Author Topic: Child Protection Services (CPS): Gestapo Terror Operations on American Families  (Read 21361 times)

Offline egypt

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The first in a series of Chapters/Books on education & fighting CPS...

Chapter  I-Know Thine Enemy:
Quick Overview for Our Perspective on Goliath

A.             Watch Out!  Our enemy is a common one for all Parents.  It does not matter if you are Parents, Legal Guardians, Relatives, Adoptive Parents or Foster Parents.  Here are some different names that we, as Parents, unfortunately have become familiar with:
 
1.           It is called different things, depending on the State, County and its setup .  The State has various levels and so does the County:

a.           DSS                   Department of Social Services
b.           DFPS                 Department of Family & Protective Services (TX)
c.           WCDSS:           Washoe County Department of Social Services (NV)
d.           CPS:                  Child Protection Services
e.           DCFS:               Department of Child & Family Services
f.             DFS:                  Department of Family Services
g.           DFCS:               Division of Family & Children Services
h.          DCBS:               Department for Community Based Services
i.             DHHS:               Department  of Health and Human Services
 
2.           For a complete US map that shows what it is called in your State with contact information, please see: http://dfsweb.state.wy.us/usmap.html
 
3.          A simple hierarchy for this Goliath of a System looks like this:
                        Social Security Act (Title IV-E + other Titles)
                        Child Abuse Prevention & Treatment Act 1974  (CAPTA)
                                    US Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS)
                                                Administration for Children & Families (ACF)
                                                            Children’s Bureau
                                                                        Programs & Funding
                                                                        Child Welfare Monitoring
                                                                        AFCARS, NCANDS, SACWIS
                                                            Upcoming Events
                                                            Current Initiatives & Issues
                                                            New On Site
                                                            Children’s Bureau Express (Online Digest)
                        
 
 
The history and where it begins is with Federal Laws enacted in 1974 with CAPTA (Child Abuse Prevention & Treatment Act) and the Social Security Act.  They are intertwined and act together with yet more Federal Acts that have been passed.  The following is an easily-understood explanation from Child Welfare Information Gateway at http://www.childwelfare.gov:
 
Major Federal Legislation Concerned with Child Protection,
Child Welfare, and Adoption

Factsheet
 Author(s):  Child Welfare Information Gateway  Year Published: 2003
 
Background
Beginning with the passage of the Child Abuse and Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) in 19741, the U.S. Congress implemented a number of laws that have had a significant impact on child protection and child welfare services. State-level responses to these laws included enacting State legislation, developing or revising State agency policy and regulations, and implementing new programs. Federal legislation also frequently requires Federal government departments and agencies to promulgate and/or amend policy and regulation. For information on policy of the Children's Bureau, visit their Web site at www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/laws/index.htm.

The primary responsibility for child welfare services rest with the States. Each State has its own legal and administrative structures and programs that address the needs of children. In addition, States frequently must comply with specific Federal requirements and guidelines in order to be eligible for Federal funding under certain programs. The Social Security Act contains the primary sources of Federal funds available to States for child welfare, foster care, and adoption activities. The programs include the Title IV-B Child Welfare Services and Promoting Safe and Stable Families (formerly known as Family Preservation) programs, the Title IV-E Foster Care Program, the Title IV-E Adoption Assistance Program, the Title IV-E Foster Care Independence Program, and the Title XX Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) Program.

To provide a framework for understanding the Federal legislation that has shaped the delivery of child welfare services, the chart inside presents a summary of the major Federal legislation since 1974 that have had significant impact on the field. The chart provides an overview of each legislative act, including reasons a particular bill was initiated, the objectives and goals of the legislation, and the major provisions of each act. Acts and their related amendments are grouped together and, therefore, do not follow the chronological layout of the timeline on this page. In addition, a notation has been made when a particular piece of legislation has amended the Social Security Act. The chart also provides Web addresses to a summary or the full text of each Act, as well as links to other online resources.
 
 A Timeline of Major Federal Legislation Concerned with Child Protection, Child Welfare, and Adoption includes a list of dates and events beginning with 1974 on the far left and moving toward 2001 on the right.
The contents of the list are as follows:
1974: Original Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) enacted, P.L. 93-247.
1978: CAPTA amended, P.L. 95-266; and Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA)
enacted, P.L. 95-608.
1980: Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act enacted, P.L. 96-272.
1984: CAPTA amended, P.L. 98-457.
1988: CAPTA amended, P.L. 100-294.
1992: CAPTA amended, P.L. 102-295.
1993: Family Preservation and Family Support Services Program established as part of the Omnibus Reconciliation Act, P.L. 103-66.
1994: Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA) enacted, P.L. 103-382.
1996: Multiethnic Placement Act-Interethnic Placement Provision amends MEPA,
          P.L. 104-188; and CAPTA amended, P.L. 104-235.
1997: Adoption and Safe Families Act enacted, P.L. 105-89.
1999: Foster Care Independence Act enacted, P.L. 106-169.
2000: Intercountry Adoption Act enacted, P.L. 106-279; and Child Abuse Prevention and Enforcement Act enacted, P.L. 106-177.
2002: Promoting Safe and Stable Families amended, P.L. 107-133.
2003: Keeping Children and Families Safe Act enacted, P.L. 108-36.
 
Since 2001, there have been more laws enacted.  The following includes what is on the previous Timeline diagram, in addition to legislation passed up until 2006.  
 
This is simply information to give a perspective with what we are involved with.  Until one is pursuing a lawsuit against the System, the history of the origin of CPS  in Acts and Laws  does not apply to our individual cases,  right now.
 
From:  http://www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/federal/federalchildlaws.cfm
 
The public law (PL) numbers link to bill summaries and status provided by Thomas.gov, a service of the Library of Congress. In some cases Information Gateway has provided relevant portions of legislation for easy access. Laws are listed in chronological order.

P.L. 109-288—Child and Family Services Act of 2006
Reauthorizes the Promoting Safe and Stable Families (PSSF) program through FY2011, and increases set-asides for Indian tribes. The Act reserves funds for States to develop activities designed to improve caseworker retention, recruitment, training, and ability to access the benefits of technology, as well as to support monthly caseworker visits to children in foster care.
Summary as of 7/25/2006.

P.L. 109-248—Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006
Acts to protect children from sexual exploitation and violent crime, to prevent child abuse and child pornography, and to promote Internet safety. Title I, Subtitle C requires national criminal background and child abuse registry checks before approval of any foster or adoptive placement. Title VI, Subtitle C requires the Department of Health and Human Services to establish a national registry of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect.
Relevant text from Title I and Title VI.

P.L. 109-239—Safe and Timely Interstate Placement of Foster Children Act of 2006
Requires each State plan for foster care and adoption assistance to provide that the State shall have procedures for orderly and timely interstate placement of children; complete home studies requested by another State within a specified period; and accept home studies received from another State.
Summary as of 5/24/2006.
 
 P.L. 109-171—Deficit Reduction Act of 2005
Title VII, Subtitle D provides for new court improvement grants for improved data collection and training for judges, attorneys, and other legal personnel in child welfare cases; requires collaboration between courts and agencies; provides for the use of child welfare records in State court proceedings; authorizes appropriations for FY2006 for safe and stable families programs; and revises eligibility requirements for foster care maintenance payments and adoption assistance.
Relevant text from Title VII, Subtitle D.

P.L. 109-113—Fair Access Foster Care Act of 2005
Amends title IV-E of the Social Security Act to provide for the making of foster care maintenance payments to private for-profit agencies.
Summary as of 11/22/2005.

P.L. 108-145—Adoption Promotion Act of 2003
Reauthorizes the adoption incentive program under Title IV-E; provides additional incentives for adoption of older children (age 9 and older) from foster care.
Summary as of 11/14/2003.

P.L. 108-36—Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003
Extends and amends the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act; the Adoption Opportunities Act; the Abandoned Infants Assistance Act; and the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act.
Summary as of 3/26/2003.

PL 108-21 — PROTECT Act (Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End the Exploitation of Children Today Act of 2003)
Creates a national Amber alert system, and provides for enhanced penalties for child sexual abuse, sexual exploitation, and child pornography.
Summary as of 4/30/2003.

PL 107-133 — Promoting Safe and Stable Families Amendments of 2001
Extends and amends the Promoting Safe and Stable Families program; amends the Foster Care Independent Living program.
Summary as of 11/13/2001.
 
PL 107-16 — Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001
Title II includes provisions to extend permanently the adoption credit; increase the maximum credit to $10,000 per eligible child; and increase to $150,000 the beginning of point of the income phase-out range.
Relevant text from Title II.
 
PL 106-395 — Child Citizenship Act of 2000
Amends the Immigration and Nationality Act to confer United States citizenship automatically and retroactively to certain foreign-born children adopted by citizens of the United States.
Full text of the legislation.
 
PL 106-314 — Strengthening Abuse and Neglect Courts Act of 2000
Seeks to improve the administrative efficiency and effectiveness of the Nation's abuse and neglect courts and for other purposes consistent with the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997.
Relevant text from Section 1.
 
PL 106-310 — Children's Health Act of 2000
Title XII of this Act authorizes funding for adoption awareness activities and public awareness campaigns for adoption of infants and children with special needs.
Text of Title XII.
 
PL 106-279 — Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000
Provides for implementation of the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption by the United States.
Summary as of 9/18/2000.
 
PL 106-177 — Child Abuse Prevention and Enforcement Act
Seeks to reduce the incidence of child abuse and neglect through law enforcement initiatives and prevention activities.
Full text of the legislation.
 
PL 106-169 — Foster Care Independence Act
Amends title IV-E of the Social Security Act to provide States with more funding and greater flexibility in carrying out programs designed to help children make the transition from foster care to self-sufficiency.
Summary as of 11/18/1999.
 
PL 105-200 — Child Support Performance and Incentive Act
Title III of the Act amends title IV-E of the Social Security Act (Adoption and Foster Care Assistance).
Full text of Title III.
 
PL 105-89 — Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997
Seeks to promote the safety, permanency and well-being of children in foster care; accelerate the permanent placement of children in care; and increase the accountability of the child welfare system.
Full text of legislation.
 
PL 105-73 — Immigration Vaccine Act
Amends the Immigration and Nationality Act to exempt from specified vaccination requirements a child, ten years old or younger, who is seeking U.S. admission as an orphan being adopted (or already adopted) by U.S. parents, subject to the parents' affidavit that the child will be vaccinated within 30 days after admission or at the earliest medically appropriate time.
Full text of legislation.
  
PL 105-17 — Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Reauthorizes and amends the Act.
Summary as of 5/13/1997.
 
PL 104-235 — Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act Amendments of 1996
Reauthorized and amended the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act; The Family Violence Prevention and Services Act; and the Abandoned Infants Assistance Act.
Summary as of 9/25/1996.
 
PL 104-193 — Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996
Limits eligibility for Federal foster care and adoption assistance payments to children in families that would have been eligible for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Requires States to consider giving preference to adult relatives over non-relative caregivers when choosing a placement for a child.
Full text of relevant portions of the Act.
(Note: The AFDC program was replaced by Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The Office of Family Assistance offers more information on the TANF program.)
 
PL 104-191 — Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
Seeks to improve portability and continuity of health insurance coverage; includes adopted children as covered persons.
Summary as of 7/31/1996.
 
PL 104-188 — Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996
Title I, Subtitle H, amends the tax code to provide for adoption assistance through tax credits. Section 1808 of this subtitle contains the Removal of Barriers to Interethnic Adoption (IEP) provisions, which amends the Multiethnic Placement Act of 1994.
Text of Title I.
 
PL 103-382 — Improving America's Schools Act of 1994
Title V (Miscellaneous Provisions) of the Act contains the provisions of the Multiethnic Placement Act.
Full text of Title V.
 
PL 103-66 — Omnibus Budget and Reconciliation Act of 1993
Title XIII, Chapter 2, Subchapter C, Part 1 authorized funding for the family preservation and support services program through fiscal year 1998.
Title XIII, Chapter 2, Subchapter C, Part 1.
 
PL 103-3 — Family and Medical Leave Act
Grants family and temporary medical leave for employees, including civil service employees, under certain circumstances, including the birth or adoption of a child.
Summary as of 2/4/1993.
 
PL 102-295 — Child Abuse, Domestic Violence, Adoption and Family Services Act of 1992
Reauthorized through fiscal year 1995 and amended the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act; the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act; and the Adoption Opportunities program.
Summary as of 4/7/1992.
 
PL 102-190 — National Defense Authorization Act for FY 1992 and 1993
Title VI, Part E, of the Act made provision for reimbursement of adoption expenses for military personnel.
Title VI, Part E.
 
 
 
PL 101-508 — Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990
Title V, Subtitle A, Chapter 4 and 5 excludes foster care or adoption assistance payments when determining a family's eligibility for AFDC assistance; requires State agencies to report known or suspected abuse or neglect of a child receiving aid; and allows States to receive reimbursement for child placement services.
Title V, Subtitle A, Chapter 4 and 5.
 
PL 101-381 — Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act
Provides grants to improve the quality and availability of care for individuals and families with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
Summary as of 7/31/1990.
 
PL 101-336 — Americans with Disabilities Act
Prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability.
Summary as of 7/12/1990.
 
For the Acts listed below, only the summary is available.

PL 100-505 — Abandoned Infants Assistance Act
Funded for fiscal years 1989 through 1991 demonstration projects to provide respite home and other assistance for infants abandoned in hospitals.
Summary as of 9/13/1988.
 
PL 100-485 — Family Support Act of 1988
Amended the AFDC program with a new Family Support Program to provide for enhanced enforcement of child support orders.
Summary as of 9/28/1988.
 
PL 100-294 — Child Abuse Prevention, Adoption and Family Services Act of 1988
Reauthorized through fiscal year 1991 and amended the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act of 1978, and the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act.
Summary as of 3/30/1988.

PL 99-509 — Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act
Title IX, Subtitle E, Part 5 of this Act mandated the establishment of National Adoption Information Clearinghouse.
Summary of Title IX, Subtitle E, Part 5.

PL 99-457 — Education of the Handicapped Amendments of 1986
Reauthorized for fiscal year 1987 through 1991 certain programs under the Education of the Handicapped Act. Authorized an early intervention program for handicapped infants.
Summary as of 9/22/1986.

PL 98-473 — A joint resolution making continuing appropriations for the fiscal year 1985, and for other purposes.
Title II, Division II of this Act makes provision for coordination of all Federally funded missing children programs.
Summary as of 10/10/1984.

PL 98-457 — Child Abuse Amendments of 1984
Reauthorized through fiscal year 1987 the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act.
Summary as of 9/19/1984.

PL 96-272 — Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980
Authorized appropriations for adoption and foster care assistance to the States. Required States to provide adoption assistance to parents who adopt a child who is AFDC-eligible and is a child with special needs. For foster care assistance, States are required to make reasonable efforts were made to prevent placement or to reunify children with their families.
Summary as of 4/23/1980.
 
PL 95-608 — Indian Child Welfare Act
Established standards for the placement of Indian child in foster or adoptive homes.
Summary as of 10/14/1978.
The National Indian Child Welfare Association offers full text and other resources.

PL 95-266 — Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act of 1978
Reauthorized through fiscal year 1981 and amended the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act; funded the Adoption Opportunities program to facilitate the adoption of children with special needs.
Summary as of 4/10/1978.

PL 94-142— Education for All Handicapped Children Act
Reauthorized, through fiscal year 1977, and extended the provisions of the program.
Summary as of 11/14/1975.

PL 93-247 — Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act
Established the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect; authorized funding for fiscal years 1974 through 1977 for demonstration projects on the prevention, identification, and treatment of child abuse and neglect.

The following publication is from Child Welfare Information Gateway (online catalog) http://www.childwelfare.gov/
Title IV-E Foster Care Eligibility Reviews and Child and Family Services State Plan Reviews: Final Rule
Author(s):   Administration on Children
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 427 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2000 - 74 pages
 
This final rule amends existing regulations concerning Child and Family Services by adding new requirements governing the review of a State's conformity with its State plan under titles IV-B and IV-E of the Social Security Act and implements the provisions of the Social Security Act Amendments of 1994, the Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA) as amended by Public Law 104-188, and certain provisions of the Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) of 1997. It also sets forth regulations that clarify certain eligibility criteria that govern the title IV-E foster care eligibility reviews which the Administration on Children, Youth and Families conducts ...

Out of all the above Legislation, Acts & Laws, it works down to where it has to do with “us” as Parents.  There is the Children’s Bureau under the Administration of Children & Families (ACF).  The Children’s Bureau consists of many vast departments.  The States act separately in passing code & statutes to accommodate Federal legislation, but do so under Children’s Bureau.

To help in gaining the scope of the Goliath we are dealing with, one department of the Children’s Bureau is provided here from www.childwelfare.gov.  This department  of “Child Welfare Monitoring” includes what has touched us all – State Central Registry (or CentraI Index in CA) of child abusers.  It’s real name is SACWIS: State Automated Child Welfare Information System.

Yep, as you have probably
gathered by now –
it’s the big boys all right


Offline egypt

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Please know the history goes back much further.  One just need read Ecoscience: Population Resources & Environment

CPS is all about Eugenics, and the plan of 100's of years is outlined in the above book.  Ecoscience: Population Resources Environment is a Stanford University textbook for PhD's and above.  It is co-authored by Paul Ehrlich, Anne Ehrlick & Paul Holdren.

Paul Ehrlich was big-Bush's advisor & Paul Holdren is Obama's current Science & Technology Czar.

The ultimate role of CPS is not only these beginning operations of child removal and terror, but eventually it outlines how couples will be able to have a child (and only 1 child) with permission from the government.  Then, that child will be removed into State care upon birth.

They are just getting the populace used to their operations of terror and setting it up for everyone to think they are not capable of rearing their children.

Love, e

Offline egypt

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In the Wake of Corruption
Make No Mistake.   CPS Operations are Rotten to the Core
[/b][/color]

There seem to be no exceptions.  In every state, with every case, the underhanded operations are the same.  We have found this out in our group by exchanging information and stories.  Over the years, similarities have been noted.  What it amounts to is pure corruption.  The following is a set of video clips presented by a Kentucky investigative news team.
You will see an actual kangaroo court hearing where a woman’s child is taken away in 17 minutes with no proof on CPS’s part presented.  This woman dared to obtain an attorney.  CPS went into action and started retaliating by removing the children from 14 family members.  Unbelievably, the retaliation then extended to her attorney.  CPS removed her attorney’s adopted baby!

Kentucky video clips
Report Critical of CPS:
   http://www.wlky. com/video/ 10726646/ index.html? taf=lou
Target 32 Investigates:  Child Protective Services Part 1:
   http://www.wlky. com/video/ 14577198/ index.html? taf=lou
Target 32 Investigates:  Child Protective Services Part 2:
   http://www.wlky. com/video/ 14595359/ index.html? taf=lou
Target 32 Investigates:  Child Protective System Part 1
   http://www.wlky. com/video/ 9476829/index. html?taf= lou
Target 32 Investigates:  Child Protective System Part 2
   http://www.wlky. com/video/ 9476789/index. html?taf= lou


Following from: Child Welfare Information Gateway http://www.childwelfare.gov/

Program Evaluation: A Synthesis of Lessons Learned by Child Neglect Demonstration Projects
Series Title:   Grantee Lessons Learned
Author(s):   United States. Children's Bureau.
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 236 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2005 - 18 pages
 
In 1996 and 1997, the Children's Bureau funded 10 demonstration projects to address the prevention, intervention, and treatment needs of neglected children and their families. These projects implemented and evaluated a wide variety of service strategies with large numbers of high-risk children and families. The programs varied considerably in terms of theoretical model (psychosocial or ecological), target population, location (in-home or out-of-home), duration, and intensity. The projects provided a great variety of services, including parent education and support, home visits, and referrals to other resources or services in the community. (For information about the programmatic aspects of these projects, see ...


We have found that usually reasonable efforts according to the following are a sham.  Children in the System is what brings in money.

Reasonable Efforts to Preserve or Reunify Families and Achieve Permanency for Children
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 182 KB)

Year Published:   2006 - 4 pages
 
Reasonable efforts refer to efforts made by State social services agencies to provide the assistance and services needed to preserve and reunify families. Laws in all States, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico require the provision of services that will assist families in remedying the conditions that brought the child and family into the child welfare system. The statutes in most States, however, use a broad definition of what constitutes reasonable efforts. Some commonly used terms associated with reasonable efforts include "family reunification," "family preservation," "family support," and "preventive services."
Reasonable Efforts to Preserve or Reunify Families and Achieve Permanency for Children: Summary of State Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 368 KB)

Year Published:   2006 - 45 pages
 
Reasonable efforts refer to efforts made by State social services agencies to provide the assistance and services needed to preserve and reunify families. Laws in all States, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico require the provision of services that will assist families in remedying the conditions that brought the child and family into the child welfare system. The statutes in most States, however, use a broad definition of what constitutes reasonable efforts. Some commonly used terms associated with reasonable efforts include "family reunification," "family preservation," "family support," and "preventive services." Federal law has long required State agencies to ...

Rethinking Child Welfare Practice Under the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997: A Resource Guide
Author(s):   Children's Bureau (HHS)
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 332 KB)

Year Published:   2000 - 62 pages
 
The provisions of the Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) intended to promote the safety, permanency, and well-being of children will have a significant impact on child welfare practice. ASFA requires state child welfare agencies to engage parents early in the process, redesign service delivery to achieve permanency goals for children, ensure sufficient resources for families, and partner with the courts. This guide provides a framework for redesigning child welfare practice. It includes an analysis of the key provisions of the Adoption and Safe Families Act and identifies casework practices that are consistent with the law. It highlights the recommendations ...


I say there is no excuse whatsoever for CPS operations, mindsets &  viewpoints which are unrealistic & dysfunctional. It is wrong and it is  not what the laws intended serving no good purpose.   Nothing is  accomplished except to destroy families & children who are our future,  with a few child abusers being caught, to boot. And, what for? Bonus Money!
 
I sympathize with the social worker plight in having work that  involves the worst society has to offer. It cannot but affect them in  awful ways. This should be taken into consideration with equal time  in doing work that results in a positive environment for them.  How, I  do not know.   The work ethic these days is that workers are a dime a  dozen, easily-replaced and can go if they don't like it.

This is even more reason for CPS operations to be shut down  completely.   An abused child is easy to spot.   Let the  police investigate it.

Love, e

Offline jofortruth

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Do you know if the CPS video was ever made that Nancy Schaffer, Georgia former Senator, had just finished before she and husband were murdered (called suicide)?

The guy came on Alex Show - William Fein - saying the movie was finished and would be released soon.



Don't believe me. Look it up yourself!

The Great Deception - Forum/Library - My Research
http://z4.invisionfree.com/The_Great_Deception/index.php?showforum=110

Offline jofortruth

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Don't believe me. Look it up yourself!

The Great Deception - Forum/Library - My Research
http://z4.invisionfree.com/The_Great_Deception/index.php?showforum=110

Offline egypt

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Standing In Peril
Where Do We, As Parents, Fit In?
[/color][/b]

Parents:  Our Role In The CPS Game Plan

Where do  we fit in with Goliath’s System as a biological parent,
adoptive parent, legal guardian, foster parent, caregiver or relative?

Did you know?  Parents and Foster Parents are purposely pitted against each other by caseworkers and other CPS personnel.  CPS does not want parents and foster parents to know the truth about each other, trust each other nor communicate openly together.   Why?  It is to prevent any of us from finding out the truth!  The truth that CPS does not want to be known with regard to what they are really up to.

Now, Just What ~Are~ They Up To?
[/b]

Dirty Trick No. One
The DSS will pretend to help you, when they are really gathering evidence to take your children
. It's a new police state out there
.
They Want Your Kids
 
(from Attorney Gregory Hession’s http://www.massoutrage.com)

One way or another, they want the kids.  So much the better, if they can do the same thing to Foster Parents that was already accomplished in destroying the biological family.  Moving children around from placement-to-placement  is something that CPS is an expert at.  But, there is something in-between these multiple placements that gets overlooked, or may not be known.  Placements from foster family-to-foster family recur from “removing the children from imminent danger” through false accusations of child abuse.  This is the same thing that happened to the biological family.
If the parents and foster parents got together in a positive way, without suspecting each other, the truth would come out with the fabrications, lies and persecution techniques that CPS uses.  Foster Parents who have gone through the allegation Nightmare should realize (after experiencing how CPS operates) and keep in mind that 99% of biological parents probably should not have had their children removed.  How much was trumped up and fabricated against ~them?~

The Truth.
Child Protective Services is not about “Protecting Children.”
Its Sole Purpose:  Catching Child Abusers


How Goliath Views You as a Parent

From Child Welfare Information Gateway:
http://Http://www.childwelfare.gov/

Substitute Care Providers: Helping Abused and Neglected Children

Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Watson
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 251 KB)

Year Published:   1994 - 82 pages
 
This manual for child welfare personnel provides them with information on serving abused and neglected children who are in family foster care or who are adopted. Section 1 presents background information on substitute care and permanency planning. Section 2 identifies the basic needs of all children and the special needs of both children in substitute care and maltreated children. Section 3 describes the systems, networks, and teams with which people who help maltreated children interact, including the service network and the substitute care team. Section 4 offers guidelines for meeting the needs of maltreated children, focusing on understanding the assessment ...

Supervising Child Protective Services Caseworkers
Author(s):   Office on Child Abuse and Neglect., Caliber Associates.
Salus
Availability:   View Publication
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Year Published:   2004 - 110 pages
 
This manual provides the foundation for effective supervisory practice in child protective services (CPS). It describes the roles and responsibilities of the CPS supervisor, and it provides practice oriented advice on how to carry out supervisory responsibilities effectively. Best practices and critical issues in supervisory practice are underscored throughout. Topics include: The nature of CPS supervision; Making the transition from caseworker to supervisor; Building the foundation for effective unit performance; Building staff capacity and achieving excellence in performance; Supervisory feedback and performance recognition; Results-oriented management; Clinical supervision; Recruitment and retention; Managing from the middle; and Taking care of oneself and ...

Case Planning for Families Involved With Child Welfare Agencies
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
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Year Published:   2005 - 3 pages
 
A case plan is a written document that may be prepared when a child becomes involved with a State child welfare agency. This fact sheet provides information on when case plans are required, who may participate in the process, and describes the general contents of a case plan. Case plans typically include goals and objectives that the parents must meet in order to achieve a safe home for the child and timeframes for achieving those goals.

Understanding Foster Parenting: Using Administrative Data to Explore Retention. Final Report.
Author(s):   RTI International., U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.
Gibbs
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Year Published:   2005 - 68 pages
 
This study was designed to extend current understanding of foster parent retention by producing unbiased estimates of length of service and examining factors associated with licensure, provision of care, and length of service. The study used administrative data, applying data management and analytic methods that have been used to describe the length of stay for children in foster care. Principal research questions include: How have the characteristics of foster parents changed over time? How can variations in activity levels be described, and what foster parent characteristics are associated with varying activity levels? What is the typical length of service for ...


Note:
A case plan is a written document that may be prepared when a child becomes involved with a State child welfare agency. Since the passage of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act (P.L. 96-272) in 1980, Federal law has required the development of a case plan for any child receiving foster care maintenance payments under Title IV-E (42 U.S.C. 671(16)). State laws or policies in all States, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. territories of Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are generally consistent with this requirement, although many States have additional requirements. Approximately 31 States, the ...

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How Goliath Views You as a Licensed Foster Parent


Working For An Agency

Working with and for an Agency will not protect you from CPS persecution when it comes to false accusations of child abuse or allegations.   Your agency will assist CPS in prosecuting you as a child abuser.  No one will be on the side of someone who is even possibly a child abuser.  No one wants to be responsible for taking the chance or being accused of being in favor of child abuse.   As a result, you are treated as a child abuser no matter what.  There are some good agencies that have stood by their foster parents against CPS.


Working Directly for the County

It seems that foster parents are a convenient pool to draw from for CPS allegations of child abuse.   This readily-available pool serves CPS purposes in their main agenda of catching child abusers. Paperwork on the children and  the foster parents already exists and child intake procedures and paperwork have already taken place. It is easier than pounding the pavement in the field and creating new cases.  In reality, the CPS mindset seems to be that anyone who would want to take care of other people’s damaged children, must be a child abuser.  Indeed, it has been revealed that CPS caseworkers operate on, and believe in the premise that “all parents are child abusers who just have not be caught yet.”   Outrageously, ex-caseworkers have come forward in whistleblowing and revealed that caseworkers actually make child abuse hotline calls for each other.

The children do not matter as Child Protection Services is a misnomer.  Instead, it is the Child Abuse Catchers Gestapo .  Children and the damage inflicted on them in the process do not matter.  Children are just so much collateral damage along the path of the true objective of catching child abusers.  We all want child abusers caught, right?  Unfortunately, the corrupt system which operates on obtaining huge funds does not care if one is guilty or not.  The more bonus money made, the better.

Higher values in spirituality and caring are not recognized by CPS when it comes to providing foster care for children in need.  Children have been removed for foster parents “loving them too much.”

Foster-to-Adopt
Of particular concern and notice is that just before finalization of adoption of children by foster parents, allegations of child abuse take place and the children are removed.  Fostering-to-adopt is highly encouraged and much pressure is put on foster parents to do this.


Offline egypt

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If one doesn't know how they operate, nor speak their speak, they will get nowhere.  From their own documents below, you will see what they are doing with regard to sexual abuse.  Keep in mind, CPS is not about protecting children.  CPS is about catching child abusers.

Sexual abuse and violence were court-ruled as the only justification for removal of a child.  CPS removes "first" and then mocks up & fabricates the case for sexual abuse and/or violence and every other filthy thing they can come up with:  After-the fact of removal.

How They Operate

From publications in the online catalog at Child Welfare Information Gateway
http://www.childwelfare.gov/

CPS Usermanual
Responding to Sexual Abuse

Responding to Sexual Abuse
Interventions with children who have been sexually abused may involve multiple services and supports including investigative interviews, medical evaluations, and support for the child and nonoffending parents. Resources include State and local examples.
        
Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Addressing the Mental Health of Sexually Abused Children
Series Title:   Bulletin for Professionals
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:    View Publication
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Year Published:   2007 - 14 pages
Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) has been found to reduce children?s negative emotional and behavioral responses after sexual abuse and other traumatic events. It also helps nonoffending parents cope with their own distress and develop skills to support their children. This issue brief explores the characteristics and benefits of TF-CBT to help child welfare caseworkers and other professionals who work with at-risk families make more informed decisions about when to refer children and their caregivers to TF-CBT programs. It includes information about what makes TF-CBT unique, key components, target population, effectiveness, and what to look for in a TF-CBT therapist.    

    
Caring for Sexually Abused Children: A Handbook for Families and Churches
Kearney (2001)
View Abstract
Explores the church's role in describing the nature of abuse, providing a supportive response to disclosure, involving child protective services agencies and the police, and selecting a treatment method.

Child Maltreatment and Family Health Practice
Skibinski (2003)
In Family Health Social Work Practice: A Knowledge and Skills Casebook
View Abstract
Discusses a case of child sexual abuse using the family health perspective, an emerging practice paradigm in the social work field.
Child Sexual Abuse
Series Title:   Related Organizations List
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:    View Publication
Printable Version

Year Published:   2008 - 0 pages
This directory lists organizations that provide information about child sexual abuse, including professional societies, advocacy centers, and toll-free helplines. The organizations offer research services, training, technical assistance, and referrals for professionals and the public.
Forensic Emergency Medicine
Olshaker, Jackson, & Smock (Eds.) (2001)

View Abstract
Written for emergency physicians, this reference describes considerations for examining, evaluating, documenting, and treating victims of assault, including sexual abuse.

Interdisciplinary Approaches to Child Maltreatment: Accessing Community Resources
Giardino & Ludwig (2001)
In Medical Evaluation of Child Sexual Abuse: A Practical Guide
View Abstract
Discusses three basic models for multidisciplinary teams responding to child sexual abuse that stress the importance of collaboration among professionals, agencies, clinicians, and child protective service workers.

Handbook for Caregivers of Sexually Abused Children
National Children's Advocacy Center (2004)
View Abstract
Includes information on definitions and symptoms of sexual abuse, characteristics of abusers, and suggestions for working with the legal system throughout the court process.
The Medical Evaluation in Cases of Child Sexual Abuse
Muram
Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 14(2), 2001
View Abstract
Overview of diagnostic criteria for clinicians examining possible cases of child sexual abuse.

Practical Exercises for Mothers of Sexually Abused Children
Rose, Calder, & Peake (2001)
In Mothers of Sexually Abused Children: A Framework for Assessment, Understanding and Support
View Abstract
Helps child protective service workers examine their biases about families affected by sexual abuse and develop a positive working relationship with the mother of the victim.

Psychological Assessment of Sexually Abused Children and Their Families
Friedrich (2002)
View Abstract
Addresses how assessment is a vital component of treatment to ensure that therapeutic interventions and other services address the victim's specific needs.

