sima de los Huesos (“the pit of bones” in Spanish). The scientific team used new methods to extract the ancient DNA from the fossil.

“This would not have been possible even a year ago,” said Juan Luis Arsuaga, a paleoanthropologist at Universidad Complutense de Madrid and a co-author of the paper.

Finding such ancient human DNA was a major advance, said David Reich, a geneticist at Harvard Medical School who was not involved in the research. “That’s an amazing, game-changing thing,” he said.

Since the 1970s, Spanish scientists have brought out a wealth of fossils from the cave dating back hundreds of thousands of years. “The place is very special,” said Dr. Arsuaga, who has found 28 nearly complete skeletons of humans during three decades of excavations.

Based on the anatomy of the fossils, Dr. Arsuaga has argued that they belonged to ancestors of Neanderthals, which lived in western Asia and Europe from about 200,000 to 30,000 years ago.

When Dr. Meyer and his colleagues drilled into the femur, they found ancient human DNA inside, just as they had hoped.

“Our expectation was that it would be a very early Neanderthal,” Dr. Meyer said.

But the DNA did not match that of Neanderthals. Dr. Meyer then compared it to the DNA of the Denisovans, the ancient human lineage that he and his colleagues had discovered in Siberia in 2010. He was shocked to find that it was similar.

“Everybody had a hard time believing it at first,” Dr. Meyer said. “So we generated more and more data to nail it down.”

The extra research confirmed that the DNA belonged on the Denisovan branch of the human family tree.

The new finding is hard to reconcile with the picture of human evolution that has been emerging in recent years based on fossils and ancient DNA. Denisovans were believed to be limited to East Asia, and they were not thought to look so Neanderthal-like.
...
Dr. Meyer is hopeful that he and his colleagues will be able to get more DNA from the Spanish fossil, as well as other fossils from the site, to help solve the puzzle they have now stumbled across. “It’s extremely hard to make sense of,” Dr. Meyer said. “We still are a bit lost here.”
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #14 on: December 20, 2013, 01:55:02 PM »
http://www.mpg.de/7666848/neandertal_genome_project
Neandertal genome project reaches its goal

Researchers compile definitive list of the DNA sequence changes that make us human
December 18, 2013

An international research team led by Kay Prüfer and Svante Pääbo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has determined a high-quality genome sequence of a Neandertal woman. The genome allows detailed insights into the relationships and population history of the Neandertals and other extinct hominin groups. The results reveal that gene flow among such groups was common but generally of low magnitude. It also provides a definitive list of the DNA sequence changes that distinguish modern humans from our nearest extinct relatives.


In 2006, Svante Pääbo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, initiated a project to sequence the Neandertal genome. In 2010, this project which is funded by the Max Planck Society produced a draft genome sequence which revealed that Neandertals had contributed genes to people who today live outside Africa. It also resulted in the discovery of a new group of extinct humans, the Denisovans, who were related to Neandertals and who contributed genes to present-day people in Oceania. The project has now culminated in the production of a high-quality Neandertal genome sequence where each position has been sequenced on average 50 times over. The unique portion of the genome that was reconstructed is of a quality at least as high as that of genomes sequenced from present-day people.

The toe bone used to produce the sequence was found in 2010 by a team of Russian archaeologists, led by Anatoli Derevianko and Michael Shunkov of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in Denisova Cave in Southern Siberia, and is approximately 50,000-year-old. The high-quality Neandertal genome refines and extends our understanding of how Neandertals are related to present-day people and to other extinct groups. According to the researchers’ new estimates the fraction of Neandertal-derived DNA in the genomes of people outside Africa varies between approximately 1.5 to 2.1 percent. The new data also shows that approximately 0.2 percent of the genomes of mainland Asians and Native Americans is of Denisovan origin.

With the high quality sequences of both a Neandertal and a Denisovan, it is for the first time possible to look for signs of interbreeding among extinct hominin groups. This reveals that Neandertals contributed at least 0.5 percent of their DNA to the Denisovans. In addition, the Denisovan genome differs from the Neandertal genome in that it contains about 2.7 to 5.8 percent of the genome of an unknown archaic hominin. “This ancient population of hominins lived prior to the separation of Neandertals, Denisovans and modern humans”, says Kay Prüfer. “It is possible that this unknown hominin was what is known from the fossil record as Homo erectus. Further studies are necessary to support or reject this possibility.”

When analyzing the genome the researchers noticed that the parents of the Neandertal individual must have been closely related to each other. “We performed simulations of several inbreeding scenarios and discovered that the parents of this Neandertal individual were either half siblings who had a mother in common, double first cousins, an uncle and a niece, an aunt and a nephew, a grandfather and a granddaughter, or a grandmother and a grandson”, says Montgomery Slatkin, a population geneticist at the University of California at Berkeley who led some of the analyses of the genome. Further analyses suggest that the population sizes of Neandertals and Denisovans were small and that inbreeding may have been more common in Neandertal groups than in modern populations.

Using the high-quality Neandertal genome the Leipzig team has now established a definitive genome-wide catalog of sites where present-day human genomes all carry the same nucleotide but differ from the Neandertal, Denisovan and great ape genomes.

“This list of simple DNA sequence changes that distinguish all humans today from our nearest extinct relatives is comparatively short”, says Svante Pääbo, director at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. “It is a catalog of the genetic features that sets all modern humans apart from all other organisms, living or extinct. I believe that in it hide some of the things that made the enormous expansion of human populations and human culture and technology in the last 100,000 years possible”.



http://www.mpg.de/7637951/hominin_from_sima_de_los_huesos
Oldest hominin DNA sequenced
Max Planck researchers sequence the mitochondrial genome of a 400,000-year-old hominin from Spain
December 04, 2013

Using novel techniques to extract and study ancient DNA researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have determined an almost complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a 400,000-year-old representative of the genus Homo from Sima de los Huesos, a unique cave site in Northern Spain, and found that it is related to the mitochondrial genome of Denisovans, extinct relatives of Neandertals in Asia. DNA this old has until recently been retrieved only from the permafrost.

Sima de los Huesos, the “bone pit”, is a cave site in Northern Spain that has yielded the world’s largest assembly of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils, consisting of at least 28 skeletons, which have been excavated and pieced together over the course of more than two decades by a Spanish team of paleontologists led by Juan-Luis Arsuaga. The fossils are classified as Homo heidelbergensis but also carry traits typical of Neandertals. Until now it had not been possible to study the DNA of these unique hominins.

Matthias Meyer and his team from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have developed new techniques for retrieving and sequencing highly degraded ancient DNA. They then joined forces with Juan-Luis Arsuaga and applied the new techniques to a cave bear from the Sima de los Huesos site. After this success, the researchers sampled two grams of bone powder from a hominin thigh bone from the cave. They extracted its DNA and sequenced the genome of the mitochondria or mtDNA, a small part of the genome that is passed down along the maternal line and occurs in many copies per cell. The researchers then compared this ancient mitochondrial DNA with Neandertals, Denisovans, present-day humans, and apes.

From the missing mutations in the old DNA sequences the researchers calculated that the Sima hominin lived about 400,000 years ago. They also found that it shared a common ancestor with the Denisovans, an extinct archaic group from Asia related to the Neandertals, about 700,000 years ago. “The fact that the mtDNA of the Sima de los Huesos hominin shares a common ancestor with Denisovan rather than Neandertal mtDNAs is unexpected since its skeletal remains carry Neandertal-derived features”, says Matthias Meyer. Considering their age and Neandertal-like features, the Sima hominins were likely related to the population ancestral to both Neandertals and Denisovans. Another possibility is that gene flow from yet another group of hominins brought the Denisova-like mtDNA into the Sima hominins or their ancestors.


Our results show that we can now study DNA from human ancestors that are hundreds of thousands of years old. This opens prospects to study the genes of the ancestors of Neandertals and Denisovans. It is tremendously exciting” says Svante Pääbo, director at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

“This unexpected result points to a complex pattern of evolution in the origin of Neandertals and modern humans. I hope that more research will help clarify the genetic relationships of the hominins from Sima de los Huesos to Neandertals and Denisovans” says Juan-Luis Arsuaga, director of the Center for Research on Human Evolution and Behaviour. The researchers are now pursuing this goal by focusing on retrieving DNA from more individuals from this site and on retrieving also nuclear DNA sequences.


[ earlier this year: ]

Researchers Publish Improved Neanderthal Genome

http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/wireStory/german-researchers-publish-full-neanderthal-genome-18764654
Researchers Publish Improved Neanderthal Genome
 By FRANK JORDANS Associated Press

BERLIN March 19, 2013 (AP)

Researchers in Germany said Tuesday they have completed the first high-quality sequencing of a Neanderthal genome and are making it freely available online for other scientists to study.
 
The genome produced from remains of a toe bone found in a Siberian cave is far more detailed than a previous "draft" Neanderthal genome sequenced three years ago by the same team at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.
 
"The genome of a Neanderthal is now there in a form as accurate as that of any person walking the streets today," Svante Paabo, a geneticist who led the research, told The Associated Press in an email
...

http://www.eva.mpg.de/neandertal/index.html

A high-quality Neandertal genome sequence

The genome sequence was generated from a toe bone discovered in Denisova Cave in southern Siberia in 2010.  The bone is described in Mednikova (Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia 2011. 39: 129-138).
 
DNA sequences were generated on the Illumina HiSeq platform and constitute an average 50-fold coverage of the genome. 99.9% of the 1.7GB of uniquely mappable DNA sequences in the human genome are covered at least ten times.
Contamination with modern human DNA, estimated from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, is around 1%.
 
...

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #15 on: January 03, 2014, 12:43:15 PM »
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G3J89Io28qM
Unfrozen Caveman Lawyer! SNL Best of Phil Hartman! The late Phil lives on in these sketches!


http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-25465102
Neanderthals could speak like modern humans, study suggests
By Melissa Hogenboom
Science reporter, BBC News
20 December 2013

An analysis of a Neanderthal's fossilised hyoid bone - a horseshoe-shaped structure in the neck - suggests the species had the ability to speak.

This has been suspected since the 1989 discovery of a Neanderthal hyoid that looks just like a modern human's.

But now computer modelling of how it works has shown this bone was also used in a very similar way.


...
Neanderthals were stockier and shorter than modern humans, with no chin and backwards sloping foreheads. They are not regarded as direct human ancestors but DNA analysis has revealed that between 1% and 4% of the Eurasian human genome seems to come from Neanderthals
...
"The authors themselves are understandably cautious in drawing strong conclusions, but I think that their work clearly supports the contention that speech and language is an old feature of our lineage going back at least to the last common ancestor that we shared with the Neanderthals," Dr Dediu told BBC News.
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

worcesteradam

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #16 on: January 03, 2014, 12:47:26 PM »
If they've got the genomes of these creatures then with modern technology they may be able to bring them back to life

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Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #18 on: January 03, 2014, 05:03:15 PM »
If they've got the genomes of these creatures then with modern technology they may be able to bring them back to life

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YI0qWiwFZLs
Neanderthal and Denisovan Genomes/Human and Ape Stem Cells

(Visit: http://www.uctv.tv)
 Comparisons of Human and Ape Stem Cells (Alysson Muotri);
The Neandertal and Denisovan Genomes (Ed Green) Series: "CARTA - Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny" [7/2011] [Science] [Show ID: 21955]

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JXWx0MHQVO4
Comparison of Neanderthal, Cro-Magnon and Modern Human Skulls

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/about-us/news/2012/august/denisovan-dna-suggests-a-dark-complexion-and-interbreeding113697.html
Denisovan DNA suggests a dark complexion and interbreeding
...
Scientists have reconstructed the whole genetic code, or genome, of a group of ancient humans called Denisovans. They interbred with our species and the DNA results suggest they had dark hair, eyes, and skin, the journal Science reports.

In 2010, scientists from the Max Planck Institute in Germany announced the new human group based on DNA evidence from a finger bone fossil found in Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains, Siberia.

That first DNA was obtained from mitochondria, tiny power structures in each human cell that contain their own DNA. Now, many of the same team have used a new approach and have sequenced chromosomal DNA (the DNA of the cell nucleus which contains most genes) from the same finger bone fossil.

'They were able to reconstruct the whole genome to a quality matching that obtained for living humans,' says Professor Chris Stringer, human origins expert at the Natural History Museum.

http://www.sci-news.com/genetics/science-denisovan-neanderthal-viruses-human-dna-01558.html
Denisovan, Neanderthal Viruses Discovered in Human DNA

Nov 20, 2013 by  Sci-News.com
Scientists from the University of Oxford and Plymouth University, both in UK, have found evidence of Neanderthal and Denisovan viruses in DNA of modern humans.

In 2012, researchers from Albert Einstein College of Medicine identified remnants of 14 ancient viruses in the genome sequences of Neanderthal and Denisovan fossils

[ http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822%2812%2900469-1 ]

, dating back about 40,000 years ago. But they failed to find remnants of these viruses, belonging to the HML2 retrovirus family, in the human reference genome sequence.

