Gov. Fracking Report Released: Lists Chemicals Poisoning Water Supply

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Offline Satyagraha

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Committee Democrats Release New Report Detailing Hydraulic Fracturing Products
http://democrats.energycommerce.house.gov/index.php?q=news/committee-democrats-release-new-report-detailing-hydraulic-fracturing-products
Apr 16, 2011

Today Energy and Commerce Committee Ranking Member Henry A. Waxman, Natural Resources Committee Ranking Member Edward J. Markey, and Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee Ranking Member Diana DeGette released a new report that summarizes the types, volumes, and chemical contents of the hydraulic fracturing products used by the 14 leading oil and gas service companies. The report contains the first comprehensive national inventory of chemicals used by hydraulic fracturing companies during the drilling process.

“Hydraulic fracturing has helped to expand natural gas production in the United States, but we must ensure that these new resources don’t come at the expense of public health,” said Rep. Waxman. “This report shows that these companies are injecting millions of gallons of products that contain potentially hazardous chemicals, including known carcinogens. I urge EPA and DOE to make certain that we have strong protections in place to prevent these chemicals from entering drinking water supplies.”

“With our river ways and drinking water at stake, it’s an absolute necessity that the American public knows what is in these fracking chemicals,” said Rep. Markey. “This report is the most comprehensive look yet at the composition of the chemicals used in the fracking process, and should help the industry, the government, and the American public push for a safer way to extract natural gas.”

During the last Congress, the Committee launched an investigation into the practice of hydraulic fracturing in the United States, asking the leading oil and gas service companies to disclose information on the products used in this process between 2005 and 2009.

The Democratic Committee staff analyzed the data provided by the companies about their practices, finding that:

The 14 leading oil and gas service companies used more than 780 million gallons of hydraulic fracturing products, not including water added at the well site. Overall, the companies used more than 2,500 hydraulic fracturing products containing 750 different chemicals and other components.

The components used in the hydraulic fracturing products ranged from generally harmless and common substances, such as salt and citric acid, to extremely toxic substances, such as benzene and lead. Some companies even used instant coffee and walnut hulls in their fracturing fluids.

Between 2005 and 2009, the oil and gas service companies used hydraulic fracturing products containing 29 chemicals that are known or possible human carcinogens, regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) for their risks to human health, or listed as hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act.

The BTEX compounds – benzene, toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene – are SDWA contaminants and hazardous air pollutants. Benzene also is a known human carcinogen. The hydraulic fracturing companies injected 11.4 million gallons of products containing at least one BTEX chemical over the five-year period.

Methanol, which was used in 342 hydraulic fracturing products, was the most widely used chemical between 2005 and 2009. The substance is a hazardous air pollutant and is on the candidate list for potential regulation under SDWA. Isopropyl alcohol, 2-butoxyethanol, and ethylene glycol were the other most widely used chemicals.

Many of the hydraulic fracturing fluids contain chemical components that are listed as “proprietary” or “trade secret.” The companies used 94 million gallons of 279 products that contained at least one chemical or component that the manufacturers deemed proprietary or a trade secret. In many instances, the oil and gas service companies were unable to identify these “proprietary” chemicals, suggesting that the companies are injecting fluids containing chemicals that they themselves cannot identify.

Due to an embargo break, the committee is releasing the report this evening iead on Monday morning.

Download Report:
Hydraulic Fracturing Report, April 18, 2011.
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: Gov. Fracking Report Released: Lists Chemicals Poisoning Water Supply
« Reply #1 on: April 17, 2011, 08:21:03 AM »
From the PDF linked above (Pg. 6):

A. Commonly Used Chemical Components

The most widely used chemical in hydraulic fracturing during this time period, as
measured by the number of products containing the chemical, was methanol.


Methanol is a hazardous air pollutant and a candidate for regulation under the Safe Drinking Water Act.
It was a component in 342 hydraulic fracturing products. Some of the other most widely used
chemicals include isopropyl alcohol, which was used in 274 products, and ethylene glycol, which
was used in 119 products. Crystalline silica (silicon dioxide) appeared in 207 products, generally
proppants used to hold open fractures. Table 1 has a list of the most commonly used compounds
in hydraulic fracturing fluids.