The Sexual Abuse Victim and Sexual Offender Treatment Planner
Budrionis & Jongsma (2003)
View Abstract
Designed to provide all the elements necessary to develop formal treatment plans for victims and perpetrators that satisfy the demands of health maintenance organizations, managed care companies, third-party payers, and State and Federal review agencies.
The Use of Anatomical Diagrams in Child Sexual Abuse Forensic Interviews
Holmes & Finnegan
Update (American Prosecutors Research Institute), 15(5), 2002
Recommendations for presenting the diagrams to facilitate communication about body parts and the abuse incident.
When the Victim Is Very Young: Assessing Allegations of Sexual Abuse in Pre-School Children (Part 1 of 2) (PDF - 617 KB)
Veith
Reasonable Efforts, 2(4), 2005
Explores the difficulties of substantiating sexual abuse among children ages 0-6.
When the Victim Is Very Young: Assessing Allegations of Sexual Abuse in Pre-School Children (Part 2 of 2) (PDF - 593 KB)
Veith
Reasonable Efforts, 3(1), 2006
Offers tips for overcoming the difficulties of substantiating abuse among children ages 0-6 and securing justice for very young children.

When Your Child Has Been Molested: A Parents' Guide to Healing and Recovery
Brohl & Potter (2004, Rev. ed.)
View Abstract
What to expect during the initial stages of disclosure and reporting, legal proceedings, and the healing process.
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State and local examples
Child Sexual Abuse Investigations: Multidisciplinary Collaborations - An Internet Resource for Forensic Investigation of Child Sexual Abuse Cases
University of Georgia Center for Continuing Education (2001)
Compilation of best-practice methods and supporting research to assist in the objective, accurate, and skilled investigation of alleged child sexual abuse incidents.
Child Sexual Abuse Investigations: Testing Documentation Methods (PDF - 189 KB)
Washington State Institute for Public Policy (2001)
Discusses three pilot projects in Washington State that were tested using different methods for documenting interviews of alleged victims.
Using Anatomical Dolls in Child Sexual Abuse Forensic Interviews
Holmes
Update (American Prosecutors Research Institute), 13(8), 2000
Discusses how interviewers in a Hennepin County, Minnesota, child abuse evaluation center have determined that anatomical dolls can be effective in clarifying and validating a child's testimony.
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Related Information Gateway Topics
Responding to child abuse & neglect: Child advocacy centers
Child abuse & neglect: Sexual abuse
Systemwide: Mental health services
 

    


Offline egypt

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Domestic Violence
More on How they Operate


from: http://www.childwelfare.gov

Responding to Domestic Violence
Families in which both children and a parent are being harmed need assistance from both child welfare and domestic violence services to ensure safety for children and their caregivers. Also on this page, State and local examples.
        
Child Protection in Families Experiencing Domestic Violence.
Series Title:   User Manual Series (2003)
Author(s):   Office on Child Abuse and Neglect., Caliber Associates.
Bragg
Availability:    View Publication
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Year Published:   2003 - 108 pages
Domestic violence is a devastating social problem that affects every segment of the population. While system responses are primarily targeted towards adult victims of abuse, increasing attention is now focused on the children who witness domestic violence. Studies estimate that 10 to 20 percent of children are at risk for exposure to domestic violence. Research also indicates children exposed to domestic violence are at an increased risk of being abused or neglected, and that a majority of studies reveal there are adult and child victims in 30 to 60 percent of families who experience domestic violence. This manual provides background ...
Steps Toward Safety: Improving Systemic and Community Based Responses for Families Experiencing Domestic Violence (PDF - 1670 KB)

Family Violence Prevention Fund (2007)
Identifies common components and promising practices of child- and family-serving agencies addressing the co-occurrence of domestic violence and child maltreatment. Includes suggestions for improving collaboration among agencies and increasing community responsibility for supporting families.   

Accountability and Connection With Abusive Men: A New Child Protection Response to Increasing Family Safety (PDF - 703 KB)
Massachusetts Department of Social Services, Domestic Violence Unit, Family Violence Prevention Fund (2004)
Describes strategies for interviewing and working with abusers. A system for assessing danger and risk for the social worker and nonabusive parent is discussed.

Advocacy Matters: Helping Mothers and Their Children Involved With the Child Protection System (PDF - 448 KB)
Family Violence Prevention Fund (2003)
Underscores the importance of the advocate's work; provides tips on how to improve practice and better understand women's situations to help them be safe and self-sufficient.
Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence by Child Welfare Services
Hazen, Connelly, Edleson, Kelleher, Landverk, & Coben, et al.

Children and Youth Services Review, 29(4), 2007
View Abstract
Describes policy and practice with respect to the assessment of intimate partner violence in a national sample of child welfare agencies and to examine the relationship of contextual characteristics and assessment practices.

Child Welfare as a Gateway to Domestic Violence Services
Kohl, Barth, & Hazen
Children and Youth Services Review, 27(11), 2005
View Abstract
Uses data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well Being to examine the identification of domestic violence by child welfare workers during investigations of maltreatment and to determine how this contributes to the receipt of services.
Effective Intervention in Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment Cases: Guidelines for Policy and Practice. Recommendations from the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges Family Violence Department (PDF - 965 KB)
Schechter & Edleson (1999)
The Greenbook (common name for the guidelines) provides communities with a framework to develop interventions and measure progress as they seek to improve their responses.
Family/Domestic Violence
Series Title:   Related Organizations List
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:    View Publication
Printable Version

Year Published:   2008 - 0 pages
This resource list provides the addresses and phone numbers of organizations that serve victims of family violence, professionals, and researchers. Each entry includes a brief description of the function of the organization.
Domestic Violence Resource Network (D.V.R.N.)
National Resource Center on Domestic Violence (HHS)
Strives to strengthen the existing support systems serving battered women, their children, and other victims.

The Greenbook Demonstration Initiative: Interim Evaluation Report (PDF - 2427 KB)
Greenbook National Evaluation Team (2004)
Describes the midpoint results of a national evaluation that examines the collaboration between child welfare agencies, domestic violence service providers, and dependency courts in cases involving the co-occurrence of child abuse and domestic violence. Includes baseline outcome evaluation findings, technical assistance, activities planned and implemented, and lessons learned.

Handbook of Domestic Violence Intervention Strategies: Policies, Programs, and Legal Remedies
Rutgers University (2002)
Examines promising and effective policies, programs, intervention strategies, and legal remedies.
Learning from the Experiences of Battered Immigrant, Refugee and Indigenous Women Involved with Child Protective Services to Inform a Dialogue Among Domestic Violence Activists and Advocates (PDF - 1349 KB)
Asian and Pacific Islander Institute on Domestic Violence (2003)
Examined experiences to learn how to be more responsive to families. Includes recommendations.

Substance Abuse and Domestic Violence in the Child Welfare Context: Where Do You Start?
Goodmark
ABA Child Law Practice, 21(7), 2002
View Abstract
Provides an overview for parents affected by domestic violence, and outlines recommendations for treating battered women and their abusers to achieve goals for family preservation.

Theoretical Framework for Thinking About Batterers and Child Protection
Non-Violence Alliance (2006)
Poses a series of questions to reconsider and reconceptualize the current thinking and practices in child welfare when working with batterers who are both a caretaker of the children and the person exposing them to violence and abuse.
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State and local examples
Child Welfare Services With Families Experiencing Family Violence (PDF - 4220 KB)
Georgia Division of Family and Children Services (2007)
Participant guide for a training focusing on incorporating knowledge of the co-occurrence of family violence and child abuse into practical application when working with families.

Guidelines on the Co-Occurrence of Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment (PDF - 554 KB)
Safe from the Start (2004)
Recommendations derived from a collaborative effort of professionals and community leaders in Johnson County, Kansas, to better address the co-occurrence of domestic violence and child maltreatment. Provides guiding principles for integrating services and presents a framework for responders.

Guidelines for Responding to Child Maltreatment and Domestic Violence (PDF - 4634 KB)
Minnesota Department of Human Services (2002)
Guidelines to child protection staff for screening, assessment, and services.
Model Protocol for Advocates Working With Battered Women Involved in the Child Protection System (PDF - 555 KB)
Washington State Coalition Against Domestic Violence (2003)
Describes the problems faced in maintaining custody of children when they are involved in the system. Presents a model protocol for advocates.
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Related Information Gateway Topics
Child abuse & neglect: Domestic violence
Systemwide: Domestic violence services




Online donnay

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Egypt, great information!  Thanks for posting!
"Logic is an enemy and truth is a menace." ~ Rod Serling
"Cops today are nothing but an armed tax collector" ~ Frank Serpico
"To be normal, to drink Coca-Cola and eat Kentucky Fried Chicken is to be in a conspiracy against yourself."
"People that don't want to make waves sit in stagnant waters."

Offline egypt

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In the case of removal, the very first report to obtain is the "Outcome of Investigation."  This document is a CPS Investigator-created document that puts one automatically on the Child Abuse Registry -- um, never to be removed, no matter what.  Many States have ruled this Registry to be unconstitutional.   The "Outcome of Investigation" (or however it is worded) is about the "child abuser," not the child & should be available.  Obtain copy of this report before it is archived.

Most documents are touted as "being about the child" and therefore not available to the parents.  This is because CPS looks at the child as a Ward of the Court/State, not the parent's child, anymore.   However, information that compromises the child's privacy can be blocked out.  Instead of spending time monitoring chats & websites, social workers could be providing this service.  However, even court-ordered documents simply to not appear.  CPS operates outside of the law and does what it wants.  This is in the name of "child protection."  However, according to their own documents and the setup of CPS, they don't protect children, at all -- they catch child abusers.  If a child results in collateral damage in the process (and they all do in dysfunction from experiencing the System) -- so much the better because they have "caught" their child abuser.

Child abuse is against the law.  Abuse of anyone is against the law.  We already have laws addressing abuse.  We do not need CPS operating outside of our current legal system in blatant persecution of parents to the point where any act of parenting is considered child abuse.

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Components of a Caseworker’s File

It may be  more feasible to obtain CPS records if specific information is requested in written form.
NEW:
North Carolina: http://info.dhhs.state.nc.us/olm/forms/dss/dss-5106-ia.pdf
 

From Child Welfare Information Gateway http://www.childwelfare.gov/
Caseworker Guide Chapter 7:  Family Assessment  (see eGuidebook CPS Guide for Caseworkers for entire Guide)

Family Assessment Guide
Reasons for Referral. Briefly summarize the primary reasons this family is receiving continuing child welfare services and define the terms of any safety plan that was developed with the family.
Sources of Information. Identify all sources of information used to frame this assessment and refer to the specific dates of contact with the family and other persons or systems that relate to assessment information.
Identifying Information. Describe the family system, as defined by the family. Include members' names, ages, and relationship to the primary caregiver; sources of economic support and whether it is perceived as adequate; and current school or vocational training status. Describe the current household situation, including sleeping arrangements, and the client's perception of their neighborhood, especially as it pertains to safety.
Presenting Problems, Needs, and Strengths. Describe family members' perceptions of the presenting needs as they relate to each individual member, the family system, and its environment. As appropriate, include a history of the problem development and previous attempts to address it, as well as an explanation of family members' readiness and motivation to engage in help for the problem at this particular time. Also, identify the family's stated goals as they relate to each problem.
Family Background and History. Write a social history. Ideally, the primary caregiver(s) should be described first. Begin with his or her birth, and describe the family of origin—its members, their relationships with each other, and significant descriptive characteristics of each member. Follow that member's development into adulthood and up to but not including the present time. Genograms are particularly helpful in understanding life events over time. Identify important personal relationships, including those characterized by maltreatment, substance abuse, or violence; identify positive life events as well as stressful ones; and describe relationships with systems, including educational, vocational, legal, religious, medical, mental health, and employment. The history of other adults and children in the household should be summarized, addressing the preceding points, as appropriate and available. Complete this history in chronological order, if possible.
Present Status. Describe the present life situation of the family, particularly information about risks and strengths related to each child in the family, each caregiver's functioning, the family system, and the environment and community. Standardized assessment measures may be helpful to better understand the family and identify areas to be recorded in the casefile.
Tentative Assessment. Summarize risks and strengths related to each family member. This is the opportunity for the worker to analyze the collected information and to draw conclusions about the most important strengths and needs of individual family members and the family as a system. Knowledge of human development, personality theory and psychopathology, family systems, ecological theory, and psychosocial theory should be drawn on to form these conclusions. The worker should make informed judgments about the objective and observational information that has been collected and recorded. In this section, the caseworker specifically summarizes what must change to reduce the risk of child maltreatment.


Parenting
evaluation instruments directory
  http://www.agnr.umd.edu/nnfr/eval/eval_pi.html
Attitudes to Having Children (1980)
Behavioral Coding System (1981)
Child Behavior Checklist (1983)
Child's Report on Parental Behavior Inventory (CRPBI) (1965)
Child-Rearing Sex Role Attitude Scale (1981)
Childhood Level of Well-Being Scale (1988)
Children's Perception Questionnaire (1982)
Cleminshaw-Guidubaldi Parent Satisfaction Scale (1985)
Cornell Parent Behavior Inventory (1970)
Cornell Socialization Inventory (1974)
Custody Quotient, Research Edition (1988)
Daily Home Report (n.d.)
Daily Rating of Effective Parenting (1974)
Difficulty Index for First-Time Parents (1965)
Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System (1981)
EMBU: An Inventory Assessing Memories of Parental Rearing Behavior (1984)
Emotional Impact of Parental Attitudes (1980)
Environmental Assessment Index (1987)
Family Adjustment Test (1951)
Family Benefits Inventory (1986)
Family Constraining and Enabling Coding System (1984)
Family Decision-making Style Scale (1984)
Family Interaction Q-Sort (1988)
High Scope Knowledge Scale (1980)
Home Quality Rating Scale (1977)
Hopkins Surveys of School and Family Connections (1982)
Ideas about Parenting (1985)
Index of Parental Socialization Styles (1980)
Indexes of the Parent-Child Relationship (1986)
Infant Caregiving Inventory (1983)
Interaction Behavior Code
Interaction Rating Scale (1986)
Intra-Family Attitude Scales (1952)
Issues Checklist
Kansas Parental Satisfaction Scale (1985)
Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory (1981)
Little Parental Valuing Styles System (1986)
Marjoribanks Family Learning Environment Scale (1987)
Maryland Parent Attitude Survey (1966)
Maternal Developmental Expectations and Childrearing (1980)
Maternal Expectations, Attitudes, Beliefs Inventory (1984)
Maternal Social Support Index (1981)
Michigan Screening Profile of Parenting (1978)
Mother-Child Relationship Evaluation (1908)
NC-158 Q-Sort Inventory of Parental Behaviors (1983)
Neo-Natal Perception Inventories (1979)
Parent Affect Test (1983)
Parent Awareness Skills Survey (1990)
Parent Behavior Progression, Revised (1983)
Parent Perception Inventory (1983)
Parent Satisfaction with Child Care Scale (1975)
Parent-Child Areas of Change Questionnaire (1985)
Parent-Child Interaction Rating Scales (1964)
Parent-Child Relations Questionnaire (1963)
Parent-Child Relationship Survey (1988)
Parental Acceptance Coding Scheme (1986)
Parental Acceptance-Rejection Behavior Observation Procedures (1984)
Parental Acceptance-Rejection Interview Schedule (1984)
Parental Accpetance-Rejection Questionnaire (1978)
Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) (1958)
Parental Attitude Survey Scales (1963)
Parental Attitudes Toward Childrearing (1981)
Parental Bonding Instrument (1979)
Parental Reaction to Dating Relationship Scale (1986)
Parenting Stress Index (1983)
Perceived Parenting Questionnaire (n.d.)
Perceptions of Parental Role Scales (1985)
Perinatal Anxieties and Attitudes Scale (1980)
Positive Attitudes Toward Living at Home (1988)
Psycholinguistic Classification System for Analyzing Mother-Child Interactions (1985)
Response-Class Matrix
Rules in the Home Checklist (1983)
Screening for Problem Parenting (1986)
Sentence Completion Series (1992)
Survey of School Climate for Pregnant and Parenting Teens (1987)
Therapy Attitude Inventory (1974)

Hierarchy

State Health Department
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
Center for Disease Control (CDC)
Dept. of Health & Human Services (DHHS)
http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/measure.htm

Measuring Violence-Related Attitudes, Behaviors, and Influences Among Youths:
A Compendium of Assessment Tools - Second Edition
This compendium provides researchers and prevention specialists with a set of tools to assess violence-related beliefs, behaviors, and influences, as well as to evaluate programs to prevent youth violence. If you are new to the field of youth violence prevention and unfamiliar with available measures, you may find this compendium to be particularly useful.  If you are an experienced researcher, this compendium may serve as a resource to identify additional measures to assess the factors associated with violence among youths.
Although this compendium contains more than 170 measures, it is not an exhaustive listing of available measures. A few of the more widely used measures to assess aggression in children, for example, are copyrighted and could not be included here. Other measures being used in the field, but not known to the authors, are also not included. Many of the measures included in the first edition of the compendium focused on individual violence-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. These types of measures are included in this edition as well and may be particularly useful if you are evaluating a school-based curriculum or a community-based program designed to reduce violence among youths. Several measures to assess peer, family, and community influences have been added to the compendium. Many of these measures are from the major longitudinal and prevention research studies of youth violence being conducted in the United States.
Most of the measures in this compendium are intended for use with youths between the ages of 11 and 24 years, to assess such factors as serious violent and delinquent behavior, conflict resolution strategies, social and emotional competencies, peer influences, parental monitoring and supervision, family relationships, exposure to violence, collective efficacy, and neighborhood characteristics. The compendium also contains a number of scales and assessments developed for use with children between the ages of 5 and 10 years, to measure factors such as aggressive fantasies, beliefs supportive of aggression, attributional biases, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior.  When parent and teacher versions of assessments are available, they are included as well.
Read the compendium online:
Introduction
Section I. Attitude and Belief Assessments.
Section II. Psychosocial and Cognitive Assessments.
Section III. Behavior Assessments.
Section IV. Environmental Assessments.
Index
Download the entire compendium (This document is 6 mega bytes (MB) and will take a dialup connections extend time to load and download.)
Order this compendium online.

State Injury Profiles 2001
•   Related Resources
•   Injury Fact Book
The State Injury Profiles contain maps and tables of injury deaths and death rates for each state in the nation. The profiles also include descriptions of CDC-sponsored injury prevention programs and research activities in each state.
Note: These documents are large in file size (1-3 MB) and not recommended for download through low bandwidth (e.g., dial-up Internet connection). For an interactive, online version of the maps, visit Injury Maps.
Adobe Acrobat required to view or print the profiles.
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 State and Local Health Departments Links



Framework for the assessment of children in need and their families – pack (from UK, but referenced for USA caseworkers to download.
http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4008144

The assessment framework, practice guidance, questionnaires and scales, assessment recording forms
•   Document type:
Guidance
•   Author:
Department of Health
•   Published date:
15 June 2000
•   Primary audience:
Professionals
•   Product number:
ISBN 0113224257
•   Gateway reference:
2000
•   Pages:
4
•   Copyright holder:
Crown
The development of the Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families (jointly issued by the Department of Health, the Department for Education and Employment and the Home Office, 2000) has drawn heavily, from many disciplines, on the wealth of research and accumulated practice experience about the developmental needs of children. The aim of the practice guidance is to make transparent the evidence base for the Assessment Framework, thereby assisting professionals in their tasks of analysis, judgement and decision making.
•   Download complete document (PDF, 340K)
•   Download the practice guidance (PDF, 436K)
•   Download complete family pack of questionnaires and scales (PDF, 1081K)
•   Download questionnaire and scale: strengths and difficulties (PDF, 121K)
•   Download questionnaire and scale: parenting daily hassles (PDF, 33K)
•   Download questionnaire and scale: home conditions assessment (PDF, 25K)
•   Download questionnaire and scale: adult wellbeing (PDF, 31K)
•   Download questionnaire and scale: adolescent wellbeing (PDF, 95K)
•   Download questionnaire and scale: recent life events (PDF, 33K)
•   Download questionnaire and scale: family activity (PDF, 39K)
•   Download questionnaire and scale: alcohol (PDF, 29K)
•   Download guidance notes and glossary for referral and initial information record and core assessment record (PDF, 81K)
•   Download referral and initial information record (PDF, 15K)
•   Download initial assessment record (PDF, 20K)
•   Download core assessment record - child aged 0-2 years (PDF, 122K)
•   Download core assessment record - child aged 3-4 years (PDF, 121K)
•   Download core assessment record - child aged 5-9 years (PDF, 136K)
•   Download core assessment record - young person aged 10-14 years (PDF, 142K)
•   Download core assessment record - young person aged 15 years and over (PDF, 142K)
•   Policy and guidance on children's services
•   Order copies from The Stationery Office online bookshop (opens new window)
Contains four items:
(1) 'Framework for the assessment of children in need and their families', (ISBN 0 11322 310 2)
(2) 'Assessing children in need and their families: practice guidance', (ISBN 0 11322 418 4)
(3) Folder: 'Framework for the assessment of children in need and their families: the family pack of questionnaires and scales', contains 50 p publication of same title,  with 'Strengths and difficulties' questionnaire check sheet transparency, plus [40] loose pages (ISBN 0 11322 426 5);
 (4) Folder: 'Framework for the assessment of children in need and their families: Referral and initial record information record; Initial assessment record; Core assessment records; Assessment recording forms: guidance notes and glossary'; contains publication: 'Framework for the assessment of children in need and their families; guidance notes and glossary for: referral and initial information record, initial assessment record and core assessment record' (ISBN 0 11322 424 9); also contains
1 double-sided sheet, 'Referral and initial information record'
1 four-page pamphlet, 'Initial assessment record' (ISBN 0 11322 437 0)
5 'Framework for the assessment of children in need and their families' core assessment booklets, covering child age ranges: 0-2 years (ISBN 0 11322 419 2), 3-4 years, 5-9 years (ISBN 0 11322 421 4), 10-14 years (ISBN 0 11322 422 2), young person aged 15 years and over (ISBN 0 11322 423 0).
The Framework documents are available to download below, and can also be ordered from the Stationery Office.


Child Trauma Assessment
http://www.childtrauma.com/ax.html
Child Trauma Assessment
Here are some of our favorite child trauma measures, along with varying amounts of information and a couple of links.
Note: This page is written for mental health professionals, researchers, and students in the field.
publications - measures - order
________________________________________
Publications
Greenwald, R. (2004, September). Child trauma measures for research and practice. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the EMDR International Association, Montreal.
Provides an overview of measurement issues for this population, as well as summaries of selected measures along with sample items and contact information.
Greenwald, R. & Rubin, A. (1999). Brief assessment of children's post-traumatic symptoms: Development and preliminary validation of parent and child scales. Research on Social Work Practice, 9, 61-75.
This preprint reports on the first validation studies for the Child Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms (CROPS) and the Parent Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms (PROPS). These are 1-page measures of broad-spectrum post-trauma & loss symptoms.
Greenwald, R., Rubin, A., Jurkovic, G. J., Wiedemann, J., Russell, A. M., O’Connor, M. B., Sarac, T., Morrell, T. R., & Weishaar, D. (2002, November). Psychometrics of the CROPS & PROPS in multiple cultures/translations. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Baltimore.
Data on the CROPS and PROPS in 5 different studies/settings.
Greenwald, R., Rubin, A., Russell, A. M., & O’Connor, M. B. (2002, November). Brief assessment of children's and adolescents' trauma/loss exposure. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Baltimore.
Data on the LITE in 3 different studies/settings.
________________________________________
Measures
PLEASE NOTE THAT THESE MEASURES ARE AVAILABLE HERE FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. THEY SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR SELF-DIAGNOSIS. IF YOU ARE CONCERNED ABOUT YOURSELF OR A FAMILY MEMBER, PLEASE CONSULT WITH A MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONAL.
•   Child Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms (CROPS)
•   Parent Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms (PROPS)
•   Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events (LITE) - Student & Parent forms
•   Problem Rating Scale (PRS)
•   Impact of Events Scale - 8 child/adolescent items (IES-8)
•   SUDS and VoC Scale (SAVS) - Okay, that's "Subjective Units of Disturbance Scale" and "Validity of Cognition"
________________________________________
Order
The CROPS, PROPS, LITE, and PRS are published and distributed* by Child Trauma Institute.
•   Child Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms (CROPS) and Parent Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms (PROPS)
o   Language Options: English, Bosnian, Dutch, Finnish, [Canadian] French, German, Italian, Kinyarwandan, Persian, Spanish, Ugandan (PROPS only)
•   Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events (LITE) - Student & Parent forms
o   Language Options: English, Finnish, [Canadian] French, German, Persian, Spanish, Swedish
•   Problem Rating Scale (PRS)
All packets include: hard or pdf copies, administration guide, supporting materials, and unlimited permission to copy for personal/agency use (not for re-sale).
Prices include Free Shipping. Get a discount by receiving your items by e-mail (pdf files) instead of hard copy.
•   
CROPS & PROPS: $16 
•   
CROPS & PROPS with e-mail discount: $13 
•   
LITE-S/P: $16 
•   
LITE-S/P with e-mail discount: $13 
•   
PRS: $6 
•   
PRS with e-mail discount: $4 
•   
Combine and save - CROPS & PROPS + LITE-S/P + PRS: $32 
•   
Combine and save - CROPS & PROPS + LITE-S/P + PRS with e-mail discount: $26 

Every purchase made through Child Trauma Institute supports our activities.

More on Trauma
Sidran Institute
http://www.sidran.org

For Survivors and Loved Ones
 
INFORMATION, RESOURCES, AND THERAPIST LISTING FROM SIDRAN'S HELP DESK
The Trauma Resource Specialists at Sidran's Help Desk will aid you in finding a therapist, reading matter, and other resources to aid your progress toward recovery.

ARTICLES, FACT SHEETS, BROCHURES, WEBSITES
Click on an article below to read the full version.


What Is Psychological Trauma?
By Esther Giller

What Is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)?
By Sidran Institute

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Fact Sheet
By PTSD Alliance

Myths and Facts About PTSD
By the PTSD Alliance

What Are Traumatic Memories?
By Sidran Institute

What Is a Dissociative Disorder?
By Sidran Institute
Self Inflicted Violence/Self Abuse/Self Injury

How to Choose a Therapist for Post-Traumatic Stress and Dissociative Conditions

A Recovery Bill of Rights for Trauma Survivors
by Thomas V. Maguire, Ph.D.

Rights and Responsibilities in Psychotherapy
by Laura S. Brown, Ph.D. ABPP

PTSD and Children
By Aphrodite Matsakis, Ph.D.

PTSD and Parenting
By Patience Mason

Helping a Child Manage Fears After a Traumatic Event
By Ceridian Corporation

Dental Tips for Individuals Sexually Abused as Children
by Kate F. Hays, Ph.D. and Sheila F. Stanley, Ed.D.

Retraumatizing the Victim
By Ann Jennings, Ph.D.

Understanding Integration as a Natural Part of Trauma Recovery
By Rachel Downing, L.C.S.W.-C.

About Medications for Combat PTSD
By Jonathan Shay, M.D., Ph.D.

Parents as Partners in the Treatment of Dissociative Children
By Frances S. Waters, M.S.W.

When a Terrorist Act Occurs
By Ceridian Corporation

The Effects of DID on Children of Trauma Survivors
By Esther Giller

What the Hell Is Satanic Ritual Abuse?
by Leonard Holmes, Ph.D.

Position Statement on Services and Supports to Trauma Survivors
By the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors
Exposure To A Traumatic Event Does Not Automatically Put A Person On A Path To Develop PTSD: The Importance of Protective Factors To Promote Resiliency.
by Carl C. Bell, M.D.



Assessment Tools Caseworkers Can Purchase
http://www.sidran.org

Dissociative Experiences Scale, II
Product ID: DES
The DES II, according to the authors, "is a brief, self-report measure of the frequency of dissociative experiences. The scale was developed to provide a reliable, valid, and convenient way to quantify dissociative experiences.  DELIVERED BY US MAIL - SHIPPING CHARGE INCLUDED IN PRICE.

More...
Our Price: $15.00
 

________________________________________
Dissociative Features Profile
Product ID: DFP
The Dissociative Features Profile is a new instrument currently under development that can be useful to help identify dissociative pathology in children and adolescents. Research is continuing, but in an initial validation study, results suggest that this measure can select 93% of a dissociative target group (Silberg, 1996).DELIVERED BY EMAIL ONLY - NO SHIPPING CHARGE

More...
Our Price: $12.00
 

________________________________________
Dissociative Features Profile
Product ID: DFP
The Dissociative Features Profile is a new instrument currently under development that can be useful to help identify dissociative pathology in children and adolescents. Research is continuing, but in an initial validation study, results suggest that this measure can select 93% of a dissociative target group (Silberg, 1996).DELIVERED BY US MAIL - SHIPPING CHARGE INCLUDED IN PRICE.

More...
Our Price: $15.00
 

________________________________________
    The Professional Quality of Life Scale: (ProQOL):
Product ID: ProQOL
Taken together, the ProQOL measures a positive thing: professional quality of life. While the negative effects of caregiving should not be minimized, viewing it from a positive perspective, supporting professional quality of life, makes it easier for organizations to support positive system change to prevent...DELIVERED BY EMAIL ONLY - NO SHIPPING CHARGE

More...
Our Price: $16.00
 

________________________________________
    The Professional Quality of Life Scale: (ProQOL):
Product ID: ProQOL
Taken together, the ProQOL measures a positive thing: professional quality of life. While the negative effects of caregiving should not be minimized, viewing it from a positive perspective, supporting professional quality of life, makes it easier for organizations to support positive system change to prevent...DELIVERED BY US MAIL - SHIPPING CHARGE INCLUDED IN PRICE.

More...
Our Price: $19.00
 

Library Search Results
CD-42432
Assessing children's well-being : a handbook of measures.
Naar-King, Sylvie. Ellis, Deborah A. Frey, Maureen A.
Wayne State University
Book
xv, 307 p.
Copyright
Published:  2004
Publication Information: Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Available from:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. 325 Chestnut St., Suite 800
Philadelphia, PA  09106
Tel: 215-625-8900 1800-354-1420
Fax: 215-625-2940
Available From:http://www.leaonline.com/

This comprehensive reference describes a wide variety of instruments used to measure dimensions of child well-being. The assessments are grouped by category: health status and quality of life, adherence, pain management, child behavior, child development, child coping, cognitions and attitudes, environment, and consumer satisfaction. Each section includes an overview that explains theories and issues for consideration. The reviews provide information about the source, availability, purpose, standardization, reliability and validity, and publications about the measure.
Keywords:
measures; assessment; well being; child health; child development; child behavior
 
Comprehensive
Family Assessment Guidelines
for
Child Welfare
Table of Contents
View printable version (PDF - 301 KB)
1. Introduction
•   Assumptions Central to these Guidelines
•   What is Comprehensive Family Assessment?
•   Need for the Guidelines
•   Foundations of Quality Practice
2. Comprehensive Family Assessment
•   When Is Comprehensive Family Assessment Done?
•   Fundamentals of Comprehensive Family Assessment
3. Components of Comprehensive Family Assessment
•   Developing a Comprehensive Focus
•   Identifying Strengths and Protective Factors
•   Obtaining Information and Evaluations from Other Sources
4. Comprehensive Family Assessment Process
•   Review Existing Information
•   Meet with the Family
•   Interview Children
•   Meet with Staff of Other Agencies
•   Obtain Specialized Assessments
•   Make Judgments and Decisions: Link Comprehensive Family Assessment to the Development of a Service Plan
•   Document Information
•   Conduct Ongoing Assessment of Progress and Needs
•   Disseminate Information to the Family and Other Providers and Update the Service Plan
•   Reassess Prior to Case Closure
5. Administrative Supports for Comprehensive Family Assessment
•   Direction and Support in Policies
•   Availability, Adequacy, and Accessibility of Services
•   Training and Preparing Staff
•   Clinical Supervision and Mentoring
•   Coordination of Services Provided Through Other Agencies
•   Accountability and Evaluation
6. Conclusions
7. Resources Relevant to Comprehensive Family Assessment
 











 


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CPS's own information on the Mental & Emotional affects of abuse.  This can be used to speak their speak and show how CPS itself as an agency inflicts child abuse in removal.

Legislation has been passed, however, that CPS is immune and not responsible for their actions nor damages they cause.   Hello?

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Mental & Emotional Affects of
Abuse on Children

1.    that helps determine what was used by CPS in child removal
2.   Helps with a lawsuit against CPS

From Child Welfare Information Gateway:
http://www.childwelfare.gov/

What is Child Abuse and Neglect?
Series Title:   Factsheets
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 228 KB)

Availability in Spanish:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 225 KB)

Year Published:   2006 - 4 pages
 
3.   This fact sheet explains how child maltreatment is defined in federal and state laws. Distinctions between the federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and state civil and criminal statutes are highlighted. Operational definitions of physical abuse, child neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse also are included.

Recognizing Child Abuse and Neglect: Signs and Symptoms
Series Title:   Factsheets
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 227 KB)

Availability in Spanish:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 132 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2006 - 4 pages
 
The first step in helping abused or neglected children is learning to recognize the signs of child abuse and neglect. This fact sheet lists general signs that may signal the presence of child abuse. It also includes signs associated with specific types of abuse such as physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment.