In a new study, Oxford University researcher Dr Gkikas Magiorkinis with colleagues compared Neanderthal and Denisovan data to genetic data from modern-day cancer patients and managed to identify remnants of one Neanderthal and seven Denisovan viruses.

The discovery will enable scientists to investigate possible links between HML2 retroviruses and modern diseases including HIV and cancer.
...
Combining evolutionary theory and population genetics with cutting-edge genetic sequencing technology, the scientists will test if these viruses are still active or cause disease in modern humans.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2519637/


Published online 2008 June 18.  doi:  10.1128/JVI.00751-08
PMCID: PMC2519637

Hypermutation of an Ancient Human Retrovirus
by APOBEC3G

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome, but all are remnants of ancient retroviral infections and harbor inactivating mutations that render them replication defective. Nevertheless, as viral “fossils,” HERVs may provide insights into ancient retrovirus-host interactions and their evolution
...
Retroviruses can become endogenous when they infect germ line cells, or their progenitors, which subsequently constitute the gametes that give rise to viable progeny.

Thereafter, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) behave much like other host genomic DNA elements; they are inherited in a Mendelian manner and can become fixed or lost in the host population depending on their effect on the reproductive fitness of the host (40). As the presence of active, replication-competent proviruses in a host genome is most likely to be deleterious to host fitness through insertional mutagenesis, cytopathic virus production, ectopic recombination, and alteration of host gene transcription by viral promoters, endogenous retroviruses are often transcriptionally silenced
...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endogenous_retrovirus

The replication cycle of a retrovirus entails the insertion ("integration") of a DNA copy of the viral genome into the nuclear genome of the host cell. Most retroviruses infect somatic cells, but occasional infection of germline cells (cells that produce eggs and sperm) can also occur. Rarely, retroviral integration may occur in a germline cell that goes on to develop into a viable organism.

This organism will carry the inserted retroviral genome as an integral part of its own genome - an "endogenous" retrovirus (ERV) that may be inherited by its offspring as a novel allele. Many ERVs have persisted in the genome of their hosts for millions of years.

However, most of these have acquired inactivating mutations during host DNA replication and are no longer capable of producing virus. ERVs can also be partially excised from the genome by a process known as recombinational deletion, in which recombination between the identical sequences that flank newly integrated retroviruses results in deletion of the internal, protein-coding regions of the viral genome
...
The majority of ERVs that occur in vertebrate genomes are ancient, inactivated by mutation, and have reached genetic fixation in their host species. For these reasons, they are extremely unlikely to have negative effects on their hosts except under unusual circumstances.
...
Researchers continue to look at a possible link between HERVs and schizophrenia, with the additional possibility of a triggering infection inducing schizophrenia
...
Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) proviruses comprise a significant part of the human genome, with approximately 98,000 ERV elements and fragments making up nearly 8%.[30] According to a study published in 2005, no HERVs capable of replication had been identified; all appeared to be defective, containing major deletions or nonsense mutations

| - - - - - -

http://www.nature.com/news/2006/061031/full/news061030-4.html
News
Ancient human virus resurrected
Virus from distant past may throw light on role of retroviruses in cancer.
2006/10/30

Researchers in France have recreated a 5-million-year-old virus whose remains are now found littered across the human genome. The ancient virus could help us to understand how these genetic remnants contribute to cancer.

The virus is of a type called a retrovirus, which can insert copies of its genetic material into our own DNA. These viruses probably infected eggs and sperm of our primate ancestors many millions of years ago, and pasted numerous copies of their genetic material into the genome. The relics of these copies in human DNA are called human endogenous retroviruses, or HERVs.
...
Now Thierry Heidmann at the Gustav Roussy Institute in Villejuif and his colleagues, have brought one of these retroviruses back to life. They call it Phoenix, for the mythical bird reborn from its own ashes.

"It's a Jurassic Park kind of experiment to resurrect an old virus," says John Coffin who studies retroviruses at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts. "It's just kind of cool."

Rising from the ashes

Heidmann's team focused on a particular type of retrovirus that infected human cells less than 5 million years ago and left a legacy of some 30 copies of itself in the modern human genome.
...
The team then used the DNA of two existing HERVs as a backbone and engineered specific mutations into it, to build a duplicate of the original Pheonix. They inserted it into human cells to see what it would do.

The ancestral virus was able to copy itself and manufacture new virus particles, they found. And these particles could infect fresh cells and copy and paste its genes into these cells' genome.
...
Dangerous infection

The team also found hints that some of the HERVs in our genomes might still be infectious. They spliced together parts of three HERVs — a process that could occur spontaneously in a cell — and found that they could also produce infectious viruses. Heidmann says that the human genome may even harbour as-yet undiscovered HERVs that are naturally infectious.
...
The group also engineered the virus so that it can only copy itself once and cannot proliferate out of control. "It's not impossible that it could turn out to be a pathogen but I think it's very unlikely," agrees Coffin.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #19 on: January 03, 2014, 08:32:19 PM »
If they've got the genomes of these creatures then with modern technology they may be able to bring them back to life

Yep - killer retro viruses!

Now Thierry Heidmann at the Gustav Roussy Institute in Villejuif and his colleagues, have brought one of these retroviruses back to life. They call it Phoenix, for the mythical bird reborn from its own ashes.

"It's a Jurassic Park kind of experiment to resurrect an old virus," says John Coffin who studies retroviruses at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts. "It's just kind of cool."



http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2006-10/cshl-prs103006.php
Public release date: 30-Oct-2006

Contact: Maria Smit
smit@cshl.edu
 516-422-4127
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Phoenix rising: Scientists resuscitate a 5 million-year-old retrovirus

VILLEJUIF, France (Tues., Oct. 31, 2006) -- A team of scientists has reconstructed the DNA sequence of a 5-million-year-old retrovirus and shown that it is able to produce infectious particles.

The retrovirus--named Phoenix--is the ancestor of a large family of mobile DNA elements, some of which may play a role in cancer. The study, which is the first to generate an infectious retrovirus from a mobile element in the human genome, is considered a breakthrough for the field of retrovirus research. The findings are reported in Genome Research.

"Phoenix became frozen in time after it integrated into the human genome about 5 million years ago," explains Dr. Thierry Heidmann, lead investigator on the project. "In our study, we've recovered this ancestral state and shown that it has the potential for infectivity."
...

Genome Research ( www.genome.org ) is an international, continuously published, peer-reviewed journal published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Launched in 1995, it is one of the five most highly cited primary research journals in genetics and genomics.

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press is an internationally renowned publisher of books, journals, and electronic media, located on Long Island, New York. It is a division of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, an innovator in life science research and the education of scientists, students, and the public. For more information, visit www.cshlpress.com.

| - - - -

http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/32990/title/Ancient-Viruses-Wreak-New-Havoc/
Ancient Viruses Wreak New Havoc

Viral DNA in mice genomes may lead to cancer in immune-compromised animals.
By Beth Marie Mole | October 24, 2012

Fragments of ancient viruses buried in the genomes of mammals and other vertebrates typically lay dormant but can awaken in immune-compromised mice and may cause cancers, according to a new study published today (October 24) in Nature. The trigger for the resurrection of such viruses, known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), could be other microbes, which are unfettered in such immune-compromised mice.

“This study provides a link between exposure to other microbes—commensals or even pathogens—and activation of endogenous retroviruses, which in mice leads to cancer,” said senior author George Kassiotis, an immunologist at The National Institute of Medical Research in the United Kingdom. But other researchers are skeptical of the connection.

ERVs are the broken remains of ancient retroviral infections, in which fragments of viral RNA are reverse-transcribed into DNA and become part of the host genome, where they collect mutations that prevent them from forming new viruses.  In healthy mice, such viral DNA is not typically transcribed, but Kassiotis and his team of researchers found that mice genetically incapable of producing antibodies had increased expression of genes from certain ERVs in macrophages—enough to actually recombine and start assembling viruses. Those new viruses carried a mix of genes from two ERVs, each of which was incapable of replicating on its own, but together formed a replicating, infectious virus.

Though researchers had suspected that ERVs could reactivate and recombine, the study provides direct evidence of such an event, says immunologist David Markovitz of the University of Michigan, who was not involved with the study. “It’s extremely interesting that the mice activate or reactive their expression of ERVs in the absence of antibodies,” he said, “and that [the researchers] saw corrections in mutated genes that actually leads to replication of virus.”
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #20 on: January 05, 2014, 12:49:47 PM »
http://www.nature.com/news/ancient-european-genomes-reveal-jumbled-ancestry-1.14456#/ref-link-1
Ancient European genomes reveal jumbled ancestry

Mysterious peoples from the north and Middle Easterners joined prehistoric locals.
Ewen Callaway
02 January 2014

Newly released genome sequences from almost a dozen early human inhabitants of Europe suggest that the continent was once a melting pot in which brown-eyed farmers encountered blue-eyed hunter-gatherers.

Present-day Europeans, the latest work shows, trace their ancestry to three groups in various combinations: hunter-gatherers, some of them blue-eyed, who arrived from Africa more than 40,000 years ago; Middle Eastern farmers who migrated west much more recently; and a novel, more mysterious population whose range probably spanned northern Europe and Siberia
...

The work also adds a few twists to the prehistory of Europe. Previous archaeological and genetic studies suggested that most of today’s Europeans are descended from Middle Eastern farmers who interbred with local hunter-gatherers in some regions and displaced these early residents in others.

Krause’s team concludes that a third population contributed to the gene pool of contemporary Europeans.

This group, which the authors call ancient northern Eurasians, may have lived at high latitudes between Europe and Siberia until a few thousand years ago. Traces of this population were also detected in the genome of a 24,000 year-old Siberian child  [ http://www.nature.com/news/americas-natives-have-european-roots-1.14213 ] . Published online last month, the boy’s genome suggests that northern Eurasians interbred with the ancestors of Native Americans as well as with Europeans 3.

Diverse migrations

A comparison of the new data with genetic sequencing of present-day individuals shows that the current residents of various European countries are composites of these three groups. Scots and Estonians, for instance, have more northern Eurasian ancestry than any other modern European population sampled, whereas Sardinians are more closely related to Eastern farmers than are other Europeans.
....
Lalueza-Fox declined to discuss his team’s work, but he cautions against making too many assumptions about the peopling of Europe using just a handful of ancient genomes from a single time period. “It’s going to be lots of different migrations and movements,” he says. “There’s going to be plenty of room for investigation in the next few years.”

| - - - -

http://www.theapricity.com/forum/showthread.php?105677-7-000BP-Iberian-hunter-gatherer-La-Brana-1-had-blue-eyes

7,000BP Iberian hunter gatherer La Brana-1 had blue eyes



On top is a map of light eyes in Europe. According to the Spanish article 8,000 year old(other's say 7,000 year old) hunter gatherer La Brana-1 from northern Spain had blue eyes. Making the theory that the first person with blue eyes was a European farmer who lived 6,000-10,000ybp seem very unlikely( That theory is accepted as fact or most likely by many Eye color Wikipedia). This is more evidence for what i and others have hypothesized. That modern European paleness(skin, hair and eye color) descends from Paleolithic-Mesolithic European hunter gatherers not Neolithic farmers. I think more pigmentation genes from pre historic European hunter gatherer's will defend a opinion some people including myself have. That most European hunter gatherer's had light colored eyes and hair. The main reason I think this is because of who their closest modern relatives are.

 I just read an article from Eurogenes with brand new information about a 7,000 year old Iberian hunter gatherer La Brana-1(click here http://eurogenes.blogspot.com/2013/12/brana-1-had-blue-eyes.html  ). The author Davidski says "the genome of La Brana 1 has now been fully sequenced, and the more comprehensive new data not only back up the initial findings, but also suggest that this individual had blue eyes".

 He said a paper should be published in the next few weeks and he expects to see La Brana-1's Y DNA haplogroup. He said the same about ancient Pontiac steppe DNA(click here) 4 weeks ago. Davidski is told around when the a publication will come out by the scientist's or by reporters.


http://eurogenes.blogspot.com.au/2013/12/ancient-human-genomes-suggest-three.html

Ancient North Eurasian (ANE): this is the twist in the tale, a component based on a previously reported 24,000 year old Upper Paleolithic forager from South Central Siberia, belonging to Y-DNA R*, and known as Mal'ta boy or MA-1.

This component was very likely present in Southern Scandinavia since at least the Mesolithic (see the summary of SHG below), but only seems to have reached Western Europe after the Neolithic. In Europe today it peaks among Estonians at just over 18%, and, intriguingly, reaches a similar level among Scots.

