Human Experiments: A Chronology of inhumane experimentation

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Offline Satyagraha

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Human Experiments: A Chronology of inhumane experimentation
« on: January 31, 2011, 03:48:20 PM »
Note: I've added more links for source information,
and indicated that these are additions to the original source article by using "See Also".

I've tried to supplement the information presented, and add relevant links to similar experiments happening in recent times (post 2001).

====================================

Human Experiments:
A Chronology of Human Research

http://www.ahrp.org/history/chronology.php
by Vera Hassner Sharav

6th century B.C.: Meat and vegetable experiment on young Jewish prisoners in Book of Daniel.

5th century B.C: "Primum non nocere" ("First do no harm"), medical ethics standard attributed to Hippocrates. This Oath became obligatory for physicians prior to practicing medicine in the 4th century AD

1st century B.C. Cleopatra devised an experiment to test the accuracy of the theory that it takes 40 days to fashion a male fetus fully and 80 days to fashion a female fetus. When her handmaids were sentenced to death under government order, Cleopatra had them impregnated and subjected them to subsequent operations to open their wombs at specific times of gestation. http://www.jlaw.com/Articles/NaziMedExNotes.html#1
See also: http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/the_experiment/experiment14.htm

12th century: Rabbi and physician Maimonides' Prayer: "May I never see in the patient anything but a fellow creature in pain."

1796 Edward Jenner injects healthy eight-year-old James Phillips first with cowpox then three months later with smallpox and is hailed as discoverer of smallpox vaccine.
See also: http://web.ukonline.co.uk/b.gardner/jenner.html

1845-1849: J. Marion Sims, "the father of gynecology" performed multiple experimental surgeries on enslaved African women without the benefit of anesthesia. After suffering unimaginable pain, many lost their lives to infection. One woman was made to endure 34 experimental operations for a prolapsed uterus. http://www.coax.net/people/lwf/jm_sims.htm

1865: French physiologist Claude Bernard publishes "Introduction to the Study of Human Experimentation," advising: "Never perform an experiment which might be harmful to the patient even though highly advantageous to science or the health of others."

1896: Dr. Arthur Wentworth performed spinal taps on 29 children at Children's Hospital, Boston, to determine if the procedure was harmful. Dr. John Roberts of Philadelphia, noting the non-therapeutic indication, labeled Wentworth's procedures "human vivisection."
See Also: http://www.naturalnews.com/022383_NaturalNews_health_CIA.html

1897: Italian bacteriologist Sanarelli injects five subjects with bacillus searching for a causative agent for yellow fever.
See Also: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/494983/Walter-Reed

1900: Walter Reed injects 22 Spanish immigrant workers in Cuba with the agent for yellow fever paying them $100 if they survive and $200 if they contract the disease. (so... your reward for conducting unethical human experimentation is to have an Army Hospital named after you... how appropriate.)
See Also: http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/spanam/gillet3/ch9.html
See Also: http://yellowfever.lib.virginia.edu/reed/commission.html

1900: Berlin Code of Ethics. Royal Prussian Minister of Religion, Education, and Medical Affairs guaranteed that: "all medical interventions for other than diagnostic, healing, and immunization purposes, regardless of other legal or moral authorization are excluded under all circumstances if (1) the human subject is a minor or not competent due to other reasons; (2) the human subject has not given his unambiguous consent; (3) the consent is not preceded by a proper explanation of the possible negative consequences of the intervention." http://www.geocities.com/artnscience/00berlincode.pdf

1906: Dr. Richard Strong, a professor of tropical medicine at Harvard, experiments with cholera on prisoners in the Philippines killing thirteen.
See also: http://www.scribd.com/doc/3158268/Medical-experiments-in-the-USA-History
See also: Weaponized Cholera released in Haiti? http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-11599777
See also: Cholera as a Weapon of Biological Terror

1913: Pennsylvania House of Representatives recorded that 146 children had been inoculated with syphilis, "through the courtesy of the various hospitals" and that 15 children in St. Vincent's House in Philadelphia had had their eyes tested with tuberculin. Several of these children became permanently blind. The experimenters were not punished.
See also: U.S. apologizes for experiment that infected Guatemalans with syphilis: http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/laplaza/2010/10/guatemala-std-apology-clinton-sebelius.html
See also: Tuskegee syphilis experiment http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuskegee_syphilis_experiment

1915: A doctor in Mississippi, working for the U.S. Public Health Office produces Pellagra in twelve Mississippi inmates in an attempt to discover a cure for the disease
See also: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm15pa.html
By 1912, Joseph Goldberger had been a member of the U.S. Public Health Service for 13 years. In 1914, the surgeon general appointed him to tackle the crisis of pellagra.  ...  In 1915, he conducted experiments on inmates at a Mississippi prison, who volunteered for the study in exchange for a pardon...

1919-1922: Testicular transplant experiments on five hundred prisoners at San Quentin.
See also: http://prisonlaw.wordpress.com/2010/01/28/eugenics-and-testicle-transplants-san-quentins-dark-history/
Under Dr. Leo Stanley, chief surgeon at California’s San Quentin Prison from 1913 to 1951, prisoners became subjects in a wide variety of medical experiments: sterilization; testicle transplants (using testicles from executed prisoners, as well as from goats and boars); Spanish flu treatments. As historian Ethan Blue recounts in his article on Dr. Stanley’s career (may be behind a firewall for non-university readers, but cite is Pacific Historical Review 78(2), 2009):

1927: Carrie Buck of Charlottesville is legally sterilized against her will at the Virginia Colony Home for the Mentally Infirm. Carrie Buck was the mentally normal daughter of a mentally retarded mother, but under the Virginia law, she was declared potentially capable of having a "less than normal child." By the 1930s, seventeen states in the U.S. have laws permitting forced sterilization

The settlement of Poe v. Lynchburg Training School and Hospital (same institution, different name) in 1981 brought to an end the Virginia law. It is estimated that as many as 10,000 perfectly normal women were forcibly sterilized for "legal" reasons including alcoholism, prostitution, and criminal behavior in general.
See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poe_v._Lynchburg_Training_School_and_Hospital

1931: Lubeck, Germany, 75 children die in from pediatrician's experiment with tuberculosis vaccine.
See also: http://insidevaccines.com/wordpress/2010/11/08/tuberculosis-vaccine-use-based-on-blind-faith/
The Lubeck disaster will remain a landmark in the history of immunization. In the summer of 1930, in Lubeck, Germany, 240 infants were vaccinated with BCG; 72 of the vaccinated infants developed tuberculosis and died….

1931: Germany adopts "Regulation on New Therapy and Experimentation" requiring all human experiments to be preceded by animal experiments. This law remained in effect during the Nazi regime.