Understanding the Effects of Maltreatment on Early Brain Development
Series Title:   Bulletins for Professionals
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 454 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2001 - 14 pages
 
This In Focus report provides an overview of early brain development and examines how child abuse can impair cognitive and emotional functioning. The specific effects of stress, persistent fear response, hyperarousal, dissociation, disrupted attachment process, and neglect are discussed. The briefing reviews the implications of research findings for the child welfare system, practitioners, and caregivers. Early intervention and prevention strategies are suggested

Silent Realities: Supporting Young Children and Their Families Who Experience Violence
Author(s):   Cohen, Walthall
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 557 KB)

Availability in Spanish:   Download Publication (PDF - 240 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2003 - 30 pages
 
This guide describes the effects of trauma on young children and suggests strategies for helping victims and witnesses of community and domestic violence to heal. Based on concepts presented by experts attending an institute held during a National Head Start Association training conference in April 2000, the discussion emphasizes the importance of encouraging children and adults to express their fears. Teachers and other adults are encouraged to identify changes in children's typical behavior and provide opportunities for them to communicate their feelings through art, stories, and drama. Adults also should ensure that children feel safe and in control. The experts ...

Dealing With Temper Tantrums (from Promoting Healthy Families in Your Community : 2008 Resource Packet)
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway, Children's Bureau, FRIENDS National Resource Center For Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 158 KB)

Availability in Spanish:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 188 KB)

Year Published:   2008 - 1 pages
 
A young child's tantrums can be stressful for parents. This tip sheet helps parents understand why toddlers have tantrums, what they can do to help prevent tantrums, and how to handle them calmly when they occur.

Children exposed to community violence or war/terrorism : Special Issue of Clinical child and family psychology review.
Author(s):   Prinze
Availability:   Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2003 - 91 pages
 
This issue of Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review addresses the current status of knowledge as well as critical research needs in the area of children exposed to violence outside the family. Although much has been learned in recent years about children exposed to violence, significant research gaps remain, the identification of which may help to build a more complete and rigorous science base in this area. This journal issue represents the distillation of a 3-day workshop on children exposed to violence, held in July of 2002, that identified what is known about children exposed to violence and what this ...

From Child Welfare Information Gateway:  http://www.childwelfare.gov/catalog/index.cfm?event=catalog.viewIndex&letter=B&page=2

Bonding With Your Baby (from Promoting Healthy Families in Your Community : 2008 Resource Packet)
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway, Children's Bureau, FRIENDS National Resource Center For Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 154 KB)

Availability in Spanish:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 163 KB)

Year Published:   2008 - 1 pages
 
Strong bonds between babies and caregivers help babies' bodies and brains grow. This tip sheet helps parents understand normal infant behavior, the importance of nurturing and attachment, and what parents can do to develop strong bonds with their babies.

From Child Welfare Information Gateway:  http://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/articles.cfm?issue_id=2007-03&article_id=1292#2

Resources on Child Traumatic Stress
Child traumatic stress, particularly as experienced by children involved in the child welfare system, is the focus of the Winter 2007 issue of the online journal Focal Point. The articles discuss a range of topics, including causes and definitions of child traumatic stress, the psychological and physiological effects of multiple traumatic stress experiences, evidence-based treatment strategies, and early intervention as prevention.
Focal Point is a publication of the Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children’s Mental Health at Portland State University. The entire issue or individual articles are available for PDF download:
www.rtc.pdx.edu/pgFPW07TOC.php

Note for Below:  The Appendix A on Crime Compensation is included for your information.  When convicted of child abuse, the alleged perpetrator can be ordered to pay for counseling for the victim.  It is not known if this information is useful to a person on the Central Registry, or not – specifically, can the file be obtained from the “State Victims of Crimes Programs” and/or can the record be expunged.

From: http://www.childwelfare.gov/
The Importance of Fathers in the Healthy Development of Children
Author(s):   Office on Child Abuse and Neglect
Rosenberg, Wilcox
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 1,163 KB)

Year Published:   2006 - 125 pages
 
To carry out their responsibilities of protecting children at risk of maltreatment, CPS caseworkers must effectively engage families that often both present and face great challenges. These can include substance abuse, mental health problems, economic stress, unemployment, separation and divorce, inadequate housing, crime, and incarceration. Figuring out how best to work with and engage these families, always with the safety of and permanency for the child as the goal, is not easy. This manual also speaks to both the opportunities and challenges presented by one participant in the family sagas that CPS caseworkers deal with everyday: the father. Working with ...

The Role of Mental Health Professionals in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect

User Manual Series (1993)
Author(s):  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Peterson, Urquiza
Year Published:  1993
Protecting Children in Military Families: A Cooperative Response

Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Addressing the Mental Health of Sexually Abused Children
Series Title:   Bulletins for Professionals
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 217 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2007 - 14 pages
 
Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) has been found to reduce children?s negative emotional and behavioral responses after sexual abuse and other traumatic events. It also helps nonoffending parents cope with their own distress and develop skills to support their children. This issue brief explores the characteristics and benefits of TF-CBT to help child welfare caseworkers and other professionals who work with at-risk families make more informed decisions about when to refer children and their caregivers to TF-CBT programs. It includes information about what makes TF-CBT unique, key components, target population, effectiveness, and what to look for in a TF-CBT therapist.

It is felt by many that CPS, itself, inflicts child abuse & neglect:
From: http://childwelfare.gov/

Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect
Series Title:   Factsheets
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 249 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Availability in Spanish:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 142 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2006 - 8 pages
 
The impact of child abuse and neglect is often discussed in terms of physical, psychological, behavioral, and societal consequences. In reality, however, it is impossible to separate them completely. Physical consequences (such as damage to a child's growing brain) can have psychological implications (cognitive delays or emotional difficulties, for example.). Psychological problems often manifest as high-risk behaviors. Depression and anxiety, for example, may make a person more likely to smoke, abuse alcohol or illicit drugs, or overeat. High-risk behaviors, in turn, can lead to long-term physical health problems such as sexually transmitted diseases, cancer, and obesity. This fact sheet provides ...

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy With At-Risk Families
Series Title:   Issue Briefs
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 222 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2007 - 14 pages
 
Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) is a family-centered treatment approach demonstrated effective for abused and at-risk children ages 2½ to 12 and their parents or caregivers. This issue brief explores the characteristics and benefits of PCIT to help child welfare caseworkers, other professionals who work with at-risk families, and caregivers make more informed decisions about family participation in PCIT programs. It includes information about what makes PCIT unique, key components, effectiveness, and what to look for in a PCIT therapist.

Parenting the Adopted Adolescent
Series Title:   Factsheets for Families
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 269 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   1995 - 11 pages
 
This fact sheet explores the effect of adoption on adolescent development and behavior. Identity formation, fear of abandonment, issues of control, feelings of not belonging, and desires to connect with birth families are described. The briefing also reviews the reactions of teens who were adopted at an older age and provides suggestions for parental response to problems. A list of training programs and materials is attached to the factsheet.

Parenting the Sexually Abused Child
Series Title:   Factsheets for Families
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 292 KB)

Year Published:   1990 - 11 pages
 
Written for prospective and adoptive parents, this fact sheet describes the effects of sexual abuse and provides recommendations for caring for sexually abused children. Topics covered include the physical and behavioral signs of abuse, issues for boys, contributors to juvenile sex offending, and typical reactions to abuse. Bonding in the adoptive family also is discussed. The fact sheet provides a list of recommended publications for parents and professionals.

Treatment for Abused and Neglected Children: Infancy to Age 18
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Urquiza, Winn
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 480 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   1994 - 134 pages
 
This manual, produced by NCCAN as part of the User Manual Series, provides an overview of the treatment of sexually abused, physically abused, and neglected children. Child development is briefly reviewed and the study of developmental psychopathology is described. All aspects of child development are considered, including intrapersonal development, interpersonal development, physical development, sexual development, and behavioral conduct development. Consequences of abuse and neglect, assessment of maltreatment, the therapeutic process and the role of the therapist, treatment issues and specialized interventions, and case management are addressed. The manual provides a glossary of terms and list of resources for more detailed ...

Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect
Series Title:   Factsheet
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:    View Publication
Printable Version (PDF - 249 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2006 - 8 pages
The impact of child abuse and neglect is often discussed in terms of physical, psychological, behavioral, and societal consequences. In reality, however, it is impossible to separate them completely. Physical consequences (such as damage to a child's growing brain) can have psychological implications (cognitive delays or emotional difficulties, for example.). Psychological problems often manifest as high-risk behaviors. Depression and anxiety, for example, may make a person more likely to smoke, abuse alcohol or illicit drugs, or overeat. High-risk behaviors, in turn, can lead to long-term physical health problems such as sexually transmitted diseases, cancer, and obesity. This fact sheet provides ...

Appendix A : Crime Victim Compensation And Victim Assistance
State Victims Of Crime Programs
[/b]

Alabama
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Executive Director
Alabama Crime Victims Compensation Commission
645 S. McDonough Street
P.O. Box 1548
Montgomery, AL 36102-1548
205.242.4007
FAX 205.240.3328   Director
Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs
Law Enforcement Planning Division
401 Adams Avenue
Montgomery, AL 36103-5690
205.242.5100
cc: Section Chief
205.242.5891
FAX 205.242.5515

Alaska
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Administrator
Department of Public Safety
Violent Crimes Compensation Board
P.O. Box 111200
Juneau, AK 99811-1200
907.465.3040   Commissioner
Department of Public Safety
Council on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
P.O. Box 111200
Juneau, AK 99811-1200
907.465.4356
cc: Executive Director
FAX 907.465.3627

American Samoa
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
No Compensation Program
DC Contact:American Samoa
Federal Program Coordinator
413 Cannon House Office Building
Washington, DC 20515
202.225.8577
FAX 202.225.8757   Director
Department of Human Resources
American Samoa Government
Pago Pago, American Samoa 96799
011.684.633.4485
cc: Social Services Division
011.684.633.2696
FAX 011.684.633.1139

Arizona
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Executive Director
Arizona Criminal Justice Commission
1501 W. Washington, Suite 207
Phoenix, AZ 85007
602.542.1928
cc: Victim Services Coordinator
FAX 602.542.4852   Director
Arizona Department of Public Safety
P.O. Box 6638
Phoenix, AZ 85005
602.223.2000
cc: Fiscal Management and Support
602.223.2491/2650
FAX 602.223.2347

Arkansas
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Attorney General
Office of the Attorney General
Crime Victims Reparations Board
323 Center Street, Suite 601
Little Rock, AR 72201
501.682.1323
cc: Director
FAX 501.682.8084   Prosecutor Coordinator
Prosecutor Coordinator's Office
232 Center Street, Suite 750
Little Rock, AR 72201
501.682.5045
cc: V/W Coordinator
501.682.5045
FAX 501.682.5004

California
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Executive Officer
State of California
State Board of Control
P.O. Box 3036
Sacramento, CA 95812-3036
916.323.6251
cc: Deputy Director
Victims of Crime Program
916.323.6251
FAX 916.327.2933   Executive Director
Office of Criminal Justice Planning
1130 K Street, Suite 300
Sacramento, CA 95814
916.324.9140
916.323.7611
FAX 916.327.8711

Colorado
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Director
Division of Criminal Justice
Department of Public Safety
700 Kipling Street, Suite 3000
Denver, CO 80215
303.239.4442/4451
cc: Criminal Justice Specialist
FAX 303.239.4491   Director
Division of Criminal Justice
Department of Public Safety
700 Kipling Street, Suite 3000
Denver, CO 80215
303.239.4442/4451
cc: Criminal Justice Specialist
FAX 303.239.4485

Connecticut
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Administrator
Commission on Victim Services
1155 Silas Deane Highway
Wethersfield, CT 06109
203.529.3089
FAX 203.721.0593   Under Secretary
Office of Policy and Management
Policy and Planning Division
80 Washington Street
Hartford, CT 06106
203.566.4298
cc: Planning Specialist
FAX 203.566.6295

Delaware
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Executive Director
Delaware Violent Crimes Compensation Board
1500 East Newport Pike, Suite 10
Wilmington, DE 19804
302.995.8383
cc: Support Services Administrator
FAX 302.995.8387   Executive Director
Criminal Justice Council
Carvel State Office Building
820 North French, Fourth Floor
Wilmington, DE 19801
302.577.3437
302.577.3432
FAX 302.577.3440

District of Columbia
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Director
Department of Employment Services
Employment Security Building
500 C Street, N.W., Suite 600
Washington, DC 20001
202.639.1000
Crime Victims' Compensation Program
1200 Upshur Street, N.W., Suite 100
Washington, DC 20001
202.576.7090
FAX 202.576.7282   Director
Department of Human Services
801 North Capitol Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20002
202.727.0310
cc: Director
Crime Victim Assistance Center
First and I Streets, S.W., Room 116
Washington, DC 20024
202.842.8467

Florida
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Chief and Director
2012 Capital Circle, S.E.
Hartman Building, Room 104
The Capitol
Tallahassee, FL 32399-1050
904.488.0848
FAX 904.487.1595   Director
Office of the Attorney General
Division of Victims Services and Criminal Justice Programs
The Capitol
Tallahassee, FL 32399-1050
904.488.0848
904.487.4760
FAX 904.487.1595

Georgia
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Director
Georgia Crime Victims Compensation Program
Criminal Justice Coordinating Council
503 Oak Place, Suite 540
Atlanta, GA 30349
404.559.4949
cc: Program Director   Director
Criminal Justice Coordinating Council
503 Oak Place, Suite 540
Atlanta, GA 30349
404.559.4949
FAX 404.559.4960

Guam
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
No Compensation Program   Attorney General
Department of Law
Government of Guam
2-200 East Guam Judicial Center
120 West O'Brien Drive
Agana, GU 96910
011.671.475.3406
FAX 011.671.472.2493

Hawaii
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Attorney General
Resource Coordination Division
425 Queen Street, Room 221
Honolulu, HI 96813
808.586.1154
cc: Administrator
FAX 808.548.1900
cc: Director
Crime Victims Compensation
808.587.1143   Attorney General
Department of the Attorney General
425 Queen Street, Room 221
Honolulu, HI 96813
808.586.1282
cc: Administrator
FAX 808.548.1900

Idaho
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Executive Director
Crime Victims Compensation Program
c/o Idaho Industrial Commission
317 Main Street
Boise, ID 83720
208.334.6000
cc: Manager
Victim Compensation Program
FAX 208.334.2321   Executive Director
Idaho Department of Health and Welfare
Council on Domestic Violence
450 West State Street
Boise, ID 83720-9990
208.334.5580
FAX 208.334.5694

Illinois
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Deputy Clerk
Illinois Court of Claims
630 South College Street
Springfield, IL 62756
217.782.7101
cc: Chief
Crime Victims Division
Office of the Attorney General
100 West Randolph, 13th
Chicago, IL 60601
312.814.2581   Executive Director
Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority
120 South Riverside Plaza, Tenth Floor
Chicago, IL 60606
312.793.8550
cc: Program Supervisor
FAX 312.793.8422

Indiana
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Acting Director
Violent Crimes Compensation Bureau
Indiana Government Center, South
402 West Washington Street, Room W382
Indianapolis, IN 46204
317.232.7103
FAX 317.232.4331   Executive Director
Indiana Criminal Justice Institute
302 West Washington Street, E209
Indianapolis, IN 46204
317.232.1233
cc: V/A Grant Coordinator
317.232.1233

Iowa
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Attorney General
Office of the Attorney General
Hoover State Office Building
Des Moines, IA 50191
515.242.6110
cc: Deputy Director
Iowa Department of Justice
Crime Victim Assistance Program
Old Historical Building
Des Moines, IA 50319
FAX 515.281.8199   Attorney General
Office of the Attorney General
Hoover State Office Building
Des Moines, IA 50191
515.242.6109
cc: Administrator
Iowa Department of Justice
Crime Victim Assistance Program
Old Historical Building
Des Moines, IA 50319
FAX 515.281.8199

Kansas
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Attorney General
Office of the Attorney General
Kansas Crime Victims Compensation Board
Jayhawk Tower, Suite 400
700 Southwest Jackson
Topeka, KS 66603-3741
913.296.2359
cc: Director
FAX 913.296.0652   Secretary
Department of Social and Rehabilitation Services
Crime Victim Assistance Program
Docking State Office Building
915 Southwest Harrison, Room 600 North
Topeka, KS 66612-1570
913.296.3271
cc: Community Resource Development
SRS-Youth and Adult Services
Smith/Wilson Building
300 Southwest Oakley
Topeka, KS 66606
913.296.7465
FAX 913.296.4649

Kentucky
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Executive Director
Crime Victims Compensation Board
115 Myrtle Avenue
Frankfort, KY 40601-3113
502.564.7986
FAX 502.564.3151   Secretary
Kentucky Justice Cabinet
Bush Building
403 Wapping Street, Second Floor
Frankfort, KY 40601
502.564.7554
cc: VOCA Program Director
FAX 502.564.6615

Louisiana
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Executive Director
Crime Victims Reparations Program
Louisiana Commission on Law Enforcement
1885 Wooddale Boulevard, Suite 708
Baton Rouge, LA 70806-1442
504.925.1997
cc: Program Manager
504.925.4437
FAX 504.925.1998   Executive Director
Louisiana Commission on Law Enforcement
1885 Wooddale Boulevard, Suite 708
Baton Rouge, LA 70806-1442
504.925.1997
cc: Program Specialist
504.925.4437
FAX 504.925.1998

Maine
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Office of the Attorney General
State House Station 6
Augusta, ME 04333
207.626.8500   Commissioner
Maine Department of Human Services
Division of Purchased and Support Services
State House Station 11
Augusta, ME 04333
207.289.2736
cc: Evaluation Manager
207.289.5060

Maryland
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Secretary
Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services Criminal Injuries Compensation Board
6776 Reisterstown Road, Suite 313
Baltimore, MD 21215-2340
410.764.4078
cc: Director
410.764.4214   Secretary
State of Maryland Department of Human Resources
311 West Saratoga Street, Room 239
Baltimore, MD 21201
410.333.0059
cc: Director
Women's Services Programs
Community Services Administration
FAX 410.333.0392

Massachusetts

Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Attorney General
Department of the Attorney General
One Ashburton Place, Room 1800
Boston, MA 02108-1698
617.727.2200
cc: Chief
Victim Compensation Division
Office of the Attorney General
One Ashburton Place, Room 1811
Boston, MA 02108-1698
617.727.2200 ext. 2875
FAX 617.727.3251   Executive Director
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Victim and Witness Assistance Board
Massachusetts Office for Victims Assistance
100 Cambridge Street, Room 1104
Boston, MA 02202
617.727.5200
cc: Grant Manager
FAX 617.727.6522

Michigan
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Administrator
Crime Victims Compensation Board
P.O. Box 30026
Lansing, MI 48909
517.373.0979
320 South Walnut
1st Floor North
Lansing, MI 48933
FAX 517.373.1071   Director
Grants Management Division
Office of Contract Management
P.O. Box 30026
Lansing, MI 48909
517.373.6655
517.373.1826
FAX 517.335.2355

Minnesota
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Commissioner
Department of Public Safety
Department of Transportation Building
Room 211, John Ireland Boulevard
St. Paul, MN 55155
612.296.6642
cc: Executive Director
Crime Victims Reparation Board
Griggs-Midway Building
1821 University Avenue, N-465
St. Paul, MN 55104
612.649.5993
FAX 612.645.0963   Commissioner
Department of Corrections
300 Bigelow Building
450 North Syndicate Street
St. Paul, MN 55104
612.642.0395
612.642.0221
FAX 612.642.0223

Mississippi
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Director
Department of Finance and Administration
Box 267
Jackson, MS 39205
601.359.6766
cc: Hearing Officer
601.359.6766
FAX 601.359.2470   Director
Department of Public Safety
Division of Public Safety Planning
301 West Pearl Street
Jackson, MS 39203
601.949.2225
FAX 601.960.4263

Missouri
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Director
Division of Workers' Compensation
Crime Victims Compensation
P.O. Box 58
Jefferson City, MO 65102
314.751.4231
cc: Supervisor
3315 West Truman Boulevard
FAX 314.751.2012   Director
Department of Public Safety
Truman Building, Room 870
P.O. Box 749
Jefferson City, MO 65102-0749
314.751.4905
cc: Program Specialist

Montana
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Administrator
Board of Crime Control Division
Crime Victims Unit
Scott Hart Building
303 North Roberts, Fourth Floor
Helena, MT 59620-1408
406.444.3605
cc: Administrative Officer
406.444.3653
FAX 406.444.4722   Administrator
Board of Crime Control Division
Crime Victims Unit
Scott Hart Building
303 North Roberts, Fourth Floor
Helena, MT 59620-1408
406.444.3605
cc: Victim Coordinator
406.444.3604/2649
FAX 406.444.4722

Nebraska
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Executive Director
Nebraska Crime Victims Reparation Board
Nebraska Commission on Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice
301 Centennial Mall South
P.O. Box 94946
Lincoln, NE 68509
402.471.2194
cc: Federal Aid Administration
402.471.2194   Executive Director
Nebraska Crime Victims Reparation Board
Nebraska Commission on Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice
301 Centennial Mall South
P.O. Box 94946
Lincoln, NE 68509
402.471.2194
cc: Federal Aid Administration
FAX 402.471.2837

Nevada
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Director
Nevada Department of Administration
Capitol Complex
209 East Musser, Room 204
Carson City, NV 89710
702.687.4065   Director
Nevada Department of Human Resources
505 East King Street, Room 600
Carson City, NV 89710
702.687.5943
FAX 702.687.4773

New Hampshire
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Director of Administration
New Hampshire Department of Justice
25 Capitol Street, State House Annex
Concord, NH 03301-6397
603.271.3658
cc: Victims' Compensation Coordinator
603.271.1284
FAX 201.648.3937   Director of Administration
New Hampshire Department of Justice
State House Annex
25 Capitol Street
Concord, NH 03301-6397
603.271.3658
603.271.1297
FAX 603.271.2361

New Jersey

Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Chairman
Violent Crimes Compensation Board
60 Park Place, 20th Floor
Newark, NJ 07102
201.648.2107
cc: Board Accountant
201.648.2107, ext. 25/20
FAX 201.648.3937   Attorney General
New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety
Division of Criminal Justice
Office of Victim/Witness Advocacy
25 Market Street, CN 085
Trenton, NJ 08625-0085
609.984.4499

New Mexico
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Director
New Mexico Crime Victims Reparation Commission
8100 Mountain Road, N.E., Suite 106
Albuquerque, NM 87110
505.841.9432
FAX 505.841.9435   Director
New Mexico Crime Victims Reparation Commission
8100 Mountain Road, N.E., Suite 106
Albuquerque, NM 87110
505.841.9432
FAX 505.841.9435

New York
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Chairman
Crime Victims Board
270 Broadway, Room 200
New York, NY 10007
212.417.5133
cc: Administrative Officer
New York Crime Victims Board
845 Central Avenue, South 3, Suite 107
Albany, NY 12206
518.457.8063
FAX 518.457.8658   Chairman
Crime Victims Board
270 Broadway, Room 200
New York, NY 10007
212.417.5133
FAX 212.587.5133
cc: Director
New York Crime Victims Board
845 Central Avenue, South 3, Suite 107
Albany, NY 12206
518.457.1779
FAX 518.457.8658

North Carolina
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Director
North Carolina Victims Compensation Commission
Department of Crime Control and Public Safety
Division of Victim and Justice Services
P.O. Box 27687
Raleigh, NC 27611-7687
919.733.7974
FAX 919.733.0296   Executive Director
Governor's Crime Commission
Department of Crime Control and Public Safety
P.O. Box 27687
Raleigh, NC 27611
919.733.5013
cc: Criminal Justice Planner
FAX 919.733.7585

North Dakota
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Director
Workers Compensation Bureau
Crime Victims Reparation Program
Russel Building, Highway 83 North
4007 North State Street
Bismarck, ND 58501
701.224.3800, 701.224.3770
cc: Administrator
FAX 701.224.3820   Director
Workers Compensation Bureau
Crime Victims Reparation Program
Russel Building, Highway 83 North
4007 North State Street
Bismarck, ND 58501
701.224.3800/3770
cc: Administrator
FAX 701.224.3820

North Mariana Islands
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
No Compensation Program   Executive Director
Criminal Justice Planning Agency
P.O. Box 1133 CK
Saipan MP
Saipan, Mariana Islands 96950
011.670.322.9350/6311
cc: Criminal Justice Planner
FAX 011.670.322.6311
DC Area Office
2121 R Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20008
202.673.5869

Ohio
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Clerk
Victims of Crime Compensation Program
Court of Claims of Ohio
65 East State Street, Suite 1100
614.466.8439
cc: Director
614.466.3345
FAX 614.644.8553   Attorney General
Office of the Attorney General
30 East Board Street, 26th Floor
Columbus, OH 43266-0410
614.466.3376
cc: Executive Director
614.466.5610
FAX 614.466.6090

Oklahoma
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Executive Director
Crime Victims Compensation Board
2200 Classen Boulevard, Suite 1800
Oklahoma City, OK 73106-5811
405.521.2330
cc: Administrator
FAX 405.525.3584   Executive Director
District Attorneys Council
2200 Classen Boulevard, Suite 1800
Oklahoma City, OK 73106-5811
405.521.2349
cc: Administrator
FAX 405.525.3584

Oregon
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Attorney General
Department of Justice
Crime Victims' Compensation Program
240 Cottage Street
Salem, OR 97310
503.378.5348
cc: Director   Program Monitor
The Honorable Charles Crookham
Attorney General
Office of the Attorney General
Special Compensation Program
100 Justice Building
Salem, OR 97310
503.378.5348
cc: Director
503.373.1936

Palau
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
No Compensation Program
DC Contact
444 North Capitol Street, N.W.
Suite 308
Washington, DC 20001
202.624.7793
FAX 202.624.7795   Vice President
Ministry of Justice
P. O. Box 100
Koror, Palau 96940
680.488.2702
cc: Legal Counsel to the Vice President
D.C. Contact
444 North Capitol Street, N.W., Suite 308
Washington, DC 20001
202.624.7793
FAX 202.624.7795

Pennsylvania
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Chairman
Pennsylvania Crime Victim's Compensation Board
Harristown Building No. 2, Lobby Level
333 Market Street
Harrisburg, PA 17101
717.783.5153   Executive Director
Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency
P.O. Box 1167
Federal Square Station
Harrisburg, PA 17108-1167
717.787.8559
cc: Program Manager
FAX 717.783.7713

Puerto Rico
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
No Compensation Program   Attorney General
Department of Justice
P.O. Box 192
San Juan, PR 00902
809.725.0335
cc: Director
Planning, Federal, and Statistics Division
809.725.6144

Rhode Island
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
State Court Administrator
Rhode Island Supreme Court
State Court Administrative Office
Crime Compensation Program
Licht Judicial Complex
250 Benefit Street
Providence, RI 02903
401.277.3263
cc: State Coordinator
Judicial Planning Section
RI Supreme Court
401.277.2500 x 33
FAX 401.277.3865   Director of Administration
Governor's Justice Commission
Executive Department
222 Quaker Lane, Suite 100
Warwick, RI 02886
401.277.2620
cc: Executive Director
FAX 401.277.1294
Director of Administration
Governor's Justice Commission
Executive Department
222 Quaker Lane, Suite 100
Warwick, RI 02886
401.277.2620
cc: Executive Director
FAX 401.277.1294

South Carolina
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Director
State Office of Victim Assistance
P.O. Box 210009
Columbia, SC 29221-0009
803.737.9465
cc: Deputy Director
803.737.9465
FAX 803.731.1428   Director
Division of Public Safety
Office of the Governor
Edgar Brown Building
1205 Pendleton Street
Columbia, SC 29201
803.734.0425
cc: VOCA Program Coordinator
803.734.0369
FAX 803.734.0486

South Dakota
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Assistant Secretary
South Dakota Department of Corrections
Joe Foss Building
523 East Capitol
Pierre, SD 57501
605.773.3478   Director
Community Assistance Program
South Dakota Department of Commerce and Regulation
910 East Sioux, c/o 500 East Capitol
Pierre, SD 57501-5070
605.773.3177

Tennessee
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
State Treasurer
Treasury Department
First Floor, State Capitol
Nashville, TN 37219
615.741.2956
cc: Director
Division of Claims Administration
11th Floor, Andrew Jackson Building
Nashville, TN 37243-0243
615.741.2734
FAX 615.741.7328   Commissioner
Department of Human Services
Citizens Plaza Building
400 Deaderick Street
Nashville, TN 37219
615.741.3241
cc: VOCA Specialist
615.741.5947
FAX 615.741.4165

Texas
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Chief
Crime Victims Compensation Division
Office of the Attorney General
P.O. Box 12548, Capitol Station
Austin, TX 78711-2548
512.462.6414
cc: Assistant Chief
FAX 512.462.6449   Acting Director
Criminal Justice Division
Office of the Governor
P.O. Box 12428
Capitol Station
Austin, TX 78711
512.463.1919
cc: Program Manager
FAX 512.463.1932

Utah
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Director
Office of Crime Victim Reparations
350 East 500 South, Suite 200
Salt Lake City, UT 84111
801.533.4000
FAX 801.533.4127   Director
Office of Crime Victim Reparations
350 East 500 South, Suite 200
Salt Lake City, UT 84111
801.533.4000
cc: Program Coordinator
FAX 801.533.4127

Vermont
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Executive Director
Vermont Crime Victims Compensation Program
P.O. Box 991
Montpelier, VT 05601-0991
802.828.3374   Secretary
Agency of Human Services
103 South Main Street
Waterbury, VT 05676
802.241.2220
cc: Grant Administrator
802.241.2928
Planning Division
FAX 802.244.8103

Virginia
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Chairman
Division of Crime Victim's Compensation
P.O. Box 1794
Richmond, VA 23214
804.367.8686
cc: Director
Division of Crime Victim's Compensation
P.O. Box 5423
Richmond, VA 23220
804.367.8686
FAX 804.367.9740   Director
Department of Criminal Justice Services
805 East Broad Street, Tenth Floor
Richmond, VA 23219
804.786.4000
cc: Program Manager
804.786.4001
FAX 804.371.8981

Virgin Islands
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Executive Secretary
Virgin Island Criminal Victims Compensation Commission
Department of Human Services
Office of the Commissioner
Barbel Plaza South
Charlotte Amalie
St. Thomas, VI 00802
809.774.1166
cc: Administrator
Crime Victim Compensation Commission
FAX 809.774.3466   Governor's Drug Policy Advisor
Law Enforcement Planning Commission
116-164 Submarine Base
Estate Nisky No. 6, Southside Quarters
St. Thomas, VI 00802
809.774.6400
cc: Director
Victim Witness Services
FAX 809.774.1361

Washington
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Director
Crime Victim Compensation Program
Department of Labor and Industries
Olympia, WA 98504
206.753.6307
cc: Program Manager
206.956.5340
Department of Labor and Industries
Crime Victims Compensation Program
7373 Linderson Way, S.W.
P.O. Box 44520
Olympia, WA 98504-4520   Secretary
Department of Social and Health Services
Mail Stop 45710
12th and Jefferson
Olympia, WA 98504-5710
206.753.3395
cc: Program Director
Division of Children and Family Services
206.586.8254
FAX 206.586.5874

West Virginia
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Clerk
West Virginia Court of Claims
Crime Victims Compensation Fund
Room 6, Building 1, State Capitol
Charleston, WV 25305
304.558.3471
304.558.3471
FAX 304.357.7829   Manager
Criminal Justice and Highway Safety Office
West Virginia Development Office
1204 Kanawha Boulevard, East
Charleston, WV 25301
304.558.8814
cc: Federal Program Coordinator
FAX 304.558.0391

Wisconsin
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Attorney General
Department of Justice
123 West Washington Avenue
P.O. Box 7857
Madison, WI 53707-7857
608.266.6470/1221
cc: Executive Director
Office of Crime Victims Services
Department of Justice
P.O. Box 7951
Madison, WI 53707-7951
FAX 608.266.6676   Attorney General
Department of Justice
123 West Washington Avenue
P.O. Box 7857
Madison, WI 53707-7857
608.266.6470/1221
cc: Executive Director
608.266.6470
608.267.2251
FAX 608.267.2223

Wyoming
Victim Compensation   Victim Assistance
Program Manager
Crime Victims Compensation Commission
Office of the Attorney General
1700 Westland
Cheyenne, WY 82001
307.635.4050
FAX 307.777.6869   Program Manager
Crime Victims Compensation Commission
Office of the Attorney General
1700 Westland
Cheyenne, WY 82001
307.635.4050
FAX 307.777.6869

Appendix B : Other User Manuals In This Series
A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: A Basic Manual
Child Protective Services: A Guide for Caseworkers
Caregivers of Young Children: Preventing and Responding to Child Maltreatment
The Role of Educators in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect
The Role of Law Enforcement in the Response to Child Abuse and Neglect
Working With the Courts in Child Protection

The following is from Child Welfare Information Gateway.  Since we believe that the CPS system, itself, is abusive of children and causes more damage in removals and system experience than leaving the kids with the family, the following is included here regarding the impact of child abuse:

The Following is From:  http://www.childwelfare.gov/can/impact/

Impact
Learn how child abuse and neglect affect children, adolescents, adult survivors, and society. This section examines the impact of abuse and neglect on child development, as well as long-term consequences for adults with a history of abuse. Impact is explored by type of abuse, family factors, and the social and economic consequences.
    Impact by type of maltreatment
    Impact of family factors
    Impact on child development
    Long-term consequences of abuse and neglect
    Social and economic consequences of abuse and neglect
 
        
Selected Resources
Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect
Child Welfare Information Gateway (2006)
Overview of some of the most common physical, psychological, behavioral, and societal consequences of child abuse and neglect. (PDF - 249 KB)
What Are the Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect?
Children’s Bureau (HHS) User Manual Series (2003)
In A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice
A discussion of the physical, developmental, psychological, and societal effects of child abuse and neglect.
National Center for Children Exposed to Violence
A comprehensive website providing Internet resources and a bibliographic database of information on the effects of violence exposure on children. The center also provides training and technical assistance to a variety of collaborative community programs that respond to children and families exposed to violence.
The Vortex of Violence: How Children Adapt and Survive in a Violent World (PDF - 223 KB)
Child Trauma Academy (2002)
Discusses the impact of violence on a child’s development, including effects on physical, emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and social functioning, and the transgenerational cycle of violence.    