However, numbers weren't given for Finns, Russians and Mordovians, who, according to one of the maps, also carry very high ANE, but their results are confounded by more recent Siberian admixture (see the discussion on the European outliers below). The ANE meta-population includes Mal'ta boy as well as a late Upper Paleolithic sample from Central Siberia, dubbed Afontova Gora-2 (AG2).

http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2013/12/europeans-neolithic-farmers-mesolithic.html

Europeans = Neolithic farmers, Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and "Ancient North Eurasians" (etc.)
December 24, 2013


...
It seems that the estimates go all the way to "almost pure" Early European farmer ancestry but "West European Hunter-Gatherer" and "Ancient North Eurasian" ancestry isn't found unmixed in any modern populations.


http://dna-explained.com/category/neanderthal/
2013’s Dynamic Dozen – Top Genetic Genealogy Happenings
Posted on December 28, 2013   
...

If I were to characterize this year of genetic genealogy, I would call it The Year of the SNP, because that applies to both Y DNA and autosomal.  Maybe I’d call it The Legal SNP, because it is also the year of law, court decisions, lawsuits and FDA intervention.  To say it has been interesting is like calling the Eiffel Tower an oversized coat hanger.
...

Ancient DNA

This has been a huge year for advances in sequencing ancient DNA, something once thought unachievable.  We have learned a great deal, and there are many more skeletal remains just begging to be sequenced.  One absolutely fascinating find is that all people not African (and some who are African through backmigration) carry Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA.  Just this week, evidence of yet another archaic hominid line has been found in Neanderthal DNA and on Christmas Day, yet another article stating that type 2 Diabetes found in Native Americans has roots in their Neanderthal ancestors. Wow!

Closer to home, by several thousand years is the suggestion that haplogroup R did not exist in Europe after the ice age, and only later, replaced most of the population which, for males, appears to have been primarily haplogroup G.  It will be very interesting as the data bases of fully sequenced skeletons are built and compared.  The history of our ancestors is held in those precious bones.

http://dna-explained.com/2013/01/10/decoding-and-rethinking-neanderthals/

http://dna-explained.com/2013/07/04/ancient-dna-analysis-from-canada/

http://dna-explained.com/2013/07/10/5500-year-old-grandmother-found-using-dna/

http://dna-explained.com/2013/10/25/ancestor-of-native-americans-in-asia-was-30-western-eurasian/

http://dna-explained.com/2013/11/12/2013-family-tree-dna-conference-day-2/

http://dna-explained.com/2013/11/22/native-american-gene-flow-europe-asia-and-the-americas/

http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/05/400000-year-old-dna-from-spain-sequenced/

http://www.thegeneticgenealogist.com/2013/10/16/identifying-otzi-the-icemans-relatives/

http://cruwys.blogspot.com/2013/12/recordings-of-royal-societys-ancient.html

http://cruwys.blogspot.com/2013/02/richard-iii-king-is-found.html

http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/22/sequencing-of-neanderthal-toe-bone-reveals-unknown-hominin-line/

http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/26/native-americans-neanderthal-and-denisova-admixture/

http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2013/12/ancient-dna-what-2013-has-brought

...


On January 9, 2013, PBS ran a wonderful documentary, Decoding Neanderthals, about Neanderthals, what we have recently discovered about them, and what it means to us as humans. There has been a lot of discussion about this topic spurred by both the 23andMe and the Geno2.0 tests that provide a percentage of Neanderthal to participants. Geno2.0 also provides a percentage of Denisovan.

| - - - - -

http://www.livescience.com/9578-common-ancestor-blue-eyes.html
One Common Ancestor Behind Blue Eyes
January 31, 2008

People with blue eyes have a single, common ancestor, according to new research.

A team of scientists has tracked down a genetic mutation that leads to blue eyes. The mutation occurred between 6,000 and 10,000 years ago. Before then, there were no blue eyes.

"Originally, we all had brown eyes," said Hans Eiberg from the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine at the University of Copenhagen.

http://www.occupycorporatism.com/blue-eyes-originated-10000-years-ago-in-the-black-sea-region/
Blue Eyes Originated 10,000 Years Ago in the Black Sea Region
April 15, 2012

A team of researchers from Copenhagen University have located a single mutation that causes the mysterious phenomenon of blue eyes. And all blue eyed people are genetically related to a person who lived in the Black Sea region sometime between 6 – 10,000 years ago.

The research was published in the Journal of Human Genetics. A mutation in a gene called OCA2 came into being nearly 8,000 years ago. It can be definitively traced back to an ancestor from the Black Sea. Dr. Hans Eiberg claims that before this time, every human being had brown eyes. “A genetic mutation affecting the OCA2 gene in our chromosomes resulted in the creation of a ‘switch,’ which literally ‘turned off’ the ability to produce brown eyes,” Eiberg said.

When blue-eyed peoples from Jordan, Denmark and Turkey were examined, their genetic difference was traced back to the maternal lineage according to Eiberg’s team. The brown melanin pigment is still dominant. However, following the last Ice Age, Europeans developed this rare mutation that differentiated them from the rest of the human race.

Ninety-five percent of Europeans in Scandinavian countries have blue eyes. They are also found to have a greater range of hair and skin color - See more at: http://www.occupycorporatism.com/blue-eyes-originated-10000-years-ago-in-the-black-sea-region/#sthash.dHwN1IQZ.dpuf
...
“The question really is, ‘Why did we go from having nobody on Earth with blue eyes 10,000 years ago to having 20 or 40 percent of Europeans having blue eyes now?” John Hawks of the University of Wisconsin-Madison said. “This gene does something good for people. It makes them have more kids.” - See more at: http://www.occupycorporatism.com/blue-eyes-originated-10000-years-ago-in-the-black-sea-region/#sthash.dHwN1IQZ.dpuf

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OdSZHe4Nze8&feature=player_embedded
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online chris jones

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #21 on: January 05, 2014, 03:31:29 PM »
Hi Tahhoe.
             It's intriguing isn't it. More mystery on this earth than in all the heavens, some guy said.
             There are some very wealthy individuals who are clandestine *collectors, it is reasonable to consider they may know much more about the history / mystery's of this earth than we could possibly imagine.
              Science allows us to scratch the surface of their established philosophy, they don't however  go the whole nine yards, this in effects limits the knowledge of the commoner, we are not privy to the what they may consider to be entirely their own property not to be public..
              An example would be the vaults of the Vatican, top secret..eyes only, the Governments, the high brows, and the ELITE collectors.
              Another example many people are not aware of though it couldn't remain hidden(a secret)...:
The underground city at Derinkuyu has 18 stories that descend far into the Earth. Sophisticated shafts, some as long as 180 feet, provide ventilation to the complex’s multitude of residences, communal rooms, tunnels, wine cellars, oil presses, stables and chapels.
The city also has numerous wells to provide fresh water.  So many, that most scholars agree that Derinkuyu could have easily supported as many as 20,000 people.Built in 600 to 800 B.C. To think our renown archaeologists didn't know of this until 1969 is ludicrous.
  No big deal as it wasn't mentioned on MSM along as is GAGA..           Seriously we haven't truly been informed have we.

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #22 on: January 10, 2014, 02:09:25 PM »
http://www.nature.com/news/archaeology-the-milk-revolution-1.13471
Archaeology: The milk revolution

When a single genetic mutation first let ancient Europeans drink milk, it set the stage for a continental upheaval.
Andrew Curry
31 July 2013


In the 1970s, archaeologist Peter Bogucki was excavating a Stone Age site in the fertile plains of central Poland when he came across an assortment of odd artefacts. The people who had lived there around 7,000 years ago were among central Europe's first farmers, and they had left behind fragments of pottery dotted with tiny holes. It looked as though the coarse red clay had been baked while pierced with pieces of straw.
...

The mystery potsherds sat in storage until 2011, when Mélanie Roffet-Salque pulled them out and analysed fatty residues preserved in the clay. Roffet-Salque, a geochemist at the University of Bristol, UK, found signatures of abundant milk fats — evidence that the early farmers had used the pottery as sieves to separate fatty milk solids from liquid whey. That makes the Polish relics the oldest known evidence of cheese-making in the world 1.
...

Strong stomachs

Young children almost universally produce lactase and can digest the lactose in their mother's milk.

But as they mature, most switch off the lactase gene. Only 35% of the human population can digest lactose beyond the age of about seven or eight (ref. 2). “If you're lactose intolerant and you drink half a pint of milk, you're going to be really ill. Explosive diarrhoea — dysentery essentially,” says Oliver Craig, an archaeologist at the University of York, UK. “I'm not saying it's lethal, but it's quite unpleasant.”



Most people who retain the ability to digest milk can trace their ancestry to Europe, where the trait seems to be linked to a single nucleotide in which the DNA base cytosine changed to thymine in a genomic region not far from the lactase gene. There are other pockets of lactase persistence in West Africa (see Nature 444, 994–996; 2006), the Middle East and south Asia that seem to be linked to separate mutations 3 (see 'Lactase hotspots').
...

http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052970203806504577178902881506254
Of Culture and Cows: What We Teach Our Genes
January 28, 2012

Human beings, we tend to think, are at the mercy of their genes. You either have blue eyes or you do not (barring contact lenses); no amount of therapy can change it. But genes are at the mercy of us, too. From minute to minute, they switch on and off (i.e., are actively used as recipes to make proteins) in the brain, the immune system or the skin in response to experience. Sunbathing, for example, triggers the expression of genes for the pigment melanin.

...
The new study, of 5,000-year-old bones from the Basque region of Spain, catches this evolutionary event in the act, finding that just 27% of individuals were then lactose tolerant, much lower than today. Concepción de la Rúa of Spain's University of the Basque Country and her fellow authors conclude that the genetic change most probably happened after cattle domestication, at a time "when fresh milk consumption was already fully adopted as a consequence of a cultural influence." Here we have genes at the mercy of culture.

Could blue eyes be another example of the same phenomenon—"culture-gene co-evolution"? Thanks to the work of the appropriately named (and blue-eyed) Danish geneticist Hans Eiberg and his colleagues, we now know that the chief mutation that causes blue eyes is a single letter change, from A to G, at the 26,039,213rd position on chromosome 15, within a gene called HERC2.

HERC2 has no effect on eye color, but it contains an unexpressed segment of DNA that is needed for the switching on of a nearby gene called OCA2, as demonstrated by newly published work by Robert-Jan Palstra and others at Erasmus University in the Netherlands. The mutation that causes blue eyes reduces the expression of OCA2 and hence reduces pigment concentration. Paler eyes look bluer.

Why did this mutation become so common somewhere around the shores of the Baltic sea around 6,000 years ago? The answer may lie in the fact that the date coincides with the arrival of agriculture in the area. When people began relying heavily on a diet of bread at such a northern latitude, they probably became chronically deficient in vitamin D, for bread is generally low in vitamin D.

This wouldn't matter in a lower latitude, because the body can synthesize vitamin D if exposed to ultraviolet sun rays. But in northern Europe, diseases related to vitamin D deficiency, such as rickets, would have become common. Any individual who had a genetic mutation that lightened his or her skin (and eyes) would absorb more sunlight, boosting health and the ability to survive and breed. Paleness was selected.

When Nordic people started depending more on bread than on fish, they got less vitamin D from their diet. As a result, they got paler, improving the capacity of their skin to generate this crucial nutrient just from scarce sunlight. How they lived changed, in effect, how they looked.


http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/07/125-missing-human-ancestor/shreeve-text
The Case of the Missing Ancestor
DNA from a cave in Russia adds a mysterious new member to the human family.
By Jamie Shreeve
Photograph by Robert Clark


In the Altay Mountains of southern Siberia, some 200 miles from where Russia touches Mongolia, China, and Kazakhstan, nestled under a rock face about 30 yards above a little river called the Anuy, there is a cave called Denisova. It has long attracted visitors. The name comes from that of a hermit, Denis, who is said to have lived there in the 18th century. Long before that, Neolithic and later Turkic pastoralists took shelter in the cave, gathering their herds around them to ride out the Siberian winters. Thanks to them, the archaeologists who work in Denisova today, surrounded by walls spattered with recent graffiti, had to dig through deep layers of goat dung to get to the deposits that interested them. But the cave’s main chamber has a high, arched ceiling with a hole near the top that directs shimmering shafts of sunlight into the interior, so that the space feels holy, like a church.

...
The green stone bracelet found earlier in Layer 11 had almost surely been made by modern humans. The toe bone was Neanderthal. And the finger bone was something else entirely. One cave, three kinds of human being. “Denisova is magical,” said Pääbo.

“It’s the one spot on Earth that we know of where Neanderthals, Denisovans, and modern humans all lived.”

All week, during breaks in the conference, he kept returning alone to the cave. It was as if he thought he might find clues by standing where the little girl may have stood and touching the cool stone walls she too may have touched.
...

http://www.sciencenewsline.com/articles/2013121820370017.html
Neanderthal Genome Shows Early Human Interbreeding, Inbreeding  
Published: December 18, 2013. By University of California - Berkeley
http://www.berkeley.edu  


...

The comparison shows that Neanderthals and Denisovans are very closely related, and that their common ancestor split off from the ancestors of modern humans about 400,000 years ago. Neanderthals and Denisovans split about 300,000 years ago.