1931: Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, a pathologist, conducted a cancer experiment in Puerto Rico under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations. Dr. Rhoads has been accused of purposely infecting his Puerto Rican subjects with cancer cells. Thirteen of the subjects died. A Puerto Rican physician uncovered the experiment an investigation covered-up the facts. Despite Rhoads' hand written statements that the Puerto Rican population should be eradicated, Rhoads went on to establish U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and was later named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Rhoads was also responsible for the radiation experiments on prisoners, hospital patients, and soldiers. The American Association for Cancer Research honored him by naming its exemplary scientist award the Cornelius Rhoads Award.

See also: The Unsolved Case of Dr. Cornelius P. Rhoads: An Indictment
http://www.lulu.com/product/paperback/the-unsolved-case-of-dr-cornelius-p-rhoads-an-indictment/3375518
A medical researcher working for the Rockefeller Foundation in 1931 actually got away with multiple murders despite having bragged about them in a hand-written letter that he misplaced. Attorney and revolutionary leader Pedro Albizu-Campos received the letter from a follower and made it public. The killer, Dr. Cornelius P. Rhoads, was never prosecuted and became a prominent cancer researcher and consultant to the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission.

See also: Puerto Ricans Outraged Over Secret Medical Experiments
http://www.puertorico-herald.org/issues/2002/vol6n44/PROutragMedExp-en.html
Albizu-Campos, a Harvard graduate,was subsequently jailed in 1950 for his revolutionary activities. He became very ill in prison and claimed that he was being tortured with atomic radiation. Only his followers believed him, although he was also a chemical engineer. The American Association for Cancer Research has removed Dr. Rhoads's name from an award it has been giving since 1979 to young physicians who excel in cancer research. Rhoads died in 1959. Albizu in 1965. The author asserts that Rhoads was the intellectual author of Albizu's torture and death.


1932-1972: U.S. Public Health Service study in Tuskegee, Alabama of more than 400 black sharecroppers observed for the natural course of untreated syphilis.
See also: Tuskegee syphilis experiment http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuskegee_syphilis_experiment
See also:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuskegee_Study_of_Untreated_Syphilis_in_the_Negro_Male

=====================

Note: I've re-ordered the following section to keep WWII human experimentation crimes together.
First, the Japanese government and Dr. Shiro Ishii ...


=====================

1932: Japanese troops invade Manchuria. Dr. Shiro Ishii, a prominent physician and army officer begins preliminary germ warfare experiments.

1936: Japan's Wartime Human Biowarfare Experimentation Program.
See also: Doctors of Depravity
http://www.scribd.com/doc/13983677/JAPANWWIInazisOFasiaUNIT731

1938: Japan establishes Unit 731 in Pingfan, 25 km. from Harbin. Unit 731, a biological-warfare unit disguised as a water-purification unit, is formed outside the city of Harbin.
See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unit_731
Unit 731 was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Japanese personnel.

1940: Poisonous gas experiments at Unit 731. One experiment conducted September 7-10, 1940, on 16 Chinese prisoners who were exposed to mustard gas in a simulated battle situation.
See also: Unit 731 - Japan's Wartime Human Experimentation Program
http://teaching.cs.uml.edu/Rigas/GlobeSecretHistory/shenware.virtualave.net/his_unit731.shtml

1940-1941: Unit 731 used aircraft to spread cotton and rice husks contaminated with the black plague at Changde and Ningbo, in central China. About 100 people died from the black plague in Ningbo as a result.

1942 –1945: Unit 731. Ishii begins "field tests" of germ warfare and vivisection experiments on thousands of Chinese soldiers and civilians. Chinese people who rebelled against the Japanese occupation were arrested and sent to Pingfan where they became human guinea pigs; there is evidence that some Russian prisoners were also victims of medical atrocities.

See also: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990CE2D71630F934A25750C0A963958260
These prisoners were called 'maruta' (literally 'logs') by the Japanese. After succumbing to induced diseases - including bubonic plague, cholera, anthrax - the prisoners were usually dissected while still alive, their bodies then cremated within the compound. Tens of thousands died. The atrocities were committed by some of Japan's most distinguished doctors recruited by Dr. Ishii.



"I cut him open from the chest to the stomach and he screamed terribly
and his face was all twisted in agony. He made this unimaginable sound,
he was screaming so horribly. But then finally he stopped.
This was all in a day's work for the surgeons, but it really left an impression on me
because it was my first time."- Dr. Shiro Ishii, who later went on to supervise biological research at the University of Maryland (USA).


See also: http://www.charonboat.com/item/141
In 1946, the U.S. began negotiating a secret deal with Ishii and Unit 731 leaders:
immunity from war-crimes prosecution would be offered in exchange for germ warfare data based on human experimentation. The deal was concluded two years later. Ishii was never prosecuted.
He went on to supervise biological research at the University of Maryland (USA) and died at the age of 67 in 1959.


1942: Japanese sprayed cholera, typhoid, plague, and dysentery pathogens in the Jinhua area of Zhejian province (China). A large number of Japanese soldiers also fell victim to the sprayed diseases.

1945: Japanese troops blow up the headquarters of Unit 731 in final days of Pacific war. Ishii orders 150 remaining ''logs'' (i.e., human beings) killed to cover up their experimentation. (So I guess he got rid of the 'logs' before taking a position supervising biological research at the University of Maryland.) Gen. Douglas MacArthur is named commander of the Allied powers in Japan.

1946: U.S. secret deal with Ishii and Unit 731 leaders cover up of germ warfare data based on human experimentation in exchange for immunity from war-crimes prosecution.

=====================

Note: This section groups the Nazi crimes.

=====================

1939: Third Reich orders births of all twins be registered with Public Health Offices for purpose of genetic research.
See also:https://owlspace-ccm.rice.edu/access/content/user/ecy1/Nazi%20Human%20Experimentation/Pages/Twin%20studies.html

1941: Sterilization experiments at Auschwitz.
See also: http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/nazidocsandothers.html

1941-1945: Typhus experiments at Buchenwald and Natzweiler concentration camps.
See also: http://freespace.virgin.net/p.crowley2/Nazi_human_experimentation.html

1942: High altitude or low pressure experiments at Dachau concentration camp.
See also: http://www.combat-diaries.co.uk/diary30/nobel%20nazi.htm

1942-1943: Bone regeneration and transplantation experiments on female prisoners at Ravensbrueck concentration camp.

1942-1943: Freezing experiments at Dachau concentration camp.
(note the timing of this experiment at Dachau vs. the US experiment at the Univ. of Cincinnati in 1943: Refrigeration experiment conducted on sixteen mentally disabled patients who were placed in refrigerated cabinets at 30 degree Farenheit, for 120 hours, at University of Cincinnati Hospital., "to study the effect of frigid temperature on mental disorders." See more on this below.)

