US MILITARY VIBRANT RESPONSE NUCLEAR DISASTER DRILL STARTED MARCH 11, 2011

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Offline Dig

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VIBRANT RESPONSE NUCLEAR DISASTER DRILL
DATE STARTED: 3/11/2011
~~~~~~~~
FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR DISASTER
DATE STARTED: 3/11/2011

US MILITARY VIBRANT RESPONSE 3.11-3.19.2011 NUCLEAR DISASTER DRILL
www.youtube.com/watch?v=sKOAYcLSMCw

CBIRF Prepares For Nuclear Fallout Response
361st Public Affairs Operations Center

Vantroi SibiliaMartinez, Navy medical chief, assigned to the Incident Response Force Bravo Team within the Chemical Biological Incident Response Team from Indian Head, Md., steps out of a decontamination section with his eyes closed after being stripped out of his radioactive protective gear during training at Vibrant Response 11.1, a large-scale multi-agency training exercise held March 11-19, in central Indiana, where local, state and federal authorities trained in recovery operations to save lives, prevent further injury, and provide critical support to enable community recovery from a catastrophic incident.

CAMP ATTERBURY, Ind. - In the fallout of a nuclear attack, professionally trained personnel are needed to go into a disaster site and save lives.

Over 120 active duty Marines and sailors assigned to the Chemical Biological Incident Response Force from Indian Head, Md., took part in Vibrant Response 11.1, a field training exercise,

conducted from March 11-19

in North Vernon, Ind. The exercise was designed to train military forces to respond to a nuclear “dirty bomb” detonated on U.S. soil, creating displaced civilians, wreckage and overall disorder in its aftermath.

During Vibrant Response 11.1, CBIRF along with other military forces came together to support and comprise Joint Task Force Civil Support. JTF-CS, headquartered at Fort Monroe, Va., is an integral part of our nation’s ability to recover from any catastrophic nuclear incident. Its purpose is to assist local, state and federal agencies during recovery missions.

One of the first responders to such catastrophic events is CBIRF - an active duty component within the United States Marine Corps and organized to respond on short notice to a chemical, biological, nuclear, radiological, or high-yield explosive effects, that occur within U.S. soil or worldwide. In the event of a CBRNE incident, CBIRF’s Assessment Team and Initial Response Force deploy immediately to help contain the catastrophe. CBIRF is capable of responding by land, sea or air.

“We are that rapid extraction force, the first people to go out the door to help turn the tide and save lives,” said Maj. Mike Johnson of Allentown, Pa., the mission and operations commander of the CBIRF and Initial Response Force.

Currently, there are two teams broken down within CBRIF: Alpha and Bravo Team Initial Response Forces, both are based out of Indian Head, Md. During Vibrant Response 11.1, the capabilities of Bravo Team were put to the test to train for real world scenarios.

“Every 60 days, these Marines go through a certification exercise that is signed off by the commanding officer of CBIRF to make sure they are ready to go,” said Johnson.

After 24 hours, the commander briefed the Marines; they prepared their gear and made sure they had all necessary equipment to complete their mission during the exercise.

“When we get called to an incident, our job is to set up and immediately go in to detect if there is any contamination,” said Cpl. John Michaud, an assistant identification platoon team leader from Indian Head, Md., “We have to make sure it’s safe for people down there.”

The Muscatatuck Urban Training Center, near North Vernon, Ind., served as the disaster site for Bravo IRF. Ravaged by a simulated dirty bomb,” Marines encountered hundreds of local civilians within the 1,000 acre complex that features more than 120 training structures such as a “pancaked” car garage. Contracted role-players realistically take on the roles of displaced survivors, complete with artificial physical and mental wounds that would likely be encountered in the event of catastrophe of this type.

As Bravo IRF arrived at “ground zero,” each specialty team was given specific mission assignments. Although each team is different, the main focus of each one of them is the same: to ensure safety within the civilian population and themselves.

Bravo IRF has the capabilities for agent detection and identification, casualty search and extraction, technical rescue, personal decontamination, emergency medical care, and stabilization of contaminated displaced citizens at the disaster site.

With little sleep, each team focused on their mission assignments, whether it was drilling in the rubble to rescue a casualty or examining displaced citizens with a Point Detection Radiation 77 device.

This device conducts gamma radiation detection through a person’s body and monitors their health status.
Vibrant Response 11.1 Exercise
13 Mar 2011 – The mock oil refinery at Muscatatuck Urban Training Complex in Butlerville, Ind., shoots flame over 20 feet into the early morning sky on ...
www.flickr.com/photos/thenationalguard/5526568070/
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Joseon

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maybe a dirty bomb,

This drill could also prepare for a nuclear plant explosion.  ala Fukushima, perhaps Fort Calhoun.