Though Denisovans and Neanderthals eventually died out, they left behind bits of their genetic heritage because they occasionally interbred with modern humans. The research team estimates that between 1.5 and 2.1 percent of the genomes of modern non-Africans can be traced to Neanthertals.

Denisovans also left genetic traces in modern humans, though only in some Oceanic and Asian populations. The genomes of Australian aborigines, New Guineans and some Pacific Islanders are about 6 percent Denisovan genes, according to earlier studies. The new analysis finds that the genomes of Han Chinese and other mainland Asian populations, as well as of native Americans, contain about 0.2 percent Denisovan genes.

The genome comparisons also show that Denisovans interbred with a mysterious fourth group of early humans also living in Eurasia at the time. That group had split from the others more than a million years ago, and may have been the group of human ancestors known as Homo erectus, which fossils show was living in Europe and Asia a million or more years ago.

"The paper really shows that the history of humans and hominins during this period was very complicated," said Slatkin, a UC Berkeley professor of integrative biology. "There was lot of interbreeding that we know about and probably other interbreeding we haven't yet discovered."
...

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tevSkylmvXk
PBS Nova Decoding Neanderthals 720p HD

http://archaeology.about.com/od/domestications/a/plant_domestic.htm
...
Plant Domestication
 
Plant Where Domesticated Date
Fig trees Near East 9000 BC
Emmer wheat Near East 9000 BC
Foxtail Millet East Asia 9000 BC
Einkorn wheat Near East 8500 BC
Barley Near East 8500 BC
Chickpea Anatolia 8500 BC
Bottle gourd Asia 8000 BC
Rice Asia 8000 BC
Potatoes Andes Mountains 8000 BC
Beans South America 8000 BC
Squash (Cucurbita pepo) Central America 8000 BC
Maize Central America 7000 BC
Water Chestnut Asia 7000 BC
Perilla Asia 7000 BC
Burdock Asia 7000 BC
Broomcorn millet East Asia 6000 BC
Bread wheat Near East 6000 BC
Manioc/Cassava South America 6000 BC
Chenopodium South America 5500 BC
Date Palm Southwest Asia 5000 BC
Avocado Central America 5000 BC
Cotton Southwest Asia 5000 BC
Bananas Island Southeast Asia 5000 BC
Beans Central America 5000 BC
Chili peppers South America 4000 BC
Amaranth Central America 4000 BC
Watermelon Near East 4000 BC
Olives Near East 4000 BC
Cotton Peru 4000 BC
Pomegranate Iran 3500 BC
Hemp East Asia 3500 BC
Cotton Mesoamerica 3000 BC
Azuki Bean East Asia 3000 BC
Coca South America 3000 BC
Sago Palm Southeast Asia 3000 BC
Squash (Cucurbita pepo ovifera ) North America 3000 BC
Sunflower Central America 2600 BC
Rice India 2500 BC
Sweet Potato Peru 2500 BC
Pearl millet Africa 2500 BC
Marsh elder (Iva annua) North America 2400 BC
Sorghum Africa 2000 BC
Sunflower North America 2000 BC
Saffron Mediterranean 1900 BC
Chenopodium China 1900 BC
Chenopodium North America 1800 BC
Chocolate Mexico 1600 BC
Coconut Southeast Asia 1500 BC
Rice Africa 1500 BC
Tobacco South America 1000 BC
Eggplant Asia 1st century BC
Vanilla Central America 14th century AD

http://archaeology.about.com/od/dterms/a/domestication.htm

Animal  - Where Domesticated Date
Dog undetermined ~14-30,000 BC?
Sheep Western Asia 8500 BC
Cat Fertile Crescent 8500 BC  [ that's wrong, cats were never domesticated  - but they are good mousers ]
Goats Western Asia 8000 BC
Pigs Western Asia 7000 BC
Cattle Eastern Sahara 7000 BC
Chicken Asia 6000 BC
Guinea pig Andes Mountains 5000 BC
Taurine Cattle Western Asia 6000 BC
Zebu Indus Valley 5000 BC
Llama and Alpaca Andes Mountains 4500 BC
Donkey Northeast Africa 4000 BC
Horse Kazakhstan 3600 BC
Silkworm China 3500 BC
Bactrian camel Southern Russia 3000 BC
Honey Bee Near East or Western Asia 3000 BC
Dromedary camel Saudi Arabia 3000 BC
Banteng Thailand 3000 BC
Water buffalo Pakistan 2500 BC
Duck Western Asia 2500 BC
Yak Tibet 2500 BC
Goose Germany 1500 BC
Mongoose? Egypt 1500 BC
Reindeer Siberia 1000 BC
Turkey Mexico 100 BC-AD 100
Muscovy duck South America ~AD 100
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #23 on: January 11, 2014, 01:19:02 PM »
http://archaeology.org/issues/116-1401/features/top10/1581-nevada-winnemucca-lame-rock-carvings
North America’s Oldest Petroglyphs

Winnemucca Lake, Nevada
By ERIC A. POWELL
Tuesday, December 10, 2013



The analysis of carbonate that crusted over petroglyphs when they were covered by the waters of Winnemucca Lake in Nevada indicates that the rock carvings are at least 10,000  years old, making them the oldest in North America.

Paleoindians are often thought of as pioneering explorers or expert mammoth hunters. But new dating of geometric rock carvings in Nevada’s Winnemucca Lake basin now suggests they were also accomplished artists.

A team led by University of Colorado paleoclimatologist Larry Benson was able to date the carbonate crust that covers the petroglyphs. Benson concluded that the artwork must have been created more than 10,000 years ago, before the carvings were submerged beneath the lake’s higher waters and covered in carbonate. “We knew they were old,” he says. “We just didn’t know they were that old.” According to Benson, it’s possible that paleoartists made the carvings as early as 15,000 years ago.

Just what those artists meant to depict is unclear. Some of the petroglyphs may represent clouds and lightning, others are diamond- shaped, and there are some patterns that might represent trees. Whatever the inspiration for the carvings, the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, which owns the Winnemucca Lake basin, considers them sacred to this day.

http://hyperallergic.com/79044/researchers-discover-the-oldest-petroglyphs-in-north-america/

Petroglyphs in western Nevada have been identified as the oldest of their kind in North America. Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder conducted a study that dates the rock carvings to between 10,500 and 14,800 years ago.



Two images trace the shapes of some of the petroglyphs more clearly and show their relative size (click to enlarge)
...
The rock carvings previously thought to be the oldest in the US are located near in Oregon near Long Lake. There’s no estimated date for those, but one of the panels was carved at least 6,700 years ago, which is when a nearby volcano buried it in ash.

By comparison, the oldest known rock art in the world was carved some 37,000 years ago — and it’s a depiction of a vulva.

http://hyperallergic.com/51498/oldest-rock-art-depicts-vulva/
Archeologist Uncovers Oldest Rock Art, Exclaims “Oh , A Vulva”
by Hrag Vartanian on June 6, 2012

It should be no surprise that early humans decorated their surroundings with symbols of fertility, so the discovery that the oldest rock art ever found in Europe depicts a vulva isn’t exactly making waves. But the discover is more than noteworthy consider it is reputedly “the oldest evidence of any kind of graphic imagery.”





The new discovery, uncovered at a site called Abri Castanet in France, consists mainly of circular carvings most likely meant to represent the vulva. The carvings were etched into the ceiling of a now-collapsed rock shelter about 37,000 years ago, researchers reported Monday (May 14) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Who were these early artists? They were a group called the Aurignicians, a group from Africa that lived roughtly 45,000 to 35,000 years ago and eventually replace the Neanderthals.

http://www.karstworlds.com/2012/05/cave-women-in-different-light.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurignacian
The Aurignacian culture (/ɔrɪɡˈneɪʃən/ or /ɔrɪnˈjeɪʃən/) is an archaeological culture of the Upper Palaeolithic, located in Europe and southwest Asia. It lasted broadly within the period from ca. 45,000 to 35,000 years ago (about 37,000 to 27,000 years ago on the uncalibrated radiocarbon timescale; between ca. 47,000 and 41,000 years ago using the most recent calibration of the radiocarbon timescale[1]). The name originates from the type site of Aurignac in the Haute-Garonne area of France.
...
This sophistication and self-awareness led archaeologists to consider the makers of Aurignacian artifacts the first modern humans in Europe. Human remains and Late Aurignacian artifacts found in juxtaposition support this inference

Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline iamc2

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #24 on: January 11, 2014, 01:40:30 PM »
In my opinion all the activity on planet earth: prior to Noah's Flood: was conducted by 'Fallen Angels.'

and they did have technology and could build what ever they desired: These Were GIANTS back in that day!

 Question? if Ancient Aliens came to earth and are watching us? and are here to HELP MANKIND?

 Well! they are doing a terrible job.

 And now I say; "You outer space entities are doing a lousy job: and Now you are unemployed."

 I do not need your demonic nonsense: so go back to Outer-Space/ or is it the inter dimension from Hell?

(the only mystery human is a person that does not understand themselves!)
"When the Truth was murdered:
Common Sense ran away..."

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #25 on: January 11, 2014, 02:41:59 PM »
Ok, what about retroviruses attaching to the male Y chromosome? Inquiring minds wanted to know!
turns out yes - HERV's have been attaching to the Y-chromosome as far back as 10 million years ago ... hmmmm

Now what is interesting in the ol' days genetic mutation by "gamma" radiation was supposedly what caused all the great differentiation , but what we see here is that retro-viruses implanting themselves into the genome creates much more .... and an intelligent being could devise a retro virus that wouild have specific targets in dna ....
 


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20703239
Human endogenous retrovirus K14C drove genomic diversification of the Y chromosome during primate evolution.
...

http://www.experts.scival.com/kanazawa/pubDetail.asp?t=pm&id=78649510670&o_id=1&n=KAZUHIRO+SUGIMOTO&u_id=626
Human endogenous retrovirus K14C drove genomic diversification of the Y chromosome during primate evolution

Ho-Su Sin; Eitetsu Koh; Dae-Soo Kim; Miho Murayama; Kazuhiro Sugimoto; Yuji Maeda; Atsumi Yoshida; Mikio Namiki
(Profiled Authors: MIKIO NAMIKI; YUJI MAEDA)
Journal of Human Genetics. 2010;55(11):717-725.


Abstract

The male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) has accumulated a higher density of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related sequences when compared with other regions of the human genome.

Here, we focused on one HERV family, HERV-K14C that seemed to integrate preferentially into the Y chromosome in humans. To identify every copies of HERV-K14C in the human genome, we applied computational screening to map precisely the locus of individual HERV-K14C copies. Interestingly, 29 of all 146 copies were located in Y chromosome, and these 29 copies were mostly dispersed in the palindromic region. Three distinct HERV-K14C-related transcripts were found and were exclusively expressed in human testis tissue.

Based on our phylogenetic analysis of the solitary LTRs derived from HERV-K14C on the Y chromosome we suggested that these sequences were generated as pairs of identical sequences. Specifically, analysis of HERV-K14C-related sequences in the palindromic region demonstrated that the Y chromosomal amplicons existed in our common ancestors and the duplicated pairs arose after divergence of great apes approximately 8-10 million years ago. Taken together, our observation suggested that HERV-K14C-related sequences contributed to genomic diversification of Y chromosome during speciation of great ape lineage. © 2010 The Japan Society of Human Genetics All rights reserved.


....


Human endogenous retrovirus K14C drove genomic diversification of the Y chromosome during primate evolution.  


Abstract
The male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) has accumulated a higher density of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related sequences when compared with other regions of the human genome.

Here, we focused on one HERV family, HERV-K14C that seemed to integrate preferentially into the Y chromosome in humans.

To identify every copies of HERVK14C in the human genome, we applied computational screening to map precisely the locus of individual HERV-K14C copies. Interestingly, 29 of all 146 copies were located in Y chromosome, and these 29 copies were mostly dispersed in the palindromic region. Three 10 distinct HERV-K14C-related transcripts were found and were exclusively expressed in human testis tissue.

Based on our phylogenetic analysis of the solitary LTRs derived from HERV-K14C on the Y chromosome we suggested that these sequences were generated as pairs of identical sequences. Specifically, analysis of HERV-K14C-related sequences in the palindromic region demonstrated that the Y chromosomal amplicons existed in our common ancestors and the 15 duplicated pairs arose after divergence of great apes approximately 8-10 million years ago.

Taken together, our observation suggested that HERV-K14C-related sequences contributed to genomic diversification of Y chromosome during speciation of great ape lineage.
...

Several distinct families of HERVs exist in the human genome.6,7

The majority of HERVs 50 inserted into primate genome after the divergence of New World and Old World monkeys and were subjected to several amplification events during primate evolution. 8,9 When HERVs integrate into a host genome, they generate a form of the viral genome, including a 5’ LTR (long terminal repeats) - gag (capsid protein) - pol (viral enzyme) - env (envelope protein) -3´LTR, deleterious mutations during evolution.