1942-1943: Coagulation experiments on Catholic priests at Dachau concentration camp.
See also: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/imt/08-09-46.asp

1942-1945: Malaria experiments at Dachau concentration camp on more than twelve hundred prisoners.
See also: http://www.scrapbookpages.com/DachauScrapbook/DachauTrials/KlausSchilling.html

1943: Epidemic jaundice experiments at Natzweiler concentration camp.
See also: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/natzwieler.html

1943-1944: Phosphorus burn experiments at Buchenwald concentration camp.
See also: http://oracknows.blogspot.com/2005/04/60-years-ago-today-liberation-of.html
See this too: ISRAEL'S USE OF WHITE PHOSPHORUS IN GAZA CIVILIAN AREAS
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/mar/25/israel-white-phosphorus-gaza
http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/news/israeli-armys-use-white-phosphorus-gaza-clear-undeniable-20090119
http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2009/01/10/israel-stop-unlawful-use-white-phosphorus-gaza

1944: Seawater experiment on sixty Gypsies who were given only saltwater to drink at Dachau concentration camp.

1946: Opening of Nuremberg Doctors Trial by U.S. Military Tribunal.

=====================

Note: The document posted does not include the massive human experimentation operation known as the Atom Bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the American government. The Japanese tried repeatedly to surrender BEFORE the US dropped the atom bombs, but their attempts were ignored. The US government dropped the bombs anyway, using the excuse of 'ending the war', in spite of the attempts Japan made to end it beforehand. So the experiment: what will happen if you drop a nuclear bomb on a city - was carried out. The 'labs' were Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the experiment showed the effects of nuclear blast and radiation on living humans. There were other reasons to be sure; but this was human experimentation on a mass scale.

See also: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YPnBadImnVQ



=====================

(continued in next post)
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: Human Experiments: A Chronology of inhumane experimentation
« Reply #1 on: January 31, 2011, 03:49:06 PM »
(continued from previous post)

1941: Dr. William c. Black inoculated a twelve month old baby with herpes. He was criticized by Francis Payton Rous, editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine, who called it "an abuse of power, an infringement of the rights of an individual, and not excusable because the illness which followed had implications for science." Dr. Rous rejected outright the fact that the child had been "offered as a volunteer."

1939: Twenty-two children living at the Iowa Soldiers' Orphans' Home in Davenport were the subjects of the "monster" experiment that used psychological pressure to induce children who spoke normally to stutter. It was designed by one of the nation's most prominent speech pathologists, Dr. Wendell Johnson, to test his theory on the cause of stuttering.
See also: http://www.uiowa.edu/~cyberlaw/hsr/wj-sjmn/orphan061101-2.htm

1940's: In a crash program to develop new drugs to fight Malaria during World War II, doctors in the Chicago area infected nearly 400 prisoners with the disease. Although the Chicago inmates were given general information that they were helping with the war effort, they were not informed about the nature of the experiment. Nazi doctors on trial at Nuremberg cited the Chicago studies as precedents to defend their own research aimed at aiding the German war effort.

1942-1944: U.S. Chemical Warfare Service conducts mustard gas experiments on thousands of servicemen.
See also: http://www.apfn.net/messageboard/02-19-05/discussion.cgi.86.html.

1943: Refrigeration experiment conducted on sixteen mentally disabled patients who were placed in refrigerated cabinets at 30 degree Farenheit, for 120 hours, at University of Cincinnati Hospital., "to study the effect of frigid temperature on mental disorders."

1944: Manhattan Project injection of 4.7 micrograms of plutonium into soldiers at Oak Ridge.
See also: http://www.whale.to/b/plutonium.html

1944-1946: University of Chicago Medical School professor Dr. Alf Alving conducts malaria experiments on more than 400 Illinois prisoners.

1945: Manhattan Project injection of plutonium into three patients at Billings Hospital at University of Chicago.

1945: Malaria experiment on 800 prisoners in Atlanta.

1946-1953: Atomic Energy Commission sponsored study conducted at the Fernald school in Massachusetts. Residents were fed Quaker Oats breakfast cereal containing radioactive tracers.
See also: http://www.wickedlocal.com/waltham/news/education/x1699625220/Apology-sought-for-abuse-at-Fernald-School

1946: Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea pigs for medical experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given to change the word "experiments" to "investigations" or "observations" whenever reporting a medical study performed in one of the nation's veteran's hospitals.

1947: Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy Comission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947) stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive substances to human subjects.

1947: The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential weapon for use by American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian and military) are used with and without their knowledge.
See also: http://voices.washingtonpost.com/spy-talk/2010/11/cia_brain_experiments_pursued.html

1947: Judgment at Nuremberg Doctors Trial sets forth "Permissible Medical Experiments" – i.e., the Nuremberg Code, which begins: "The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential."

1942: Harvard biochemist Edward Cohn injects sixty-four Massachusetts prisoners with beef blood in U.S. Navy-sponsored experiment.

1949: Intentional release of radiodine 131 and xenon 133 over Hanford Washington in Atomic Energy Commission field study called "Green Run."

1949: Soviet Union's war crimes trial of Dr. Ishii's associates.

1949-1953: Atomic Energy Commission studies of mentally disabled school children fed radioactive isotopes at Fernald and Wrentham schools.

1940s-1950s: "psychic driving" and "mental depatterning" experiments conducted by Dr. Ewen Cameron, depriving patients of sleep, using massive ECT combined with psychoactive drugs such as, LSD. After his "treatments" patients were unable to function. In the 1950's Dr.Cameron's experiments were sponsored by the CIA.

1950: Dr. Joseph Stokes of the University of Pennsylvania infects 200 women prisoners with viral hepatitis.

1950: U.S. Army secretly used a Navy ship outside the Golden Gate to spray supposedly harmless bacteria over San Francisco and its outskirts. Eleven people were sickened by the germs, and one of them died.

1951-1960: University of Pennsylvania under contract with U.S. Army conducts psychopharmacological experiments on hundreds of Pennsylvania prisoners.

1952-1974: University of Pennsylvania dermatologist Dr. Albert Kligman conducts skin product experiments by the hundreds at Holmesburg Prison; "All I saw before me," he has said about his first visit to the prison, "were acres of skin."

1952: Henry Blauer injected with a fatal dose of mescaline at New York State Psychiatric Institute of Columbia University. U.S. Department of Defense, the sponsor, conspired to conceal evidence for 23 years. I

1953 Newborn Daniel Burton rendered blind at Brooklyn Doctor's Hospital due to high oxygen study on RLF.

1953-1957: Oak Ridge-sponsored injection of uranium into eleven patients at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.

1953-1960: CIA brainwashing experiments with LSD at eighty institutions on hundreds of subjects in a project code named "MK-ULTRA."