    
        
Related Information Gateway Topics
Preventing child abuse & neglect
Responding to child abuse & neglect


Objective. Sexual behavior in children can cause uncertainty in the clinician because of the relationship between sexual abuse and sexual behavior. Consequently, it is important to understand normative childhood sexual behavior.
And here is the link: http://www.falseall egations. com/mayo- abs.htm

Child Trauma Information

Bruce D. Perry, M.D., Ph.D., is an internationally-recognized authority on children in crisis. Dr. Perry is the Provincial Medical Director in Children’s Mental Health for the Alberta Mental Health Board. In addition, he is the Senior Fellow of the ChildTrauma Academy (www.ChildTrauma.org), a Houston-based organization dedicated to research and education on child maltreatment. Dr. Perry has been consulted on many high-profile incidents involving traumatized children, including the Columbine, Colorado school shootings, the Oklahoma City bombing, and the Branch Davidian siege. Click here for advice on teaching about 9/11 from child psychiatrist Dr. Bruce Perry.
Find out when Dr. Perry will be presenting at a conference near you!
 
Every year millions of children are physically and emotionally abused. Learn creative and practical approaches to understanding and working with maltreated children via free, online courses at ChildTraumaAcademy.com. Courses are short, self paced and allow you to talk to other students online! Enroll now!
   
    
 
Keep the Cool in School
    Keep the Cool in School
In the first of a series of articles about promoting nonviolent behavior in children, Dr. Perry gives an overview of the 6 core strengths that children need in order to be humane.
    Attachment: The First Core Strength
In the second article of the Keep the Cool in School campaign, Dr. Perry discusses attachment and how it contributes to preventing aggression and anti-social behaviors in children.
    Self-Regulation: The Second Core Strength
In the third article of the Keep the Cool in School campaign, Dr. Perry explores self-regulation and how it contributes to preventing aggression and anti-social behaviors in children.
    Affiliation: The Third Core Strength
In the fourth article of the Keep the Cool in School campaign, Dr. Perry shares how educators can help students feel included, connected and valued.
    Awareness: The Fourth Core Strength
In the fifth article of the Keep the Cool in School campaign, Dr. Perry shares ideas about encouraging children to respect and appreciate each other's differences and similarities.
    Tolerance: The Fifth Core Strength
In the sixth article of the Keep the Cool in School campaign, Dr. Perry discusses tolerance, the most complex of the six core strengths.
    Respect: The Sixth Core Strength
In the seventh article of the Keep the Cool in School campaign, Dr. Perry explores how educators can help students accept and enjoy the differences in others.
The Developing Child
    A Place for Everyone: Nurturing Each Child's Niche
One of the many jobs of early childhood educators is to nurture the uniqueness of every child. This article includes tips for identifying a child's individual strengths and needs.
    The Importance of Pleasure in Play
Play, more than any other activity, fuels healthy development of children. In this article, learn strategies for mixing emotional, social, and cognitive challenge with fun.
    Curiosity: The Fuel of Development
For children, the positive cycle of learning is fueled by curiosity, and the pleasure that comes from discovery and mastery. Find out how teachers can help to keep the process going.
    How Sounds Become Words
How is it that words come to have meaning? When does the sound become the word? And how can we help children learn the true meaning of our most important words?
    The Developmental Hot Zone
Helping children move from the comfortable and familiar, and take on new challenges, is a very important task. In this latest article, Dr. Perry outlines strategies for providing the right opportunities for children at the right time, and in the proper sequence.
    The Meaning in Words
In a conversation with Early Childhood Today editor Helen Benham, Dr. Perry explains how children learn to make sense of the language they hear — in conjunction with the actions they see.
    Biological Relativity: Time and the Developing Child
Can mere hours in infancy have more power to shape us than months in middle age?
Children in Distress
    Children and Loss
Teachers serve as a crucial emotional bridge for a child at times of loss. What do we need to know to help students cope, especially in the classroom environment?
    Death and Loss: Helping Children Manage Their Grief
Dr. Perry shares strategies for helping children to adjust to difficult situations such as moving, divorce, and death.
    Bonding and Attachment in Maltreated Children: Consequences of Emotional Neglect in Childhood
Dr. Perry explains why experiences during infancy and early childhood are so critical to shaping our capacity to form emotionally healthy relationships, and how maltreatment can impair this important capability.
    Bonding and Attachment in Maltreated Children: How You Can Help
In this article, Dr. Perry suggests ways that responsive adults, such as parents, teachers, and other caregivers, can make all the difference in the lives of maltreated children.
    Why Does Violence Happen?
Dr. Perry revisits the Columbine High School tragedy one year later. Use this article as a teaching resource to initiate student discussion.
    The Child's Loss: Death, Grief, and Mourning
Find out how teachers, caregivers, and other adults can help children exposed to traumatic death.
    The Impact of Abuse and Neglect on the Developing Brain
Find out how destructive experiences can affect children in far-reaching ways — emotional, behavioral, academic, social, and physical — for life.
    Principles of Working With Traumatized Children
Some special considerations for teachers and caregivers in understanding and working with children who have suffered trauma.
    Aggression and Violence: The Neurobiology of Experience
Over 5 million children are directly exposed to violence in the U.S. each year. What will the impact on our society be? Read on to find out more.
The Brain and Learning
    Attunement: Reading the Rhythms of the Child
Learning about children's individual strengths, vulnerabilities, and preferred styles of communication can help teachers to reach — and teach — each child more effectively.
 
    Using Technology in the Early Childhood Classroom
In this article, Dr. Perry outlines how computers, the Internet, television, and other technology tools can help children develop curiosity, problem-solving, and independent-thinking skills.
    Creating an Emotionally Safe Classroom
Why are the first days of the new school year so important? Find out what you can do during these first weeks to help new students come to enjoy school and love learning.
    How the Brain Learns Best
In his latest article, Dr. Perry outlines some easy ways to help your students learn optimally in the classroom by helping to activate different parts of the brain.
    
A growing list of Web sites, publications, and organizations focusing on helping children in crisis.

   


Offline egypt

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Were You Really One of These?
The following is from “Perpetrators” (below, see “publications  from Child Welfare Information Gateway)

Characteristics of Perpetrators
Most States define perpetrators of child abuse and neglect as parents and other caretakers (such as relatives, babysitters, and foster parents) who have harmed a child in their care. It is important to note that States define the term "caretaker" differently. Harm caused to a child by others (such as acquaintances or strangers) may not be considered child abuse but rather may be considered a criminal matter.
The following resources provide information on the characteristics of perpetrators of child abuse and neglect.
        
Perpetrators
Children's Bureau, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2007)
In Child Maltreatment 2005
Data on the characteristics of perpetrators, their relationship to their child victims, and the types of maltreatment they commit.   

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Were Your Rights Violated with CPS?

See a test taken by social workers with regard to the Constitution.

from: http://kidjacked.com/legal/constitutional_rights.asp#pretest




Offline egypt

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  • Love: A Wish to bestow the fullness of Joyous Life
Do you know if the CPS video was ever made that Nancy Schaffer, Georgia former Senator, had just finished before she and husband were murdered (called suicide)?

The guy came on Alex Show - William Fein - saying the movie was finished and would be released soon.





Haven't heard yet.

More on How They Operate:

How They Operate

The following are publications from the online catalog of Child Welfare Information Gateway http://www.childwelfare.gov/


State Liaison Officers (SLO) for Child Abuse and Neglect
Series Title:   Related Organizations Lists
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication

Year Published:   2008 - 0 pages
 
Each State has a designated State Liaison Officer (SLO) for child abuse and neglect. The SLO is responsible for ensuring the compliance to State laws and policies regarding issues such as how and when to investigate allegations of child abuse and neglect. This resource list provides contact information for each State's SLO.
State Foster Care Program Managers
Series Title:   Related Organizations Lists
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication

Year Published:   2008 - 0 pages
 
The State Foster Care Manager is the administrator who has oversight responsibility for all foster care services provided to children in the custody of the State and is the key point of contact for concerns regarding foster care programs that cannot be resolved by other existing procedures. This resource list provides contact information for each State's Foster Care Manager.

State Licensing Specialists
Series Title:   Related Organizations Lists
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication

Year Published:   2008 - 0 pages
 
This resource listing contains contact information for the State Licensing Specialist for each State and Territory. The State Licensing Specialist is the person who maintains the listing of licensed child placing agencies in each State and Territory.

Statutes of Limitations for Offenses Against Children
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 183 KB)

Year Published:   2005 - 4 pages
 
All States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and all U.S. territories have statutes of limitations for criminal offenses and civil suits. A statute of limitations is a provision in State statutes that establishes a time period within which legal action must be initiated. In a criminal case, the State prosecutor must file charges within a certain time after the commission of the crime. In a civil suit, a person has a limited time for filing a claim alleging that an offense occurred against him or her. Once the time limit prescribed for an offense in the statute of limitations ...
Statutes of Limitations for Offenses Against Children: Summary of State Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 288 KB)

Year Published:   2005 - 38 pages
 
All States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and all U.S. territories have statutes of limitations for criminal offenses and civil suits. A statute of limitations is a provision in State statutes that establishes a time period within which legal action must be initiated. In a criminal case, the State prosecutor must file charges within a certain time after the commission of the crime. In a civil suit, a person has a limited time for filing a claim alleging that an offense occurred against him or her. Once the time limit prescribed for an offense in the statute of limitations ...

(Inserted Not by Child Welfare Information Gateway:
Here are what their activities were supposed to be)


Substitute Care Providers: Helping Abused and Neglected Children
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Watson
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 251 KB)

Year Published:   1994 - 82 pages
 
This manual for child welfare personnel provides them with information on serving abused and neglected children who are in family foster care or who are adopted. Section 1 presents background information on substitute care and permanency planning. Section 2 identifies the basic needs of all children and the special needs of both children in substitute care and maltreated children. Section 3 describes the systems, networks, and teams with which people who help maltreated children interact, including the service network and the substitute care team. Section 4 offers guidelines for meeting the needs of maltreated children, focusing on understanding the assessment ...

(Inserted Not by Child Welfare Information Gateway:
Here are what the Caseworker Supervisors are Supposed to Do

Supervising Child Protective Services Caseworkers
Author(s):   Office on Child Abuse and Neglect., Caliber Associates.
Salus
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 4,010 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)
Order CD (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2004 - 110 pages
 
This manual provides the foundation for effective supervisory practice in child protective services (CPS). It describes the roles and responsibilities of the CPS supervisor, and it provides practice oriented advice on how to carry out supervisory responsibilities effectively. Best practices and critical issues in supervisory practice are underscored throughout. Topics include: The nature of CPS supervision; Making the transition from caseworker to supervisor; Building the foundation for effective unit performance; Building staff capacity and achieving excellence in performance; Supervisory feedback and performance recognition; Results-oriented management; Clinical supervision; Recruitment and retention; Managing from the middle; and Taking care of oneself and ...


(Inserted Not by Child Welfare Information Gateway:
Were these guidelines followed with preventing maltreatment with regard to reunification?)



Reasonable Efforts to Preserve or Reunify Families and Achieve Permanency for Children
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 182 KB)

Year Published:   2006 - 4 pages
 
Reasonable efforts refer to efforts made by State social services agencies to provide the assistance and services needed to preserve and reunify families. Laws in all States, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico require the provision of services that will assist families in remedying the conditions that brought the child and family into the child welfare system. The statutes in most States, however, use a broad definition of what constitutes reasonable efforts. Some commonly used terms associated with reasonable efforts include "family reunification," "family preservation," "family support," and "preventive services."

Reasonable Efforts to Preserve or Reunify Families and Achieve Permanency for Children: Summary of State Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 368 KB)

Year Published:   2006 - 45 pages
 
Reasonable efforts refer to efforts made by State social services agencies to provide the assistance and services needed to preserve and reunify families. Laws in all States, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico require the provision of services that will assist families in remedying the conditions that brought the child and family into the child welfare system. The statutes in most States, however, use a broad definition of what constitutes reasonable efforts. Some commonly used terms associated with reasonable efforts include "family reunification," "family preservation," "family support," and "preventive services." Federal law has long required State agencies to ...

Promoting Healthy Families in Your Community : 2007 Resource Packet
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway, Children's Bureau, FRIENDS National Resource Center For Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention
Availability:   Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2007 - 66 pages
 
This information packet was written to support child maltreatment prevention efforts by describing strategies and activities that promote protective factors. It is written for service providers, to encourage and support them as they engage and partner with parents to protect, nurture, and promote the healthy development of children. The packet includes suggestions for enhancing each of the five protective factors in families; tip sheets in English and Spanish for providers to use when working with parents and caregivers on specific parenting challenges; strategies for sharing the message about child abuse prevention in communities; and information about child abuse and neglect, ...



(Inserted Not by Child Welfare Information Gateway:
CPS Mindset = As usual, everyone is Guilty-No-Matter-What


Reducing Re-referral in Unsubstantiated Child Protective Services Cases: Research To Practice
Series Title:   Grantee Lessons Learned
Author(s):   Children's Bureau (DHHS)
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 208 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2003 - 7 pages
 
This paper identifies strategies to reduce re-referrals in unsubstantiated child protective services (CPS) cases. Based on the findings of three Children's Bureau funded research grants on unsubstantiated CPS cases, it summarizes the studies' key findings regarding factors influencing CPS decision-making and implications for practice including suggestions for assessing risk more effectively and creative ways to provide services to at-risk families in unsubstantiated cases.


The Program Manager's Guide to Evaluation: An Evaluation Handbook Series from the Administration on Children, Youth and Families
Author(s):   KRA Corporation
Availability:   View Publication

Year Published:   1997 - 150 pages
 
This manual provides an overview of the evaluation process, with special considerations for programs funded by the Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF). The text describes why evaluations are important and explains each step of the process, whether an outside evaluator is used or the evaluation is being conducted by in-house staff. Topics include: purpose, cost, types of evaluation teams, selecting and managing outside contractors, organizational preparation for the evaluation, evaluation plans, data collection, analysis, and reports. In general, program managers should determine a purpose for the evaluation, consider evaluation needs when designing the program, be an involved role ...

Rethinking Child Welfare Practice Under the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997: A Resource Guide
Author(s):   Children's Bureau (HHS)
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 332 KB)

Year Published:   2000 - 62 pages
 
The provisions of the Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) intended to promote the safety, permanency, and well-being of children will have a significant impact on child welfare practice. ASFA requires state child welfare agencies to engage parents early in the process, redesign service delivery to achieve permanency goals for children, ensure sufficient resources for families, and partner with the courts. This guide provides a framework for redesigning child welfare practice. It includes an analysis of the key provisions of the Adoption and Safe Families Act and identifies casework practices that are consistent with the law. It highlights the recommendations ...



(Inserted Not by Child Welfare Information Gateway:  Did your caseworker follow these guidelines as outlined in the publications below, with regard to Kinship Care?  Did they look for a Relative, first?)


Kinship Care/Grandparents Raising Grandchildren
Series Title:   Related Organizations Lists
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication

Year Published:   2008 - 0 pages
 
This resource listing provides the contact information of selected organizations that offer information on kinship care. Each entry includes a brief description of the function of the organization, mailing address, telephone and fax number, e-mail address, and web address.

Kinship Caregivers and the Child Welfare System
Series Title:   Factsheets for Families
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 230 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Availability in Spanish:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 313 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2005 - 15 pages
 
Informal and formal kinship care arrangements help to ensure stability and protection for children within their extended family. This fact sheet describes the benefits of kinship care as a child protection alternative and examines the agency's responsibility for the placement. The placement decision-making process, what to expect from the child welfare service and court system, and financial support, available services, and permanency planning are discussed. Questions for new kin caregivers to ask and a list of additional references are provided.

Placement of Children With Relatives
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 152 KB)

Year Published:   2005 - 2 pages
 
In order for states to receive Federal payments for foster care and adoption assistance, Federal law requires that they "consider giving preference to an adult relative over a non-related caregiver when determining placement for a child, provided that the relative caregiver meets all relevant state child protection standards." Each state defines "relative" differently. However, the main requirements for placement are that the relative be "fit and willing," able to ensure the child's safety, and able to meet the child's needs. This publication provides an overview of State laws regarding preference to relatives, financial support, and adoption by relatives.

Placement of Children With Relatives: Summary of State Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 663 KB)

Year Published:   2005 - 32 pages
 
In order for States to receive Federal payments for foster care and adoption assistance, Federal law requires that they "consider giving preference to an adult relative over a non-related caregiver when determining placement for a child, provided that the relative caregiver meets all relevant State child protection standards." Several States require relatives to undergo a criminal background check that may include all adult members of the household, and several States have established "kinship care" or "relative caregiver" programs by statute to provide relatives with benefits to offset the cost of caring for a placed child. Current through February 2005, this ...

Raising Your Grandchildren (from Promoting Healthy Families in Your Community : 2008 Resource Packet)
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway, Children's Bureau, FRIENDS National Resource Center For Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 169 KB)

Availability in Spanish:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 172 KB)

Year Published:   2008 - 1 pages
 
When children can't be with their parents, a grandparent's home can provide stability and comfort. This tip sheet helps grandparent caregivers understand how their grandchildren may be feeling, how to help children feel safe and secure in their home, and where to find support in their community if needed.


(Inserted Not from Child Welfare Information Gateway:
Who Snitched on You?  Were they afraid “not to?” 
Did they really believe there was abuse or were they afraid of prosecution of themselves?)



Penalties for Failure to Report and False Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: Summary of State Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 200 KB)

Year Published:   2007 - 23 pages

The Role of Educators in Preventing and Responding to Child Abuse and Neglect
Author(s):   Office on Child Abuse and Neglect., Caliber Associates.
Crosson-Tower
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 3,890 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)
Order CD (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2003 - 85 pages
 
This manual, designed to examine the roles that teachers, school counselors, school social workers, school nurses, special education professionals, administrators, and other school personnel have in helping maltreated children, provides the basis for the involvement of educators in combating the problem of child abuse and neglect. It also may be used by other professionals involved in child abuse and neglect interventions, such as child protective services, mental health, law enforcement, health care, and early childhood professionals, to gain a better understanding of the role of educators in child protection. Specifically, this manual addresses the following topics: Identifying reasons why educators ...

School-Based Child Maltreatment Programs: Synthesis of Lessons Learned
Series Title:   Grantee Lessons Learned
Author(s):   Children's Bureau (DHHS)
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 200 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2003 - 9 pages
 
The Office on Child Abuse and Neglect awarded several grants during Fiscal Year 1997 to programs that utilized school resources for the prevention and treatment of child abuse and neglect. The three-year demonstration projects focused on collaboration between child protection agencies and school systems; education for parents, teachers, and children about child abuse and neglect; and the involvement of school staff in prevention and intervention. This report summarizes the service approaches and lessons learned by 11 demonstration programs as noted in their final reports. The projects found that training was effective in enhancing knowledge about the signs of child abuse ...


The Role of Law Enforcement in the Response to Child Abuse and Neglect
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Donna Pence, Charles Wilson
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 212 KB)
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Year Published:   1992 - 78 pages
 
This manual was designed to train State and local law enforcement officials for intervention in and investigation of child abuse and neglect cases. It explains the rules of law enforcement, the nature of team investigations, the investigative process, relationships with other disciplines, interview techniques, and specialized types of investigations. Topics include risk assessment, removal from home, interviewing tools, cross-cultural investigations, foster care, investigation of child deaths, monitoring telephone or personal conversations, polygraph evaluations, and arrest issues. A glossary of terms and a selected bibliography are provided. 1 figure and 54 notes.

The Role of Mental Health Professionals in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Peterson, Urquiza
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 191 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   1993 - 82 pages
 
This manual provides mental health professionals with a knowledge base about preventing and treating child abuse and neglect and helps them understand their roles and responsibilities in this area. Sections provide information on mental health disciplines and child abuse intervention; identify the roles of the mental health professional who works with maltreated children and their families, including preventing abuse on a primary and secondary level, providing tertiary intervention services, evaluating and treating children and their families, serving as an advocate and source of information, acting as an educator, helping clients prepare for testifying in court, being a consultant to county ...

Male Perpetrators of Child Maltreatment: Findings from NCANDS
Author(s):   United States. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation., Walter R. McDonald and Associates.
Shusterman, Fluke, Yuan
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 368 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2005 - 39 pages
 
Using case-level data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect System (NCANDS) for 2002, analyses of the characteristics of male perpetrators of maltreatment were conducted. The study utilized an 18-State data set of 192,392 perpetrators identified by the child protective services system during 2002. The relationship of the perpetrators to the child victims, as well as whether the perpetrator acted alone or with another person, was considered along with demographic characteristics of both perpetrators and victims, and circumstances of the maltreatment. Research questions were: 1) What are the characteristics of male perpetrators of child maltreatment? 2) What specific patterns of ...

Characteristics of Perpetrators
Most States define perpetrators of child abuse and neglect as parents and other caretakers (such as relatives, babysitters, and foster parents) who have harmed a child in their care. It is important to note that States define the term "caretaker" differently. Harm caused to a child by others (such as acquaintances or strangers) may not be considered child abuse but rather may be considered a criminal matter.  The following resources provide information on the characteristics of perpetrators of child abuse and neglect.
        
Perpetrators
Children's Bureau, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2007)
In Child Maltreatment 2005
Data on the characteristics of perpetrators, their relationship to their child victims, and the types of maltreatment they commit.   



(Inserted Not by Child Welfare Information Gateway:
Was this “used” because your child was disabled?)



The Risk and Prevention of Maltreatment of Children with Disabilities
Series Title:   Bulletins for Professionals
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 706 KB)

Year Published:   2001 - 8 pages
 
This In Focus report examines the risk of maltreatment for children with disabilities. Topics include prevalence of the problem, characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of maltreatment, risk factors, and prevention strategies. Emphasis is placed on societal attitudes about disabilities, program policies and procedures, and family-focused programming.


(Inserted Not by Child Welfare Information Gateway:
Were you “assumed” to be a drug user when you were not?)

Screening and Assessment for Family Engagement, Retention and Recovery (SAFERR)
Author(s):   National Center on Substance Abuse and Child Welfare, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Young, Nakashian, Yeh, Amatetti
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 3,510 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2007 - 318 pages
 
This guidebook presents the SAFERR (Screening and Assessment for Family Engagement , Retention, and Recovery) model for helping staff of public and private agencies to families affected by substance use disorders. SAFERR was developed in response to frequent requests from managers of child welfare agencies for a "tool" that caseworkers could use to screen parents for potential substance use disorders in order to make decisions about children's safety. (Author abstract, modified)

Parental Drug Use as Child Abuse
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 180 KB)

Year Published:   2006 - 4 pages
 
Abuse of drugs or alcohol by parents and other caretakers can have a negative impact on the health , safety, and well-being of children. Approximately 42 States, the District of Columbia, and Guam currently have laws within their child protection statutes that address the issue of substance abuse by parents. Two main areas of concern are (1) the harm caused by prenatal drug exposure and (2) the harm caused to children of any age by exposure to illegal drug activity in the home. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) requires States to have policies and procedures in place ...

Parental Drug Use as Child Abuse: Summary of State Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 306 KB)

Year Published:   2006 - 28 pages
 
Abuse of drugs or alcohol by parents and other caretakers can have a negative impact on the health, safety, and well-being of children. Approximately 42 States, the District of Columbia, and Guam currently have laws within their child protection statutes that address the issue of substance abuse by parents. Two main areas of concern are (1) the harm caused by prenatal drug exposure and (2) the harm caused to children of any age by exposure to illegal drug activity in the home. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) requires states to have policies and procedures in place to ...

Substance Abuse
Series Title:   Related Organizations Lists
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication

Year Published:   2008 - 0 pages
 
This resource listing provides the addresses and phone numbers of organizations that maintain information about the substance abuse in the context of child welfare. Each entry includes a brief description of the function of the organization.

Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment
Series Title:   Bulletins for Professionals
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 223 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2003 - 5 pages
 
Substance abuse has a major impact on the child welfare system. It is estimated that 9 percent of children in the United States live with at least one parent who abuses alcohol or other drugs. Research has demonstrated that children of substance abusing parents are more likely to experience abuse or neglect than children in non-substance abusing households. This fact sheet addresses the scope of the problem, the impact of parental substance abuse on children, service delivery issues, and agency practice implications. Resources for further information also are provided. 12 references.

Understanding Substance Abuse and Facilitating Recovery: A Guide for Child Welfare Workers
Author(s):   National Center for Substance Abuse and Child Welfare., United States. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Breshears, Yeh, Young
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 416 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2004 - 34 pages
 
This publication is intended for front line child welfare staff. It discusses the relationship of alcohol and drugs to families in the child welfare system; provides information on the biological, psychological, and social processes of alcohol and drug addiction to help staff recognize when substance abuse is a risk factor in their cases; describes strategies to facilitate and support alcohol and drug treatment and recovery; and explains the benefits of partnering with substance abuse treatment and dependency court systems to improve outcomes for children of parents with substance use disorders. (Author abstract)


(Inserted Not by Child Welfare Information Gateway:
Were you told your child was sexually abused? (includes chapter on “what is sexual abuse?”)


Parenting the Sexually Abused Child
Series Title:   Factsheets for Families
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 292 KB)

Year Published:   1990 - 11 pages
 
Written for prospective and adoptive parents, this fact sheet describes the effects of sexual abuse and provides recommendations for caring for sexually abused children. Topics covered include the physical and behavioral signs of abuse, issues for boys, contributors to juvenile sex offending, and typical reactions to abuse. Bonding in the adoptive family also is discussed. The fact sheet provides a list of recommended publications for parents and professionals.


(Inserted Not by Child Welfare Information Gateway:
Was an “Open Adoption” situation presented to you?  Was it a normal open adoption or a means used to get the birth
 parents to agree to TPR?  It makes it much easier for the CPS attorney to get the birth parents to simply give a TPR with
an open adoption as enticement.  The attorney doesn’t’ have to work as hard in having TPR occur through court,
wherein proof is required to terminate parental rights. Were your needs and wants considered at all in
adopting these children or were you being “used” as a temporary caregiver?  Foster parents know that
children require commitment and give their entire lives and beings to these children in need.
The ultimate commitment is in the form of adoption, which used to mean for a Lifetime.)



Postadoption Contact Agreements Between Birth and Adoptive Families: Summary of State Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 308 KB)

Year Published:   2005 - 42 pages
 
Postadoption contact agreements, sometimes referred to as cooperative adoption or open adoption agreements, are arrangements that allow some kind of contact between a child's adoptive family and members of the child's birth family after the child's adoption has been finalized. These arrangements can range from informal, mutual understandings between the birth and adoptive families to written, formal contracts. Agreements for postadoption contact or communication have become more prevalent in recent years, due to several factors: -- There is wider recognition of the rights of birth parents to make choices for their children -- Many adoptions involve older children, such as ...
 

(Inserted Not by Child Welfare Information Gateway:
Were these Guidelines in Making Reports followed?)


Making and Screening Reports of Child Abuse and Neglect
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 196 KB)

Year Published:   2006 - 4 pages
 
This publication discusses procedures for making reports of suspected child abuse or neglect, the required content of reports, and special reporting procedures for reports of suspicious deaths and substance-exposed newborns. It also discusses criteria for screening reports by child protective services, timeframes for initiating investigations, and differing methods of agency response.

Making and Screening Reports of Child Abuse and Neglect : Summary of State Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 451 KB)

Year Published:   2006 - 74 pages
 
All 50 States, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands have laws and policies that specify procedures for making and responding to reports of suspected child abuse or neglect. All States require mandated reporters to make an immediate report when they suspect or know of abusive or neglectful situations. In all jurisdictions, the initial report may be made orally to either the child protective services (CPS) agency or a law enforcement agency. In addition, the laws and policies in all jurisdictions specify procedures for the initial response required by ...

(Inserted Not by Child Welfare Information Gateway:
Was your case handled in an up-to-date manner according to surveys & findings done on CPS practices?)


National Evaluation of Family Support Programs Volume A: The Meta-Analysis
Author(s):   Layzer, Goodson, Bernstein, Price
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 403 KB)

Year Published:   2001 - 99 pages
 
As part of the national evaluation of family support programs mandated by the Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1993, the Administration on Children, Youth and Families contracted with Abt Associates Inc. to conduct a meta-analysis of existing research about the effectiveness of different types of programs and the impact of services on families with a variety of needs and characteristics. The meta-analysis provides a statistical summary of 665 studies of 260 programs. In general, the findings revealed that family support services resulted in slight improvements in some outcomes. However, existing research has not identified one model that is effective for all ...

National Study of Child Protective Services Systems and Reform Efforts: A Summary Report
Author(s):   Fluke, Harper, Parry, Sedlak, et al.
Availability:   View Publication
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2003 - 32 pages
 
This paper summarizes key findings on practice and policy, as well as changes being undertaken, which were identified during the 2-year National Study of Child Protective Services Systems and Reform Efforts. Topics include background, screening and triage, investigation, collaboration with law enforcement, alternatives to investigation, collaboration in providing services, and looking toward the future. These findings were discussed at a symposium of persons knowledgeable about child protective services policies and practices and their observations are included in this paper. (Author abstract modified)

National Study of Child Protective Services Systems and Reform Efforts: Findings on Local CPS Practices
Author(s):   Children's Bureau (DHHS)
Availability:   View Publication
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2003 - 161 pages
 
The Children's Bureau and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services surveyed local child protective service agencies in 300 counties during 2002 about their structure and organization of screening and intake, investigation, and alternative response functions. Cooperation with other agencies and reform initiatives also were addressed. This report reviews the findings of the research and analyzes differences between agency structures. The majority of child protective service agencies received referrals from state or local hotlines, schools, and individuals. However, few agencies automatically accepted referrals from identified groups of reporters. ...

National Study of Child Protective Services Systems and Reform Efforts: Review of State CPS Policy
Author(s):   Fluke, Harper, Parry, Yuan
Availability:   View Publication
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2003 - 126 pages
 
State child protective service policy manuals were reviewed for this report about current administration, screening, investigation, and child protection response strategies. Similarities and differences between states are noted, and innovative activities are highlighted. Policies varied regarding the definition of mandated reporters, criteria for accepting referrals, notifications of screening decisions, investigation disposition categories, level of evidence required for substantiation, and timeframes for investigation. Twenty states indicated that they had an alternative response system available for families with low risk of harm. Reasons for the creation of the alternative system ranged from child safety to service flexibility. Overall, the state policies were ...

National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW): Local Child Welfare Agency Survey. Report.
Author(s):   National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being Research Group
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 888 KB)

Year Published:   2001 - 108 pages
 
This report summarizes data collected during the first wave of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being about the structure of child welfare agencies and the services provided to families. Child welfare administrators from 92 localities were interviewed and asked to complete a questionnaire about staff resources, foster care resources, service activities, service delivery mechanisms, and service dynamics. The study found that two-thirds of the participating child welfare agencies were contained within a larger agency and many collaborated with other programs, such as Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, substance abuse treatment, mental health treatment, and juvenile justice. More than ...

National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being: State Child Welfare Agency Survey. Report.
Author(s):   National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being Research Group
Availability:   View Publication

Year Published:   2001 - 74 pages
 
Forty-six state child welfare administrators were interviewed by telephone from March 2000 to August 2000 for the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being sponsored by the Children's Bureau. The survey requested information about child welfare policies and practices and the impact of recent Federal legislation, including the Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA), Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the Multiethnic Placement Act, and the Foster Care Independence Act. The majority of administrators indicated that the ASFA has influenced changes in practices regarding child safety, permanency, collaboration with the courts, and data collection. One-third of the administrators noted discrepancies ...

(Inserted Not by Child Welfare Information Gateway:
The following from Child Welfare Information Gateway includes Caseworker Code of Ethics)



Child Protective Services: A Guide for Caseworkers. 2003
Author(s):   Office on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS)
DePanfilis, Salus
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 4,470 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2003 - 141 pages
 
This manual, in CD-ROM format, examines the roles and responsibilities of child protective services (CPS) workers. It describes the purposes, key decisions, and issues of each stage of the CPS process: intake, initial assessment/investigation, family assessment, case planning, service provision, evaluation of family progress and case closure. The manual also covers strategies for casework supervision, training, and support. Appendices include a glossary of terms, resource listings of selected national organizations, State toll-free telephone numbers for reporting child abuse, and the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics. 8 tables and 173 references.