Nevertheless, some HERV-related sequences are actively expressed and able to influence the host genome. For instance, the envelope protein of one of the most abundant families, HERV-W, serves an important function in the morphogenesis of the placenta in human.11 Not only the coding regions of HERVs contribute to transcriptome
60 diversity; the LTRs contain transcription factor binding sites, hormone response elements, and polyadenylation signals that influence the host genome.

Many reports demonstrate that HERV sequences regulate expression of functional genes near the site of integration.12-14

An ancient member of HERV-K family entered the genome in the Old World monkey lineage but HERV-K recurrently amplified and expanded during primate evolution.15

Some of HERV-K 65 members are present only in chimpanzees and humans, indicating a relatively recent integration event within in the last five to eight million years.16

The solitary HERV-K LTR sequences, rather than the full-length retrovirus, give rise to the genetic variants found in some human individuals.17,18 In addition, the amplification of HERV-K elements within the human lineage causes insertion polymorphism in the human genome.


http://vir.sgmjournals.org/content/80/4/835.full.pdf
Journal of General Virology (1999), 80, 835–839. Printed in Great Britain

A human endogenous retrovirus-like (HERV) LTR formed more than 10 million years ago due to an insertion of HERV-H LTR
into the 5« LTR of HERV-K is situated on human chromosomes 10, 19 and Y

...
A chimeric long terminal repeat (LTR) containing the whole LTR of a human endogenous retrovirus like element of the H family (HERV-H) inserted downstream of the core enhancer region of the 5« LTR of a HERV-K retroelement was detected and sequenced in the human 19p12 locus, known to be enriched with genes encoding zinc finger proteins.

Similar chimeras were also detected in human chromosomes 10 and Y in human–hamster hybrid cells containing individual human chromosomes.
This finding was interpreted as evidence of transpositions of the chimera in the genome. PCR analyses detected the chimera in the genomes of chimpanzee and gorilla, but not in that of orangutan.

These data demonstrate that the chimera appeared in the primate germ cells more than 10 million years ago, before divergence of the human/chimpanzee and the gorilla lineages. The combination of the two LTRs forms a new regulatory system that can be involved in nearby gene expression.


http://jmg.bmj.com/content/37/10/752.full.pdf
Divergent outcomes of intrachromosomal recombination on the human Y chromosome:
male infertility and recurrent polymorphism

Abstract
The Y chromosome provides a unique opportunity to study mutational processes within the human genome, decoupled from the confounding effects of interchromosomal
recombination. It has been suggested that the increased density of certain dispersed repeats on the Y could account for the high frequency of causative
microdeletions relative to single nucleotide mutations in infertile males
.

Previously we localised breakpoints of an  AZFa microdeletion close to two highly homologous complete human endogenous retroviral sequences (HERV), separated
by 700 kb. Here we show, by sequencing across the breakpoint, that the microdeletion occurs in register within a highly homologous segment between the HERVs.

Furthermore, we show that recurrent double crossovers have occurred between the HERVs, resulting in the loss of a 1.5 kb insertion from one HERV, an event underlying the first ever Y chromosomal polymorphism described, the 12f2 deletion.

This event produces a substantially longer segment of absolute homology and as such may result in increased predisposition to further intrachromosomal recombination.

Intrachromosomal crosstalk between these two HERV sequences can thus result in either homogenising sequence conversion or a microdeletion causing male
infertility. This represents a major subclass of AZFa deletions.
...

Human endogenous retroviral sequences (HERV) are a major subclass of dispersed repeats, accounting for about 1% of the human genome.5 The remnants of ancient germ cell retroviral infections that have been multiply transposed after their original integration, partial and complete HERV proviral sequences are widely distributed throughout the genome.6

The degree of sequence divergence between superfamilies of HERV varies markedly and is thought to correlate with the time since major waves of amplification.7 Until now HERV sequences have not been associated with pathogenic illegitimate recombination.

The human Y chromosome has been recently shown to contain certain dispersed repeats, including Alu and HERV sequences, at a significantly higher frequency than the autosomes.8 It has been suggested that deletions mediated by this higher frequency of dispersed repeats may be the major mode of pathogenic mutation on the Y chromosome.9 It has also been suggested that the history of inversions on the Y chromosome that characterized its divergence from the X also results from this higher density of repeats.
...

The first Y linked polymorphism was discovered in 1985, by probing restriction enzyme digests of genomic DNA with a 2.3 kb BglII fragment from the p12f clone.20 From Southern hybridisations of TaqI and EcoRI digests it was hypothesised that a deletion of roughly 2 kb was the event underlying the polymorphism. The Y chromosomal lineage defined by the 12f2 deletion is of interest for studies of prehistoric migrations and is found at highest frequencies (greater than 25%) in Middle Eastern, southern European, North African, and Ethiopian populations.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymorphism_(biology)

In polyphenism, an individual's genetic make-up allows for different morphs, and the switch mechanism that determines which morph is shown is environmental.

In genetic polymorphism, the genetic make-up determines the morph.

| - - - -

X HERV-K only a million years ago ....

http://www.pnas.org/content/101/6/1668.full.pdf
Human endogenous retrovirus K solo-LTR formation and insertional polymorphisms: Implications for human and viral evolution

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are a potential source of genetic diversity in the human genome. Although many of these elements have been inactivated over time by the accumulation of deleterious mutations or internal recombination leading to solo-LTR formation, several members of the HERV-K family have been identified that remain nearly intact and probably represent recent integration events.

 To determine whether HERV-K elements have caused recent changes in the human genome, we have undertaken a study of the level of HERV-K polymorphism that exists in the human population. By using a high-resolution unblotting technique, we analyzed 13 human-specific HERV-K elements in 18 individuals.

We found that solo LTRs have formed at five of these loci. These results enable the estimation of HERV solo-LTR formation in the human genome and indicate that these events occur much more frequently than described in inbred mice. Detailed sequence analysis of one provirus shows that solo-LTR formation occurred at least three separate times in recent history.

An unoccupied preintegration site also was present at this locus in two individuals, indicating that although the age of this provirus is estimated to be 1.2 million years, it has not yet become fixed in the human population.
...

Discussion
By using a high-resolution hybridization method, we have found that the HERV-K family of endogenous retroviruses is quite polymorphic in the human population.

Of the 24 proviruses detected by our probe, only the more recently integrated elements, namely those that were found to be human-specific, contain polymorphic loci. Four such human-specific elements, including two that were identified in ref. 11, are apparently not yet fixed in the human population, as evidenced by the presence
of unoccupied preintegration sites in the genomes of some individuals
.

One of these elements, HERV-K115, is very rare in the population and, therefore, most likely represents a more recent integration event. The remaining polymorphic elements have undergone solo-LTR formation at some point after their integration, and these solo-LTR alleles exist at different frequencies in the human population, perhaps reflecting their time of formation.

The time that it would take for a neutral allele to reach fixation in the human population is 800,000 years, or 4N generations, given an effective population size of 10,000 and a generation time of 20 years (20). Therefore, in the absence of selection, a solo LTR that has formed within the last 800,000 years will not yet be fixed.


http://jvi.asm.org/content/79/19/12507

Genomewide Screening Reveals High Levels of Insertional Polymorphism in the Human Endogenous Retrovirus Family HERV-K(HML2):
Implications for Present-Day Activity

ABSTRACT

The published human genome sequence contains many thousands of endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) but all are defective, containing nonsense mutations or major deletions.

Only the HERV-K(HML2) family has been active since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees; it contains many members that are human specific, as well as several that are insertionally polymorphic (an inserted element present only in some human individuals).

Here we perform a genomewide survey of insertional polymorphism levels in this family by using the published human genome sequence and a diverse sample of 19 humans.

We find that there are 113 human-specific HERV-K(HML2) elements in the human genome sequence, 8 of which are insertionally polymorphic (11 if we extrapolate to those within regions of the genome that were not suitable for amplification).

The average rate of accumulation since the divergence with chimpanzees is thus approximately 3.8 × 10−4 per haploid genome per generation. Furthermore, we find that the number of polymorphic elements is not significantly different from that predicted by a standard population genetic model that assumes constant activity of the family until the present.

This suggests to us that the HERV-K(HML2) family may be active in present-day humans.

Active (replication-competent) elements are likely to have inserted very recently and to be present at low allele frequencies, and they may be causing disease in the individuals carrying them. This view of the family from a population perspective rather than a genome perspective will inform the current debate about a possible role of HERV-K(HML2) in human disease

| - - - -

one hundred thousand years HERV K-106 - All humans have it - which is also to say none that were infected survived without it entering the dna ie  we are all the survivors

http://sciencelife.uchospitals.edu/2011/10/11/the-viruses-hidden-within-us/
...

Previously, the youngest HERVs were estimated to be 800,000 years old. For a recent paper in the journal PLoS ONE that explored how recently HERVs were actually circulating as viruses, Aashish Jha, a University of Chicago graduate student in the Department of Human Genetics and former member of Douglas Nixon‘s lab at UCSF, looked for recent integrations into the human genome. Using a genome browser at UCSC, Jha and colleagues tracked all the human-specific, full-length HERVs at a particular place in the human genome. Interestingly, one HERV called k106 didn’t fit the normal timeline.

“It looked interesting because it did not have any mutations in its LTRs,” Jha said.

This was an unusual find, as the age of most HERVs insures at least a few mutations that would aid in dating it. Using genetic information from 51 ethnically diverse individuals, Jha and colleagues were able to estimate that the k106 HERV integrated between 92 and 100 thousand years ago, making it one of the youngest HERVs ever identified.

This time period is exactly the time modern humans were emerging,” Jha pointed out, “So someone was infected and, given that it was a small population size, it rapidly became fixed in the genome. Then humans moved out of Africa…so even though the virus is new we find it fixed in every human population.”


Having identified this recently integrated, human-specific HERV, it’s possible to gain insight on the ways HERVs have affected the course of our development. LTRs flanking HERVs contain signals that control when and where genes are turned on and off. Placing these viral signals in front of host genes could impact how and when they are expressed and, in some cases, lend an advantage to the individuals possessing it.

“There are multiple ways they [affect evolution],” Jha said.

...

the identification of recent integrations such as k106 – the first HERV identified as having integrated after the rise of modern man – will help us understand some leaps in our evolution as well as the threats that may be contained within our own cells.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16024218
The distribution of the endogenous retroviruses HERV-K113 and HERV-K115 in health and disease

Abstract


The human endogenous retroviruses HERV-K113 and HERV-K115 are full-length proviruses but unusual in being found in only a proportion of the population. Here, we study the geographic distribution of these HERVs and their prevalence in autoimmune disease. The frequency of HERV-K113 and HERV-K115 in 174 individuals from Africa was 21.8 and 34.1%, respectively, compared to 4.16 and 1% in 96 people in the United Kingdom (p < 0.001). Prevalence in Yemen (n = 56) was 8 and 7.14% and in Papua New Guinea (n = 54) 0% for both. In the United Kingdom, HERV-K113 was found in 15.6% of 96 Sjögren's syndrome patients (p < 0.01) and 11.9% of 109 multiple sclerosis patients (p < 0.05). No increase in prevalence in either disease was seen with HERV-K115. These data suggest that both viruses are recently integrated and/or under positive evolutionary selection pressure. HERV-K113 may be a genetic risk factor for some types of autoimmunity.

http://www.internalmedicinenews.com/index.php?id=2049&type=98&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=11775&cHash=da03e20e36
Out of Africa: Retrovirus Linked to Autoimmunity
By: NANCY WALSH
06/15/05

BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND — A newly identified human endogenous retrovirus that is much more prevalent in Africa than in other parts of the world may place its carriers at risk for certain autoimmune diseases, David Moyes, Ph.D., said at the joint meeting of the British Society for Rheumatology and the German Society for Rheumatology.

Patients with autoimmune diseases often have elevated antibody levels to certain structural proteins of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), suggesting a possible role for these viruses in autoimmune disease, Dr. Moyes said.

Until recently it was thought that HERVs were ubiquitous and fixed in the population, having been incorporated into the genome before the initial wave of human migration out of Africa some 200,000 years ago. But two of these viruses, HERV-K113 and HERV-K115 are now known to vary widely in prevalence across different populations. “This means that both viruses are likely to have been incorporated into the genome during more recent human evolution and that both could potentially induce an autoimmune response,” he said.

The mean prevalence of HERV-K113 identified by polymerase chain reaction testing in a sample of 174 subjects from Kenya, Malawi, and Côte d'Ivoire was 21.8%, compared with 4.2% in a sample of 96 subjects from the United Kingdom, said Dr. Moyes of the Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Imperial College, London.

Similarly, HERV-K115 was present in 34% of subjects from Africa and in only 1% of those in the United Kingdom.

“When you move off the African continent to the Arabian peninsula the prevalence drops off markedly. Neither virus was detected in any of 54 samples from Papua New Guinea,” he said.

“Because of the possibility that one or both of these retroviruses could be involved in autoimmune disease, we went on to analyze their prevalence in two U.K. disease cohorts,” Dr. Moyes said.