1953-1970: U.S. Army experiments with LSD on soldiers at Fort Detrick, Md.

1954-1974: U.S. Army study of 2,300 Seventh-Day Adventist soldiers in 157 experiments code named "Operation Whitecoat."

1950s –1972: Mentally disabled children at Willowbrook School (NY) were deliberately infected with hepatitis in an attempt to find a vaccine. Participation in the study was a condition for admission to institution.

1956: Dr. Albert Sabin tests experimental polio vaccine on 133 prisoners in Ohio.

1958-1962: Spread of radioactive materials over Inupiat land in Point Hope, Alaska in Atomic Energy Commission field study code named "Project Chariot."

1962: Thalidomide withdrawn from the market after thousands of birth deformities blamed in part on misleading results of animal studies; the FDA thereafter requires three phases of human clinical trials before a drug can be approved for the market.

1962 to 1966, a total of 33 pharmaceutical companies tested 153 experimental drugs at Holmesburg prison (PA) alone.

1962-1980 Pharmaceutical companies conduct phase I safety testing of drugs almost exclusively on prisoners for small cash payments.

1962: Injection of live cancer cells into 22 elderly patients at Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in Brooklyn. Administration covered up, NYS licensing board placed the principal investigator on probation for one year. Two years later, American Cancer Society elected him Vice President.

1962: Stanley Milgram conducts obedience research at Yale University.

1963: NIH supported researcher transplants chimpanzee kidney into human in failed experiment.

1963-1973: Dr. Carl Heller, a leading endocrinologist, conducts testicular irradiation experiments on prisoners in Oregon and Washington giving them $5 a month and $100 when they receive a vasectomy at the end of the trial.

1964: World Medical Association adopts Helsinki Declaration, asserting "The interests of science and society should never take precedence over the well being of the subject."

1965-1966: University of Pennsylvania under contract with Dow Chemical conducts dioxin experiments on prisoners at Holmesburg.

1966: Henry Beecher's article "Ethics and Clinical Research" in New England Journal of Medicine.

1966: U.S. Army introduces bacillus globigii into New York subway tunnels in field study.

1966: NIH Office for Protection of Research Subjects ("OPRR") created and issues Policies for the Protection of Human Subjects calling for establishment of independent review bodies later known as Institutional Review Boards.

1967: British physician M.H. Pappworth publishes "Human Guinea Pigs," advising "No doctor has the right to choose martyrs for science or for the general good."

1969: Judge Sam Steinfield's eloquent dissent in Strunk v. Strunk, 445 S.W.2d 145, the first judicial suggestion that the Nuremberg Code should influence American jurisprudence.

1969. Milledgeville Georgia, investigational drugs tested on mentally disabled children. No institutional approval.

1969: San Antonio Contraceptive Study conducted on 70 poor Mexican-American women. Half received oral contraceptives the other placebo. No informed consent.

1973 Ad Hoc Advisory Panel issues Final Report of Tuskegee Syphilis Study, concluding "Society can no longer afford to leave the balancing of individual rights against scientific progress to the scientific community."

1974: National Research Act establishes National Commission for the Protection of Human subjects and requires Public Health Service to promulgate regulations for the protection of human subjects.

1975: The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW) raised NIH's 1966 Policies for the Protection of Human subjects to regulatory status. Title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations, known as "The Common Rule," requires the appointment and utilization of institutional review boards (IRBs).

1976: National Urban League holds National Conference on Human Experimentation, announcing "We don't want to kill science but we don't want science to kill, mangle and abuse us."

1978: Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials, conducted by the CDC, begin in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men.

1979: National Commission issues Belmont Report setting forth three basic ethical principles: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.

1980: The FDA promulgates 21 CFR 50.44 prohibiting use of prisoners as subjects in clinical trials shifting phase I testing by pharmaceutical companies to non-prison population.

1981: Leonard Whitlock suffers permanent brain damage after deep diving experiment at Duke University.

1986: Congressional subcommittee holds one-day hearing in Washington, called by Rep. Pat Williams of Montana, aimed at determining whether U.S. prisoners of war in Manchuria were victims of germ-warfare experimentation. Hearing is inconclusive.

1981-1996: Protocol 126 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle.

1987: Supreme Court decision in United States v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669, holding soldier given LSD without his consent could not sue U.S. Army for damages.

1987:" L-dopa challenge and relapse" experiment conducted on 28 U.S. veterans who were subjected to psychotic relapse for study purposes at the Bronx VA.

1990: The FDA grants Department of Defense waiver of Nuremberg Code for use of unapproved drugs and vaccines in Desert Shield.

1991: World Health Organization announces CIOMS Guidelines which set forth four ethical principles: respect for persons, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice.

1991: Tony LaMadrid commits suicide after participating in study on relapse of schizophrenics withdrawn from medication at UCLA.

1993: Kathryn Hamilton dies 44 days after participating in breast cancer experiment at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle.

1994. The Albuquerque Tribune publicizes 1940s experiments involving plutonium injection of human research subjects and secret radiation experiments. Indigent patients and mentally retarded children were deceived about the nature of their treatment.

1994. President Clinton appoints the Advisory Commission on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) The ACHRE Report http://tis.eh.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/index.html

1995. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published Human Radiation Experiments, listing 150 plus an additional 275 radiation experiments conducted by DOE and the Atomic Energy Commission, during the 1940s-1970s.
http://tis.eh.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/experiments/0491doca.html#0491_List

1995: 19-year-old University of Rochester student Nicole Wan dies after being paid $150 to participate in MIT-sponsored experiment to test airborne pollutant chemicals.

1995. President Clinton appoints the National Bioethics Advisory Commission.

1995: NYS Supreme Court rules (TD v NYS Office of Mental Health) against the state's policy of conducting nontherapeutic experiments on mentally incapacitated persons - including children - without informed consent. Justice Edward Greenfield ruled that parents have no authority to volunteer their children:
"Parents may be free to make martyrs of themselves, but it does not follow that they may make martyrs of their children."

1995: Thirty-four healthy, previously non-aggressive New York City minority children, boys aged 6 to 11 years old, were exposed to fenfluramine in a nontherapeutic experiment at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. The children were exposed to this neurotoxic drug to record their neurochemical response in an effort to prove a speculative theory linking aggression to a biological marker.

1996. Cleveland Plain Dealer investigative report series, 'Drug Trials: Do People Know the Truth About Experiments,' December 15 to 18, 1996. The Plain-Dealer found: of the "4,154 FDA inspections of researchers testing new drugs on people [since 1977] . . . more than half the researchers were cited by FDA inspectors for failing to clearly disclose the experimental nature of their work."

1996: Yale University researchers publish findings of experiment that subjected 18 stable schizophrenia patients to psychotic relapse in an amphetamine provocation experiment at West Haven VA.