Child Sexual Abuse: Intervention and Treatment Issues
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Faller
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 283 KB)

Year Published:   1993 - 126 pages
 
The manual addresses the needs of professionals regarding child sexual abuse, describes professional practices, and discusses how to assist sexually abused children and their families. Treatment techniques for the victim, the nonoffending parent or mother, and the offending father are offered, and research on reliability and suggestibility of child witnesses is reviewed briefly. The focus of the manual is on case management and substantiation and is designed to assist child protection workers, child abuse investigation and mental health staff, legal professionals, and education and health care professionals. Child interviewing techniques and sample questions are included. The document contains a glossary ...

Child Welfare and the Law
Series Title:   Related Organizations Lists
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication

Year Published:   2008 - 0 pages
 
This resource list provides the addresses and phone numbers of organizations that maintain information for professionals about legal issues regarding child welfare. A short description of each organization is included. The organizations address children's rights, the prosecution of child abuse, state court proceedings, child welfare policy analysis, and advocacy.

Executive Summary of Effective Intervention in Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment Cases: Guidelines for Policy and Practice. Recommendations From the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges Family Violence Department.
Author(s):   Schechter, Edleson
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 66 KB)

Year Published:   1999 - 6 pages
 
This report summarizes the recommendations of the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges for responding to domestic violence and child abuse within the same family, available in full at http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/otherpubs/ncjfcj.pdf . An advisory committee of the Council focused on coordinating interventions provided by the child protection system, domestic violence programs, and juvenile or trial courts, as well as law enforcement, child welfare, churches, schools, health care systems, and extended families. Emphasis was placed onthe need to ensure the safety, well-being, and stability of children and their families. The foundation principles also recommend the expansion and reallocation ...

A Framework for Quality Assurance in Child Welfare
Author(s):   National Child Welfare Resource Center for Organizational Improvement.
O'Brien, Watson
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 212 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2002 - 82 pages
 
This guide outlines a framework for implementing quality assurance programs for child welfare services. The components are based on federal requirements, national standards, and child welfare research. Five steps are described: select outcomes and standards, integrate quality assurance goals and procedures throughout the agency, collect data about outcomes, analyze data, and improve systems as indicated by evaluation findings. Specific topics include the role of the quality assurance system in the Child and Family Services Review process, communication of quality assurance practices, and staff participation in analysis. The manual describes each step of the quality assurance system and reviews the tasks ...

Abuse of Children With Disabilities
Cosmos
Today, 8(2), 2001
View Abstract
Explores surveys and studies about abused children with disabilities, perpetrators, and the effects of abuse and maltreatment.

Child Abuse in America: Prevalence, Costs, Consequences and Intervention
van der Kolk, Crozier, & Hopper (2001)
In The Cost of Child Maltreatment: Who Pays? We All Do
View Abstract
Summarizes findings from research about the incidence of child maltreatment, types of abuse, characteristics of victims and perpetrators, and the impact of abuse on children's health and behavior.
Child Abuse and Neglect: Perpetrators
Child Welfare League of America (2003)
Data describing the relationship of perpetrators to victims.

Comparing Different Types of Child Abuse and Spouse Abuse Offenders
Pittman & Lee
Violence and Victims, 19(2), 2004
View Abstract
Examined differences in background characteristics, personal and interpersonal problems, and family climate among three types of child abuse offenders to determine the necessity of distinguishing types.

Identifying Child Molesters: Preventing Child Sexual Abuse by Recognizing the Patterns of the Offenders
Van Dam (2000)
View Abstract
Includes typical characteristics of sex offenders.

Male Perpetrators of Child Maltreatment: Findings from NCANDS
Series Title:   Secondary Analysis On Child Abuse and Neglect Topics of Current Policy Interest ; no. 1
Author(s):   United States. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation., Walter R. McDonald and Associates.
Shusterman, Fluke, Yuan
Availability:    View Publication
Printable Version (PDF - 368 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2005 - 39 pages
Using case-level data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect System (NCANDS) for 2002, analyses of the characteristics of male perpetrators of maltreatment were conducted. The study utilized an 18-State data set of 192,392 perpetrators identified by the child protective services system during 2002. The relationship of the perpetrators to the child victims, as well as whether the perpetrator acted alone or with another person, was considered along with demographic characteristics of both perpetrators and victims, and circumstances of the maltreatment. Research questions were: 1) What are the characteristics of male perpetrators of child maltreatment? 2) What specific patterns of ...

Psychosocial Factors Associated With Types of Child Maltreatment
DiLauro
Child Welfare, 83(1), 2004
View Abstract
Examines whether a relationship exists between certain parent or caregiver psychosocial factors or clusters of factors and the type of maltreatment.

The Relative Importance of Wife Abuse as a Risk Factor for Violence Against Children
Tajima
Child Abuse and Neglect, 24(11), 2000
View Abstract
Study investigating the relative importance of wife abuse as a risk factor for physical punishment and verbal child abuse.

Who Are the Perpetrators and Why Do They Do It?
Davies & Garwood
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 5(1), 2001
View Abstract
Discusses the social situational model of child abuse and how it can be used to conceptualize individual and environmental factors that place caregivers at risk for shaking a child.


(Inserted Not from Child Welfare Information Gateway:
Did CPS itself, cause maltreatment in removal of your child?)



The Following is From:  http://www.childwelfare.gov/can/impact/

Impact
Learn how child abuse and neglect affect children, adolescents, adult survivors, and society. This section examines the impact of abuse and neglect on child development, as well as long-term consequences for adults with a history of abuse. Impact is explored by type of abuse, family factors, and the social and economic consequences.
    Impact by type of maltreatment
    Impact of family factors
    Impact on child development
    Long-term consequences of abuse and neglect
    Social and economic consequences of abuse and neglect
 
        
Selected Resources
Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect
Child Welfare Information Gateway (2006)
Overview of some of the most common physical, psychological, behavioral, and societal consequences of child abuse and neglect. (PDF - 249 KB)
What Are the Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect?
Children’s Bureau (HHS) User Manual Series (2003)
In A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice
A discussion of the physical, developmental, psychological, and societal effects of child abuse and neglect.
National Center for Children Exposed to Violence
A comprehensive website providing Internet resources and a bibliographic database of information on the effects of violence exposure on children. The center also provides training and technical assistance to a variety of collaborative community programs that respond to children and families exposed to violence.
The Vortex of Violence: How Children Adapt and Survive in a Violent World (PDF - 223 KB)
Child Trauma Academy (2002)
Discusses the impact of violence on a child’s development, including effects on physical, emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and social functioning, and the transgenerational cycle of violence.    

    
        
Related Information Gateway Topics
Preventing child abuse & neglect
Responding to child abuse & neglect

 The following definitions and links of Child Abuse & Neglect is directly from:

Children’s Bureau
Administration for Children & Families (ACF)
US Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS)

From:  Child Welfare Information Gateway:  http://www.childwelfare.gov/can/index.cfm

Child Abuse & Neglect
Resources about child maltreatment, including definitions, signs and symptoms, statistics and prevalence, types of child abuse and neglect, risk and protective factors, the impact on individuals and society, and child fatalities.
Overview
Links to related organizations and state hotlines and answers to frequently asked questions.
Defining child abuse & neglect
Definitions from Federal and State laws, and resources that distinguish between discipline and abuse.
Identifying child abuse & neglect
Information and training resources on recognizing signs and symptoms.
Prevalence
National and State statistics on child maltreatment, prevalence of different types of child abuse and neglect, abuse and neglect in out-of-home care, and recurrence.
Perpetrators
Characteristics of perpetrators, including those who commit certain types of abuse, such as juvenile sex offenders.
Types
Definitions and signs of different maltreatment types and research on child neglect, sexual abuse, physical abuse, and emotional abuse.
Risk & protective factors
Characteristics of parents or caretakers, families, children, and communities that increase risk or promote safe and supportive families and resilience in children.
Impact
How child abuse and neglect affect children, adolescents, adult survivors, and society, including its impact on child development.
Child fatalities
Perpetrator characteristics and risk factors.
For help with reporting child abuse and neglect or to speak with a counselor, contact Childhelp® at 800.422.4453.
 


Offline egypt

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Getting off the Central Registry
(of Child Abuse)

One of the first things that happens with a CPS episode is one finds themselves on the Central Registry of Child Abuse {In CA it is the Child Abuse Index.}  This is a Statewide Registry and is busily being upgraded to a National Registry System {SACWIS & others}.  It is akin to the Secret Files of the Secret Gestapo Police.  One is not allowed to see the file, nor add to the file.  The file will always exist.  This is to create that "preponderance of evidence" to get the child(ren) later.

Upon removal, the Outcome of Investigation report by internal CPS Investigators is created which will indicate guilt in one of these manners:  "substantiated" or "indicated" or other terminology depending on the State.  It is at this point the Central Registry record is created.

Being on the Central Registry is damaging.  One cannot obtain a caregiver job, be around children or care for the elderly.  People lose their ability to perform as: nurses, teachers, substitute teacher, babysitter, nanny, etc.   Employers may say they won't hire a "child abuser" after obtaining the record.

In addition to being "secret," one is presumed to be guilty, even-if-proven-innocent.  The Central Registry has been ruled unConstitutional & has been disbanded in the following States (there may be more by now):  California, Missouri, Illinois.

Please know, CPS is about catching child abusers, not about protecting children.  In the process, if children are damaged, the attitude is that it is just so much collateral damage.

The CPS System revolves around the Central Registry.  This is the meat and potatoes because Federal funding is based on the number of child abusers that are caught.  The Registry is what is gone by.  Many times the nabbing takes place at the end of the year and doesn't get cleared up until the next year.  This way, it seems they can count one "child abuser" as two for the year's funding.

There are huge bonuses for:  1. child removal   2. placement for adoption

The process of "review" for the determination of status (substantiated, unsubstantiated..et. al.) on the Central Registry is a sham.  One can have up to 5 "administrative hearings" with the last one being before a judge.  In the meantime, those who are the very ones to benefit by catching a child abuser, are the ones who are "reviewing" and conducting the hearing.

Watch Out. The Administrative Review Hearings are simply another avenue and opportunity to gather evidence against you and get you to speak.  You must obtain an attorney to handled the Administrative Review Hearing process and be at your side to speak for you at the hearing.

CPS plays dirty.  They will intimidate saying your attorney is not allowed to be present.  They will spend most of the couple of hours trying to get you to believe they are benevolent and care about you -- objective being, to get you to talk.  Then, they take any words you say, twist, daemonize, mock up, fabricate, etc.  It is the usual in their operations.

It is legally setup for the time frame to even take advantage of the Administrative Hearing process.  It is best to have your attorney handle this:  mail w/return receipt, hand-delivery w/signed receipt & faxed.  Use all three.  In one case, the CPS attorney, working out of the DA's office actually fabricated paperwork to try and show that the "response" for setting up the Administrative Hearing (to show innocence) was received "too late."  It wasn't true, but if it had been received "too late" according to the legal guidelines for your State, you forfeit the opportunity for the Administrative Hearing to receive a not-guilty status on your State Central Registry of Child Abusers.


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~`
State Statute Summaries
(Central Registry Expunction of Records)

From:  www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/registry.cfm

Review and Expunction of
Central Registries and Reporting Records:  
Summary of State Laws

Current Through
August 2005

Records of child abuse and neglect reports are maintained by State child protection or social services agencies to aid in the investigation, treatment, and prevention of child abuse cases and to maintain statistical information for staffing and funding purposes. In many States, these records and the results of investigations are maintained in databases, often known as central registries.

Following an investigation, States classify child abuse records in a variety of ways, depending on the State statutory language. The term “unsubstantiated” is used to describe situations in which an investigation has been unable to determine the occurrence of abuse or neglect. Other terms for unsubstantiated can include “unfounded,” “not indicated,” or “unconfirmed.”

The term “substantiated” is given to a report if a determination has been made that abuse or neglect did likely occur. Other terms for substantiated include “founded,” “indicated,” or “confirmed.” Several States maintain all investigated reports of abuse and neglect in their central registries, while other States maintain only substantiated reports.


Right of the Reported Person to Review and
Challenge Records When Records Must Be Expunged

Many States use the records that are maintained in central registries for background checks for persons seeking employment to work with children and for prospective foster and adoptive parents. Therefore, several due process and protection issues arise when a State maintains a central registry that identifies individuals accused of and found to have committed child abuse or neglect.

In some cases, persons whose names are listed as alleged perpetrators in a central registry have asserted that the listing of their name in the registry deprives them of a constitutionally protected interest without due process of law.  Approximately 25 States, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, and Puerto Rico provide an individual the right to request an administrative hearing to contest the findings of an investigation of a report and to have an inaccurate report expunged or deleted from the registry. 1

When Records Must Be Expunged

The term “expunction,” or “expungement,” refers to the procedures used by States to maintain and update their central registries and recordkeeping by removing old or inaccurate records.

Under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), in order to receive a Federal grant, States must submit plans that include provisions and procedures for the prompt expunction of records of unsubstantiated or false cases if the records are accessible to the general public or are used for purposes of employment or other background checks.2   CAPTA does, however, allow State child protective services agencies to retain information on unsubstantiated reports in their casework files to assist in future risk and safety assessment.3

Approximately 38 States, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, and Guam have provisions in statute for the expunction of certain child abuse and neglect reports.4  Statutes vary as to expunction standards and procedures. For example, the time specified for the expunction of unfounded or undetermined reports generally ranges from immediately upon determination to 10 years.5  A few States, however, do not permit unfounded reports to be placed on the registry at all. Substantiated reports are usually retained longer, typically at least until the child victim has reached adulthood.

1 The word approximately is used to stress the fact that States frequently amend their
laws. This information is current only through August 2005. The States that provide for
administrative review include Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Idaho,
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska,
New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont,
Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin.
2 42 U.S.C.A. § 5101 et. seq. (2003).
342 U.S.C.A. § 5106a(b)(2)(A)(xii) (2003).
4The States and territories that do not have such provisions include Alaska, Idaho,
Kansas, Kentucky, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Tennessee,
Texas, Wisconsin, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands.
5For more information, see Chapter 4 of the April 2003 National Study of Child
Protective Services Systems and Reform Efforts: Review of State CPS Policy by the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning
and Evaluation, and Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children,
Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau, available at http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/CPS-status03/
state-policy03/chapter4.htm.

This publication is a product of the State Statutes Series prepared by Child Welfare Information Gateway.

While every attempt has been made to be as complete as possible, additional information on these topic  may be in other sections of a State’s code as well as agency regulations,
case law, and informal practices and procedures.


The individual summaries by State can be found at:  www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/search/index.cfm



Offline egypt

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Getting Off the Registry

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

State Statutes Summaries
(Expunction of Central Registry Records)

The Following is From: www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/search/index.cfm

Alabama
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ala. Code § 26-14-8
    In the case of any child abuse or neglect investigation that is determined to be ‘not indicated,’ the alleged perpetrator may request after 5 years from the completion of the investigation that his or her name be expunged from the central registry.
    As long as the department has received no further reports concerning the alleged perpetrator during the 5 years since the completion of the investigation, the department shall expunge the name at that time.

Alaska
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

American Samoa
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Code § 45.2028
    At any time after the completion of the investigation, but no later than 10 years after the receipt of the report, a subject of the report may request the head of the registry to amend, seal, or expunge the record of the report.
    If the head of the registry refuses or does not act within a reasonable time, but in no event later than 30 days after the request, the subject shall have the right to a fair hearing to determine whether the record of the report in the central registry should be amended or expunged on the grounds that it is inaccurate or it is being maintained in a manner inconsistent with the law.
    The burden in the hearing shall be on the department. In the hearings, the fact that there was a finding of child abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect is presumptive evidence that the report was substantiated.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Code §§ 45.2025; 45.2026
    Unless an investigation determines there is some credible evidence of alleged abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect, all information identifying the subject of the report is immediately expunged from the central registry.
    In all other cases, the record of the report to the central registry is sealed no later than 10 years after the subject child's 18th birthday.
    Once sealed, the record shall not otherwise be available, unless the head of the central registry, upon notice to the subjects of the report, gives his or her personal approval for an appropriate reason.

Arizona
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Rev. Stat. § 8-811
    The department shall notify a person who is alleged to have abused or neglected a child that the department intends to substantiate the allegation in the central registry and of that person's right:
o   To receive a copy of the report containing the allegation
o   To a hearing before the entry into the central registry
    The department shall send the notice no more than 14 days after completion of the investigation.
    A request for a hearing on the proposed finding must be received by the department within 14 days after receipt of the notice.
    If a request for a hearing is made, the department shall conduct a review before the hearing. The department shall provide an opportunity for the accused person to provide information to support the position that the department should not substantiate the allegation. If the department determines that there is no probable cause that the accused person engaged in the alleged conduct, the department shall amend the information or finding in the report and shall notify the person and a hearing shall not be held.
    The notification shall also state that if the department does not amend the information or finding in the report within 60 days after it receives the request for a hearing the person has a right to a hearing unless:
o   The person is a party in a civil, criminal, or administrative proceeding in which the allegations of abuse or neglect are at issue.
o   A court or administrative law judge has made findings as to the alleged abuse or neglect.
    If the department does not amend the report, the department shall notify the office of administrative hearings of the request for a hearing no later than 5 days after completion of the review. The department shall forward all records, reports, and other relevant information with the request for a hearing within 10 days.
    The office of administrative hearings shall hold a hearing pursuant to title 41, chapter 6, article 10, with the following exceptions:
o   A child who is the victim of or a witness to abuse or neglect is not required to testify at the hearing.
o   A child's hearsay statement is admissible if the time, content, and circumstances of that statement are sufficiently indicative of its reliability.
o   The identity of the reporting source of the abuse or neglect shall not be disclosed without the permission of the reporting source.
o   The reporting source is not required to testify.
o   A written statement from the reporting source may be admitted if the time, content, and circumstances of that statement are sufficiently indicative of its reliability.
    On completion of the presentation of evidence, the administrative law judge shall determine if probable cause exists to sustain the department's finding that the accused engaged in the alleged conduct. If the administrative law judge determines that probable cause does not exist to sustain the department's finding, the administrative law judge shall order the department to amend the information or finding in the report.
    When the department is requested to verify whether the child protective services central registry contains a substantiated report about a specific person, the department shall determine if the report was taken after January 1, 1998. If the report was taken after January 1, 1998, the department shall notify the requestor of the substantiated finding.
    If the child protective services report was taken before January 1, 1998, the department shall notify the person of the person's right to request an administrative hearing. The department shall not send this notification if the person was a party in a civil, criminal, or administrative proceeding in which the allegations of abuse or neglect were at issue.

Rev. Stat. § 8-804
    If the department received a report before September 1, 1999, and determined that the report was substantiated, the department shall maintain the report in the central registry until 18 years from the child victim's date of birth.
    If the department received a report on or after September 1, 1999, and determined that the report was substantiated, the department shall maintain the report in the central registry for 25 years after the date of the report.
    The department shall annually purge reports and investigative outcomes received pursuant to the timeframes prescribed above.

Arkansas
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Code § 12-12-512
    In every case in which a report is determined to be true, the department shall notify each subject of the report of the determination.
    If the offender is a juvenile age 10 years or older and is in foster care, the department shall notify the juvenile's public defender or counsel and the legal parents or guardians of the offender.
    If the offender is a juvenile age 10 years or older, the department shall notify the legal parents or guardians of the offender.
    Notification to offenders who were adults at the time of the finding of child maltreatment shall include the following:
o   The investigative determination, true or unsubstantiated, exclusive of the source of the notification
o   A statement that the person named as the offender of the true report may request an administrative hearing
o   A statement that the request must be made to the department within 30 days of receipt of the notice
o   The name of the person making notification, the person's occupation, and where he or she can be reached
    Notification to offenders who were juveniles at the time of the finding of child maltreatment shall include the additional statement that the matter has been referred for an automatic administrative hearing that can be waived only by the juvenile offender in writing.
    The administrative hearing process must be completed within 180 days from the date of the receipt of the request for a hearing, provided that:
o   Delays in completing the hearing that are attributable to the petitioner shall not count against the 180 day limit.
o   Failure to complete the hearing process in a timely fashion shall not deprive the department or a court reviewing the child maltreatment determination of jurisdiction to make or review a final agency determination.
o   The 180-day limit shall not apply if there is an ongoing criminal or delinquency investigation, or criminal or delinquency charges have or will be filed.
    When the department conducts administrative appeal hearings, the chief counsel of the department is authorized to require the attendance of witnesses and the production of books, records, or other documents through the issuance of subpoenas.
    If the petitioner prevails at the administrative hearing or circuit court hearing and the report is changed from true to unsubstantiated, upon request by the petitioner, the department shall provide a list of persons to whom a disclosure had previously been made that the report was true.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Code § 12-12-505
    The department shall identify in its policy and procedures manual the types of child maltreatment that will automatically result in the removal of the name of an offender from the central registry. If an offender has been entered into the central registry, the offender's name shall be removed from the central registry when the offender has not had a subsequent true report of this type for 1 year, and more than one 1 year has lapsed since the closure of any protective services or foster care case opened as the result of this report.
    Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, with regard to offenders who were juveniles at the time of the act or omission that resulted in a true finding of child maltreatment, the department shall:
o   Not remove the name from the central registry if the offender was found guilty, pled guilty to, or pled nolo contendere to a felony in circuit court as an adult for the same act for which the offender is named in the central registry unless the conviction is reversed or vacated
o   Remove the name from the central registry if more than 5 years have elapsed since the true finding of child maltreatment and there have been no subsequent true findings of child maltreatment, or the offender can prove by a preponderance of the evidence that he or she has been rehabilitated
    If an offender has been entered into the central registry, the offender may petition the department requesting that the offender's name be removed from the central registry when he or she has not had a subsequent true report for 5 years and more than 5 years have elapsed since the closure of any protective services or foster care case opened as the result of the report.
    If the department denies the request for removal of the name from the central registry, the offender may request an administrative hearing within 30 days from receipt of the department's decision.

California
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Penal Code § 11170
    Any person may determine if he or she is listed in the Child Abuse Central Index by making a request in writing to the Department of Justice. The request shall be notarized and include the person's name, address, date of birth, and either a social security number or a California identification number.
    Upon receipt of a notarized request, the Department of Justice shall make available to the requesting person information identifying the date of the report and the submitting agency.
    The requesting person is responsible for obtaining the investigative report from the submitting agency pursuant to § 11167.5(11)(b).

When Records Must Be Expunged
Penal Code § 11170
    Information from an inconclusive or unsubstantiated report shall be deleted from the Child Abuse Central Index after 10 years if no subsequent report concerning the same suspected child abuser is received within that time period.
    If a subsequent report is received within that 10-year period, information from any prior report, as well as any subsequently filed report, shall be maintained on the Child Abuse Central Index for a period of 10 years from the time the most recent report is received by the department.
    If a person is listed in the Child Abuse Central Index only as a victim of child abuse or neglect, and that person is 18 years of age or older, that person may have his or her name removed from the index by making a written request to the Department of Justice. The request shall be notarized and include the person's name, address, social security number, and date of birth.

Colorado
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Rev. Stat. § 19-3-313.5

On or before January 1, 2004, the State board shall promulgate rules to establish a process at the State level by which a person who is found to be responsible in a confirmed report of child abuse or neglect filed with the State department pursuant to § 19-3-307 may appeal the finding of a confirmed report of child abuse or neglect to the State department. At a minimum, the rules established shall address the following matters, consistent with Federal law:
    The provision of adequate and timely written notice by the county departments of social services or, for an investigation pursuant to § 19-3-308(4.5), by the agency that contracts with the State, using a form created by the State department, to a person found to be responsible in a confirmed report of child abuse or neglect of the person's right to appeal the finding of a confirmed report of child abuse or neglect to the State department
    The timeline and method for appealing the finding of a confirmed report of child abuse or neglect
    Designation of the entity, that shall be one other than a county department of social services, with the authority to accept and respond to an appeal by a person found to be responsible in a confirmed report of child abuse or neglect at each stage of the appellate process
    The legal standards involved in the appellate process and a designation of the party who bears the burden of establishing that each standard is met
    The confidentiality requirements of the appeals process

When Records Must Be Expunged
Rev. Stat. § 19-3-313.5
    The rules established by the State board shall, consistent with Federal law, provide for procedures that facilitate the prompt expunction of and prevent the release of any information contained in any records and reports that are accessible to the general public or are used for purposes of employment or background checks in cases determined to be unsubstantiated or false.
    The State department and the county department of social services may maintain information concerning unsubstantiated reports in casework files to assist in future risk and safety assessments.

Connecticut
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Gen. Stat. § 17a-101k

[Effective October 1, 2005]
    Upon a finding that an individual is responsible for abuse or neglect of a child, the commissioner shall provide notice of the finding not later than 5 business days after the issuance of the finding to the individual who is alleged to be responsible. The notice shall:
o   Contain a description of the finding
o   Inform the individual of the existence of the registry and of the commissioner’s intention to place the individual’s name on the registry unless the individual exercises his or her right to appeal the finding
o   Inform the individual of the potential adverse consequences of being listed on the registry, including the potential effect on obtaining or retaining employment, licensure, or engaging in activities involving direct contact with children
o   Include a written form for the individual to sign and return, indicating whether the individual will invoke the appeal procedures
    Following a request for appeal, the commissioner shall conduct an internal review of the finding, to be completed no later than 30 days after the request for appeal is received by the department.
    The commissioner shall review all information relevant to the finding to determine whether the finding is factually or legally deficient and ought to be reversed. Prior to the review, the commissioner shall provide the individual access to all relevant documents in the possession of the commissioner regarding the finding of responsibility for abuse or neglect of a child.
    The individual may submit any documentation that is relevant to a determination of the issue and may, at the commissioner’s discretion, participate in a telephone conference or face-to-face meeting to be conducted for the purpose of gathering additional information that may be relevant to determining whether the finding is factually or legally deficient.
    If the commissioner, as a result of the prehearing review, determines that the finding of abuse or neglect is factually or legally deficient, the commissioner shall reverse the finding and send notice to the individual within 5 days.
    If the finding is upheld, the individual shall be notified of the right to request a hearing. The individual may request a hearing no later than 30 days after receipt of the notice.
    At the hearing, the individual may be represented by legal counsel. The burden of proof shall be on the commissioner to prove that the finding is supported by a fair preponderance of the evidence.
    Not later than 30 days after the hearing, the hearing officer shall issue a written decision to either reverse or uphold.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Gen. Stat. § 17a-101k

[Effective October 1, 2005]
    Records containing unsubstantiated findings shall remain sealed, except that such records shall be made available to department employees in the proper discharge of their duties.
    Records containing unsubstantiated findings shall be expunged 5 years from the completion date of the investigation if no further report is made about the individual.
    If the department receives more than one report on an individual and each report is unsubstantiated, all reports and information pertaining to the individual shall be expunged 5 years from the completion date of the most recent investigation.

Delaware
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Code Tit. 16, § 929
    A person who has been entered on the Child Protection Registry at Child Protection Level II or Level III, and who has successfully completed a division-recommended or family court-ordered case plan, may file a petition for removal in the family court prior to the expiration of the time designated for the level. Only a person who has successfully completed that person's own case plan is eligible to petition for an early removal.
    A petition for removal from the Registry must be filed in the family court in the county in which the substantiation occurred. A copy of the petition must be served on the division. The division may file an objection or answer to the petition within 30 days after being served. In every case, the division shall inform the court whether or not the person applying for removal has been substantiated for abuse or neglect while on the Child Protection Registry. The family court may, in its discretion, dispose of a petition for removal without a hearing.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Code Tit. 16, § 929
    A person who has been entered on the Child Protection Registry at Child Protection Level II or Level III will be automatically removed from the Registry, provided that the person has not been substantiated for an incident of abuse or neglect while on the Registry.
    Removal from the Child Protection Registry means only that the person's name has been removed from the Registry and may no longer be reported to employers pursuant to § 8563 of Title 11.
    Notwithstanding removal from the Registry, the person's name and other case information remains in the division's internal information system as substantiated for all other purposes, including, but not limited to, the division's use of the information for historical, treatment, and investigative purposes, childcare licensing decisions, foster and adoptive parent decisions, reporting pursuant to § 309 of Title 31, reporting to law enforcement authorities, or any other purpose set forth in § 906(b) of this title.

District of Columbia

Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Code §§ 4-1302.05; 4-1302.06
    The staff that maintains the Child Protection Register shall, within 7 days from the date that a report is entered in the Register, give notice to each person identified in the report that the report identifies him or her as responsible for the alleged abuse or neglect of the child who is the subject of the report.
    This notice shall include the following information:
o   The date that the report identifying the person was entered in the Child Protection Register
o   The right of the person to review the entire report, except information that identifies other persons mentioned in the report
o   The administrative procedures through which the person may seek to correct information that he or she alleges is incorrect or to establish that the report is unfounded
    The Mayor shall establish, by rules adopted pursuant to § 2-501 et seq., procedures to permit a person identified in the Child Protection Register to challenge information that he or she alleges is incorrect or establish that a report is unfounded.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Code § 4-1302.07
    Notwithstanding any other provision of law, substantiated reports shall not be expunged from the Child Protection Register.
    The staff that maintains the Child Protection Register shall expunge from each inconclusive report all information that identifies any person in the inconclusive report upon the first occurrence of either:
o   The 18th birthday of the child who is the subject of the report, if there is no reasonable suspicion or evidence that another child living in the same household or under the care of the same parent, guardian, or custodian has been abused or neglected
o   The end of the 5th year after the termination of the social rehabilitation services directed toward the abuse and neglect
    The staff that maintains the Child Protection Register shall expunge:
o   Any unfounded report immediately upon such classification by the agency
o   Any material successfully challenged as incorrect pursuant to the rules adopted under § 4-1302.06

Florida
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Stat. § 39.202

The department shall make and keep reports and records of all cases under this chapter relating to child abuse, abandonment, and neglect and shall preserve the records pertaining to a child and family until 7 years after the last entry was made or until the child is 18 years of age, whichever date is first reached, and may then destroy the records.

Georgia
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Code § 49-5-184(c)
    Any person whose name appears in the abuse registry without a hearing having been held to determine whether or not there was sufficient credible evidence of child abuse by such person, or a reasonable basis to justify such inclusion on the registry, is entitled to a hearing for an administrative determination of whether or not expunction of such person's name should be ordered.
    In order to exercise such right, the person must file a written request for a hearing with the DFACS office of any county in which the investigation was conducted that resulted in such person's name being included in the abuse registry.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Code § 49-5-184(b)

All identifying information in the abuse registry of cases classified as unconfirmed shall be expunged from the abuse registry within 2 years after the case is so classified.

Guam
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Code tit. 19, § 13208(f)

If an investigation of a report of suspected child abuse or neglect does not determine, within 1 year of the date of the report of suspected child abuse or neglect, that the report is an indicated report or a substantiated report, the report shall be considered an unsubstantiated report, and all information identifying the subjects of the report shall be expunged from Child Protective Services' suspected files.

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Offline egypt

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Getting Off The Registry
(continued)

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The Following is From: www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/search/index.cfm


Hawaii

Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Rev. Stat. § 350-2(d)

The department shall promptly expunge the reports [from the central registry of reported child abuse or neglect cases] when:
    The department has found the reports to be unsubstantiated.
    The petition arising from the report has been dismissed by order of the family court after an adjudicatory hearing on the merits pursuant to chapter 587.

Idaho
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Idaho Code § 16-1629(7)

The department shall establish appropriate administrative procedures for the processing of complaints of child neglect, abuse, and abandonment.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

Illinois
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
325 ILCS § 5/7.16
    Within 60 days after the completion of the Child Protective Service Unit investigation, the subject of a report may request the department to amend the record or remove the record of the report from the register.
    Such request shall be in writing and directed to such person as the department designates in the notification.
    If the department disregards any request to do so or does not act within 10 days, the subject shall have the right to a hearing within the department to determine whether the record of the report should be amended or removed on the grounds that it is inaccurate or it is being maintained in a manner inconsistent with this Act.
    There shall be no such right to a hearing on the ground of the report's inaccuracy if there has been a court finding of child abuse or neglect. The report's accuracy shall be conclusively presumed on such finding.
    In the hearing, the burden of proving the accuracy and consistency of the record shall be on the department and the appropriate Child Protective Service Unit.
    The hearing shall be conducted by the Director or his designee, who is hereby authorized and empowered to order the amendment or removal of the record to make it accurate and consistent with this Act.
    The decision shall be made, in writing, at the close of the hearing, or within 45 days thereof, and shall state the reasons upon which it is based.
    Should the department grant the request of the subject of the report either on administrative review or after administrative hearing to amend an indicated report to an unfounded report, the report shall be released and expunged in accordance with the standards set forth in 325 ILCS § 5/7.14.

When Records Must Be Expunged
325 ILCS § 5/7.14
    All reports in the central register shall be classified in one of three categories: 'indicated,' 'unfounded,' or 'undetermined,' as the case may be.
    All information identifying the subjects of an unfounded report shall be expunged from the register forthwith, except as provided in 325 ILCS § 5/7.7.
    Identifying information on all other records shall be removed from the register no later than 5 years after the report is indicated. However, if another report is received involving the same child, his sibling or offspring, or a child in the care of the persons responsible for the child's welfare, or involving the same alleged offender, the identifying information may be maintained in the register until 5 years after the subsequent case or report is closed.
    Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, identifying information in indicated reports involving serious physical injury to a child, as defined by the department in rules, may be retained longer than 5 years after the report is indicated or after the subsequent case or report is closed, and may not be removed from the register except as provided by the department in rules.
    Identifying information in indicated reports involving sexual penetration, sexual molestation, sexual exploitation, torture, or death of a child shall be retained for a period of not less than 50 years after the report is indicated or after the subsequent case or report is closed.