...
Increases in these diseases were not associated with K115, however, which is a defective virus. “Both are full length proviruses, but HERV-K113 is a complete virus that has open reading frames and can fully express all its genes. HERV-K115 has a single deletion that prevents the expression of the Pro/Pol genes,” he said.

http://imn.gcnpublishing.com/fileadmin/content_pdf/imn/archive_pdf/vol38iss12/71098_main.pdf
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline iamc2

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #26 on: January 11, 2014, 11:28:07 PM »
In my opinion all the activity on planet earth: prior to Noah's Flood: was conducted by 'Fallen Angels.'

and they did have technology and could build what ever they desired: These Were GIANTS back in that day!

 Question? if Ancient Aliens came to earth and are watching us? and are here to HELP MANKIND?

 Well! they are doing a terrible job.

 And now I say; "You outer space entities are doing a lousy job: and Now you are unemployed."

 I do not need your demonic nonsense: so go back to Outer-Space/ or is it the inter dimension from Hell?

(the only mystery human is a person that does not understand themselves!)

" The only Mystery Human is a person that does not understand themselves."


 When knowledge is never lived: then wisdom is never attained: the more information you think you have: most of the time it will become useless and clueless: Use your life to understand that knowledge will become wisdom; and only when you understand this, will you have lived a life which became wisdom! This wisdom lets you understand that the only mystery human is not you! Think about that!
"When the Truth was murdered:
Common Sense ran away..."

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #27 on: January 18, 2014, 03:16:52 PM »


You fed the wolf--when others would not, you took his troth---when tied was he, your hand took the wolf---when you bound the outlaw, so one handed god---they call you.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140116190137.htm
Genomes of Modern Dogs and Wolves Provide New Insights On Domestication

Jan. 16, 2014 — Dogs and wolves evolved from a common ancestor between 9,000 and 34,000 years ago, before humans transitioned to agricultural societies, according to an analysis of modern dog and wolf genomes from areas of the world thought to be centers of dog domestication.

The study, published in PLoS Genetics on January 16, 2014, also shows that dogs are more closely related to each other than wolves, regardless of geographic origin. This suggests that part of the genetic overlap observed between some modern dogs and wolves is the result of interbreeding after dog domestication, not a direct line of descent from one group of wolves.

This reflects a more complicated history than the popular story that early farmers adopted a few docile, friendly wolves that later became our beloved, modern-day companions. Instead, the earliest dogs may have first lived among hunter-gatherer societies and adapted to agricultural life later.

"Dog domestication is more complex than we originally thought," said John Novembre, associate professor in the Department of Human Genetics at the University of Chicago and a senior author on the study. "In this analysis we didn't see clear evidence in favor of a multi-regional model, or a single origin from one of the living wolves that we sampled. It makes the field of dog domestication very intriguing going forward."
...

"One possibility is there may have been other wolf lineages that these dogs diverged from that then went extinct," he said. "So now when you ask which wolves are dogs most closely related to, it's none of these three because these are wolves that diverged in the recent past. It's something more ancient that isn't well represented by today's wolves."
...
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #28 on: January 18, 2014, 03:34:19 PM »


http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/08/130827-mesolithic-european-hunter-gatherers-domesticated-pigs/
European Hunter-Gatherers Had Domesticated Pigs Earlier Than Thought

Presence of porkers reveals new information about culture in northern Germany.

Bentheim Black Pied pigs, an endangered domestic breed, are raised in Laer, Germany. New evidence suggests that ancient people in Germany had domestic pigs earlier than thought

By Ker Than for National Geographic
Published August 27, 2013

Domesticated pigs were present in northern Germany around 4600 B.C., some 500 years earlier than previously thought, new fossil and DNA evidence reveals.

[ http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/130827/ncomms3348/full/ncomms3348.html ]

The finding, detailed in this week's issue of the journal Nature Communications, is significant because the people living in that part of Europe at the time were Mesolithic hunter-gatherers who primarily lived off of wild game.

These people, known as the Ertebølle culture, kept domesticated dogs as hunting companions, but it would be several hundreds of years before they began raising animals and crops for food.

One hypothesis for how the Ertebølle came to acquire the pigs is that they traded for them with their farmer neighbors to the south.

"It would have been hard [for the hunter-gatherers] not to be fascinated by the strange-looking spotted pigs owned by farmers living nearby," study co-author Greger Larson, an archeologist at Durham University in the UK, said in a statement.

"It should come as no surprise that the hunter-gatherers acquired some eventually, but this study shows that they did very soon after the domestic pigs arrived in northern Europe."


What's New?

Using DNA analysis and tooth morphology comparison techniques, the scientists analyzed the bones and teeth of 63 pigs found at Ertebølle settlements in northern Germany.

The results showed that some of the pigs were domesticated animals that had both Near Eastern and European ancestry and which were similar to pigs bred by Neolithic farmers living in central Europe.

...
What's Next?

Krause-Kyora said the team plans to take advantage of next-generation DNA sequencing methods to create a complete genome of the ancient domesticated pigs for comparison with those of modern pig breeds.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #29 on: January 18, 2014, 04:08:22 PM »
http://leherensuge.blogspot.com/2008/04/aurignacian-origins.html
Aurignacian origins

The development and arrival of Aurignacian culture to Europe was maybe a definitory moment. Most likely it was carried by the oldest Homo sapiens ever to step in the continent and these are our ancestors, at least our ancestors with the oldest roots here (others may have arrived later on).

Which are the exact origins of this culture seems to have arisen some scholarly disputes and the last word may not have been said yet. But the last years have provided some interesting papers that seem to be largely coincident. I'm mentioning three of them here:
...

3. P. Mellars: Archeology and the Dispersal of Modern Humans in Europe: Deconstructing the 'Aurignacian' (2006): For Mellars Aurignacian originates in Ahmarian (Near East), being Bachokirian an intermediate step. He also suggests two routes for the penetration of Aurignacian in Europe.

But more interestingly, Mellars reveals that recent studies allow for much more precise calibration of existing radiocarbon dates, pushing the arrival of Aurignacian to Europe back by some 5,000 years. Aurignacian colonists would therefore have arrived to most of Europe, roughly 42-41,000 years BP (calibrated) or, in other terms, some 40-39,000 years BCE.

He also provides a nice map:


Giant Caucasoid Mummies
For reference - Göbekli Tepe:  (Temple/Shrine Complex). - Oldest know civilized site found in Turkey - est 12000 years old - no explanation...


Dated at around 9,500 BC, these stones are 5,500 years older than the first cities of Mesopotamia

Description - As there is no evidence of habitation; the structures are interpreted as temples.
After 8000 BC, the site was abandoned and purposely covered up with soil.

It consists of at least 20 underground rooms that contain a number of T-shaped stone pillars that are 8 feet tall and weigh about 7 tons. The pillars are engraved with images of animals, including leopards, snakes and spiders....This is not a place where people lived. It's as far away from water as you can get in this region
...
So far, 40-odd standing stones (two to four metres high) have been dug out. They are T-shaped and arranged in enclosed circles, which cover several hundred square metres. However, a broken, half-quarried stone has been found in a limestone bed about a kilometre from the main site. It is nine metres long, and was obviously intended to join the pillars at Gobekli: so there may be other stones, as yet unearthed, that are this big. Geomagnetic surveys imply that there are at least 250 more standing stones buried at the site.



http://www.archaeology.org/0811/abstracts/turkey.html
The World's First Temple  Volume 61 Number 6, November/December 2008 
by Sandra Scham 


It is likely the megaliths at the Neolithic site of Göbekli Tepe in Turkey once supported roofs. Archaeologists have found floors constructed of burnt lime and clay within the stone circles--the earliest such floors ever discovered. (Haldun Aydingün)

Turkey's 12,000-year-old stone circles were the spiritual center of a nomadic people

...

[ Notiice: The EARLIER structures are MORE COMPLEX ]

Excavations have revealed that Göbekli Tepe was constructed in two stages. The oldest structures belong to what archaeologists call the early Pre-Pottery Neolithic A period, which ended around 9000 B.C.

Strangely enough, the later remains, which date to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period, or about 8000 B.C., are less elaborate.

The earliest levels contain most of the T-shaped pillars and animal sculptures

http://www.templestudy.com/2008/10/22/the-first-and-oldest-temple-in-the-world-gobekli-tepe/

http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/arqueologia/gobekli_tepe04.htm


http://www.andrewcollins.com/page/news/News_vi_EQ12%20_1_May2009.htm
...
That Gobekli Tepe was constructed a full 7,000 years before either the Great Pyramid or Stonehenge is mind numbing in its implications for the history of human capability. More disturbing still is that the descendents of those Watchmen, or Watchers, who built Gobekli Tepe went on to construct further megalithic complexes.

As these went on they became cruder and cruder, until the early Neolithic peoples of southeast Turkey were simply erecting uncut standing stones or slabs either in circles or in lines. Much of the finesse of Gobekli Tepe and its contemporaries (Karahan Tepe and Nevali Cori, for instance) was lost, tending to suggest that these people were losing the impetus to create more complex structures. Despite this, we can see here the foundation of the megalithic culture, who then spread, c. 7000-5000 BC, from Upper Mesopotamia carrying with them the technologies and sciences of the Neolithic age, including an understanding of plant domestication in order that the world could settle into a more sedentary life style, away from its previous course of constant hunter-gathering.



http://www.articlesafari.com/2011/01/gobekli-tepe-aryan-settlement113/

Göbekli Tepe is the oldest human-made place of worship yet discovered. Until excavations began, a complex on this scale was not thought possible for a community so ancient. The massive sequence of stratification layers suggests several millennia of activity, perhaps reaching back to the Mesolithic. The oldest occupation layer (stratum III) contains monolithic pillars linked by coarsely built walls to form circular or oval structures. So far, four such buildings, with diameters between 10 and 30m have been uncovered. Geophysical surveys indicate the existence of 16 additional structures.



Only a few of human figures have been recovered so far. The man is the worlds oldest statue, the 13,500 year old, 2m tall Balıklıgöl Statue. Stratum II, dated to Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) (7500–6000 BC), has revealed several adjacent rectangular rooms with floors of polished lime, reminiscent of Roman terrazzo floors. The most recent layer consists of sediment deposited as the result of agricultural activity.



...
The archaeologists estimate that up to 500 persons were required to extract the 10–20 ton pillars (in fact, some weigh up to 50 tons) from local quarries and move them 100 to 500m to the site.


http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/turkeygobekli.htm

Göbekli Tepe:  (Temple/Shrine Complex).

This is the site of the worlds currently known oldest shrine or temple complex in the world, and the planet's oldest known example of monumental architecture. It has also produced the oldest known life-size figure of a human.

Compared to Stonehenge, Carnac or the Pyramids of Egypt, these are relatively humble megaliths. None of the circles excavated (four out of an estimated 20) are more than 30 meters across. What makes the discovery remarkable are both the exquisite and intricate carvings of boars, foxes, lions, birds, snakes and scorpions, and their age. Dated at around 9,500 BC, these stones are 5,500 years older than the first cities of Mesopotamia

Description  - As there is no evidence of habitation; the structures are interpreted as temples. After 8000 BC, the site was abandoned and purposely covered up with soil. (1)  It is thought that the hill top was a site of pilgrimage for communities within a radius of roughly a hundred miles. The tallest stones all face southeast,

In the Jan. 18 issue of the journal 'Science', German archaeologist Klaus Schmidt is interviewed about his work at the 11,000-year-old site of Gobekli Tepe ("navel hill") in Turkey.

According to Andrew Curry, the author of the Science article, Gobekli Tepe is situated on the most prominent hilltop for miles around. It consists of at least 20 underground rooms that contain a number of T-shaped stone pillars that are 8 feet tall and weigh about 7 tons. The pillars are engraved with images of animals, including leopards, snakes and spiders.

This is not a place where people lived. It's as far away from water as you can get in this region. Instead, it's a place of ceremony. And, according to Schmidt, it's "the first manmade holy place."

| - -- - -

The earlier humans (EMH - Early Modern Human ( don't use "Cro-Magnon" anymore) had BIGGER BRAINS and were stronger ( they like to say "more robust" )   According to Prof. Brian Fagan the term "European Early Modern Humans" EEMH is no longer used but rather Anatomically Modern Human (AMH) is preferred
   


http://phys.org/news187877156.html
Cro Magnon skull shows that our brains have shrunk
Mar 15, 2010 by Lisa Zyga

(PhysOrg.com) -- A new replica of an early modern human brain has provided further evidence for the theory that the human brain has been shrinking. The skull belonged to an elderly Cro Magnon man, whose skeleton is called Cro Magnon 1. The entire skeleton was discovered in 1868 in the Cro Magnon cave in Dordogne, France, and has since become one of the most famous Upper Palaeolithic skeletons. Using new technology, researchers have produced a replica of the 28,000-year-old brain and found that it is about 15-20% larger than our brains.

To produce the brain replica, called an endocast, the scientists first digitally scanned the interior of the empty skull. The images revealed the impression left by the brain on the neurocranium, which was then transformed into a 3D image. Software was then used to fabricate the brain endocast.