1997. President Clinton issues a formal apology to the subjects of the Tuskegee syphilis experiments. NBAC continues investigation into genetics, consent, privacy, and research on persons with mental disorders.

1997. Researchers at the University of Cincinnati publish findings of experiment attempting to create a "psychosis model" on human beings at the Cincinnati VA. Sixteen patients, experiencing a first episode schizophrenia, were subjected to repeated provocation with amphetamine. The stated purpose was to produce "behavioral sensitization. This process serves as a model for the development of psychosis, but has been little studied in humans. Symptoms, such as severity of psychosis and eye-blink rates, were measured hourly for 5 hours."

1997. U.S. government sponsored placebo-controlled experiment withholds treatment from HIV infected, pregnant African women. NY Times, Sept. 18.

1997. Victims of unethical research at major U.S. medical centers - including the NIMH - testify before the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, Sept. 18.

1997. FDA Modernization Act gives pharmaceutical companies a huge financial incentive - a 6 month patent exclusivity extension - if they conduct drug tests on children. The incentive can yield $900 million.

1998. National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) Report. Research Involving Subjects with Mental Disorders That May Affect Decisionmaking Capacity. November 12, 1998 http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nbac/capacity/TOC.htm

1998: The Japanese government has never formally apologized for Unit 731's activities, and did not even admit to its existence until August 1998, when the Supreme Court ruled that the existence of the unit was accepted in academic circles.

1998. Complaint filed with OPRR about experiments that exposed non-violent children in New York City to fenfluramine to find a predisposition to violence.

1998: Boston Globe (four part) series, "Doing Harm: Research on the Mentally Ill" shed light on the mistreatment and exploitation of schizophrenia patients who have been subjected to relapse producing procedures in unethical experiments.
1999: Nine month-old Gage Stevens dies at Children's Hospital in Pittsburgh during participation in Propulsid clinical trial for infant acid reflux.

1999: 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger dies after being injected with 37 trillion particles of adenovirus in gene therapy experiment at University of Pennsylvania.

1999: Director of National Institute of Mental Health suspends 29 clinical trials that failed to meet either ethical or scientific standards.

2000: University of Oklahoma melanoma trial halted for failure to follow government regulations and protocol.

2000: OPRR becomes Office of Human Research Protection ("OHRP") and made part of the Department of Health and Human Services.

2000: President Clinton implement the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Act of 2000, which authorized compensation for thousands of Department of Energy workers who sacrificed their health in building the nation's nuclear defenses.

2000: The Washington Post (6 part) series, "Body Hunters" exposes unethical exploitation in experiments conducted by U.S. investigators in underdeveloped countries. Part 4 dealt with U.S. government funded, genetic experiments conducted by Harvard University in rural China.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A26797-2000Dec19.html
See also: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/world/issues/bodyhunters/

2001: A biotech company in Pennsylvania asks the FDA for permission to conduct placebo trials on infants in Latin America born with serious lung disease though such tests would be illegal in U.S.
See also: http://www.citizen.org/publications/publicationredirect.cfm?ID=6761

2001: Ellen Roche, a healthy 27-year old volunteer, dies in challenge study at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.

2001: April 4, Elaine Holden-Able, a healthy retired nurse, consumed a glass of orange juice that had been mixed with a dietary supplement for the sake of medical research. This Case Western University Alzheimer's experiment, financed by the tobacco industry, wound up killing her in what was called a ''tragic human error.'' Federal Office of Human Research Protections did not interview hospital staff, mostly accepted hospital's internal report, imposed no penalty, and closed the case and did not mention the death in its letter of determination. http://ohrp.osophs.dhhs.gov/detrm_letrs/nov01f.pdf

2001: Maryland Court of Appeals renders a landmark decision affirming "best interest of the individual child" as a standard for medical research involving children. The Court unequivocally prohibited nontherapeutic experimentation on children. (Higgins and Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger Institute).The case involved exposure of babies and small children to lead poisoning in EPA funded experiment. (http://www.courts.state.md.us/opinions/coa/2001/128a00.pdf)
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline Government Official

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Re: Human Experiments: A Chronology of inhumane experimentation
« Reply #2 on: February 10, 2011, 04:39:30 PM »
Yeah... all very interesting but how in the hell could they forget about the Dr. Mengele Experiments!? They were by far the worst in human history...

http://www.google.com/#sclient=psy&hl=en&q=dr+mengele+experiments&aq=0sx&aqi=g-sx3g-o1&aql=&oq=&pbx=1&fp=b3adeb8bc15d3129

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: Human Experiments: A Chronology of inhumane experimentation
« Reply #3 on: February 11, 2011, 07:24:03 AM »
Yeah... all very interesting but how in the hell could they forget about the Dr. Mengele Experiments!? They were by far the worst in human history...

http://www.google.com/#sclient=psy&hl=en&q=dr+mengele+experiments&aq=0sx&aqi=g-sx3g-o1&aql=&oq=&pbx=1&fp=b3adeb8bc15d3129

There are links for Nazi experiments from 1939 through 1946 in the list above; but you're right - it's not comprehensive enough. You could also make a case for the 'end' date of 1946, at the Nuremburg trials - however in reality, the crimes of the Nazis have continued to this day via  Project Paperclip).
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline Satyagraha

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Human Experiments: CIA Experiments on “War on Terror” Detainees
« Reply #4 on: February 24, 2011, 09:22:41 PM »
CIA Experiments on “War on Terror” Detainees
http://www.antifascistencyclopedia.com/allposts/cia-experiments-on-war-on-terror-detainees
24th February 2011

By Jeffrey Kaye
Op-Ed News | February 16, 2011

A National Research Council (NRC) 2008 report on a conference on Emerging Cognitive Neuroscience and Related Technologies examined briefly what it characterized as a “contemporary problem,” the possibility of doing research on “war on terror” detainees, removed by the U.S. government from Geneva protections against experiments done on prisoners of war.

In a section of the report that looked at the “Cultural and Ethical Underpinnings of Social Neuroscience,” the report’s authors examined the “Ethical Implications” of these new technologies. The section explored the birth of the new field of bioethics, in response to the scandalous revelations of the Tuskegee experiments. The report noted that “On the whole, however, the system of protections for human research subjects is not well designed to capture instances of intentional wrongdoing,” providing “rather… guidance for well-motivated investigators who wish to be in compliance with regulatory requirements and practice standards.”

The report further described the history surrounding the importance of the rules that constitute the need for informed consent of research participants, and how the Nazi-era experiments led to the Nuremberg principle that “The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.” While claiming the current “formal procedures in place for the use of military personnel in medical experiments” are “stringent,” that doesn’t imply “that no abuses can occur, nor that convenient alternative frameworks (such as field testing) cannot be used to circumvent the research rules, but only that the official policies and procedures in the military are rigorous.”