It's not like you are teaching to un-educated people anymore dig. you are preaching to the choir.
 Don't make such a big deal out of it anymore.
http://www.H20labs.com
http://www.Mercola.com/article/mercury/mercury_elimination.htm

Drink distilled water for Pure Health:

Detox with cilantro:

Omura determined that cilantro could mobilize mercury and other toxic metals rapidly from the CNS.96 97

Spread the Word.

Offline Dig

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Dragon Response Forces Train at Nuclear Mass Causality FEMA Camp Exercise
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P38RLaseHwI
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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Field Training Exercise Vibrant Response 11.1
http://www.sofmag.com/field-training-exercise-vibrant-response-111
By SOF Editor on Fri, 03/18/2011 - 10:25am

What is it?

Exercise Vibrant Response 11.1 FTX is a Defense Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA) training event replicating the federal military role in responding to an improvised 10-kiloton nuclear detonation. VR 11.1 takes place at Camp Atterbury, Ind., and Muscatatuck Urban Training Center March 11 - 20. The exercise will provide the CBRNE Consequence Management Response Force 11.1 relevant and realistic training that challenges about 3,500 personnel from all the services and at all echelons to perform their mission and achieve desired effects in support of overall mission objectives.

What has the Army done?

Army North has worked with United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM), the Department of the Army and other agencies to develop, organize and unify the military capability in the United States for chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and high-yield explosive (CBRNE) response. Consequence Management Response Force (CCMRF) 11.1, led by Army North's subordinate command Joint Task Force - Civil Support, the force includes the following three task forces: (TF), TF-Operations; TF-Aviation and TF-Medical. Additionally, this year's Training and Doctrine Command Exercise Unified Quest will feature a homeland response operations vignette.

What continued efforts does the Army have planned for the future?

During Vibrant Response 11.1 Army North will exercise CCMRF 11.1 in a full-scale field training exercise integrated with other national and regional response forces. These events ensure that the CCMRF is fully integrated as part of the Department of Defense tiered response capability, which includes state-based National Guard civil support teams, the National Guard CBRNE Enhanced Response Force Package (CERFP), National Guard Homeland Response Forces (HRF) and the U.S. Marine Corps Chemical Biological Incident Response Force (CBIRF). Over the course of the next year the DOD will transition the CCMRF into the Defense CBRN Response Force (DCRF) which, using lessons learned from exercises like Vibrant Response and Unified Quest, the Defense Department will be able to bring a more capable response to a catastrophic incident quicker than ever before.

Why is this important to the Army?

Exercising and evaluating the DOD's dedicated, robust response forces ensures U.S. Northern Command and the Army meet requirements from presidential decision directives for an effective national capability to detect, prevent, defeat and manage the consequences of a CBRNE incident. Vibrant Response further enhances CCMRF 11.1's capability to respond to a catastrophic CBRNE incident or attack within our nation's borders.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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THEY ARE SIMULATING ENTIRE CITIES!

Kentucky Guard aviation Soldiers provide “vibrant response”
http://kentuckyguard.wordpress.com/2011/04/11/kentucky-guard-aviation-soldiers-provide-vibrant-response/
April 11, 2011 by Story and photos by Maj. Ben Singleton, 63rd Theater Aviation Brigade Public Affairs Officer

A Kentucky National Guard UH-60 Blackhawk flies a MEDEVAC mission over the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center which masqueraded as Louisville, KY during Exercise Vibrant Response 11.1.

CAMP ATTERBURY, In. – What if a 10-kiloton nuclear device exploded in Louisville? No more Churchill Downs, no more Heine Brothers Coffee, no more Ear X-tacy. As The Princess Bride’s Vizzini might proclaim: “Inconceivable!” But that scenario was the very locus of the recent Vibrant Response Exercise designed to test and strengthen the Chemical Biological Radiological High-Yield Explosive Consequence Management Response Force (CCMRF). Over 3,500 military and civilian personnel from around the country converged on Central Indiana to participate in the exercise.

Col. Aaron T. Barrier inspects Chief Warrant Officer Scott McCauley in preparation for Vibrant Response 11.1.

The Kentucky National Guard’s 63rd Theater Aviation Brigade is a major player in CCMRF, providing command and control of aviation assets for Joint Task Force-Civil Support, the unit charged with heading up the Department of Defense response in the event of a major catastrophe. Past exercises have set similar scenarios in places like Nebraska and Missouri, but this was the first time the 63rd TAB would be participating in a scenario set in the Bluegrass.