Indiana

Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Code § 31-33-17-8
    This section does not apply to substantiated cases if a court determines that a child is a child in need of services based on a report of child abuse or neglect that names the alleged perpetrator as the individual who committed the alleged child abuse or neglect.
    Not later than 30 days after the department enters a substantiated child abuse or neglect report into the registry, the department shall send notice that the report has been entered to:
o   The parent, guardian, or custodian of the child who is named in the report as the victim of the child abuse or neglect
o   The alleged perpetrator, if other than the child's parent, guardian, or custodian, named in the report
    The department shall state the following in a notice to an alleged perpetrator of a substantiated report:
o   The report has been classified as substantiated.
o   The alleged perpetrator may request that a substantiated report be amended or expunged at an administrative hearing if the alleged perpetrator does not agree with the classification of the report, unless a court is in the process of making a determination.
    The alleged perpetrator's request for an administrative hearing to contest the classification of a substantiated report must be received by the department not more than 30 days after the alleged perpetrator receives the notice.
    If the alleged perpetrator fails to request an administrative hearing within the specified time, he or she may request an administrative hearing to contest the classification of the report if the alleged perpetrator demonstrates that the failure to request an administrative hearing was due to excusable neglect or fraud.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Code §§ 31-33-19-8; 31-33-19-9
    The department shall expunge identifying information in a substantiated report contained within the registry as follows:
o   Not later than 10 working days after any of the following occurs:
   A court having jurisdiction over a child in need of services proceeding determines that child abuse or neglect has not occurred.
   An administrative hearing officer finds that the child abuse or neglect report is unsubstantiated.
   A court having criminal jurisdiction over a case involving child abuse or neglect in which criminal charges are filed and the court dismisses the charges or enters a not guilty verdict.
o   Not later than ten 10 working days after the period of informal adjustment ceases
o   Not later than 6 months after the date that the department enters the report into the registry as the result of a person's failure to successfully participate in a services referral agreement
o   Not later than 20 years after a court determines that a child is a child in need of services based upon the report
    If the subsections above do not apply, the department shall expunge the report not later than when the child who is named as the victim of child abuse or neglect reaches 24 years of age.
    The department shall immediately amend or expunge from the registry a substantiated report containing an inaccuracy arising from an administrative or a clerical error.

Iowa
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Stat. § 235A.19
    A subject of a child abuse report shall have the right to examine report data and disposition data that refers to the subject.
    Within 6 months of the date of the notice of the results of an assessment, the subject of a child abuse report may file with the department a written statement to the effect that report data and disposition data referring to the subject is in whole or in part erroneous, and may request a correction of that data or of the findings of the assessment report.
    The department shall provide the subject with an opportunity for an evidentiary hearing to correct the data or the findings, unless the department corrects the data or findings as requested. The department may defer the hearing until the conclusion of a pending juvenile or district court case relating to the data or findings.
    The subject of a child abuse report may appeal the decision resulting from a hearing to the district court. Immediately upon appeal, the court shall order the department to file with the court a certified copy of the report data or disposition data.
    Upon the request of the appellant, the record and evidence in such cases shall be closed to all but the court and its officers, and access to the record and evidence shall be prohibited unless otherwise ordered by the court. The clerk shall maintain a separate docket for such actions.
    Whenever the department corrects or eliminates data as requested or as ordered by the court, the department shall advise all persons who have received the incorrect data of that fact. Upon application to the court and service of notice on the department, any subject of a child abuse report may request and obtain a list of all persons who have received report data or disposition data referring to the subject.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Stat. § 235A.18
    Report and disposition data shall be sealed 10 years after the initial placement of the data in the registry unless good cause is shown why the data should remain open to authorized access.
    If a subsequent report of an alleged case of child abuse involving the same child or a person named in the data as having abused a child is received by the department within this 10-year period, the data shall be sealed 10 years after receipt of the subsequent report unless good cause is shown why the data should remain open to authorized access.
    Data sealed in accordance with this section shall be expunged 8 years after the date the data was sealed.
    If the report data and the disposition data involve child sexual abuse, the data shall not be expunged for a period of 30 years.
    Child abuse information relating to a particular case of child abuse placed in the central registry that a juvenile or district court determines is unfounded based upon a preponderance of evidence shall be expunged from the central registry.
    For child abuse information in the central registry as of July 1, 1997, the central registry shall perform a review of the information utilizing the requirements for referral of child abuse information to the central registry as founded child abuse under § 232.71D. If the review indicates the information would not be placed in the registry as founded child abuse, the information shall be expunged from the central registry.

Kansas
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

Kentucky
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

Louisiana
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Children’s Code art. 616.1
    When a report alleging abuse or neglect is recorded as justified by the department in the central registry but when no petition is subsequently filed alleging that the child is in need of care, the individual who is the subject of the finding may file a written motion seeking correction of that entry and all related department records in the court exercising juvenile jurisdiction in the parish in which the finding was made.
    If neither the department nor the district attorney files a written objection, the court may enter an order.
    If after a contradictory hearing with the department and the district attorney, the court finds that the report was not justified, and correction of the record is not contrary to the best interest of the child, it may order the department to correct the central registry entry.
    If the central registry entry is ordered to be corrected, the department and any law enforcement offices having any record of the report shall be ordered to correct those records and any other records, notations, or references thereto, and the court shall order the department and other custodians of such records to file a sworn affidavit to the effect that their records have been corrected. The affidavit of the department shall also attest to the correction of the central registry entry.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Children’s Code art. 616

When, after an investigation, the determination is made that the report does not appear to be justified or is false, all files, records, and pertinent information regarding the report and investigation shall be destroyed following the 3-year period required by Federal law for audit purposes.

Offline egypt

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Getting Off The Registry
(continued)

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The Following is From: www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/search/index.cfm


Maine
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Rev. Stat. Tit. 22, § 4008(5)

The department shall retain unsubstantiated child protective services case records for no more than 18 months following a finding of unsubstantiation and then expunge unsubstantiated case records from all departmental files or archives unless a new referral has been received within the 18-month retention period.

Maryland
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Family Law § 5-706.1
    Within 30 days after the completion of an investigation in which there has been a finding of indicated or unsubstantiated abuse or neglect, the local department shall notify in writing the individual alleged to have abused or neglected a child:
o   Of the finding
o   Of the opportunity to appeal the finding
o   If the individual has been found responsible for indicated abuse or neglect, that the individual may be identified in a central registry as responsible for abuse or neglect
    In the case of a finding of indicated abuse or neglect, an individual may request a contested case hearing to appeal the finding by responding to the notice of the local department in writing within 60 days.
    Unless the individual and the department agree on another location, a contested case hearing shall be held in the jurisdiction in which the individual alleged to have abused or neglected a child resides.
    If a criminal proceeding is pending on charges arising out of the alleged abuse or neglect, the Office of Administrative Hearings shall stay the hearing until a final disposition is made.
    If after final disposition of the criminal charge, the individual requesting the hearing is found guilty of any criminal charge arising out of the alleged abuse or neglect, the Office of Administrative Hearings shall dismiss the administrative appeal.
    If a CINA case is pending concerning a child who has been allegedly abused or neglected by the appellant or a child in the care, custody, or household of the appellant, the Office of Administrative Hearings shall stay the hearing until the CINA case is concluded.
    After the conclusion of the CINA case, the Office of Administrative Hearings shall vacate the stay and schedule further proceedings in accordance with this section.
    In the case of a finding of unsubstantiated abuse or neglect, an individual may request a conference with a supervisor in the local department by responding to the notice of the local department in writing within 60 days.
    In response to a timely request for a conference, a local department supervisor shall schedule a conference, to occur within 30 days after the supervisor receives the request, to allow the individual an opportunity to review the redacted record, and request corrections or to supplement the record.
    Within 10 days after the conference, the local department shall send to the individual:
o   A written summary of the conference and of any modifications to be made in the record
o   Notice of the individual's right to request a contested case hearing
    The individual may request a contested case hearing to appeal the outcome of the conference by responding to the summary in writing within 60 days.
    If the individual does not receive the written summary and required notice within 20 days, the individual may request a contested case hearing.
    In the case of an unexpunged finding of indicated or unsubstantiated abuse or neglect made prior to June 1, 1999, the local department shall provide the individual with an opportunity to appeal the finding in accordance with this section if the individual:
o   Requests such an appeal
o   Has not been offered an opportunity to request a contested case hearing
o   Has not been found guilty of any criminal charge arising out of the alleged abuse or neglect

When Records Must Be Expunged
Family Law § 5-707(b)

The local department shall expunge a report of suspected abuse or neglect and all assessments and investigative findings:
    Within 5 years after the date of referral if the investigation concludes that the report is unsubstantiated, and no further reports of abuse or neglect are received during the 5 years
    Within 120 days after the date of referral if the report is ruled out, and no further reports of abuse or neglect are received during the 120 days

Massachusetts
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Laws Ch. 119, § 51F
    The name and all other identifying characteristics relating to any child that is contained in the central registry, or to his parents or guardian, shall be removed 1 year after the department determines, after an investigation, that the allegation of serious physical or emotional injury resulting from abuse or neglect cannot be substantiated.
    If the allegations are substantiated, identifying information shall be removed when the child reaches the age of 18 years, or 1 year after the date of termination of services to the child or his family, whichever date occurs last.

Michigan
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Comp. Laws § 722.627
    If the department classifies a report of suspected child abuse or neglect as a central registry case, the department shall maintain a record in the central registry and, within 30 days after the classification, shall notify in writing each person who is named in the record as a perpetrator of the child abuse or neglect.
    The notice shall set forth the person's right to request expunction of the record and the right to a hearing if the department refuses the request.
    A person who is the subject of a report or record may request the department to amend an inaccurate report or record from the central registry and local office file. A person who is the subject of a report or record may request the department to expunge from the central registry a report or record in which no relevant and accurate evidence of abuse or neglect is found to exist.
    A report or record filed in a local office file is not subject to expunction except as the department authorizes, if it is considered in the best interest of the child.
    If the department refuses a request for amendment or expunction, or fails to act within 30 days after receiving the request, the department shall hold a hearing to determine by a preponderance of the evidence whether the report or record in whole or in part should be amended or expunged from the central registry on the grounds that the report or record is not relevant or accurate evidence of abuse or neglect.
    The hearing shall be held before a hearing officer appointed by the department and shall be conducted as prescribed by the administrative procedures act of 1969.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Comp. Laws § 722.627
    If the investigation of a report conducted under this act fails to disclose evidence of abuse or neglect, the information identifying the subject of the report shall be expunged from the central registry.
    If evidence of abuse or neglect exists, the department shall maintain the information in the central registry until the department receives reliable information that the perpetrator of the abuse or neglect is dead.

Minnesota

Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Stat. § 626.556, subd. 10f & 10i
    The investigating agency shall notify the parent or guardian of the child who is the subject of the report, and any person or facility determined to have maltreated a child, of their appeal or review rights under this section or section 256.022.
    Administrative reconsideration is not applicable in family assessments since no determination concerning maltreatment is made.
    For an investigation in which an individual or facility has been determined to have maltreated a child, an interested person acting on behalf of the child who contests the investigating agency's final determination regarding maltreatment may request the investigating agency to reconsider its final determination regarding maltreatment.
    The request for reconsideration must be submitted in writing to the investigating agency within 15 calendar days after receipt of notice of the final determination or, if the request is made by an interested person who is not entitled to notice, within 15 days after receipt of the notice by the parent or guardian of the child.
    Effective January 1, 2002, an individual who was determined to have maltreated a child and who was disqualified [for employment or licensure] on the basis of serious or recurring maltreatment, may request reconsideration of the maltreatment determination and the disqualification. The request for reconsideration of the maltreatment determination and the disqualification must be submitted within 30 calendar days of the individual's receipt of the notice of disqualification.
    If the investigating agency denies the request or fails to act upon the request within 15 working days after receiving the request for reconsideration, the person or facility entitled to a fair hearing may submit to the commissioner of human services or the commissioner of education a written request for a hearing.
    If, as a result of a reconsideration or review, the investigating agency changes the final determination of maltreatment, that agency shall notify the parties specified in subdivisions 10b, 10d, and 10f.
    If an individual or facility contests the investigating agency's final determination regarding maltreatment by requesting a fair hearing under § 256.045, the commissioner of human services shall assure that the hearing is conducted and a decision is reached within 90 days of receipt of the request for a hearing. The time for action on the decision may be extended for as many days as the hearing is postponed or the record is held open for the benefit of either party.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Stat. § 626.556, subd.11c
    For family assessment cases and cases where an investigation results in no determination of maltreatment or the need for child protective services, the assessment or investigation records must be maintained for a period of 4 years, then destroyed. These records may not be used for employment, background checks, or purposes other than to assist in future risk and safety assessments.
    All records relating to reports that upon investigation indicate either maltreatment or a need for child protective services shall be maintained for at least 10 years after the date of the final entry in the case record.
    All records regarding a report of maltreatment, including any notification of intent to interview that was received by a school, shall be destroyed by the school when ordered to do so by the agency conducting the assessment or investigation. The agency shall order the destruction of the notification when other records relating to the report under investigation or assessment are destroyed.
    Private or confidential data released to a court services agency must be destroyed by the court services agency when ordered to do so by the local welfare agency that released the data. The local welfare agency or agency responsible for assessing or investigating the report shall order destruction of the data when other records relating to the assessment or investigation are destroyed.

Mississippi
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Code § 43-21-257

The Department of Human Services shall adopt such rules and administrative procedures, especially those procedures to afford due process to individuals who have been named as substantiated perpetrators before the release of their name from the central registry, as may be necessary to carry out this subsection.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Code § 43-21-263

The youth court may order the sealing of records involving children:
    If the child who was the subject of the case has attained 20 years of age
    If the youth court dismisses the case
    If the youth court sets aside an adjudication in the case

Missouri

Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Stat. § 210.152
    Within 90 days after receipt of a report of abuse or neglect that is investigated, the alleged perpetrator named in the report and the parents of the child named in the report, if the alleged perpetrator is not a parent, shall be notified in writing of any determination made by the division based on the investigation. The notice shall advise either:
o   That the division has determined by a probable cause finding (prior to August 28, 2004), or by a preponderance of the evidence (after August 28, 2004), that abuse or neglect exists and that the division shall retain all identifying information regarding the abuse or neglect; that such information shall remain confidential and will not be released except to law enforcement agencies, prosecuting or circuit attorneys, or as provided in § 210.150; that the alleged perpetrator has 60 days from the date of receipt of the notice to seek reversal of the division's determination through a review by the child abuse and neglect review board
o   That the division has not made a probable cause finding or determined by a preponderance of the evidence that abuse or neglect exists
    Any person named in an investigation as a perpetrator who is aggrieved by a determination of abuse or neglect by the division may seek an administrative review by the child abuse and neglect review board. Such request for review shall be made within 60 days of notification of the division's decision. In those cases where criminal charges arising out of facts of the investigation are pending, the request for review shall be made within 60 days from the court's final disposition or dismissal of the charges.
    In any action for administrative review, the child abuse and neglect review board shall sustain the division's determination if such determination was supported by evidence of probable cause prior to August 28, 2004, or is supported by a preponderance of the evidence after August 28, 2004, and is not against the weight of such evidence. The child abuse and neglect review board hearing shall be closed to all persons except the parties, their attorneys, and those persons providing testimony on behalf of the parties.
    If the alleged perpetrator is aggrieved by the decision of the child abuse and neglect review board, the alleged perpetrator may seek de novo judicial review in the circuit court. The request for a judicial review shall be made within 60 days of notification of the decision of the child abuse and neglect review board. In reviewing such decisions, the circuit court shall provide the alleged perpetrator the opportunity to appear and present testimony. The alleged perpetrator may subpoena any witnesses except the alleged victim or the reporter.
    In such action for administrative review, the child abuse and neglect review board shall notify the child or the parent, guardian, or legal representative of the child that a review has been requested.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Stat. § 210.152
    For investigation reports where there is insufficient evidence of abuse or neglect, and the division determines that the allegation was made maliciously, for purposes of harassment, or in retaliation for the filing of a report, identifying information shall be expunged within 45 days from the conclusion of the investigation.
    For investigation reports initiated by a mandated reporter, where insufficient evidence of abuse or neglect is found by the division, identifying information shall be retained for 5 years from the conclusion of the investigation.
    For all other reports where there is insufficient evidence, identifying information shall be retained for 2 years.
    At the end of such time, the identifying information shall be removed from the records of the division and destroyed.
    For reports in which the division is unable to locate the child alleged to have been abused or neglected, identifying information shall be retained for 10 years from the date of the report and then shall be removed from the records of the division.

Montana
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Code § 41-3-202

A person who is the subject of an unsubstantiated report that was made prior to October 1, 2003, and after which a period of 3 years has elapsed without there being submitted a subsequent substantiated report or an order issued based on the circumstances surrounding the initial allegations, may request that the department destroy all of the records concerning the unsubstantiated report.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Code § 41-3-202
    If from the investigation it is determined that the child has not suffered abuse or neglect and the initial report is determined to be unfounded, the department and the social worker, county attorney, or peace officer who conducted the investigation shall destroy all of their records concerning the report and the investigation. The destruction must be completed within 30 days of the determination that the child has not suffered abuse or neglect.
    If the report is unsubstantiated, the department and the social worker who conducted the investigation shall destroy all of the records, except for medical records, concerning the unsubstantiated report and the investigation within 30 days after the end of the 3-year period starting from the date the report was determined to be unsubstantiated, unless:
o   There had been a previous or there is a subsequent substantiated report concerning the same person.
o   An order has been issued based on the circumstances surrounding the initial allegations.

Nebraska
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Rev. Stat. § 28-723
    At any time subsequent to the completion of the department's investigation, the subject of the report of child abuse or neglect may request the department to amend, expunge identifying information from, or remove the record of the report from the central register of child protection cases.
    If the department refuses to do so or does not act within 30 days, the subject of the report of child abuse or neglect shall have the right to a fair hearing within the department to determine whether the record of the report should be amended, expunged, or removed on the grounds that it is inaccurate or that it is being maintained in a manner inconsistent with the child protection act.
    Such fair hearing shall be held within a reasonable time after the subject's request and at a reasonable place and hour. In such hearings, the burden of proving the accuracy and consistency of the record shall be on the department.
    A juvenile court finding of child abuse or child neglect shall be presumptive evidence that the report was not unfounded.
    The hearing shall be conducted by the head of the department who is authorized and empowered to order the amendment, expunction, or removal of the record to make it accurate or consistent with the requirements of the act.
    The decision shall be made in writing, at the close of the hearing, or within 30 days thereof, and shall state the reasons upon which it is based.
    Decisions of the department may be appealed under the provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Rev. Stat. § 28-721

At any time, the department may amend, expunge, or remove from the central register of child protection cases any record upon good cause shown and upon notice to the subject of the report of child abuse or neglect and to the division.

Nevada
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Rev. Stat. § 432.120

The information contained in the central registry concerning cases in which a report of abuse or neglect of a child has been substantiated by an agency that provides child welfare services must be deleted from the central registry not later than 10 years after the child who is the subject of the report reaches the age of 18 years.

New Hampshire
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Rev. Stat. §§ 169-C:34; 169-C:35
    Prior to an individual's name being placed on the central registry, due process is afforded. Only after due process (appeal of the decision) is waived, or due process confirms the finding, is the name of the individual placed on the central registry. [See Rev. Stat. § 169-C:34, Notes to Decisions number 3: Duties of division upon finding of probable cause.]
    Due process requires being able to show by a preponderance of evidence that a founded case of abuse or neglect has occurred. See Rev. Stat. § 169-C:35, Notes to Decisions: Due process.]
    Individuals whose names are on the central registry have the right to have their name expunged from the registry if they can demonstrate that they no longer pose a threat to children. This is a process that occurs separately from the initial assessment and ''founded'' determination process.
    Any individual whose name is listed in the founded reports maintained on the central registry may petition the district court to have his or her name expunged from the registry.
    When a petition to expunge is filed, the district court shall require the department to report to the court concerning any additional founded abuse and neglect reports on the petitioner and to submit the petitioner's name, birth date, and address to the State police to obtain information about criminal convictions.
    Upon the receipt of the department's report, the court may act on the petition without further hearing or may schedule the matter for hearing at the request of either party. If the court determines that the petitioner does not pose a present threat to the safety of children, the court shall grant the petition and order the department to remove the individual's name from the central registry. Otherwise, the petition shall be dismissed.
    When an individual's name is added to the central registry, the department shall notify individuals of their right to petition to have their name expunged from the central registry. No petition to expunge shall be brought within 1 year from the date that the petitioner's name was initially entered on the central registry. If the petition to expunge is denied, no further petition shall be brought more frequently than every 3 years thereafter.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Rev. Stat. § 169-C:35-a
    The department shall retain a screened-out report for 1 year from the date that the report was screened-out, then the department shall delete or destroy all electronic and paper records of the report.
    The department shall retain an unfounded report for 3 years from the date that the department determined the case to be unfounded, then shall delete or destroy all electronic and paper records of the report.
    The department shall retain a founded report for 7 years from the date that the subject has exhausted or failed to exercise his or her due process right to appeal the department's determination to found the report, after which time, the department shall delete or destroy all electronic and paper records of the report.
    The provisions above, relating to the destruction of the records of founded reports, shall not apply to cases that remain open with the department in excess of 7 years or to adoption records. Upon the closure of a case that has remained open with the department in excess of 7 years, the department shall delete or destroy all electronic and paper records of the report.

New Jersey
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Stat. § 9:6-8.40a

The Division of Youth and Family Services in the Department of Human Services shall expunge from its records all information relating to a report, complaint, or allegation of an incident of child abuse or neglect when an investigation has determined that the allegation was unfounded.

New Mexico
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

New York
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Soc. Serv. Law § 422
    Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the office of children and family services may, in its discretion, grant a request to expunge an unfounded report where:
o   The source of the report was convicted of knowingly making a false report in regard to such report.
o   The subject of the report presents clear and convincing evidence that affirmatively refutes the allegation of abuse or maltreatment.
    The absence of credible evidence supporting the allegation of abuse or maltreatment shall not be the sole basis to expunge the report.
    Nothing in this paragraph shall require the office of children and family services to hold an administrative hearing in deciding whether to expunge a report.
    Such office shall make its determination upon reviewing the written evidence submitted by the subject of the report and any records or information obtained from the State or local agency that investigated the allegations of abuse or maltreatment.
    In any case and at any time, the commissioner may amend any record upon good cause shown and notice to the subjects of the report and other persons named in the report.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Soc. Serv. Law § 422
    The record of the report to the central register shall be expunged 10 years after the 18th birthday of the youngest child named in the report.
    In the case of a child in residential care, the record of the report to the central register shall be expunged 10 years after the reported child's 18th birthday.

North Carolina
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

North Dakota
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Cent. Code § 50-25.1-05.4

The department shall adopt rules to resolve complaints and conduct appeal hearings requested by the subject of a report of suspected child abuse, neglect, or death resulting from abuse or neglect who is aggrieved by the conduct or result of an assessment.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

Northern Mariana Islands
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

Ohio
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

Oklahoma
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Stat. Tit. 10, § 7111

Records obtained by the Department shall be maintained by the Department until otherwise provided by law.
Oregon
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

Pennsylvania
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
23 Cons. Stat. § 6341
    Any person named as a perpetrator, and any school employee named in an indicated report of child abuse may, within 45 days of being notified of the status of the report, request the secretary to amend or expunge an indicated report on the grounds that it is inaccurate or it is being maintained in a manner inconsistent with law.
    If the secretary grants the request, the Statewide central register, appropriate county agency, appropriate law enforcement officials, and all subjects shall be so advised of the decision.
    The county agency and any subject have 45 days in which to file an administrative appeal with the secretary. If an administrative appeal is received, the secretary or his designated agent shall schedule a hearing.
    If no administrative appeal is received within the designated time period, the Statewide central register shall comply with the decision of the secretary and advise the county agency to amend or expunge the information in their records so that the records are consistent at both the State and local levels.
    If the secretary refuses the request for a hearing or does not act within a reasonable time, but in no event later than 30 days after receipt of the request, the perpetrator or school employee shall have the right to a hearing before the secretary or a designated agent of the secretary to determine whether the indicated report in the Statewide central register should be amended or expunged on the grounds that it is inaccurate or that it is being maintained in a manner inconsistent with law.
    The perpetrator or school employee shall have 45 days from the date of the letter giving notice of the decision to deny the request in which to request a hearing. The appropriate county agency and appropriate law enforcement officials shall be given notice of the hearing.
    The burden of proof in the hearing shall be on the appropriate county agency. The department shall assist the county agency as necessary.
    Any administrative appeal proceeding shall be automatically stayed upon notice to the department by either of the parties when there is a pending criminal proceeding or a dependency or delinquency proceeding.
    The secretary or designated agent may make any appropriate order respecting the amendment or expunction of records to make them accurate or consistent with the requirements of this chapter.
    Written notice of an expunction of any child abuse record shall be served upon the subject of the record who was responsible for the abuse or injury and the appropriate county agency.

When Records Must Be Expunged
23 Cons. Stat. §§ 6337; 6338
    When a report of suspected child abuse is determined to be unfounded, the information concerning that report shall be maintained for 1 year, then expunged from the pending complaint file, as soon as possible, but no later than 120 days after the end of the 1-year period.
    If an investigation of a report of suspected child abuse is unable to within 60 days to determine whether the report is founded, indicated, unfounded, or unless within that same 60-day period court action has been initiated and is responsible for the delay, the report shall be considered to be an unfounded report, and all information identifying the subjects of the report shall be expunged no later than 120 days following the expiration of 1 year after the date the report was received by the department.
    All information identifying the subjects of any report of suspected child abuse, and of any report relating to students in public and private schools determined to be an unfounded report, shall be expunged from the pending complaint file.
    All information that identifies the subjects of founded and indicated child abuse reports shall be expunged when the subject child reaches the age of 23 years.

Puerto Rico
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Laws Tit. 8, § 442g
    The subject of the report may, at any time after the investigation has been completed, request that the report in the Register be amended, eliminated, or removed.
    If the Commonwealth Center for the Protection of Minors refuses to do so or fails to take action within 30 days after the request is received, the subject of the report may resort to the Family Relations Part or Minors Affairs Part of the Court of First Instance.
    A term of 30 days is granted to file this motion from the date the written notice of the corresponding action is mailed, or the term for the Commonwealth Center for the Protection of Minors has elapsed, as the case may be.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

Rhode Island

Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Gen. Laws § 40-11-13.1

All records concerning reports of child abuse and neglect made pursuant to this chapter, including reports made to the department, shall be destroyed 3 years after the date of a final determination by either the family court or the department that the reported child abuse or neglect did not in fact occur.

South Carolina
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Code § 20-7-655
    The statute provides for a child protective services appeals process for reports that have been indicated, entered in the Central Registry, and are not being brought before the family court for disposition. This process is available only to the person determined to have abused or neglected the child.
    The State director shall appoint a hearing officer to conduct a contested case hearing for each case decision appealed. The hearing officer shall prepare recommended findings of fact for review by the State director who shall render the final decision. The purpose of the hearing is to determine whether there is a preponderance of evidence that the appellant was responsible for abuse or neglect of the child.
    If the family court has determined that the person is responsible for abuse or neglect of the child, an administrative appeal is not available. If the family court reaches such a determination after the initiation of the appeal, the department shall terminate the appeal upon receipt of an order that disposes of the issue. If a proceeding is pending in the family court, the department shall stay the appeal pending the court's decision.
    If the department determines that a report is indicated, the department shall provide notice of the case decision to the person determined to have abused or neglected the child. The notice must inform the person of the right to appeal the case decision and that, if he or she intends to appeal the decision, he or she must notify the department of his or her intent in writing within 30 days of receipt of the notice.
    The notice also must advise the person that the appeal process is for the purpose of determining whether a preponderance of evidence supports the case decision that the person abused or neglected the child. If the person does not notify the department of his or her intent to appeal in writing within 30 days of receipt of the notice, the right to appeal is waived and the case decision becomes final.
    Within 14 days after receipt of a notice of intent to appeal, an appropriate official of the department must conduct an interim review of case documentation and determination. If the official conducting the interim review decides that the determination against the appellant is not supported by a preponderance of evidence, this decision must be reflected in the department's case record and database. If the person's name was in the Central Registry as a result of a determination and the interim review results in a reversal of the decision that supports that entry, the person's name must be removed from the Central Registry.
    After a contested case hearing, if the State director decides that the determination against the appellant is not supported by a preponderance of evidence, this decision must be reflected in the department's case record and database. If the person's name was in the Central Registry as a result of a determination and the State director reverses the decision that supports that entry, the person's name must be removed from the Central Registry. If the State director affirms the determination against the appellant, the appellant has the right to seek judicial review in the family court of the jurisdiction in which the case originated.
    An appellant seeking judicial review shall file a petition in the family court within 30 days after the final decision of the department. The court may enter judgment upon the pleadings and a certified transcript of the record that must include the evidence upon which the findings and decisions appealed are based. The judgment must include a determination of whether the decision of the department that a preponderance of evidence shows that the appellant abused or neglected the child should be affirmed or reversed. The appellant is not entitled to a trial de novo in the family court.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Code § 20-7-680

The names, addresses, birth dates, identifying characteristics, and other information unnecessary for auditing and statistical purposes of persons named in department records of indicated cases other than the Central Registry of Child Abuse and Neglect must be destroyed 7 years from the date services are terminated.

South Dakota
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Laws § 26-8A-11
    Within 30 days after notice of a substantiated investigation by the Department of Social Services, a subject of a report of abuse or neglect may request the department to amend, expunge identifying information from, or remove the record of the report from the register. The request shall be in writing and directed to the person designated by the department in the notice.
    If the department refuses or does not act within 30 days after receipt of the written request, the subject may request an administrative hearing, to be held within 30 days, to determine whether the record of the report should be amended, expunged, or removed on the grounds that it is inaccurate or it is being maintained in a manner inconsistent with law.
    If there has been a court finding of child abuse or neglect, the report's accuracy is conclusively presumed and the subject has no right to an administrative hearing on the ground of inaccuracy.
    The appropriate local office of the department shall be given notice of the hearing. In the hearing, the burden of proving the accuracy and consistency of the record is on the department.
    The hearing examiner may order the amendment, expunction, or removal of the record to make it accurate and consistent with this chapter.
    Under no circumstances may the hearing examiner order or the department carry out any amendment, expunction, or removal of any portion of the record that proves, affirms, corroborates, or supports the innocence of the subject of the report without the express written authority of the subject.
    The decision shall be made in writing within 90 days after the date of receipt of the request for a hearing and shall state the reasons upon which it is based.
    Decisions of the department under this section are administrative decisions subject to judicial review.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Laws § 26-8A-11

In any case where there has been no substantiated report of child abuse and neglect, the department may not maintain a record or other information of unsubstantiated child abuse and neglect for longer than 3 years if there has been no further report within that 3-year period.

Tennessee
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

Texas
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Family Code § 261.315
    At the conclusion of an investigation in which the department determines that the person alleged to have abused or neglected a child did not commit abuse or neglect, the department shall notify the person of the person's right to request that the department remove information about the person's alleged role in the abuse or neglect report from the department's records.
    On request by a person whom the department has determined did not commit abuse or neglect, the department shall remove information from the department's records concerning the person's alleged role in the abuse or neglect report.
    The board shall adopt rules necessary to administer this section.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

Utah
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Code § 62A-4a-116.5
    The division shall send a notice of agency action to a person about whom the division has made a supported finding. The notice shall state that:
o   The division has conducted an investigation regarding alleged child abuse, neglect, or dependency
o   The division has made a supported finding of abuse, neglect, or dependency
o   Facts gathered by the division support the supported finding
o   The person has the right to request a copy of the report and an opportunity to challenge the supported finding
o   Failure to request an opportunity to challenge the supported finding within 30 days of receiving the notice will result in an unappealable supported finding of child abuse, neglect, or dependency unless the person can show good cause why compliance within the 30-day requirement was virtually impossible or unreasonably burdensome
    A person may make a request to challenge a supported finding within 30 days of a notice being received.
    Upon receipt of a request, the Office of Administrative Hearings shall hold an adjudicative proceeding pursuant to the Administrative Procedures Act.
    In an adjudicative proceeding, the division shall have the burden of proving, by a preponderance of the evidence, that there is a reasonable basis to conclude that child abuse, neglect, or dependency occurred and that the alleged perpetrator was substantially responsible for the abuse or neglect that occurred.
    Any party shall have the right of judicial review of final agency action.
    Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, an alleged perpetrator who, after receiving notice, fails to challenge a supported finding, may not further challenge the finding and shall have no right to agency review, an adjudicative hearing, or judicial review of the finding.
    An alleged perpetrator may not make a request to challenge a supported finding if a court of competent jurisdiction entered a finding, in a proceeding in which the alleged perpetrator was a party, that the alleged perpetrator is substantially responsible for the abuse, neglect, or dependency that was also the subject of the supported finding.
    An adjudicative proceeding may be stayed during the time a judicial action on the same matter is pending.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Code § 62A-4a-116.4

Unless the executive director determines that there is good cause for keeping a report of abuse or neglect in the Management Information System, based on standards established by rule, the division shall delete any reference to:
    A report that is without merit, if no subsequent report involving the same alleged perpetrator has occurred within 1 year
    A report that has been determined by a court of competent jurisdiction to be unsubstantiated or without merit, if no subsequent report involving the same alleged perpetrator has occurred within 5 years

Vermont
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Stat. Tit. 33, § 4916
    A person may, at any time, apply to the human services board for relief if he or she has reasonable cause to believe that contents of the registry are being misused.
    A person may, at any time, apply to the human services board for an order expunging from the registry a record concerning him or her on the grounds that it is unsubstantiated or not otherwise expunged in accordance with this section.
    The board shall hold a fair hearing under § 3091 of Title 3 at which the burden shall be on the commissioner to establish that the record shall not be expunged.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Stat. Tit. 33, § 4916
    If the commissioner determines after investigation that the reported facts are unsubstantiated, after notice to the person complained about, the records shall be destroyed unless the person complained about requests within 1 year that it not be destroyed.
    If no court proceeding is brought within 1 year of the date of the notice to the person complained about, the records relating to the unsubstantiated report shall be destroyed.
    All registry records relating to an individual child shall be destroyed when the child reaches the age of majority.
    All registry records relating to a family or siblings within a family shall be destroyed when the youngest sibling reaches the age of majority.