But even with such supposedly “rigorous” policies, the report’s authors see a problem. They ominously ask whether “classified research can ever be ethically sound inasmuch as it lacks transparency, such as in the form of public accountability. For example, if a member of an ethics review board disagrees with a majority decision involving a classified human experiment, that member would be unable to engage in a public protest of that decision.”

At this point in the discussion, another interesting, and even more ominous question rises up before the NSC panel (emphasis added):

A contemporary problem is the status of detainees at military installations who are suspects in the war on terrorism. Presumably, the ethical standards that apply to all human research subjects should apply to them as well. But if they are not protected by the provisions of the Geneva protocols for prisoners of war, the question would be whether as potential research subjects they are nonetheless protected by other international conventions, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations, 1948). Those technical questions of international law are beyond the scope of this report.

Why should the question of research on detainees arise in this discussion at all?

Evidence of Military Research and Experimentation on Detainees

Jason Leopold and I have been investigating the possibility of research being conducted upon detainees at Guantanamo and other “war on terror” prisoners held by the Defense Department and the CIA. Back in September 2009, I published articles at Firedoglake, The Public Record, and Truthout that noted the research on “uncontrollable stress” conducted upon SERE survival school students subjected to mock torture predated the institution of the so-called “enhanced interrogation program of the CIA. The research was conducted by, among others, a CIA-linked psychiatrist, Dr. Charles A. Morgan III, who is affiliated with Yale University and the National Center for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

Morgan has denied his CIA affiliation, but for documentary evidence, see this list of participants at this 2004 DoJ/FBI conference.

This research used methods that were similar to those later instituted under a plan developed by James Mitchell and Bruce Jessen, formerly employed by the military’s Joint Personnel Recovery Agency (JPRA), parent organization to the SERE program, to use coercive forms of interrogation on the new “war on terror” detainees, who the White House and their attorneys at the Office of Legal Counsel removed from the protection of Geneva Convention protocols. In a report on CIA experiments on torture, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) noted in an appendix the existence of the Morgan research, but failed to make public the CIA connections, even though they certainly were aware of them.

Originally, the PHR report was going to include a footnote on the existence of a new protocol on human experimentation protections in the military signed by Paul Wolfowitz in early 2002. While they chose not to follow up on this, Leopold and I conducted a seven-month long investigation into the March 2002 issuance of Department of Defense Directive 3216.02, “Protection of Human Subjects and Adherence to Ethical Standards in DoD-Supported Research.”

We noted that “the Wolfowitz directive weakened protections that had been in place for decades by limiting the safeguards to ‘prisoners of war’.” Even more, it allowed for waivers of informed consent if the head of a DoD department thought it necessary. There had never been such loose rules on informed consent ever explicitly allowed in the history of military research, although no prominent ethicist had discussed this until we published our article. Prominent ethicist Alexander Capron was quoted in our story for calling these changes “controversial both because it involves a waiver of the normal requirements and because the grounds for that waiver are so open-ended.”

While retaining the blanket prohibition against experimenting on prisoners of war, Wolfowitz softened the language for other types of prisoners, using a version of rules about “vulnerable” classes of individuals taken from regulations meant for civilian research by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).

By removing the detainees from Geneva protections, and taking away “prisoner of war” protections, Bush and the White House lawyers, among them Jay Bybee, John Yoo and Alberto Gonzales, opened up the captured prisoners, many of them sold to the Americans for bounty reward, to possible experimentation.

DoD and HHS Acting Together on Experiments?

Buried in the Wolfowitz directive was a provision (4.4.1) that “actions authorizing or requiring any action by an official of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) with respect to any requirements” of research on “vulnerable populations” like prisoners “shall be under the authority of the Director, Defense Research and Engineering.” The reason for HHS involvement was because research “supported or conducted by the Department of Defense that affects vulnerable classes of subjects” had to meet the protections of HHS’s Common Rule language that covers protection of human subjects.

When queried whether there had ever been any DoD research on any kind of prisoner, or the use of HHS personnel to monitor such research, a spokesperson for Defense Research and Engineering indicated that they had no comment.

In 2002, there was another assault on prisoner protections for research, when Bush’s Secretary of HHS asked for and received a year later a blanket waiver for all informed consent on prisoner experimentation for “epidemiological” reasons, including the taking of biological samples. In a future article, I will explore the repercussions of this new policy — also never discussed by any ethical panel, and certainly not by the NRC — on research upon prisoners, and more specifically the possibility of experiments done on the detainees at Guantanamo.

This further investigation may throw light upon the Guantanamo SOP wherein all detainees were subjected to a never-before-attempted use of mass administration of treatment doses of the controversial anti-malaria drug mefloquine (Lariam), as also  reported  in a special investigation by Jason Leopold and myself last December. The scandal was also the subject of an independent investigatory report  published at the same time by Seton Hall University Law School’s Center for Policy and Research.

In a 2002 report on mefloquine adverse events, “Unexpected frequency, duration and spectrum of adverse events after therapeutic dose of mefloquine in healthy adults,” published in top medical journal Acta Tropica, it was noted that 73% of the participants suffered “severe (grade 3) vertigo …” which “required bed rest and specific medication for 1 to 4 days.” Nevertheless, DoD maintains that the use of mefloquine was for public health purposes, to prevent malaria from spreading in Cuba. But as our investigation showed, talking with military medical experts, and examining other military responses to malaria threat, including in Cuba, no such use of such mass treatment doses, with its attendant dangers, was ever used or even proposed. Nor did DoD medical officers at Guantanamo demand the same protocols be used on foreign workers from malarial areas brought into the camp at this same time to work on building Camp Delta and other facilities at the naval base. The workers were employed by Kellogg Brown and Root, a subsidiary of Halliburton.

Was the mefloquine use part of an experimental protocol on the adverse side effects of the drug, a subject of much controversy within DoD at the time? Was it a method of softening up prisoners for interrogation? While calls for greater transparency go unheeded, further investigation by the press may bring answers to these explosive questions.

http://www.opednews.com/articles/2/NRC-on-Experiments-on-War-by-Jeffrey-Kaye-110214-713.html
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline agentbluescreen

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Re: Human Experiments: A Chronology of inhumane experimentation
« Reply #5 on: February 25, 2011, 12:23:33 AM »
One notices the omission of genetic experimentation upon all of humanity and our entire planetary ecosystem by the haphazard implementation and dispersal of untested genetically modified zoological and plant species, and chimeras of the same along with genetically altered natural and synthetic chemicals, solvents and pesticides.

MONSATANO®
your problems, our business!