The researchers, including anthropologist Antoine Balzeau of the French Museum of Natural History, said that an initial assessment of Cro Magnon 1's skull supported the theory that brains have grown slightly smaller over the past tens of thousands of years, reversing an earlier trend toward larger brains.

The finding doesn’t suggest that humans today are less intelligent than earlier humans. Although previous studies have found a very small relationship between brain size and intelligence, many other factors affect brain intelligence.

For instance, different parts of the brain have different functions. The researchers found that the Cro Magnon brain appears to have had a smaller cerebellum - the brain region linked to motor control and language - than our brains today. The researchers explain that this finding shows that some parts of the brain are more “compressible” than others, while other regions seem to provide a benefit by growing larger.

Although scientists don’t know for sure why our overall brains are shrinking, some researchers hypothesize that our brains are becoming more efficient as they grow smaller. Having a large brain comes at a cost, so smaller brains have an advantage since they enable the body to use the extra energy for other purposes. On the other hand, perhaps a large skull had certain advantages for earlier people. One idea is that Cro Magnons needed large skulls because of the difficulty in chewing their food, which included lots of meat such as rabbits, foxes, and horses. Since our food has become easier to eat, we don’t need such large skulls or jaws. Another theory is that the high infant mortality rate in earlier times meant that young humans had to be physically robust (with large heads) to survive their early years.

http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/cromagnon.html

Fossil Hominids: Cro-Magnon Man
Cro-Magnon 1 Discovered by workmen in 1868 at Cro-Magnon, in the village of Les Eyzies in France. The estimated age of the site is 30,000 years. The site yielded 5 skeletons (3 adult males, an adult female, and a child) which had been buried there, along with stone tools, carved reindeer antlers, ivory pendants, and shells. The Cro-Magnons lived in Europe between 35,000 and 10,000 years ago. They are virtually identical to modern man, being tall and muscular and slightly more robust on average than most modern humans. They were skilled hunters, toolmakers and artists famous for the cave art at places such as Lascaux, Chauvet, and Altamira.

The skull at right is Cro-Magnon 1, is a male with a brain size of 1600 cc, some 200 cc larger than the average modern human.

If Cro-Magnons were modern humans, does that mean that modern humans are Cro-Magnons? Not really. Logically, many modern humans should be, since most modern Europeans are probably descended from them. But the term has no taxonomic significance and usually just refers to Europeans in a certain time range, even though other modern humans were living throughout much of the world at the same time.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomically_modern_humans
...
According to Prof. Brian Fagan the term "European Early Modern Humans" EEMH is no longer used but rather Anatomically Modern Human (AMH) is preferred

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cro-Magnon
...
Current scientific literature prefers the term European Early Modern Humans (EEMH), to the term 'Cro-Magnon,' which has no formal taxonomic status, as it refers neither to a species or subspecies nor to an archaeological phase or culture
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #30 on: January 18, 2014, 11:10:06 PM »
http://planetsave.com/2010/11/04/modern-humans-emerged-in-east-asia-much-earlier-than-previously-thought/
Modern Humans Emerged in East Asia Much Earlier than Previously Thought
04/11/2010

A recently completed analysis of a 2007 discovery of human remains in Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave), South China, has revealed that modern humans (the first true homo sapiens) emerged outside of Africa far earlier than was previously thought. In fact, 60, 000 years earlier!

The fossil finds were rather modest: two molars and one partial, anterior mandible (front jaw fragment). The team (Wu Liu et al), using an improved U-Series (uranium isotope) dating technique, as well as comparisons to nearby animal fossil samples, were able to date the fossil fragments to >100, 000 bp (before the present).

...

An additional question amongst some anthropologists has been whether or not archaic forms of the genus homo (such as Neandertal; some have even suggested the more ancient Homo erectus) co-existed in the same regions with early modern humans (in Europe, these were the Cro-Magnon, or, European Early Modern Humans, EEMH). The question of interbreeding between EEMH and other species of Homo was hotly debated for many decades until the recent sequencing of the Neandertal genome, revealing genetic material in common (“hybridization”) with modern humans (but with key gene mutations at sites that control skeletal formation and hair pigment, amongst others).

The overlap in dating of these Zhiren Cave finds with the older ones indicates that these two forms of hominid co-existed for thousands of years. Giving further support to this scenario, analysis showed that the jaw bone and teeth possessed a mixture of modern and archaic homo characteristics. The mandible is claimed to be distinct from that of any late, archaic human mandible, and that its morphology and “corpus robustness” place it closer to the late Pleistocene archaic humans.


http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/10/101025172924.htm
Modern Humans Emerged Far Earlier Than Previously Thought, Fossils from China Suggest

Oct. 28, 2010 — An international team of researchers, including a physical anthropology professor at Washington University in St. Louis, has discovered well-dated human fossils in southern China that markedly change anthropologists perceptions of the emergence of modern humans in the eastern Old World.
...

The discovery of early modern human fossil remains in the Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in south China that are at least 100,000 years old provides the earliest evidence for the emergence of modern humans in eastern Asia, at least 60,000 years older than the previously known modern humans in the region.



Scientists have discovered early modern human fossil remains in the Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in south China that are at least 100,000 years old. (Credit: Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology)
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline Highland

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #31 on: January 20, 2014, 09:30:15 AM »
"Meanwhile, early modern humans left Africa about 80,000 to 50,000 years ago."

 Not sure about all that. They have been hiding away the bones of giants and elongated skulls with only two cranial plates or anything else that dose not fit into a creator less evolutionary-commune group idea of the world. You can grab some old pig bones make a claim that they are the missing link and get all your groupie evolutionary support ideas out worldwide. As with many animals the long skulls with only two cranial plates seem to appear on the earth and then die out without evolving.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnERUZNqwbc

Online chris jones

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #32 on: January 20, 2014, 08:13:35 PM »
 Ever get the feeling we are only scratching the surface of earths true history.
 You have but to look at any sanctioned public school history book to recognize the fairy tales they spin.
 

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #33 on: January 24, 2014, 08:59:54 AM »
The bible mentions giants roamed the earth to include  David killed the giant Goliath.
Seems to me humans don't cotton to the unexplained, different races etc.
 Can I make a guess here, either anomaly's, different races, were waked out or have gone into hiding. In short society creates a norm, if someone doesn't fit the general accepted appearance they may have been exterminated.
Long ago a left handed guy were looked at differently, or a redhead was a sign of of trouble as the legend of Judas was he had this hair color. Times are changing ( not much though), but back in those days being different in physical appearance was NOT socially accepted in the extreme.
  Different cultures, race, size, physical differences, religion, whatever- have been hit on by what is conceived as the Ole Norm..
Peruvian Skulls
These odd elongated skulls originate from Peru. They were excavated in Nazca - close to the mysterious Nazca lines. skeletal remains reveal that this race was extremely tall - up to nine feet in height. Similar skulls have been excavated in Mexico and are on display in museums. Some of the elongated skulls showed evidence of ancient brain surgery, suggesting an advanced knowledge and understanding of biology. Suggestions that the skulls were altered by a process of binding the skull in infancy, when the cranial bones are soft, encouraging them to grow into an un-natural shape, have been rejected. Cult examiner SC

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #34 on: February 11, 2014, 02:39:09 PM »
Now what is interesting about "some" of the South American Elongated skulls, is they have definite anatomical difference - ie they are not a typical human,
now we may have dna proof


" ...
The cranial volume is up to 25 percent larger and 60 percent heavier than conventional human skulls, meaning they could not have been intentionally deformed through head binding/flattening.

They also contain only one parietal plate, rather than two. The fact that the skulls' features are not the result of cranial deformation means that the cause of the elongation is a mystery, and has been for decades.


http://www.sunnyskyz.com/good-news/545/DNA-Analysis-Of-Paracas-Elongated-Skulls-Released-The-Results-Prove-They-Were-Not-Human
DNA Analysis Of Paracas Elongated Skulls Released. The Results Prove They Were Not Human
February 6, 2014


...
Mr. Juan Navarro, owner and director of the local museum, called the Paracas History Museum, which houses a collection of 35 of the Paracas skulls, allowed the taking of samples from 5 of the skulls.

The samples consisted of hair, including roots, a tooth, skull bone and skin, and this process was carefully documented via photos and video. The samples were sent to the late Lloyd Pye, founder of the Starchild Project, who delivered the samples to a geneticist in Texas for DNA testing.  

The results are now back, and Brien Foerster, author of more than ten books and an authority on the ancient elongated headed people of South America, has just revealed the preliminary results of the analysis. He reports on the geneticist's findings:

"It had mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far. But a few fragments I was able to sequence from this sample indicate that if these mutations will hold we are dealing with a new human-like creature, very distant from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans."

The implications are huge. "I am not sure it will even fit into the known evolutionary tree," Foerster wrote. He added that if the Paracas individuals were so biologically different, they would not have been able to interbreed with humans.

The results need to be replicated and more analysis undertaken before final conclusions can be drawn.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline egypt

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #35 on: February 11, 2014, 03:36:22 PM »
This is so amazing.

We share 93% worth of dna with chimpanzees.  Are these big heads the ones who (according to ancient Sumerian tablets) found a humanoid being to genetically alter in their image?  Even the Bible talks about this separately from the original creation of humankind like it was another event...

    Genesis 1:26
    Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.”
    Genesis 1:25-27 (in Context) Genesis 1 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations



According to translations of the cuneiform tablets from Ancient Sumeria, they wanted a worker race to do the gold mining.  So, they didn't want us as smart, and  we didn't get the big heads part,  I guess.

So, where did they come from?
Why did they leave and/or *are gone*?
Where did they go?
Will they come back?
Do they understand String Theory?
Were they the ones with the ability and sight to build those megalithic structures?
Did they like us?
Are they giant-like overall, or just big heads?

Wow what fun to have the technology to finally understand a few things.

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #36 on: February 11, 2014, 03:57:15 PM »
related thread:
Globalization and the plan for NWO > Project Blue Beam > Giant Caucasoid Mummies



In plain sight: Mayan - Lord Pakal's Tomb

They always describe the skeleton as "tall"  never in exact terms and these are scientists!!! (yes, a seven foot man is "tall")
The greatest find in Mayan archeology cannot be explained.!!!
I have yet to find a single photo of Pakal's complete skeleton... Can't be shown?. Also described as "tall" without exact length... Inconsistant age - supposedly 80, but the skeletons teeth looks 40....

He does not fit!!! - so he cannot be shown - Oh BUT too famous to destroy or hide .....
I'll keep looking, but I defy you to find an exact description (or a photo) of his skeleton. They make a big deal about his teeth but no photographs!
the Mayan pyramid relics located in Palenque ..."king Pacal regarded as a god and is a giant monster with a height of about 7 ft."

(Pakal was Seven foot tall  Cone Head )
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #37 on: February 11, 2014, 04:32:12 PM »

http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/radical-theory-of-first-americans-places-stone-age-europeans-in-delmarva-20000-years-ago/2012/02/28/gIQA4mriiR_story.html
Radical theory of first Americans places Stone Age Europeans in Delmarva 20,000 years ago


Bonnie Jo Mount/Post -  Smithsonian Institute anthropologist Dennis Stanford, left, and University of Exeter archeologist Bruce Bradley examine knives from the last Ice Age.


By Brian Vastag,   Published: February 29, 2012 E-mail the writer
 

 When the crew of the Virginia scallop trawler Cinmar hauled a mastodon tusk onto the deck in 1970, another oddity dropped out of the net: a dark, tapered stone blade, nearly eight inches long and still sharp.

Forty years later, this rediscovered prehistoric slasher has reopened debate on a radical theory about who the first Americans were and when they got here.

Archaeologists have long held that North America remained unpopulated until about 15,000 years ago, when Siberian people walked or boated into Alaska and then moved down the West Coast.

But the mastodon relic found near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay turned out to be 22,000 years old, suggesting that the blade was just as ancient.

Whoever fashioned that blade was not supposed to be here.

Its makers probably paddled from Europe and arrived in America thousands of years ahead of the western migration, making them the first Americans, argues Smithsonian Institution anthropologist Dennis Stanford.

“I think it’s feasible,” said Tom Dillehay, a prominent archaeologist at Vanderbilt University. “The evidence is building up, and it certainly warrants discussion.”

At the height of the last ice age, Stanford says, mysterious Stone Age European people known as the Solutreans paddled along an ice cap jutting into the North Atlantic. They lived like Inuits, harvesting seals and seabirds.



The Solutreans eventually spread across North America, Stanford says, hauling their distinctive blades with them and giving birth to the later Clovis culture, which emerged some 13,000 years ago.

When Stanford proposed this “Solutrean hypothesis” in 1999, colleagues roundly rejected it. One prominent archaeologist suggested that Stanford was throwing his career away.
...
the core of Stanford’s case are stone tools recovered from five mid-Atlantic sites. Two sites lie on Chesapeake Bay islands, suggesting that the Solutreans settled Delmarva early on. Smithsonian research associate Darrin Lowery found blades, anvils and other tools found stuck in soil at least 20,000 years old.