“My section is responsible for providing maps, analysis and information about the area we are working in,” stated Maj. Mark Brozak, Brigade Intelligence Officer, who just happens to live near Louisville. “It creates an eerie sense of realism when the disaster is in our own backyard. We’ve driven down the streets affected and been in the buildings that have been reduced to rubble in the virtual world of the exercise.”

And if the fact that the disaster is set in our own state wasn’t enough of a coincidence, the unfortunate recent events in Japan brought the importance of the CCMRF mission into sharp focus.

Soldiers of the Kentucky National Guard's 63rd Theater Aviation Brigade head to work before the sunrise.

“The earthquake and subsequent tsunami and nuclear calamity in Japan provided a surreal parallel to the exercise,” said M

aj. Phil Honican, who works in the Brigade Future Operations Cell. “We were watching real video footage from Japan while planning missions based on similar circumstances in the exercise. It really drove the point home how important this mission is to our nation.”

The 63rd TAB provided the command and control of aviation assets to ensure that missions requiring aviation support happened, missions like moving people and equipment in the robust CH-47 Chinooks or providing aerial surveys from a UH-72 Lakota. Transporting needed supplies like blood, water and medicine in mass quantity was facilitated in the fixed-wing C-23 Sherpa. And as always in these exercises, the critical management of Medical Evacuations, or MEDEVAC, was high priority.

Humvees staged at sunset during Vibrant Response 11.1, Camp Atterbury, Indiana.

Cries of “9-line” rang out frequently in the Tactical Operation Center (TOC), meaning that a request for a MEDEVAC was coming in. Coordinates were checked and rechecked as missions were planned. Across the road from the 63rd’s TOC the whir of helicopter blades could be heard as the MEDEVAC crew prepared to launch from the airfield. Time is the enemy for a MEDEVAC and getting to those in need as soon as possible is of the utmost importance..

Another matter of great importance in the exercise was the mission of protecting the force. Soldier safety is imperative because if the soldiers aren’t kept safe, how can they go about the task of providing relief and support to the affected populace? Each soldier wears a dosimeter to monitor radiation exposure and plans were put in place to monitor rest and work cycles to ensure effective fatigue management. Risk management is always a key concern in helping to keep Soldiers safe. In the 63rd TAB, safety is always a primary goal.

Task Force Aviation provides support during Vibrant Response 11.1.

And, there is no bigger proponent of that tenet than the 63rd’s commander, Col. Aaron T. Barrier.

“My goal is to not have to issue a single band-aid during this exercise,” Barrier emphasized. “This is inherently dangerous work and we must constantly be on our guard against accidents. I won’t consider this exercise complete until every Soldier in the brigade is home safe and sound.”

With another successful CCMRF exercise under their belts, the Soldiers of the 63rd TAB returned home safely. Mission Complete.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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Vibrant Response kicks off at MUTC
http://usarmy.vo.llnwd.net/e2/-images/2011/03/14/102036/
Mar 14 Photo Credit: Staff Sgt. Brad Staggs


A Soldier with the 84th Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Support Team based in Wyoming tests the air quality in the aftermath of a notional nuclear blast during Vibrant Response 11.1, a U.S. Northern Command homeland emergency response exercise being conducted at the Muscatatuck Urban Training Complex in Butlerville, Ind., which tests the capabilities of the nation's emergency response network.

SO WHEN WE SAW ALL OF THE CRAZY SPECULATIVE NUMBERS THAT WERE UP AND DOWN UP AND DOWN...

WHO THE HELL WAS EXPLAINING WHICH READINGS WERE FROM THESE DRILLS AND WHICH WERE FROM THE DISASTER?

THIS IS EXACTLY LIKE THE BLIPS ON THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS' SCREENS GIVING FALSE INFORMATION ABOUT FRIENDLIES AND ROUGE/HIJACKED PLANES ON 9/11/2011!
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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Vibrant Response 11.1-MUTC's 'hell on earth' provides critical practice for emergency personnel
http://plaindealer-sun.com/main.asp?SectionID=3&SubSectionID=42&ArticleID=16188
3/16/2011 1:07:00 PM Sgt. Brad Staggs, MUTC Public Affairs


Role players are lined up after being found by members of the Colorado National Guard's Chemical, Biological, Radiological andNuclear Enhanced Response Force Package Decontamination Team following a mock nuclear blast during Vibrant Response 11.1, being conducted through March 20 at the Muscatatuck Urban Training Complex in Butlerville. David Robertson, a resident of North Vernon, plays a victim of a mock nuclear blast during Vibrant Response 11.1, a U.S. Northern Command homeland emergency response exercise being conducted this week at MUTC. The exercise tests the capabilities of the nation's emergency response network.