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: Human Experiments: A Chronology of inhumane experimentation
« Reply #6 on: February 25, 2011, 08:53:25 AM »
MY UNIT, 130th Airlift Wing in Charleston WV, was given a 15 day dose of Mefloquine in summer '04 in Uzbekistan, K2 Karshi Khanabad. (globalsecurity)
I don't know what we were doing there. The mefloquine was administered presumably to Air Force AND Army personnel. It was given prior to leaving in unmarked plastic bags. We were also given another set of pills and told that they were doxycycline, an antibiotic and anti-mycoplasma agent. No paperwork, no pill containers, nothing except our word given that we would comply.

We were also lined up in front of the medical facility and made to sign waivers attesting to "not having been exposed to anything harmful at K2" and these papers were PART of and KEY TO outprocessing that base, i.e. going home.

I wonder if we were facilitating heroin transport, being tested with biowarfare agents, or if the whole idea was isolating us to test this anti-malarial drug.
The only risk I know of for malaria at that base emanated from an intentionally uncovered and unburied pit full of water near one of the perimeter walls.

But I can attest that this drug was used on my unit before being declared unsafe a couple years later.
Mefloquine is a distinctive word and I don't usually forget shit like that.

I did NOT take the pills. Either bag. I am probably f**ked either way, too.
God rot the monsters behind this abuse of volunteers.

Many people in my unit had mental issues. Most notable were panic attacks, mood swings, obsessions. Physical problems included weight gain, IBS, thyroid issues, chronic fatigue, arthritis. etc.

As you already know some of the men reacted adversely to anthrax and smallpox vaccine, although not to the degree seen at Dover.

PDFMuncher - thanks for adding your own experience to this - it's important that you document what you observed. It is yet another example of how our troops are used as guinea pigs for experimentation. The fact that you had to sign a document stating that you were "not exposed to anything harmful" as a condition to going home is outrageous. And good for you that you did not ingest the pills.
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: Human Experiments: A Chronology of inhumane experimentation
« Reply #7 on: February 25, 2011, 09:33:54 AM »
it's crazy!

do you think it was retaliation for resisting BRAC?

I think it's another example of the 'cannon fodder' as useful for any purpose: put them in front of bullets and bombs in the manufactured conflicts; use them as lab rats in pharma testing. Same results - some live, some die, move along.
I don't think it's related to BRAC - I think it is, and always was, the agenda; soldiers are expendable.
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline All4truth

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Re: Human Experiments: A Chronology of inhumane experimentation
« Reply #8 on: February 25, 2011, 10:23:21 AM »
Quote
Zionists Poisoned/Radiated
100k Jewish Children
Zionists Poisoned/Radiated 100,000 Sefardi Jewish Children
By Barry Chamish
8-17-5
 
100,000 RADIATIONS - A REVIEW
 
On August 14, at 9 PM, Israeli television station, Channel Ten, broke all convention and exposed the ugliest secret of Israel's Labor Zionist founders; the deliberate mass radiation poisoning of nearly all Sephardi youths.
 
The expose began with the presentation of a documentary film called, 100,000 Radiations, and concluded with a panel discussion moderated by TV host Dan Margalit, surprising because he is infamous for toeing the establishment line.
 
Film Details:
 
100,000 Radiations, released by Dimona Productions Ltd. in 2003.
 
Producer - Dudi Bergman Directors - Asher Khamias, David Balrosen
 
Panel Discussion Participants
 
A Moroccan singer was joined by David Edri, head of the Compensation Committee for Ringworm X-Ray Victims, and Boaz Lev, a spokesman for the Ministry Of Health.
 
Subject:
 
In 1951, the director general of the Israeli Health Ministry, Dr. Chaim Sheba flew to America and returned with 7 x-ray machines, supplied to him by the American army.
 
They were to be used in a mass atomic experiment with an entire generation of Sephardi youths to be used as guinea pigs. Every Sephardi child was to be given 35,000 times the maximum dose of x-rays through his head. For doing so, the American government paid the Israeli government 300,000 Israeli liras a year. The entire Health budget was 60,000 liras. The money paid by the Americans is equivalent to billions of dollars today.
 
To fool the parents of the victims, the children were taken away on "school trips" and their parents were later told the x-rays were a treatment for the scourge of scalpal ringworm. 6,000 of the children died shortly after their doses were given, the many of the rest developed cancers that killed them over time and are still killing them now. While living, the victims suffered from disorders such as epilepsy, amnesia, Alzheimer's disease, chronic headaches and psychosis.

 
Yes, that is the subject of the documentary in cold terms. It is another matter to see the victims on the screen. ie. To watch the Moroccan lady describe what getting 35,000 times the dose of allowable x-rays in her head feels like.
 
"I screamed make the headache go away. Make the headache go away. Make the headache go away. But it never went away."
 
To watch the bearded man walk hunched down the street.
 
"I'm in my fifties and everyone thinks I'm in my seventies. I have to stoop when I walk so I won't fall over. They took my youth away with those x-rays."
 
To watch the old lady who administered the doses to thousands of children.
 
"They brought them in lines. First their heads were shaved and smeared in burning gel. Then a ball was put between their legs and the children were ordered not to drop it, so they wouldn't move. The children weren't protected over the rest of their bodies. There were no lead vests for them. I was told I was doing good by helping to remove ringworm. If I knew what dangers the children were facing, I would never have cooperated. Never!"
 
Because the whole body was exposed to the rays, the genetic makeup of the children was often altered, affecting the next generation. We watch the woman with the distorted face explain, "All three of my children have the same cancers my family suffered. Are you going to tell me that's a coincidence?"

http://www.rense.com/general67/radd.htm

Offline agentbluescreen

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Re: Human Experiments: A Chronology of inhumane experimentation
« Reply #9 on: February 25, 2011, 02:02:28 PM »
http://www.rense.com/general67/radd.htm

This was the result of genetic research that showed the white Ashkenazi Likudniks that they could not yet broadly deploy their race-specific anti-Semitic weapons upon the Palestinian descendants of Ishmael (Arab Sephardis) whom they sought to rob and dispossess without being caught for poisoning genuine Hebrews in their new white European pretend-Jewish nation-colony there.

The white AshkeNAZI Likudnik sabotage of the Sephardic race has nearly achieved it's goals now with those early victims, but they were unable to really make it work, having no excuse to prevent more genuine racial-Hebrews from immigrating there. This is still a giant and unsolved internecine obstacle to these white Rothschild-ZioNAZIs long term middle east White Levitican Empire plans.

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: Human Experiments: A Chronology of inhumane experimentation
« Reply #10 on: March 08, 2011, 11:51:15 AM »
Secret Biological Warfare Research Undertaken by Major US Corporations
http://www.antifascistencyclopedia.com/allposts/secret-biological-warfare-research-undertaken-by-major-us-corporations
3rd July 2007
By Sherwood Ross
Free Market News | June 24, 2007



A number of major pharmaceutical corporations and biotech firms are concealing the nature of the biological warfare research work they are doing for the U.S. government.