Hydraulic fracturing companies used 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE) as a foaming agent or
surfactant in 126 products. According to EPA scientists, 2-BE is easily absorbed and rapidly
distributed in humans following inhalation, ingestion, or dermal exposure. Studies have shown
that exposure to 2-BE can cause hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells) and damage to the
spleen, liver, and bone marrow.17 The hydraulic fracturing companies injected 21.9 million
gallons of products containing 2-BE between 2005 and 2009. They used the highest volume of
products containing 2-BE in Texas, which accounted for more than half of the volume used.
EPA recently found this chemical in drinking water wells tested in Pavillion, Wyoming.18 Table
2 shows the use of 2-BE by state.



And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: Gov. Fracking Report Released: Lists Chemicals Poisoning Water Supply
« Reply #2 on: April 17, 2011, 08:27:24 AM »
From PDF linked above (Page 8):

B. Toxic Chemicals

The oil and gas service companies used hydraulic fracturing products containing 29
chemicals that are (1) known or possible human carcinogens, (2) regulated under the Safe
Drinking Water Act for their risks to human health, or (3) listed as hazardous air pollutants under
the Clean Air Act. These 29 chemicals were components of 652 different products used in
hydraulic fracturing. Table 3 lists these toxic chemicals and their frequency of use.



1. Carcinogens

Between 2005 and 2009, the hydraulic fracturing companies used 95 products containing
13 different carcinogens.20 These included naphthalene (a possible human carcinogen), benzene
(a known human carcinogen), and acrylamide (a probable human carcinogen). Overall, these
companies injected 10.2 million gallons of fracturing products containing at least one
carcinogen. The companies used the highest volume of fluids containing one or more
carcinogens in Texas, Colorado, and Oklahoma. Table 4 shows the use of these chemicals by
state.



And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: Gov. Fracking Report Released: Lists Chemicals Poisoning Water Supply
« Reply #3 on: April 17, 2011, 08:33:04 AM »
From the PDF linked above (page 11)

V. USE OF PROPRIETARY AND “TRADE SECRET” CHEMICALS

Many chemical components of hydraulic fracturing fluids used by the companies were
listed on the MSDSs as “proprietary” or “trade secret.” The hydraulic fracturing companies used
93.6 million gallons of 279 products containing at least one proprietary component between 2005
and 2009.30

The Committee requested that these companies disclose this proprietary information.
Although a few companies were able to provide additional information to the Committee about
some of the fracturing products,
in most cases the companies stated that they did not have access
to proprietary information about products they purchased “off the shelf” from chemical
suppliers.

The proprietary information belongs to the suppliers, not the users of the chemicals.
Universal Well Services, for example, told the Committee that it “obtains hydraulic
fracturing products from third-party manufacturers, and to the extent not publicly disclosed,
product composition is proprietary to the respective vendor and not to the Company.”31

Complete Production Services noted that the company always uses fluids from third-party
suppliers who provide an MSDS for each product. Complete confirmed that it is “not aware of
any circumstances in which the vendors who provided the products have disclosed this
proprietary information” to the company, further noting that “such information is highly
proprietary for these vendors, and would not generally be disclosed to service providers” like
Complete.32

Key Energy Services similarly stated that it “generally does not have access to the
trade secret information as a purchaser of the chemical(s).”33

Trican also told the Committee that it has limited knowledge of “off the shelf”
products purchased from a chemical distributor or manufacturer, noting that “Trican does not
have any information in its possession about the components of such products beyond what
the distributor of each product provided Trican in the MSDS sheet.”34

In these cases, it appears that the companies are injecting fluids containing unknown
chemicals about which they may have limited understanding of the potential risks posed to
human health and the environment.
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: Gov. Fracking Report Released: Lists Chemicals Poisoning Water Supply
« Reply #4 on: April 17, 2011, 08:38:09 AM »
There are 18 PAGES OF CHEMICALS LISTED in the source PDF.

This is how they are poisoning our water supply.


Appendix A. Chemical Components of Hydraulic Fracturing Products, 2005-200935

Table of chemicals used to destroy the water supply of the US mainland: Pages 13 - 30.

Hydraulic Fracturing Report, April 18, 2011.
http://democrats.energycommerce.house.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Hydraulic%20Fracturing%20Report%204.18.11.pdf
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40