Muscatatuck Urban Training Center is filled with fire and smoke which is perfect for the Army North Homeland Emergency Response exercise Vibrant Response 11.1 taking place at the southern Indiana facility through March 20. Controlled fire and smoke, strategically placed throughout the facility, add to the illusion of the aftermath of a nuclear explosion. But what does an emergency response look like after such a catastrophe? That's what this exercise was created to find out and coordinate. Walking around the collapsed parking garage built specifically for training, the voices of the role-players grab the attention of their rescuers. The role players do their job well, begging for medical attention, food and water from the Soldiers and Airmen dressed in their chemical retardant suits. Some role players beg the military contingent to rescue their friends and family.

The Soldiers and Airmen are part of the Colorado National Guard Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Enhanced Response Force Package, or CERFP, Decontamination Unit. It is a mixed Air and Army Guard unit which is in charge of the medical well-being of the victims being pulled from the rubble of the collapsed parking garage. "This training is always worthwhile," said Maj. Holger Peters, a biological-environmental engineer with the unit. "We are put through different scenarios as we train. Even if we have done this kind of training before, the different role-players and training sites create an entirely different feel to what we do."

The CERFP is responsible for caring for the victims from beginning to end. First, the unit performs a search and recovery in order to find victims and get them to the treatment site. This task is carried out by personnel whose entire job relies on knowing how to find people who may be trapped and the tools needed to get them out. The victims are then walked or transported to a row of medical tents which are placed end to end and tied together to create one long medical station. After being quickly signed in and accounted for, the victims are decontaminated.  This step is very important because no matter what they may be suffering from physically, the chances of survival decrease with every minute lost or waiting. The next stop is triage where medical professionals categorize the victims by medical need. Finally, they are taken to the medical section for treatment of their wounds. An entire trip through the tent takes no more than five minutes as quick response can save lives. It's a task that Peters takes very seriously. "We are always further refining our process in order to get better at what we do," Peters explained. "Muscatatuck has provided an incredibly realistic training environment and we are taking advantage of that all we can to help get better with what we do." Vibrant Response 11.1 will continue throughout the week of March 14 - 19, giving National Guard and federal forces from around the country the chance to improve their skills.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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Video: Vibrant Response 11.1 PSA (45 Seconds)
http://www.dvidshub.net/video/108862/vibrant-response-111-psa-45-seconds

U.S. Army North, in conjunction with the Indiana National Guard will host more than 3500 Military and civilian personnel from around the country to take part in the Federal Emergency Response Exercise Vibrant Response March 7th through the 25 at Camp Atterbury Joint Maneuver Training Center and Muscatatuck Urban Training Complex. The surrounding community should expect an increase in military vehicle and air traffic during this period. We regret any inconvenience this may cause and we appreciate the support of surrounding communities. For more information please visit our website at www.campatterbury.in.ng.mil.

All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Offline Dig

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For this exercise, TF MED responded to a nuclear device detonation by terrorists, with thousands of lives lost and approximately 200,000 evacuees seeking shelter and sustenance in nearby communities, overwhelming capabilities.

http://www.forthoodsentinel.com/story.php?id=6333
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately


Offline Femacamper

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Good find, dig. :o

SMOKING GUN!!!!!!!!!!

Offline Effie Trinket

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http://www.rand.org/congress/newsletters/homeland_security/2010/12.html

The Department of Defense (DoD) has a long history of helping domestic civil authorities respond to both natural and manmade disasters, such as Hurricanes Andrew and Katrina and the 2001 anthrax attacks. Still, the role of the military in providing what is now known as Defense Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA) continues to evolve. Recently, for example, the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review called for a regional approach to DSCA and for restructuring certain DoD forces. However, ongoing efforts aimed at accurately estimating civilian capabilities during a disaster have not produced results at a level of resolution that can support truly robust military planning. Thus, DoD continues to plan for DSCA in the absence of well-defined requirements.

To address this concern, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, as amended by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009, mandated the creation of the Advisory Panel on Department of Defense Capabilities for Support of Civil Authorities After Certain Incidents. The panel of retired senior U.S. military officers, former members of Congress, National Guard generals, and academics with expertise in responding to domestic disasters assessed, in particular, how DoD plans for and would respond to a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or high-yield explosive (CBRNE) incident. The RAND Corporation's National Defense Research Institute provided support for the panel.

The panel concluded that there is an urgent need to implement changes in planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents. In all, the panel's report provided more than 40 recommendations for the President, Congress, the Secretary of Defense, other federal Cabinet secretaries, and governors about how to overcome obstacles that complicate the nation's ability to respond effectively to CBRNE incidents.