Since their funding comes from the National Institutes of Health, the recipients are obligated under NIH guidelines to make their activities public. Not disclosing their ops raises the suspicion they may be engaged in forbidden kinds of germ warfare research. According to the Sunshine Project, a nonprofit arms control watchdog operating out of Austin, Texas, among corporations holding back information about their activities are:

Abbott Laboratories, BASF Plant Science, Bristol-Myers Squibb, DuPont Central Research and Development, Eli Lilly Corp., Embrex, GlaxoSmithKline, Hoffman-LaRoche, Merck & Co., Monsanto, Pfizer Inc., Schering-Plough Research Institute, and Syngenta Corp. of Switzerland.

In case you didn’t know it, the White House since 9/11 has called for spending $44-billion on biological warfare research, a sum unprecedented in world history, and an obliging Congress has authorized it. Thus, some of the deadliest pathogens known to humankind are being rekindled in hundreds of labs in pharmaceutical houses, university biology departments, and on military bases. An international convention the U.S. signed forbids it to stockpile, manufacture or use biological weapons. But if the U.S. won’t say what’s going down in those laboratories other countries are going to assume the worst and a biowarfare arms race will be on, if it isn’t already. Sunshine says failure to disclose operations also puts corporate employees involved in this work at risk. Only 8,500, or 16%, of the 52,000 workers employed at the top 20 U.S. biotech firms work at an NIH guidelines-compliant company, Sunshine says.

Francis Boyle, an international law authority at the University of Illinois, Champaign, says pursuant to national strategy directives adopted by Bush in 2002, the Pentagon “is now gearing up to fight and ‘win’ biological warfare without prior public knowledge and review.” Boyle said the Pentagon’s Chemical and Biological Defense Program was revised in 2003 to endorse “first-use” strike in war. Boyle said the program includes Red Teaming, which he described as “plotting, planning, and scheming how to use biowarfare.”

Besides the big pharmaceutical houses, the biowarfare buildup is getting an enthusiastic response from academia, which sees new funds flowing from Washington’s horn of plenty. “American universities have a long history of willingly permitting their research agenda, researchers, institutes and laboratories to be co-opted, corrupted, and perverted by the Pentagon and the CIA,” Boyle says. What’s more, the Bush administration is pouring billions in biowarfare research while some very real killers, such as influenza, are not being cured.In 2006, the NIH got $120 million to combat influenza, which kills about 36,000 Americans annually but it got $1.76 billion for biodefense, much of it spent to research anthrax. How many people has anthrax killed lately? Well, let’s see, there were those five people killed in the mysterious attacks on Congress of October, 2001 — attacks that suspiciously emanated from a government laboratory at Fort Detrick, Md.

One would think the FBI might apprehend the perpetrator whose attack shut down the Congress of the United States but nearly six years have gone by and it hasn’t caught anybody. Seem a bit odd to you? Some folks suspect the anthrax attack was an inside job to panic the country into a huge biowarfare buildup to “protect” America from “terrorists.” That is, of course, just what happened.

Milton Leitenberg, of the University of Maryland’s School of Public Policy, though, says the risk of terrorists and nonstate actors using biological agents against the U.S. “has been systematically and deliberately exaggerated” by administration scare-mongering.

=============================

Note: Interesting that Leitenberg is from the University of Maryland... they hired the Japanese version of Dr. Mengele after WWII:


"I cut him open from the chest to the stomach and he screamed terribly
and his face was all twisted in agony. He made this unimaginable sound,
he was screaming so horribly. But then finally he stopped.
This was all in a day's work for the surgeons, but it really left an impression on me
because it was my first time."
- Dr. Shiro Ishii, who later went on to supervise biological research at the University of Maryland (USA).


=============================

And molecular biologist Jonathan King of Massachusetts Institute of Technology says, “the Bush administration launched a major program which threatens to put the health of our people at far greater risk than the hazard to which they claimed to have been responding.” King added President Bush’s policies “do not increase the security of the American people” but “bring new risk to our population of the most appalling kind.”

In the absence of any credible foreign threat, Sunshine’s Hammond said, “Our biowarfare research is defending ourselves from ourselves. It’s a dog chasing its tail.” Sadly, it looks more and more every day like a mad dog.

For more on this subject, see the author’s article in the July/August issue of The Humanist magazine. Sherwood Ross has worked as a reporter for major dailies and wire services. Reach him at sherwoodr1@yahoo.com

http://www.freemarketnews.com/WorldNews.asp?nid=44611
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline Satyagraha

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Re: Human Experiments: A Chronology of inhumane experimentation
« Reply #11 on: September 01, 2011, 09:46:32 PM »
Panel concludes U.S. government conspired with doctors
to commit murderous medical experiments in Guatemala

http://www.infowars.com/panel-concludes-u-s-government-conspired-with-doctors-to-commit-murderous-medical-experiments-in-guatemala/
Mike Adams
Natural News
September 1, 2011

(NaturalNews) U.S. government medical researchers, including those from the National Institute of Health (NIH), engaged in heinous crimes through secret medical experiments on Guatemalan medical experiments, concluded an investigative report commissioned by President Obama. The report concluded that:

• The U.S. government knowingly funded and deliberately engaged in criminal medical experiments against Guatemalan prisoners.

• At least 5,500 people were drafted into the experiments, including children, women and the mentally ill. The number deliberately infected with sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) exceeded 1,300 (that we know of).

• U.S. doctors and medical researchers knowingly and deliberately violated all the fundamental medical ethics including “do no harm.”

• The victims of this criminal, government-run pharmaceutical experiment were mentally ill prisoners who were deliberate infected with STDs just to see what would happen.

• The victims were “not treated like human beings” but rather like laboratory animals and were deprived of basic human dignity in these heinous medical crimes.

• The purpose of the medical experiment was to test the effectiveness of penicillin for the pharmaceutical companies so they could sell the drug at high profit while claiming it had been “scientifically and clinically tested” to prevent the contraction of STDs.

• Victims were not even informed they were being infected with STDs. The entire experiment was a clandestine operation involving an admitted conspiracy between Big Pharma and the U.S. government. Undeniable evidence has now emerged that the doctors and medical researchers involved in the experiment actively took steps to hide what they were doing. (Because they knew they were engaged in EVIL actions.)

(continued)
And  the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,  ye have done it unto me.

Matthew 25:40

Offline Zamo

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Re: Human Experiments: A Chronology of inhumane experimentation
« Reply #12 on: September 24, 2011, 01:03:10 AM »
^
pretty sickening, and here it is confirmed by yahoo which is a bit odd
http://news.yahoo.com/panel-reveals-details-1940s-experiment-012040543.html