Virgin Islands
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

Virginia
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Code § 63.2-1526
    A person who is suspected of or is found to have committed abuse or neglect may, within 30 days of being notified of that determination, request the local department making the determination to amend the determination and the local department's related records.
    Upon written request, the local department shall provide the appellant all information used in making its determination.
    The local department shall hold an informal conference where such person, who may be represented by counsel, shall be entitled to informally present testimony of witnesses, documents, factual data, arguments, or other submissions of proof to the local department.
    If the local department refuses the request for amendment or fails to act within 45 days after receiving the request, the person may, within 30 days thereafter, petition the Commissioner, who shall grant a hearing to determine whether it appears, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the determination or record contains information that is irrelevant or inaccurate regarding the commission of abuse or neglect by the person who is the subject of the determination.
    The hearing officer shall have the authority to issue subpoenas for the production of documents and the appearance of witnesses, and to determine the number of depositions that will be allowed.
    The person who is the subject of the report has the right to submit oral or written testimony or documents, and to be informed of the procedure by which information will be made available or withheld.
    The alleged child victims of the person and their siblings shall not be subpoenaed, deposed, or required to testify.
    Such hearing officers are empowered to order the amendment of such determination or records as required to make them accurate and consistent with the requirements of law or regulation.
    If, after hearing the facts of the case, the hearing officer determines that the person who is the subject of the report has presented information that was not available to the local department at the time of the local conference. and that if available may have resulted in a different determination by the local department, he or she may remand the case to the local department for reconsideration.
    The local department shall have 14 days in which to reconsider the case. If, at the expiration of 14 days, the local department fails to act or fails to amend the record to the satisfaction of the appellant, the case shall be returned to the hearing officer for a determination.
    If aggrieved by the decision of the hearing officer, such person may obtain further review of the decision in accordance with Article 5 of the Administrative Process Act.
    Whenever an appeal of the local department's finding is made and a criminal charge is also filed against the appellant for the same conduct involving the same victim as investigated by the local department, the appeal process shall automatically be stayed until the criminal prosecution in circuit court is completed.
    During such stay, the appellant's right of access to the records of the local department regarding the matter being appealed shall also be stayed.
    Once the criminal prosecution in circuit court has been completed, the local department shall advise the appellant in writing of his or her right to resume his or her appeal within the timeframes provided by law and regulation.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Code § 63.2-1514
    The record of unfounded investigations and complaints and reports determined to be not valid shall be purged 1 year after the date of the complaint or report if there are no subsequent complaints or reports regarding the same child or the person who is the subject of the complaint or report in that 1 year.
    The record of family assessments shall be purged 3 years after the date of the complaint or report if there are no subsequent complaints or reports regarding the same child or the person who is the subject of the report in that 3-year period.
    The child-protective services records regarding the petitioner that result from such complaint or report shall be purged immediately by any custodian of such records upon presentation to the custodian of a certified copy of a court order that there has been a civil action that determined that the complaint or report was made in bad faith or with malicious intent.
    After purging the records, the custodian shall notify the petitioner in writing that the records have been purged.

Washington
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Rev. Code § 26.44.125
    A person who is named as an alleged perpetrator after October 1, 1998, in a founded report of child abuse or neglect has the right to seek review and amendment of the finding.
    Within 20 calendar days after receiving written notice from the department that a person is named as an alleged perpetrator in a founded report of child abuse or neglect, he or she may request that the department review the finding. The request must be made in writing.
    If a request for review is not made, the alleged perpetrator may not further challenge the finding and shall have no right to agency review, adjudicative hearing, or judicial review of the finding.
    Upon receipt of a written request for review, the department shall review and, if appropriate, may amend the finding. The review must be conducted in accordance with procedures the department establishes by rule.
    Upon completion of the review, the department shall notify the alleged perpetrator in writing of the agency's determination.
    If, following agency review, the report remains founded, the person named as the alleged perpetrator in the report may request an adjudicative hearing to contest the finding.
    The request for an adjudicative proceeding must be filed within 30 calendar days after receiving notice of the agency review determination.
    If a request for an adjudicative proceeding is not made, the alleged perpetrator may not further challenge the finding.
    Reviews and hearings conducted under this section are confidential and shall not be open to the public.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Rev. Code § 26.44.031
    The department shall not maintain information related to unfounded referrals in files or reports of child abuse or neglect for longer than 6 years.
    At the end of 6 years from receipt of the unfounded report, the information shall be purged unless an additional report has been received in the intervening period.

West Virginia
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Code § 49-6A-5

Unless there are pending proceedings, all reports shall be destroyed 30 years following their preparation.

Wisconsin
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Stat. § 48.981
    If the department or a licensed child welfare agency under contract with the department determines that a specific person has abused or neglected a child, the department or agency, within 15 days after the date of the determination, shall notify the person in writing of the determination, the person's right to appeal the determination, and the procedure by which the person may appeal the determination.
    The person may appeal the determination in accordance with the procedures established by the department.
    Those procedures shall include a procedure permitting an appeal to be held in abeyance pending the outcome of any criminal proceedings based on the alleged abuse or neglect or the outcome of any investigation that may lead to the filing of a criminal complaint.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

Wyoming
Child Abuse and Neglect
Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records

Offline egypt

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Full Wyoming information continued from the last post:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
from:  www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/search/index.cfm

Wyoming
Child Abuse and Neglect

Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records
To better understand this issue and to view it across States, see the Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 331 KB) publication.
Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Ann. Stat. § 14-3-213
    Any person named as a perpetrator of child abuse or neglect in any report maintained in the central registry that is classified as a substantiated report shall have the right to have included in the report his or her statement concerning the incident giving rise to the report.
    Any person seeking to include a statement pursuant to this subsection shall provide the State agency with the statement.
    The State agency shall provide notice to any person identified as a perpetrator of his or her right to submit his or her statement in any report maintained in the central registry.

When Records Must Be Expunged
Ann. Stat. § 14-3-213
    Upon good cause shown and upon notice to the subject of an ‘under investigation’ or ‘substantiated’ report, the State agency may list, amend, expunge, or remove any record from the central registry in accordance with rules and regulations adopted by the State agency.
    Within 6 months all reports classified as ‘under investigation’ shall be reclassified as ‘substantiated’ or expunged from the central registry, unless the State agency is notified of an open criminal investigation or criminal prosecution.
    Unsubstantiated reports shall not be contained within the central registry.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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How Your Family Is Destroyed With
Allegations of Child Abuse

From Child Welfare Information Gateway:
http://www.childwelfare.gov/

Program Evaluation: A Synthesis of Lessons Learned by Child Neglect Demonstration Projects
Series Title:   Grantee Lessons Learned
Author(s):   United States. Children's Bureau.
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 236 KB)
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Year Published:   2005 - 18 pages
 
In 1996 and 1997, the Children's Bureau funded 10 demonstration projects to address the prevention, intervention, and treatment needs of neglected children and their families. These projects implemented and evaluated a wide variety of service strategies with large numbers of high-risk children and families. The programs varied considerably in terms of theoretical model (psychosocial or ecological), target population, location (in-home or out-of-home), duration, and intensity. The projects provided a great variety of services, including parent education and support, home visits, and referrals to other resources or services in the community. (For information about the programmatic aspects of these projects, see ...

Infant Safe Haven Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 136 KB)

Year Published:   2007 - 5 pages
 
Reviews State laws that provide a vehicle for the safe relinquishment of newborns who might otherwise be abandoned.
Infant Safe Haven Laws: Summary of State Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 660 KB)

Year Published:   2007 - 69 pages
 
Reviews State laws that provide a vehicle for the safe relinquishment of newborns who might otherwise be abandoned. Summaries of laws for all States and US territories are included.
Kinship Care/Grandparents Raising Grandchildren
Series Title:   Related Organizations Lists
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication

Year Published:   2008 - 0 pages
 
This resource listing provides the contact information of selected organizations that offer information on kinship care. Each entry includes a brief description of the function of the organization, mailing address, telephone and fax number, e-mail address, and web address.
Kinship Caregivers and the Child Welfare System
Series Title:   Factsheets for Families
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 230 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Availability in Spanish:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 313 KB)
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Year Published:   2005 - 15 pages
 
Informal and formal kinship care arrangements help to ensure stability and protection for children within their extended family. This fact sheet describes the benefits of kinship care as a child protection alternative and examines the agency's responsibility for the placement. The placement decision-making process, what to expect from the child welfare service and court system, and financial support, available services, and permanency planning are discussed. Questions for new kin caregivers to ask and a list of additional references are provided.
Parental Drug Use as Child Abuse
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 180 KB)

Year Published:   2006 - 4 pages
 
Abuse of drugs or alcohol by parents and other caretakers can have a negative impact on the health , safety, and well-being of children. Approximately 42 States, the District of Columbia, and Guam currently have laws within their child protection statutes that address the issue of substance abuse by parents. Two main areas of concern are (1) the harm caused by prenatal drug exposure and (2) the harm caused to children of any age by exposure to illegal drug activity in the home. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) requires States to have policies and procedures in place ...
Parental Drug Use as Child Abuse: Summary of State Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 306 KB)

Year Published:   2006 - 28 pages
 
Abuse of drugs or alcohol by parents and other caretakers can have a negative impact on the health, safety, and well-being of children. Approximately 42 States, the District of Columbia, and Guam currently have laws within their child protection statutes that address the issue of substance abuse by parents. Two main areas of concern are (1) the harm caused by prenatal drug exposure and (2) the harm caused to children of any age by exposure to illegal drug activity in the home. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) requires states to have policies and procedures in place to ...

Substance Abuse
Series Title:   Related Organizations Lists
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication

Year Published:   2008 - 0 pages
 
This resource listing provides the addresses and phone numbers of organizations that maintain information about the substance abuse in the context of child welfare. Each entry includes a brief description of the function of the organization.
Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment
Series Title:   Bulletins for Professionals
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 223 KB)
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Year Published:   2003 - 5 pages
 
Substance abuse has a major impact on the child welfare system. It is estimated that 9 percent of children in the United States live with at least one parent who abuses alcohol or other drugs. Research has demonstrated that children of substance abusing parents are more likely to experience abuse or neglect than children in non-substance abusing households. This fact sheet addresses the scope of the problem, the impact of parental substance abuse on children, service delivery issues, and agency practice implications. Resources for further information also are provided. 12 references.


Many times, we foster children with disabilities.  Is *this* what they look at and use for allegations?
The Risk and Prevention of Maltreatment of Children with Disabilities
Series Title:   Bulletins for Professionals
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 706 KB)

Year Published:   2001 - 8 pages
 
This In Focus report examines the risk of maltreatment for children with disabilities. Topics include prevalence of the problem, characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of maltreatment, risk factors, and prevention strategies. Emphasis is placed on societal attitudes about disabilities, program policies and procedures, and family-focused programming.

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How Social Services take kids for $ bonus money $
http://www.fourwinds10.com/siterun_data/health/abuse/news.php?q=1201989441

Finding Help When You Need It (from Promoting Healthy Families in Your Community : 2008 Resource Packet)
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway, Children's Bureau, FRIENDS National Resource Center For Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 184 KB)

Availability in Spanish:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 179 KB)

Year Published:   2008 - 1 pages
 
When parents are stressed, it can affect their relationship with their children. This tip sheet helps parents identify some common causes of stress and provides suggestions for finding additional support when needed.


Executive Director Richard Wexler of the National Coalition for Child
Protection Reform told the /Sun/, "The federal government pays states a
bounty of $4,000 to $8,000 for every finalized adoption over a baseline
number.
If the adoption fails, the State does not have to give it
back. They can place the child again and collect another
bunch of money.  This is as long as the baseline is exceeded. This creates
incentive for needless terminations of parental rights {TPR}, and an incentive
for quick, dirty, shoddy placements.

The Snitch System of “Mandated Reporters”


From: http://www.childwelfare.gov/
Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 158 KB)

Year Published:   2008 - 5 pages
 
Specifies individuals, typically by professional groups, who are required to report suspected child maltreatment.
Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect: Summary of State Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 633 KB)

Year Published:   2008 - 55 pages
 
Specifies individuals, typically by professional groups, who are required to report suspected child maltreatment. Summaries of laws for all States and US territories are included.

The Role of Educators in Preventing and Responding to Child Abuse and Neglect
Author(s):   Office on Child Abuse and Neglect., Caliber Associates.
Crosson-Tower
Availability:   View Publication
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Year Published:   2003 - 85 pages
 
This manual, designed to examine the roles that teachers, school counselors, school social workers, school nurses, special education professionals, administrators, and other school personnel have in helping maltreated children, provides the basis for the involvement of educators in combating the problem of child abuse and neglect. It also may be used by other professionals involved in child abuse and neglect interventions, such as child protective services, mental health, law enforcement, health care, and early childhood professionals, to gain a better understanding of the role of educators in child protection. Specifically, this manual addresses the following topics: Identifying reasons why educators ...

School-Based Child Maltreatment Programs: Synthesis of Lessons Learned
Series Title:   Grantee Lessons Learned
Author(s):   Children's Bureau (DHHS)
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 200 KB)
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Year Published:   2003 - 9 pages
 
The Office on Child Abuse and Neglect awarded several grants during Fiscal Year 1997 to programs that utilized school resources for the prevention and treatment of child abuse and neglect. The three-year demonstration projects focused on collaboration between child protection agencies and school systems; education for parents, teachers, and children about child abuse and neglect; and the involvement of school staff in prevention and intervention. This report summarizes the service approaches and lessons learned by 11 demonstration programs as noted in their final reports. The projects found that training was effective in enhancing knowledge about the signs of child abuse ...

The Role of Law Enforcement in the Response to Child Abuse and Neglect
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Donna Pence, Charles Wilson
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 212 KB)
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Year Published:   1992 - 78 pages
 
This manual was designed to train State and local law enforcement officials for intervention in and investigation of child abuse and neglect cases. It explains the rules of law enforcement, the nature of team investigations, the investigative process, relationships with other disciplines, interview techniques, and specialized types of investigations. Topics include risk assessment, removal from home, interviewing tools, cross-cultural investigations, foster care, investigation of child deaths, monitoring telephone or personal conversations, polygraph evaluations, and arrest issues. A glossary of terms and a selected bibliography are provided. 1 figure and 54 notes.
The Role of Mental Health Professionals in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Peterson, Urquiza
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 191 KB)
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Year Published:   1993 - 82 pages
 
This manual provides mental health professionals with a knowledge base about preventing and treating child abuse and neglect and helps them understand their roles and responsibilities in this area. Sections provide information on mental health disciplines and child abuse intervention; identify the roles of the mental health professional who works with maltreated children and their families, including preventing abuse on a primary and secondary level, providing tertiary intervention services, evaluating and treating children and their families, serving as an advocate and source of information, acting as an educator, helping clients prepare for testifying in court, being a consultant to county ...

Immunity for Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 179 KB)

Year Published:   2005 - 4 pages
 
In order for States to be eligible to receive Federal grants under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), they are required to establish provisions for immunity from liability for individuals making good faith reports of suspected or known instances of child abuse or neglect. The term "good faith" refers to the assumption that the reporter, to the best of his or her knowledge, had reason to believe that the child in question was being subjected to abuse or neglect. Even if the allegations made in the report cannot be fully substantiated, the reporter is still provided with immunity.
Immunity for Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect: Summary of State Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 261 KB)

Year Published:   2005 - 21 pages
 
In order for States to be eligible to receive Federal grants under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), they are required to establish provisions for immunity from liability for individuals making good faith reports of suspected or known instances of child abuse or neglect. The term "good faith" refers to the assumption that the reporter, to the best of his or her knowledge, had reason to believe that the child in question was being subjected to abuse or neglect. Even if the allegations made in the report cannot be fully substantiated, the reporter is still provided with immunity. ...

Penalties for Failure to Report and False Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 127 KB)

Year Published:   2007 - 3 pages
 
Penalties that States may impose on mandatory reporters who fail to report, or on any person who makes a false report.
Penalties for Failure to Report and False Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: Summary of State Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 200 KB)

Year Published:   2007 - 23 pages
 
Penalties that States may impose on mandatory reporters who fail to report, or on any person who makes a false report. Summaries of laws for all States and US territories are included.

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The following is from http://www.massoutrage.com

Dirty Trick No. Nine
The DSS has a network of "mandated reporters" everywhere your child is, to snitch on you. All helping professionals are required to report you to DSS if they suspect abuse; The people you think will help you will now betray you.
Everyone is a Snitch-

Who Can You Talk To?
One of the scariest DSS dirty tricks is a vast Soviet Style snitch network which they have set up all over the state, with the force of law, to report you to the authorities. This network is made up of ALL teachers, doctors, nurses, counselors, therapists, police officers, dentists, chiropractors, day care workers, school counselors, etc. These people must report any suspected "abuse", or be prosecuted and fined. They cannot be prosecuted for making a false report, unless it is frivolous. See Mass. Gen Laws Chapter 119, Section 51A.
All these people, called "mandated reporters", have been endlessly taught the importance of reporting. All their professional seminars, their whole culture, demands that they report, just in case. When in doubt, they report. Then, if there really is abuse, they won't get in trouble. Thus, the DSS has a seamless web of snoops and spies just about everywhere a child is likely to be.

Even Your Child is a Snitch

Even worse, you are no longer safe from the DSS police in your own home. They have also found a way to turn your own child against you. At the government (public) school, children are given the DSS phone number, and are taught to report things they see in the home to the authorities, like corporal punishment, drug use, and even family arguments They break down children's respect for their parents, and foster a submission to the state.
What they don't tell a child is that if he reports his parents to DSS, he may destroy his whole family forever. The child may be mad about getting disciplined, so he'll get even by siccing DSS on them. Then, they take that child, and all the other ones, too, just in case. DSS didn't tell the child that it would happen that way, but now it's too late, just like Judas.

You Thought You Were Getting Help
When you go to a counselor to get help, when you take Johnny to the emergency room if he falls off his bike, or when you talk to his school counselor, watch out. You are now a suspect. The person to whom you turned for help is likely your enemy, and may turn you in. You may go for help, and end up losing your kids. You need to think differently about how to get help. Of course, never ask the DSS for help. Many people do, and lose their kids.
Where Can You Go?
Who can you go to? Only two types of professionals cannot be made to divulge what you tell them, clergy and lawyers. Both are a little shaky, either due to fear of DSS, or because they agree with the doctrine of state control of families.
Clergy have a privilege not to report, or to testify about what you say to them. Lawyers have an even more ironclad privilege, called "attorney-client privilege". Many lawyers, however, wanting to curry favor with DSS, will actually betray their client's confidences. So, find a clergyman or a lawyer who hates DSS, and tell him your problems. That clergyman or lawyer may be able to help you find a medical professional who hates DSS enough to not report if your child has been hurt.
Solve Half of Your Snitch Problem

With This One Action
The other thing you MUST do is get your children out of the government (public) school. It is the major pipeline from DSS to your child. DSS takes children right out of school when they can coerce them into making "disclosures", and they don't come home that day. Sometimes DSS doesn't even tell the parents, and when mom comes to pick up the child at the bus stop, there is no child, and no one knows why. Needless to say, the parents are frantic, until they finally figure out what happened.
If you send your kids to a government school, you are sending them to your enemy to be educated. They will be taught to hate you and your values, and to sell you out. Get them out, before it's too late. This is the principle of "staying under the radar", which we review in detail in the "Fight Back" section.
top

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from: http://www.childwelfare.gov

Recognizing Child Abuse and Neglect: Signs and Symptoms
Series Title:   Factsheets
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 227 KB)

Availability in Spanish:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 132 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2006 - 4 pages
 
The first step in helping abused or neglected children is learning to recognize the signs of child abuse and neglect. This fact sheet lists general signs that may signal the presence of child abuse. It also includes signs associated with specific types of abuse such as physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment.


Amazon.com: Social Service Gestapo: How the Government Can Legally Abduct Your Child (Salt Series): Books: Janson Kauser READ THIS REVIEW SHE WAS A JUDGE !! YIKES


Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect
State Statutes Series
Author(s):  Child Welfare Information Gateway
Year Published:  2008
Current Through January 2008
You may wish to review this introductory text to better understand the information contained in your State's statute. To see how your State addresses this issue, visit the State Statutes Search.
All States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the U.S. territories of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands have statutes identifying persons who are required to report child maltreatment under specific circumstances.
Professionals Required to Report
Approximately 48 States, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands designate professions whose members are mandated by law to report child maltreatment.1 Individuals designated as mandatory reporters typically have frequent contact with children. Such individuals may include:

    Social workers
    Teachers and other school personnel
    Physicians and other health-care workers
    Mental health professionals
    Childcare providers
    Medical examiners or coroners
    Law enforcement officers

Some other professions frequently mandated across the States include commercial film or photograph processors (in 11 States, Guam, and Puerto Rico), substance abuse counselors (in 13 States), and probation or parole officers (in 15 States).2 Six States (Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Illinois, and South Dakota) include domestic violence workers on the list of mandated reporters. Court-appointed special advocates are mandatory reporters in seven States (Arkansas, California, Maine, Montana, Oregon, Virginia, and Wisconsin). Members of the clergy now are required to report in 26 States.3
Reporting by Other Persons
In approximately 18 States and Puerto Rico, any person who suspects child abuse or neglect is required to report. Of these 18 States, 16 States and Puerto Rico specify certain professionals who must report but also require all persons to report suspected abuse or neglect, regardless of profession.4 New Jersey and Wyoming require all persons to report without specifying any professions. In all other States, territories, and the District of Columbia, any person is permitted to report. These voluntary reporters of abuse are often referred to as "permissive reporters."

Standards for Making a Report
The circumstances under which a mandatory reporter must make a report vary from State to State. Typically, a report must be made when the reporter, in his or her official capacity, suspects or has reasons to believe that a child has been abused or neglected. Another standard frequently used is when the reporter has knowledge of, or observes a child being subjected to, conditions that would reasonably result in harm to the child. Permissive reporters follow the same standards when electing to make a report.

Privileged Communications
Mandatory reporting statutes also may specify when a communication is privileged. "Privileged communications" is the statutory recognition of the right to maintain confidential communications between professionals and their clients, patients, or congregants. To enable States to provide protection to maltreated children, the reporting laws in most States and territories restrict this privilege for mandated reporters. All but four States and Puerto Rico currently address the issue of privileged communications within their reporting laws, either affirming the privilege or denying it (i.e., not allowing privilege to be grounds for failing to report).
5 For instance
:
    The physician-patient and husband-wife privileges are the most common to be denied by States.
    The attorney-client privilege is most commonly affirmed.
    The clergy-penitent privilege is also widely affirmed, although that privilege is usually limited to confessional communications and, in some States, is denied altogether.

6 Inclusion of the Reporter's Name in the Report
Most States maintain toll-free telephone numbers for receiving reports of abuse or neglect.7 Reports may be made anonymously to most of these reporting numbers, but States find it helpful to their investigations to know the identity of reporters. Approximately 16 States, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, and the Virgin Islands currently require mandatory reporters to provide their names and contact information, either at the time of the initial oral report or as part of a written report.8 The laws in Connecticut, Delaware, and Washington allow child protection workers to request the name of the reporter. In Wyoming, the reporter does not have to provide his or her identity as part of the written report, but if the person takes and submits photographs or x-rays of the child, his or her name must be provided.

Disclosure of the Reporter's Identity
All jurisdictions have provisions in statute to maintain the confidentiality of abuse and neglect records. The identity of the reporter is specifically protected from disclosure to the alleged perpetrator in 39 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands.9 This protection is maintained even when other information from the report may be disclosed.
Release of the reporter's identity is allowed in some jurisdictions under specific circumstances or to specific departments or officials. For example, disclosure of the reporter's identity can be ordered by the court when there is a compelling reason to disclose (in California, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, and Guam) or upon a finding that the reporter knowingly made a false report (in Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, South Dakota, and Vermont). In some jurisdictions (California, Florida, Minnesota, Tennessee, Vermont, the District of Columbia, and Guam), the reporter can waive confidentiality and give consent to the release of his or her name.

To see how your State addresses this issue, visit the State Statutes Search.
To find information on all of the States and territories, view the complete printable PDF, Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect: Summary of State Laws (PDF - 633 KB).

________________________________________

1The word approximately is used to stress the fact that the States frequently amend their laws. This information is current only through January 2008. At that time, New Jersey and Wyoming were the only two States that did not enumerate specific professional groups as mandated reporters but required all persons to report. back
2Film processors are mandated reporters in Alaska, California, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Missouri, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Substance abuse counselors are required to report in Alaska, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Nevada, New York, North Dakota, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. Probation or parole officers are mandated reporters in Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Massachusetts, Missouri, Nevada, North Dakota, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, and Washington. back
3Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. For more information, see Child Welfare Information Gateway's Clergy as Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect. back
4Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, and Utah. back
5Connecticut, Mississippi, New Jersey, and New York do not currently address the issue of privileged communications within their reporting laws. The issue of privilege may be addressed elsewhere in the statutes of these States, such as rules of evidence. back
6New Hampshire, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Texas, and West Virginia disallow the use of the clergy-penitent privilege as grounds for failing to report suspected child abuse or neglect. For a more complete discussion of the requirement for clergy to report child abuse and neglect, see the Information Gateway publication Clergy as Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect. back
7For State-specific information about these hotlines, see Information Gateway's Child Abuse Reporting Numbers. back
8California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Vermont have this requirement. back
9The statutes in Alaska, Arizona, Delaware, Idaho, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Virginia, West Virginia, Wyoming, and the Virgin Islands do not specifically protect reporter identity but do provide for confidentiality of records in general. back
This publication is a product of the State Statutes Series prepared by Child Welfare Information Gateway. While every attempt has been made to be as complete as possible, additional information on these topics may be in other sections of a State's code as well as agency regulations, case law, and informal practices and procedures.

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The Following Are CPS User Manuals.  For each manual, you can click on “view publication” to see the contents and get the information.  As an example, “view publication” was already clicked for the first one on “The Role of Educators…”  The table of contents comes up with very useful information provided.  Knowledge is power.  In this case, if we know what is being looked for and how it is set up, protective action can be taken for our children and ourselves.

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From: http://www.childwelfare.gov/

The Role of Educators in Preventing and Responding to Child Abuse and Neglect
User Manual Series (2003)
Author(s):  Office on Child Abuse and Neglect., Caliber Associates.
Crosson-Tower
Year Published:  2003
This manual, designed to examine the roles that teachers, school counselors, school social workers, school nurses, special education professionals, administrators, and other school personnel have in helping maltreated children, provides the basis for the involvement of educators in combating the problem of child abuse and neglect. It also may be used by other professionals involved in child abuse and neglect interventions, such as child protective services, mental health, law enforcement, health care, and early childhood professionals, to gain a better understanding of the role of educators in child protection. Specifically, this manual addresses the following topics: Identifying reasons why educators ...
Table of Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
1 - Purpose and Overview
2 - Identifying Reasons Why Educators Are Concerned About Child Abuse and Neglect
3 - Recognizing Child Abuse and Neglect
4 - Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect
5 - Providing Support After the Report: What Schools Can Offer
6 - Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect
Endnotes
Appendix A - Glossary of Terms
Appendix B - Resource Listings of Selected National Organizations Concerned with Child Maltreatment
Appendix C - Child Abuse Reporting Numbers
Appendix D - Educators' Checklist for Recognizing Possible Child Maltreatment
Appendix E - Sample List of Contacts for Reporting Suspected Cases of Child Abuse or Neglect
Appendix F - Sample Report of Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect

The Role of Mental Health Professionals in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect

User Manual Series (1993)
Author(s):  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Peterson, Urquiza
Year Published:  1993
Appendix B : Other User Manuals In This Series
A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: A Basic Manual
Child Protective Services: A Guide for Caseworkers
Caregivers of Young Children: Preventing and Responding to Child Maltreatment
The Role of Educators in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect
The Role of Law Enforcement in the Response to Child Abuse and Neglect
Working With the Courts in Child Protection
Protecting Children in Military Families: A Cooperative Response

Child Abuse and Neglect User Manual Series 1990s
The following are the Child Abuse and Neglect User Manuals from the 1990s. Please note that some of this information may be outdated and that updated versions of some manuals are included in the new and revised Child Abuse and Neglect User Manuals.
Caregivers of Young Children: Preventing and Responding to Child Maltreatment
Series Title:   User Manual Series (1992)
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Koralek
Availability:    View Publication
Printable Version

Year Published:   1992 - 85 pages
This manual examines the roles and responsibilities of caregivers of young children in preventing and reporting child maltreatment. The manual provides an overview of child abuse and explains how to recognize and report cases of suspected abuse. Guidelines for caring for maltreated children and supporting their families are also provided. Specific topics include mandatory reporting, staff selection procedures, staff supervision and policies, developmental issues, and developing positive relationships with parents. 6 figures and 36 references.
Child Neglect: A Guide for Intervention
Series Title:   User Manual Series (1993)
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Gaudin
Availability:    View Publication
Printable Version (PDF - 240 KB)

Year Published:   1993 - 92 pages
This report presents a broad overview of issues related to child neglect in the United States. The report examines aspects of child neglect that can help people better understand its causes and effects, and provides information that can be used to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies. The report is divided into 7 main chapters that discuss the different definitions, causes, and effects of neglect; the incidence and prevalence of neglect; assessment, intervention, and prevention strategies and techniques that can be used by Child Protective Services and other agencies to treat and prevent neglect; and the implications for public policy ...

Child Sexual Abuse: Intervention and Treatment Issues

Series Title:   User Manual Series (1993)
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Faller
Availability:    View Publication
Printable Version (PDF - 283 KB)

Year Published:   1993 - 126 pages
The manual addresses the needs of professionals regarding child sexual abuse, describes professional practices, and discusses how to assist sexually abused children and their families. Treatment techniques for the victim, the nonoffending parent or mother, and the offending father are offered, and research on reliability and suggestibility of child witnesses is reviewed briefly. The focus of the manual is on case management and substantiation and is designed to assist child protection workers, child abuse investigation and mental health staff, legal professionals, and education and health care professionals. Child interviewing techniques and sample questions are included. The document contains a glossary ...
Crisis Intervention in Child Abuse and Neglect
Series Title:   User Manual Series (1994)
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Gentry
Availability:    View Publication
Printable Version (PDF - 193 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   1994 - 80 pages
This manual, part of the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect's User Manual Series, helps caseworkers improve their assistance to children and families in crisis. Sections present a brief overview of crisis; define crisis, identify the elements and phases of crises, highlight client feelings during a crisis, and discuss the psychological effects of crises; and outline the goals of crisis intervention and describe a nine-step crisis intervention model. The manual offers suggestions for involving the entire family in the crisis intervention assessment process; examines specific treatment approaches and techniques, including community systems, multimodal, cognitive behavioral, task-centered, family, and eclectic ...

Protecting Children in Substance-Abusing Families

Series Title:   User Manual Series (1994)
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Kropenske, Howard, Breitenbach, Dembo, et al.
Availability:    View Publication
Printable Version (PDF - 1590 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   1994 - 142 pages
This manual, developed by NCCAN, provides an overview of how to identify parental substance abuse, assess the strengths and needs of families, develop service plans, and implement strategies for helping children of substance-abusing parents. Physical and behavioral indications of substance abuse, characteristics of parents at risk of substance abuse, and special risks of children of chemically involved parents are reviewed. The manual also addresses reporting obligations, comprehensive family assessment, and juvenile court involvement. Innovative approaches to intervention are described, such as programs for pregnant and parenting women, residential treatment, family preservation, transitional group care, specialized foster homes, support programs for ...

The Role of Law Enforcement in the Response to Child Abuse and Neglect
Series Title:   User Manual Series (1992)
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Donna Pence, Charles Wilson
Availability:    View Publication
Printable Version (PDF - 212 KB)
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Year Published:   1992 - 78 pages
This manual was designed to train State and local law enforcement officials for intervention in and investigation of child abuse and neglect cases. It explains the rules of law enforcement, the nature of team investigations, the investigative process, relationships with other disciplines, interview techniques, and specialized types of investigations. Topics include risk assessment, removal from home, interviewing tools, cross-cultural investigations, foster care, investigation of child deaths, monitoring telephone or personal conversations, polygraph evaluations, and arrest issues. A glossary of terms and a selected bibliography are provided. 1 figure and 54 notes.