Displaying the tools in his office at the National Museum of Natural History, Stanford handles a milky chert blade and says, “This stuff is beginning to give us a real nice picture of occupation of the Eastern Shore around 20,000 years ago.”

Further, the Eastern Shore blades strongly resemble those found at dozens of Solutrean sites from the Stone Age in Spain and France, Stanford says. “We can match each one of 18 styles up to the sites in Europe.”

In 2007, Lowery, who also teaches at the University of Delaware, was hired by a landowner to survey property on Tilghman Island, Md., at a place called Miles Point. Almost immediately, Lowery saw a chunk of quarzite jutting out of a shore bank. It was an anvil, heavily marked from repeated beatings, a clear sign that it was used to make stone tools. Lowery dated the soil layer holding the anvil and other stone tools with two methods, radiocarbon dating and a newer technique, optical stimulated luminescence. Both returned an age of at least 21,000 years.

“We were like, geez . . . what the hell is going on here?” Lowery said.

Another site, 10 miles south, Oyster Cove, yielded more Stone Age artifacts. Those too, came out of soil more than 21,000 years old.
...


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solutrean
The Solutrean industry is a relatively advanced flint tool-making style of the Upper Palaeolithic, from around 22,000 to 17,000 BP.
...
Archaeologists Dennis Stanford and Bruce Bradley suggest that the Clovis point derived from the points of the Solutrean culture of southern France (19,000 BP) through the Cactus Hill points of Virginia (16,000 BP) to the Clovis point
...
 This would mean that people would have had to move from the Bay of Biscay across the edge of the Atlantic ice sheet to North America. Supporters of this hypothesis believe it would have been feasible using traditional Eskimo techniques still in use today


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Penon woman:


http://ironlight.wordpress.com/2010/03/19/skull-may-prove-solutrean-hypothesis/

Skull May Prove Solutrean Hypothesis

March 19, 2010 by Ironlight

Does skull prove that the first Americans came from Europe?
 By Steve Connor Science Editor
 Tuesday, 3 December 2002

Scientists in Britain have identified the oldest skeleton ever found on the American continent in a discovery that raises fresh questions about the accepted theory of how the first people arrived in the New World.

Scientists in Britain have identified the oldest skeleton ever found on the American continent in a discovery that raises fresh questions about the accepted theory of how the first people arrived in the New World.

The skeleton’s perfectly preserved skull belonged to a 26-year-old woman who died during the last ice age on the edge of a giant prehistoric lake which once formed around an area now occupied by the sprawling suburbs of Mexico City.

Scientists from Liverpool’s John Moores University and Oxford’s Research Laboratory of Archaeology have dated the skull to about 13,000 years old, making it 2,000 years older than the previous record for the continent’s oldest human remains.

However, the most intriguing aspect of the skull is that it is long and narrow and typically Caucasian in appearance, like the heads of white, western Europeans today.

Modern-day native Americans, however, have short, wide skulls that are typical of their Mongoloid ancestors who are known to have crossed into America from Asia on an ice-age land bridge that had formed across the Bering Strait.

The extreme age of Peñon woman suggests two scenarios. Either there was a much earlier migration of Caucasian-like people with long, narrow skulls across the Bering Strait and that these people were later replaced by a subsequent migration of Mongoloid people.

Alternatively, and more controversially, a group of Stone Age people from Europe made the perilous sea journey across the Atlantic Ocean many thousands of years before Columbus or the Vikings

...

Robert Hedges, the director of Oxford’s Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, who also dated the age of the Turin shroud, carried out the radiocarbon analysis, which is accurate to within 50 years.

“We are absolutely, 100 per cent sure that this is the date,” Dr Gonzalez said. The study has been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication next year in the journal Human Evolution.

At 13,000 years old, Peñon woman would have lived at a time when there was a vast, shallow lake in the Basin of Mexico, a naturally enclosed high plain around today’s Mexico City, which would have been cooler and much wetter than it is today.
...
Dr Gonzalez found that the two oldest skulls analysed were both dolichocephalic, meaning that they were long and narrow-headed. The younger ones were short and broad – brachycephalic – which are typical of today’s native Americans and their Mongoloid ancestors from Asia.

The findings have a resonance with the skull and skeleton of Kennewick man, who was unearthed in 1996 in the Columbia River at the town of Kennewick in Washington state. The skull, estimated to be 8,400 years old, is also long and narrow and typically Caucasian.

James Chatters, one of the first anthropologists to study Kennewick man before it had been properly dated, even thought that the man may have been a European trapper who had met a sudden death sometime in the early 19th century.
...
Dr Gonzalez said that the identification of Peñon woman as the oldest known inhabitant of the American continent throws fresh light on the controversy over who actually owns the ancient remains of long-dead Americans.

“My research could have implications for the ancient burial rights of North American Indians because it’s quite possible that dolichocephalic man existed in North America well before the native Indians,” she said.

But even more controversial is the suggestion that Peñon woman could be a descendant of Stone Age Europeans who had crossed the ice-fringed Atlantic some 15,000 or 20,000 years ago.
...
Studies of the DNA of native Americans clearly indicated a link with modern-day Asians, supporting the idea of a mass migration across the Bering land bridge. But one DNA study also pointed to at least some shared features with Europeans that could only have derived from a relatively recent common ancestor who lived perhaps 15,000 ago – the time of the Solutreans.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNTXCMYjwEk
Solutreans Are Indigenous Americans
Published on Mar 15, 2012 

In the Ice Age Columbus DVD, fascinating new archaeological data and DNA research Discover's that Europeans discovered the Americas 17,000 years prior to the birth of Columbus. A high definition production, the film takes you on the journey of a determined family from southwestern France as they cross 3,000 miles of ocean. A drama DVD, which includes the risk of starvation and treacherous storms, shows these Europeans settling in what is now the Northeastern United States.


Contrary to the Ice Age Columbus,  traditional history tells us that European settlers discovered America about the time of the Renaissance. But revolutionary new archaeological data and the latest DNA research reveal that Europeans visited our shores far earlier -- some 17,000 years before Columbus was even born.

A drama DVD, filmed in glorious high definition, is a two-hour epic story, which follows an intrepid family of stone age hunters as they trek from their homeland in southwestern France, cross 3,000 miles of ocean and eventually make their first permanent settlement in what is today the northeastern U.S. As you will see in American history DVDs, they overcome starvation and storms along the way, with the help of a revolutionary weapons technology they would later be wiped out by the invading peoples of Asia. But awaiting the pioneers' arrival is a stark, empty continent, filled with a plethora of bizarre and lethal animals -- all brought to life by brilliant computer animation. The Ice Age Columbus DVD, firmly rooted in the latest scientific discoveries, is a compelling vision of the greatest migration in human history of Europeans returning to the land which once broke off of their own ethnic home lands of Europe.
...


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nyfw-kmI-pE
America's Stone Age Explorers - PRE Clovis Europeans / Solutreans

Published on Feb 25, 2013  

This is a PBS NOVA episode with Dennis Stanford of the Smithsonian. While they keep covering up the giant 7 - 12 feet skeletons found all over the nation, the Smithsonian has allowed their handled boys like Dennis Stanford to say CERTAIN things, such as just giving us a little sample of what they REALLY have from PRE Clovis America.

BOTH of the Americas tie into this also, as there was human habitation in the Americas at least 40 to 50,000 years ago and possibly even long before that ! NO ONE in their right educated mind thinks that Clovis were the "first" people in the Americas around only 8 to 10,000 BC. Evidence for human habitation in BOTH of the Americas is FAR OLDER than apx. 10,000 BC. See the university "black balled" work of geologist Virginia Steen Macintyre as to the REAL age of South American habitation.


http://vimeo.com/473625
Penon Woman III - 13,000 yr. old Caucasoid in Mexico
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Online chris jones

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #38 on: February 11, 2014, 05:53:11 PM »
 Was the Neanderthal man Darwin injected into the equation -a species that was eventually exterminated?
 Apes were our ancestors ( evolution) was the theory , I ask you why are there still apes that haven't evolved.
 T did a great job bringing this up.
 8000 years BC man was creating objects that we, ( our high tech era ), would be hard pressed to accomplish.
 
Who was it that said "there are more mysterys on this earth than in all the heavens".

Collectors (clandestine type-very wealthy buggers)  & Goverments/ religous sects..etc. They have been around for centuries, grabbing everything money could buy, we are not privy to their secrets..
 Clandestine and covert operations garner the most intrigue, but the history of ... Throughout history, intelligence has been defined as the collection, culling, ... As the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome employed literate ... Mediterranean region, other civilizations utilized and contributed to the art of espionage.Espionage and Intelligence, Early Historical Foundations ...
www.faqs.org › Espionage Encyclopedia ›

 
 

Online TahoeBlue

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Re: Mystery Humans - Lord of the Rings type World
« Reply #39 on: February 12, 2014, 11:31:11 AM »
Clovis people didn't carve or paint much  -   Significant because Solutreans Carved and painted.

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/06/090610-oldest-art-mammoth-picture.html
PHOTO: Oldest Art in Americas Found on Mammoth Bone?


June 10, 2009—The Americas' oldest known artist may have been an Ice Age hunter in what is now Florida, according to an anthropologist who has examined a 13,000-year-old bone etching.

The carved bone, which depicts a walking mammoth (detail of the bone at top), was found near Vero Beach in east-central Florida. (See a map of the region.)

The now exclusive area once hosted giant beasts and nomadic bands of Ice Age hunters, said Barbara Purdy, a professor emerita at the University of Florida.

"I literally went on the assumption that [the carving] was a fake," said Purdy, who was later convinced of its authenticity after the bone had passed a barrage of tests by University of Florida forensic scientists.

The examinations revealed that the light etching is not recent, and that it was made a short time after the animal died, according to Purdy.

Scientists also determined the 15-inch-long (38-centimeter-long) bone fragment (pictured in full at bottom) belonged to one of three animals: a mammoth, a mastodon, or a giant sloth—all of which died out at the end of the last ice age, between about 12,000 to 10,000 years ago.
...
Discoverer and local fossil hunter James Kennedy only recently noticed the image after dusting off the bone, which had sat under his sink for a few years.

"I had no idea it was this big of a fuss. [When I heard] there was nothing else like it in the Western Hemisphere, that's when my heart kind of stopped."

Purdy, the anthropologist, said, "This is the first glimpse of real art in the Western Hemisphere, and I think that's our starting point for something that might be found in the future if we start looking closely at these old bones."

John Gifford, an underwater archaeologist at the University of Miami, has studied Ice Age peoples in Florida.


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http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/06/22/mammoth-mastodon-bone-carving-florida-photo_n_882177.html

13,000-Year-Old Bone With Mammoth Or Mastodon Carving May Be First In Western Hemisphere (PHOTO)
First Posted: 06/22/11 01:20 PM ET
WASHINGTON (AP) -- Some of the earliest Americans turn out to have been artists.



A bone fragment at least 13,000 years old, with the carved image of a mammoth or mastodon, has been discovered in Florida, a new study reports.

While prehistoric art depicting animals with trunks has been found in Europe, this may be the first in the Western Hemisphere, researchers report Wednesday in the Journal of Archaeological Science.

"It's pretty exciting, we haven't found anything like this in North America," said Dennis J. Stanford, curator of North American Archaeology at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, who was a co-author of the report.

They hunted these animals, Stanford explained, and "you see people drawing all kinds of pictures that are of relevance and importance to them."

"Much of the real significance of such finds is in the tangible, emotional connection they allow us to feel with people in the deep past," said Dietrich Stout, an anthropologist at Emory University in Atlanta, who was not part of the research team.

The bone fragment, discovered in Vero Beach, Fla., contains an incised image about 3 inches long from head to tail and about 1 3/4 inches from head to foot.
...

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=rLV9A8P00bw
Paleolithic Giants in America (Solutrean / Clovis)
Uploaded on Feb 19, 2012 

Indian tribes from North America, Central America and South America have legends of white skinned or light skinned peoples living in the Americas in ancient times, and sometimes before the Indians themselves. For example, the Paiute of Nevada have a legend of "exterminating" a light skinned red haired tribe who spoke a different language than themselves. In this area, red haired, Caucasoid mummies have been found in caves. These remains have been determined Caucasoid by archaeologists and are over 9000 years old. The Aztec god Quetzalcoatl was considered to have a beard, light hair and white skin. Their legends stated that he came from across the oceans and taught the Aztecs how to farm and build. In South America, the white skinned tribe known as the Chachacoyas lived in Peru for thousands of years before being conquered and destroyed by the Inca in the late 1400's, approximately 10 years before the arrival of the Spanish Conquistadors. It should be noted that Red headed mummified remains exist in the Paracas region of Peru, and these remains have (HLA - Human Lymphocyte Antigens) markers commonly associated with Europeans.
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5