Such recommendations cut across a number of areas, including existing statutory provisions that apply to DoD civil support, especially provisions related to a CBRNE incident; providing training authority, support, and resources; conducting exercises among DoD and other federal agencies; command and control of CBRNE response forces; determining requirements for CBRNE response planning; and establishing and resourcing CBRNE response forces.

VISIT THE PANEL WEBSITE: Advisory Panel on DoD Capabilities for Support of Civil Authorities After Certain Incidents
http://www.rand.org/nsrd/DoD-CBRNE-Panel.html
_________________________________________
How Are Law Enforcement Agencies Coping with the Continuing Focus on Counterterrorism and Homeland Security Responsibilities?

Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the need for increased counterterrorism (CT) and homeland security (HS) efforts at the federal, state, and local levels has taken the spotlight in public safety efforts. In the immediate aftermath of 9/11, many law enforcement agencies (LEAs) shifted more resources toward developing CT and HS capabilities, and the federal government continues to support these efforts with grants through the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).

In a study supported by the National Institute of Justice researchers examined the long-term adjustments that large urban LEAs have made to accommodate the CT and HS focus and the advantages and challenges associated with it. The study relied primarily on in-depth case studies of five large urban LEAs, as well as a review of federal HS grant programs and a quantitative analysis of the potential costs associated with shifting law enforcement personnel from traditional policing to focus on HS and CT functions.

The study found that the five case-study LEAs have created specialized departments and units and put an increased emphasis on information-sharing by creating "fusion centers" that serve as formal hubs for regional information-sharing networks. Such centers—which take an all-crimes, all-hazards approach to intelligence collection, information-sharing, and analysis—have helped formalize information exchange among LEAs, with smaller agencies realizing spillover benefits in terms of greater access to information. A challenge is that larger LEAs disproportionately contribute to such centers by playing a coordination, analytic, and administrative role. Given this, DHS may wish to consider what additional support—especially personnel—these larger LEAs may need to continue to effectively operate fusion centers.

The study also found that, to be effective in CT and HS efforts, LEAs need to make substantial investments to develop the needed expertise and contacts. But this type of investment does not mesh well with the traditional career progression of LEA personnel. The report offers suggestions for developing a specific career track for CT and HS. Also, the report shows that LEAs' HS and CT efforts are greatly influenced by the restrictions and requirements associated with federal HS grant funding. Finally, using cost-of-crime estimates, the study found it is possible to partially quantify the costs associated with LEAs' shifting of personnel away from traditional crime prevention and toward CT and HS; there are also clear benefits associated with law enforcement's focus on CT and HS, but they are difficult to quantify, and this poses a challenge for LEAs as the economic downturn puts pressure on public budgets.

READ THE REPORT: Long-Term Effects of Law Enforcement's Post-9/11 Focus on Counterterrorism and Homeland Security
http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG1031.html
_________________________________________
http://www.rand.org/nsrd/DoD-CBRNE-Panel.html

Advisory Panel on DoD Capabilities for Support of Civil Authorities After Certain Incidents

This Advisory Panel will assess authorities and capabilities for DoD support for CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives) incidents in areas of policies, programs, directives, and plans for training and equipping forces, conducting support operations, coordinating with other Federal agencies, obtaining information from States and localities, and other DoD equipment needs; and for the number and location of additional National Guard Civil Support Teams (if any).

Before Disaster Strikes - Imperatives for Enhancing Defense Support of Civil Authorities — Sep. 15, 2010
Firemen fighting fire

A panel of retired senior U.S. military officers, former Members of Congress, National Guard generals and academics with expertise in responding to domestic disasters today delivered to the Congress and the secretary of defense a far-reaching report that details how defense officials can better support the nation's response to a major disaster on United States soil.

In all, the report provides more than 40 recommendations for the president, the Congress, the secretary of defense, other federal Cabinet secretaries and governors about how to overcome obstacles that complicate the nation's ability to respond effectively to CBRNE incidents.

http://www.rand.org/news/press/2010/09/15.html
http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/www/external/nsrd/DoD-CBRNE-Panel/Executive-Summary-Advisory-Panel.pdf
http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/www/external/nsrd/DoD-CBRNE-Panel/Report-Advisory-Panel.pdf

Enabling Legislation

Section 1082, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008
(as amended)

http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/www/external/nsrd/DoD-CBRNE-Panel/general/Section-1082-amended.pdf

Enabling Legislation

Section 1082, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008
(as amended)

http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/www/external/nsrd/DoD-CBRNE-Panel/general/Section-1082-amended.pdf