The Role of Mental Health Professionals in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect
Series Title:   User Manual Series (1993)
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Peterson, Urquiza
Availability:    View Publication
Printable Version (PDF - 191 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   1993 - 82 pages
This manual provides mental health professionals with a knowledge base about preventing and treating child abuse and neglect and helps them understand their roles and responsibilities in this area. Sections provide information on mental health disciplines and child abuse intervention; identify the roles of the mental health professional who works with maltreated children and their families, including preventing abuse on a primary and secondary level, providing tertiary intervention services, evaluating and treating children and their families, serving as an advocate and source of information, acting as an educator, helping clients prepare for testifying in court, being a consultant to county ...
 
Substitute Care Providers: Helping Abused and Neglected Children

Series Title:   User Manual Series (1994)
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Watson
Availability:    View Publication
Printable Version (PDF - 251 KB)

Year Published:   1994 - 82 pages
This manual for child welfare personnel provides them with information on serving abused and neglected children who are in family foster care or who are adopted. Section 1 presents background information on substitute care and permanency planning. Section 2 identifies the basic needs of all children and the special needs of both children in substitute care and maltreated children. Section 3 describes the systems, networks, and teams with which people who help maltreated children interact, including the service network and the substitute care team. Section 4 offers guidelines for meeting the needs of maltreated children, focusing on understanding the assessment ...

Treatment for Abused and Neglected Children: Infancy to Age 18

Series Title:   User Manual Series (1994)
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Urquiza, Winn
Availability:    View Publication
Printable Version (PDF - 480 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   1994 - 134 pages
This manual, produced by NCCAN as part of the User Manual Series, provides an overview of the treatment of sexually abused, physically abused, and neglected children. Child development is briefly reviewed and the study of developmental psychopathology is described. All aspects of child development are considered, including intrapersonal development, interpersonal development, physical development, sexual development, and behavioral conduct development. Consequences of abuse and neglect, assessment of maltreatment, the therapeutic process and the role of the therapist, treatment issues and specialized interventions, and case management are addressed. The manual provides a glossary of terms and list of resources for more detailed ...

Working With the Courts in Child Protection

Series Title:   User Manual Series (1992)
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Feller, Davidson, Hardin, Horowitz
Availability:    View Publication
Printable Version (PDF - 224 KB)

Year Published:   1992 - 78 pages
This manual provides an overview of court procedures in child protection cases. It describes court processes, defines legal requirements for evidence, and provides guidelines to help professionals participate in the process. Child protective court, criminal court, and domestic relations court processes are summarized. Specific topics include rules of evidence, use of records as evidence, privileged communications, courtroom dress, testimony, expert witnesses, competency of child witnesses, and preparing the child to testify. 1 figure and 88 references.
 
New Releases in the OCAN User Manual Series
The Office on Child Abuse and Neglect (OCAN) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has recently released two more publications in its popular User Manual series. The first, Supervising Child Protective Services Caseworkers, provides the foundation for effective supervisory practice in child protective services (CPS). It describes the roles and responsibilities of the CPS supervisor, and it offers practice-oriented advice on how to carry out supervisory responsibilities effectively. Best practices and critical issues in supervisory practice are underscored throughout. Topics include the nature of CPS supervision, building staff capacity, supervisory feedback, clinical supervision, and recruitment and retention. While the manual is designed primarily for CPS supervisors and administrators, it also is relevant to other child welfare supervisors.
The second new User Manual, Child Protection in Families Experiencing Domestic Violence, looks at the problem of domestic violence in families. While system responses are primarily targeted towards adult victims of abuse, increasing attention is focused on the children who witness domestic violence. Studies estimate that 10 to 20 percent of children are at risk for exposure to domestic violence. Research also indicates that children exposed to domestic violence are at an increased risk of being abused or neglected. This manual provides background on this complex topic and addresses many practice issues, including the overlap between child maltreatment and domestic violence, modifying child protection practice with families experiencing domestic violence, enhancing caseworker safety and support in child protection cases involving domestic violence, and building collaborative responses for families experiencing domestic violence.
Another recent title in the User Manual series is The Role of Educators in Preventing and Responding to Child Abuse and Neglect. This manual examines the roles that teachers, school counselors, school social workers, school nurses, special education professionals, administrators, and other school personnel have in helping maltreated children.
These publications, as well as other titles in the User Manual series, are available through the website of the National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information at http://nccanch.acf.hhs.gov/profess/tools/usermanual.cfm.

A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice
Author(s):   Office on Child Abuse and Neglect (HHS)
Goldman, Salus, Wolcott, Kennedy
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 4,110 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   2003 - 114 pages
 
Written for new child protective services (CPS) caseworkers, professionals working with children and families, other professionals and concerned community members, this manual addresses the definition, scope, causes, and consequences of child abuse and neglect. It presents an overview of prevention efforts and the child protection process from identification and reporting through investigation and assessment to service provision and case closure. This manual is intended to accompany each profession-specific manual in the User Manual Series. Appendices include a glossary of terms, resource listings of selected national organizations concerned with child maltreatment, and State toll-free child abuse reporting numbers. 150 references.

Cross-Reporting Among Responders to Child Abuse and Neglect
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 163 KB)

Year Published:   2005 - 1 pages
 
The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 5106a), requires States to make provision for the cooperation of State law enforcement officials and State agencies providing human services in the investigation, assessment, prosecution, and treatment of child abuse or neglect.

Cross-Reporting Among Responders to Child Abuse and Neglect: Full-Text Excerpts of State Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 295 KB)

Year Published:   2005 - 23 pages
 
The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 5106a), requires States to make provision for the cooperation of State law enforcement officials and State agencies providing human services in the investigation, assessment, prosecution, and treatment of child abuse or neglect. Procedures that must be followed in handling reports of suspected child abuse or neglect are identified for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 138 KB)

Year Published:   2007 - 6 pages
 
Defines the conduct, acts, and omissions that constitute reportable child abuse or neglect.
Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect: Summary of State Laws
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 442 KB)

Year Published:   2007 - 89 pages
 
Defines the conduct, acts, and omissions that constitute reportable child abuse or neglect. Summaries of laws for all States and US territories are included.
Determining the Best Interests of the Child
Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 168 KB)

Year Published:   2005 - 2 pages
 
Whenever a court must make a determination as to the custody and/or placement of a child, or must decide on a petition for termination of parental rights, the court must weigh whether that decision will be in the best interests of the child. All States and Territories require that the child's best interests be considered whevever such decisions regarding a child's placement are made. This resource provides the factors that may be considered by the court when making a best interests detemination.

Determining the Best Interests of the Child: Summary of State Laws

Series Title:   State Statutes
Author(s):   Child Welfare Information Gateway
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 303 KB)

Year Published:   2005 - 29 pages
 
Whenever a court must make a determination as to the custody and/or placement of a child, or must decide on a petition for termination of parental rights, the court must weigh whether that decision will be in the best interests of the child. All States and Territories require that the child's best interests be considered whenever such decisions regarding a child's placement are made. This resource contains the text of the "best interests of the child" statutes for all states, the Distsrict of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the U.S. territories of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana ...

Executive Summary of Effective Intervention in Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment Cases: Guidelines for Policy and Practice. Recommendations From the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges Family Violence Department.
Author(s):   Schechter, Edleson
Availability:   Download Publication (PDF - 66 KB)

Year Published:   1999 - 6 pages
 
This report summarizes the recommendations of the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges for responding to domestic violence and child abuse within the same family, available in full at http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/otherpubs/ncjfcj.pdf . An advisory committee of the Council focused on coordinating interventions provided by the child protection system, domestic violence programs, and juvenile or trial courts, as well as law enforcement, child welfare, churches, schools, health care systems, and extended families. Emphasis was placed onthe need to ensure the safety, well-being, and stability of children and their families. The foundation principles also recommend the expansion and reallocation ...

Crisis Intervention in Child Abuse and Neglect
Author(s):   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Gentry
Availability:   View Publication
Download Publication (PDF - 193 KB)
Order Publication (Free - Add to Cart)

Year Published:   1994 - 80 pages
 
This manual, part of the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect's User Manual Series, helps caseworkers improve their assistance to children and families in crisis. Sections present a brief overview of crisis; define crisis, identify the elements and phases of crises, highlight client feelings during a crisis, and discuss the psychological effects of crises; and outline the goals of crisis intervention and describe a nine-step crisis intervention model. The manual offers suggestions for involving the entire family in the crisis intervention assessment process; examines specific treatment approaches and techniques, including community systems, multimodal, cognitive behavioral, task-centered, family, and eclectic ...

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Most of the above publications can be read online at http://www.childwelfare.gov.   The idea is to know what you are addressing in your case.  If you are speaking about sand on the beach while they are speaking about the mountain tops, they can simply ignore you.

Love, e

Offline egypt

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Kinship Care & Relatives for Permanency Placement
(How it is viewed by CPS aka "What they *Should* be Doing)


From:  http://www.childwelfare.gov/permanency/relatives.cfm

Permanent Placements With Relatives
When children in out-of-home care cannot be safely returned home to their parents, child welfare professionals first look to relatives (also known as kin) to provide permanency for them. Relatives may adopt the children, assume legal guardianship, or accept a transfer of custody. All three options provide a permanent legal family for the children and support their exit from foster care and State custody. Kinship families caring for children often need an array of services to support their efforts. Resources include State and local examples.

Adoption and Subsidized Guardianship as Permanency Options in Kinship Foster Care: Barriers and Facilitating Conditions

Mason & Gleeson (1999)
View Abstract
A qualitative study of caseworkers in Illinois to identify barriers and conditions that support permanency for children in foster care.
Assessing Adult Relatives as Preferred Caregivers in Permanency Planning: A Competency-Based Curriculum (PDF - 312 KB)
National Resource Center for Foster Care and Permanency Planning (2002)
Provides an overview of the key knowledge and skills needed to work effectively with birth families and extended family members. Identifies family assessment categories that are different for relatives and nonrelatives.

Finding Permanent Homes for Foster Children: Issues Raised by Kinship Care (PDF - 135 KB)
The Urban Institute (2003)
Reviewed local kinship care policies and practices in 13 counties in Alabama, California, Connecticut, and Indiana to identify barriers to permanency for children in kinship care.
Kinship Care and Permanence: Guiding Principles for Policy and Practice
Lorkovich, Piccola, Groza, Brindo, & Marks

Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 85(2), 2004
Reviews why kinship care is favored, and uses lessons learned from the Kinship Adoption Project in Cuyahoga County, OH to discuss barriers and permanence of kinship care.
Making Good Decisions about Kinship Care
ABA Center on Children and the Law (1997)
View Abstract
Considerations for making decisions about placing children with relatives, including steps in the selection of a kinship home and legal aspects of kinship arrangements.

Permanency Planning with Kinship Foster Parents

Geen (2003)
In Kinship Care: Making the Most of a Valuable Resource
View Abstract
Examines the different ways that local agencies approach permanency planning when children are in kin rather than nonkin foster care.

Placement of Children With Relatives
Child Welfare Information Gateway (2005)
State laws that encourage preference for relatives when making foster care and adoptive placements. (PDF - 152 KB)
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State and local examples

Final Progress Report: Innovations to Increase Permanency Options for Children in Kinship Care
Institute for Black Parenting (2003)
View Abstract
Through community awareness of permanency options and support for kinship caregivers, the project attempted to place 74 children in adoptive placements and 40 children in legal guardianships with relatives.
The KIN-nections Project: aka Families First for the State of Arizona: Final Report

Arizona's Children Association (2003)
View Abstract
The project was designed to increase relative adoptions and guardianships through the use of family group conferencing for three groups of children: children who were free for adoption but had no identified placement, children in care for 5 or more years, and children in the Casey Family Programs long- term foster care program.
Permanent Kinship Placements (PKP) Project: Final Report

Adoption Center at Bellefaire JCB (2003)
View Abstract
The project developed a training curriculum and video series to educate child welfare workers about best practices when working with kin providers and used new technology and innovative techniques to identify, locate, and engage potential kin who could provide permanency for waiting children.

Offline egypt

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from:  http://nfpcar.org/eBook/MirandaA.htm

The Importance of Miranda
 
"You have the Right to remain silent, anything you say,
can and will be used against you in a court of law.
You have the Right to speak to an attorney and to
have an attorney present during any questioning.
If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed for you....."

I'm sure most of you have heard this sort of Miranda Warning in TV shows sometime in the last 40+ years since the original Miranda case was handed down by the Supreme Court.  What the Miranda case did in 1966 was set guidelines for when a suspect must be told of their right to remain silent and their right to an attorney.

Most people don't realize that Miranda only comes into play when a suspect in a criminal case has been taken into custody or arrested. If you are being investigated by police or CPS officials for any reason, no one is going to read you your Miranda rights from the beginning.  But that doesn't mean you are not entitled to these Rights nor that you can't invoke them.
 
At its most basic level, Miranda is to protect you from self-incrimination. Where does this protection or right come from? The U.S. Constitution, the basis for all our laws. If you haven't read it lately, you need to. Go here for a free PDF file you can download: http://www.apfn.org/pdf/citizen.pdf

Self-Incrimination

 
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand jury. . . nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law. U.S. Const. Amend. V
 
The Fourteenth Amendment provides, in part: "....nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law." U.S. Const. Amend. XIV.
 
Let's get this clear.  If you are being questioned by officials of any type, you have a Constitutional Right to not shoot your mouth off to them and spill your guts about everything you know (or even don't know) to be reinterpreted by them.  Which, may or may not,  land you in jail with criminal charges filed.

How can you take back any statements once they've been uttered? Remember the WWII slogan, "Loose Lips Sink Ships?” It certainly applies here. CPS doesn't have to get a guilty verdict in a court of law to devastate your family and your children.  They can just put you in the hot seat, try you in the court of public opinion and watch your life unravel like pulling a loose string on a hand-knit sweater. They don't have to hit a bull's eye for the collateral damage to take its toll. You may never be charged criminally and you could still wind up losing custody and your Parental Rights terminated. You still lose your children and the State wins -- gloating all the way to the bank.
There is also no law stating you have to help them prove or win any case that they are trying to build against you or a loved one.   In fact, you have the Right against self incrimination according to the 5th Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America.

Case workers or investigators will go on "fishing expeditions" for information that may or may not be related to an incident that suddenly gets blown all out of proportion. Do not give them fodder to chew on. They are not your minister, priest or rabbi.   They are also not your parent, counselor or friend. They have their own agendas in the course of an investigation and it does not include looking out for your Constitutional Rights.  In fact, they will try their best to threaten, intimidate and cajole you into telling them what they want to hear, regardless of your Rights.

Their goal in the course of the investigation is to find you guilty - of something, ANYTHING, because then it justifies their existence. The more people that are found guilty, the more money that flows into the coffers of whatever department you have, per chance, come across.

Asserting your innocence does no good, because everyone is guilty of something if you dig long enough. They may not be able to pin a murder charge on you because there's no body (evidence), but what about jaywalking, littering, or spitting on the sidewalk? Well, you must have done the crime, right? Otherwise you wouldn't have been charged in the first place by this nice official who has all the "right" credentials. It becomes a case of "he said/she said.”   When you're dealing with a stacked deck, who wins? The person who owns the deck!

The authorities are all familiar with each other.  They see each other on a regular basis. They conduct their business together all the time.  In fact, their very jobs are dependent upon money being brought in. Courtrooms are full of citizens being brought in by various governmental departments:  Police, sheriff, code enforcement, dog catcher, you name it.  And, all these governmental players have friends in the courthouse since they are there so often. They are all playing on the same team folks!

They want you to play with them with their own stacked deck, but they don’t tell you that it’s stacked.  This is why we have constitutionally guaranteed Rights to help you deal with the "stacked deck."   This is even if you didn't know the deck was stacked in the first place! If you don't assert your Rights, it is as good as if you didn't have any.   If you don't know what your Rights are, how are you going to let them protect you?   If you willingly talk with investigators, you are giving up Rights that protect you.  At this point, you have waived them and you have consented to abandon your Rights. Why should you? Why do you want to help them "win" their case?  Why do you want to give them ammo for their gun?   They want you to play with them with their own stacked deck, but they don't tell you it's stacked.
 
It's probably because you don't remember your high school civics class that taught how to be a good citizen by knowing and asserting your Rights to better balance the power between yourself and the authorities.   You have also been watching too many brain-numbing shows in which the suspect willingly gives up their Right to remain silent before they talk with their attorney.   Monkey see, monkey do!  You have to stop that right now.

Now is the time to install the proper "software" in your hardware (your brain) on how to deal with contacts with the authorities.   Watch these videos to help you remember:

Busted, A Citizen’s Guide to Police Encounters:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqMjMPlXzdA

Don't Talk To The Police Part 1:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i8z7NC5sgik

Don't Talk To The Police Part 2:
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=08fZQWjDVKE

"The government's interest in the welfare of children embraces not only protecting children from physical abuse, but also protecting children's interest in the privacy and dignity of their homes and
in the lawfully exercised authority of their parents."
Calabretta v. Floyd, 189 F.3d 808 (1999).

Remember, learning about and knowing your Rights and respectfully asserting them during encounters is no guarantee that your Rights won't be violated.   But, it does help diffuse a situation before it becomes all blown out of proportion, with  reason and logic having gone out the window - for both sides.

The key is to be respectful.  Even if  the other side isn't doing the same to you, be kind in your replies to them.  Do this if it takes every ounce of willpower you can muster. It puts them off guard.  It also lets the investigator know that you are not just some hick that fell of the turnip truck yesterday, and they cannot  run roughshod over you willy-nilly. Besides, you do have your tape recorder or video camera running, right?   (Don't think about posting to You Tube just yet - better talk it over with your legal counsel.)

You want to make sure that you not only have a cool demeanor in dealing with these people, but that you look like the one who is the innocent party in this whole situation, and that you have your act together!   You can wig out, scream, cry, or whatever, in the safety and comforts of your own bedroom after these guys are gone.   Do not let them see you are intimidated or cowed by their behavior.  But, neither do you want to come off cocky or like a smart aleck.   If there is any time to be calm, cool and collected, this is that time.
 
Your Right to Know the Nature of the Investigation
Before You or Your Children Are Questioned
 
There is an Act which was signed into law by President Bush on June 25, 2003:

Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003
(CAPTA -- Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act)

This Act has two provisions to help protect children and families during child abuse investigations.  First, it requires CPS workers to be trained in their duty to protect the statutory and Constitutional Rights of the very people they are investigating. Secondly, CPS workers are to tell people involved in an abuse or neglect investigation what the complaint or allegation is that has been made.
 
What is Search and Seizure?
 
Once upon a time, when the King was on his throne, his agents went from house-to- house looking for printed papers and "prohibited and uncustomed" goods. These items either had been smuggled in to avoid the high tax, or were claimed by the King to promote seditious libel and civil unrest. The Colonists grew tired of these "writs of assistance,”  general warrants, that made no man's home his castle.  They were viewed as unreasonable by the early Patriots.   Because of these issues, the Founding Fathers wanted boundaries to the "blank check" warrants that had been common. From these circumstances, the Fourth Amendment was birthed.
 
"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, house, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause
supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.”
U.S. Constitution Amendment IV
 
Since the penning of those great words, many years ago, there have been many court rulings that have defined and refined the limits of search and seizure.   The key is the "reasonableness" test.
 
"A "search" occurs when an expectation of privacy that society is prepared to consider
reasonable is infringed.”
Jacobsen, 466 U.S. at 113; State v. Daly
14 Kan.App.2d 310, Syl. ¶ 5, 789 P.2d 1203, rev. denied 246 Kan. 769 (1990)
 
"A "seizure" (of property) occurs when there is some meaningful interference with an individual's
possessory interests in that property.”
Jacobsen, 466 U.S. at 113; Brooks v. Sauceda, 85 F.Supp.2d 1115
 
I know many social workers and others believe there is an exemption of the warrant  requirement in child abuse investigations.   But,  the Ninth Circuit Court has ruled in Calebretta v. Floyd, that as a general rule, unreasonable searches and seizures are banned and it presumes that all warrantless searches are unreasonable. The only exemptions for not getting a warrant (aside from voluntarily agreeing to a search) during the course of an investigation for child abuse are twofold:
 
1.   That the social worker has in his or her possession evidence that would
 establish probable cause, and

2.   There are exigent circumstances (meaning there is an emergency) threatening the health or welfare of the child.
 
Please print out the following page which details Why Warrantless Entries Into Homes Are Generally Unconstitutional, and add it to your law notebook.

http://www.hslda.org/docs/nche/000010/CPSMemo.pdf


What is a Warrant?
 
A Warrant is a court order specifically describing the person, place or thing to be seized or searched.

 
How Do They Get a Warrant?
 
A governmental official applies to the court to try to obtain permission for them to invade your privacy to obtain information that may be useful to them in convicting someone -- probably yourself, or someone you know, of a crime. In the application, they have to be specific about their allegations, i.e. "We have been told by (friend, relative, school teacher, etc) that John Doe's (house, property, car, person, computer, etc) contains evidence that he (knows about, participated in, personally committed) the crime of (name your favorite here).

They have to show the court "probable cause" which is a good reason for assuming that a crime has been committed, and that you or the person in question did it. The facts that are known must be sworn to, or attested, that they are true to the best of the beliefs of the person making the application.
 
Anonymous tips, by themselves, cannot be the basis of a warrant, since you have no means of testifying to their veracity. However, if you have an anonymous tip that corroborates the other information that has been gathered from other known sources, you can use it. But again, not all on its own.
 
“[A]n anonymous tip, without more, does not constitute probable cause.”
See United States v. Wright, 215 F.3d 1020, 1025 (9th Cir. 2000) (citing, inter alia, Illinois v. Gates, 462 U.S. 213, 227 (1983)). For an anonymous tip to be accorded any weight there must be some basis that the tip is true.  United States v. Luong, 470 F.3d 898, 903 (9th Cir. 2006)."
 
“Frankly, it is difficult to conceive how a social worker, whose work is directly governed by state law and regulation, could claim to have a reasonable belief that a warrantless removal that is expressly prohibited by state law and regulation is somehow permitted by the Constitution
” Moodian v. County of Alameda Social Services Agency 206 F.Supp.2d 1030, *1035 (N.D.Cal., 2002
See also H.R. v. State Department of Human Resources, 612 So. 2d 477 (Ala. Ct. App. 1992); and Calabretta v. Floyd, 189 F.3d 808 (1999); North Hudson DYFS v. Koehler Family, Superior Court of New Jersey, Appellate Division (2001); Moodian v. County of Alameda Social Services Agency 206 F.Supp.2d 1030, *1035 (N.D.Cal., 2002
 
Notable Cases
 
Doe v. Carla Heck, a 7th Circuit Court of Appeals 2003 decision where a social worker entered a private school to interview a certain 11-year-old child in an attempt to find out about corporal punishment he and other students may have had and other "certain family matters". (This is the fishing expedition, folks!)

On a later occasion, the social worker tried to interview other students, but was denied access to the children without a court order or parental consent.   The social worker later had to close the investigation for lack of information and the parents of the 11-year-old child sued for violations of their Rights under the 4th and 14th Amendments.

The social worker(s) "went to the school for the specific purpose of gathering information, an activity that most certainly constitutes a search under the Fourth Amendment,” and that "under the traditional approach, the term 'search' is said to imply 'some exploratory investigation or an invasion and quest, a looking for or seeking out.’”    The court found that the 11-year-old child "had been 'seized'” within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment because no reasonable child would have believed that he was free to leave..." citing Brokaw, 235 F3d at 1010 "holding that the defendants action of taking a child into custody, without the consent of his parents, for the purpose of questioning him about allegations of child neglect was a seizure under the Fourth Amendment.”
 
Did you get that? The court has ruled that gathering information is an activity that constitutes a search under the 4th Amendment.   A fishing expedition is a search, and as such, you are protected by your Constitutional Rights, unless you waive them.
 
This ruling above, however, does give the authorities a loophole, as it restricts these fishing expeditions on PRIVATE property, i.e. a private home, private school, etc. A PUBLIC school does not have these protections. Why? When you drop your child(ren) off at the schoolhouse door, you are then giving the public school authority to act in your stead via something called "in loco parentis" which is Latin for "in place of the parents."

When the public school exercises their version of in loco parentis, they substitute their judgment for yours. Remember, they are government officials that you place in charge of your children for approximately 180 days a year. They will do what they deem best for your child while you are not there.  Including letting other governmental personnel have access to your child. You remember that the public school is a governmental institution, don't you?
 
''...chool officials act as representatives of the State, not merely as surrogates for the parents.''469 U.S. 336 (1984)
 
You give this same authority to a private school, but with a few differences.  Number one, they are not a governmental entity. Secondly, this school probably reflects your values and standards better than the public institution. A public school probably has different values and standards than you do in your home. Their mantra is often "Is it good for the children?"  from which they have loosely-translated  the legal definition of "in the best interests of the child."  Thirdly, a private school is more interested in protecting your Rights as they have a vested interest in keeping you a happy customer. They want your business, (you pay them money) and are willing to abide by your rules. And, you have already given them a copy of your Reverse Miranda notice and the Hatch Amendment Letter, right?

A public school has public monies at its disposal. They don't have to please you, as they feel they are the only legitimate source of education there is, even if it isn't. They don't want the parents to have the freedom to choose, because when we do, we often don't choose the public version of school.
 
Another good case to note is Heartland Academy Community Church , et al, vs. Michael Waddle, decided May 11, 2004 in the United States District Court, Eastern District of Missouri, Northern Division.
 
“In the context of removing a child from his home and family, a seizure is reasonable if it is pursuant to a court order, if it is supported by probable cause, or if it is justified by exigent circumstances, meaning that state officers ‘“have reason to believe that life or limb is in immediate jeopardy.’”  Brokaw, 235 F.3d at 1010 (quoting Tenenbaum v. Williams, 193 F.3d 581, 605 (2d Cir. 1999) (citation omitted)).  The same standard for reasonableness applies when a child is seized from a private school where she has been placed by her parents.  See Doe, 327 F.3d at 512 (holding “n our view, there is no basis for concluding that when a minor child is entrusted to the care of a private school in loco parentis his reasonable expectation of privacy, vis-à-vis government officials, differs in any material respect from that which he would otherwise expect to receive at home.”). 
 
Michael C. v. Gresbach, another 7th Circuit Court of Appeals decision, this time from 2008, mirrors the Doe v. Heck case above. From the Liberty Counsel website:
 
"Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals has ruled in favor of two Wisconsin children who were strip-searched by a state social worker at a private Christian school. In Michael C. v. Gresbach, the appeals court panel unanimously ruled that the social worker, Dana Gresbach, violated the Fourth Amendment rights of the children to be free from an unreasonable search.
 
"The court stated that "it is a violation of a child’s constitutional rights to conduct a search of a child at a private school without a warrant or probable cause, consent, or exigent circumstances." The court held the social worker personally responsible for violating the students’ rights, because the law in this area is so clear that she should have known her actions were unconstitutional. Although the school principal allowed the social worker to interview the students, the social worker never even mentioned that she intended to require the children to remove their clothing. In addition, the social worker refused to allow the principal to contact the parents before the interview or to be present when she forced the children to strip.
 
"Stephen Crampton, Vice President of Legal Affairs and General Counsel for Liberty Counsel, commented: "Decades ago, the United States Supreme Court emphatically ruled that the child is not the mere creature of the state. Unfortunately, social workers repeatedly ignore that fact and routinely trample parents' rights under the guise of protecting the children. This ruling sends the message that the Constitution is still in effect protecting law-abiding families from the overreaching arm of the state, both in the home and in private schools."
 
In Arizona on Sept 27, 2007, in the case Loudermilk v. Arpaio, a Federal Court ruled that an unsupported threat to place children in custody was unconstitutional because the fear tactics the social workers and sheriff's deputies used violated the constitutional guarantee of family privacy and integrity.
“Defendants persisted in their threats to remove the children if Plaintiff Parents did not consent to the search, stating that [they] could arrest or handcuff the Parents in front of the children. Based on the allegations set forth in the Amended Complaint, viewed in Plaintiff’s favor, no reasonable official would have believed that his or her conduct was authorized by state or constitutional law.”
 
The judge additionally cites:
 
"The principle that government officials cannot coerce entry into people’s houses without a search warrant or applicability of an established exception to the requirement of a search warrant is so well established that any reasonable officer would know it.”  Calabretta, 189 F.3d at 813.  Similarly, “[t]he constitutional right of parents and children to live together without government interference is well established.” Mabe, 237 F.3d at 1107 (citing Santosky v. Kramer, 455 U.S. 745, 753 (1982))."
 
“Knowledge will forever govern ignorance. And people who mean to be their own governors, must arm themselves with the power knowledge gives. A popular government without popular information or the means of acquiring it is but a prologue to a farce or a tragedy, or perhaps both.” James Madison, letter to W.T. Barry (August 4, 1822), reprinted in G.P. HUNT, ED., IX THE WRITINGS OF JAMES MADISON 103
 
“The people of this state do not yield their sovereignty to the agencies that serve them. The people, in delegating authority, do not give their public servants the right to decide what is good for the people to know and what is not good for them to know. The people insist on remaining informed so that they may maintain control over the instruments that they have created.” Washington Public Records Act, RCW §42.17.251
 
Unless courts are prepared to enforce these rights and protect those charged with crime, irrespective of their obvious guilt, they condone illegitimate and unconstitutional practices which, if long adhered to, may result in a breakdown of the protection accorded free men by the Fourth and Fifth Amendments.[fn3] This course, like the enforcement of other parts of the Bill of Rights, may often afford a shelter for criminals, "But the forefathers thought this was not too great a price to pay for that decent privacy of home, papers and effects which is indispensable to individual dignity and self respect. They may have overvalued privacy, but I am not disposed to set their command at naught."[fn4]  BROCK v. UNITED STATES, 223 F.2d 681 (5th Cir. 1955).
 
Knock, Knock
 
So what do you do if the "authorities" come knocking at your door? First of all, why answer the door if you don't know who it is? There's no law that says you are obligated to answer every knock on the door (or every time the phone rings!).  But, if someone tries to catch you unawares, perhaps on your way from the house to the car to go someplace, how should you respond? Perhaps your encounter could go a bit like this:
 
Social worker comes up to you and says, "Hi, I'm Sarah Snake with the Division of Family Services. I'd like to ask you and your children a few questions about a complaint we've had. I'm required by law to come into your home to investigate." She hands you her business card and has her photo id clipped to the lanyard around her neck.
 
You are about to reach for the door to go inside to put your groceries away. Your children have already scurried inside. Close the front door and stand outside your house.  (You don't want her to follow you into the house like a little puppy without permission, and they will try.) You turn to the SW and say, "Oh, what is the nature of the complaint?" (You have a right to know this before you answer any of their questions.)
 
Sarah Snake sneakily says, "We've had an anonymous hotline complaint and I can't reveal more information until I've conducted my investigation."
 
You politely reply, "I'm sorry, but I'm sure my attorney is going to ask what the investigation is about. He's also instructed us not to allow you into our house without a search warrant. May I see yours please?" (Be reaching for your cell phone to call your attorney.)
 
A bit miffed that you aren't cowing to her every whim and desire, Sarah Snake snips back, "I can get one in a matter of minutes. What are you trying to hide, anyway?"
 
Nicely as you can, you muster a smile even though you feel as if you've just been slapped in the face or worse yet, sucker punched in the gut. However, you also know that she can't get a warrant without support of imminent physical danger and probable cause, and an anonymous complaint can't be the basis of a search warrant.

"I understand your concerns, Ms. Snake. I'm sure you've had training in upholding the Constitutional Rights of citizens in the course of carrying out your job, haven't you Ms. Snake?  I'm sure you're just as concerned as we are about the gradual usurpations of these Rights, aren't you Ms. Snake?  It's because of this, Ms. Snake, that I must tell you we need a search warrant before any further investigation. I'm sure you understand. Have a nice day, Ms. Snake." 
 
At this point, you enter your home and close the door securely behind you.
 
Helpful Sentences to Learn
For Encounters With Authorities
 
•           "What seems to be the problem officer?"
•           "May I see your  warrant?"
•           "I do not consent to a search, officer."
•           "I understand your concerns and I'm happy to cooperate. May I see
 your search warrant please?"
•           "I do want to cooperate; however, I do not want to ignore properly-
   established procedure."
•           "Why would you want to circumvent clearly-established laws and
      procedures?"
•           "I am happy to do all that is asked of me by the court. Do you have a
 court order for the things you are asking?
 
The three most important things for you to do after you politely inform someone you wish to stand on your Constitutional Rights (objecting to a warrantless search, right to remain silent, etc.) are:

1.  Be quiet
2.  Shut up, and
3.  Don't say anything
 
Then, as soon as possible, talk with your legal counsel.  Get a notepad and pen and write up the sequence of events while it's still fresh in your mind. Do not give a copy to any investigators, only to your attorney.
 
Finally, read, read, and read as if Your Life depends on it. You have been thrust into a situation that you were not expecting for the most part, but you can't give up. You have been thrown into shark-infested waters and you must learn to swim, and swim quickly.

[center]Please Note:

I am not an attorney.
I am expressing, in my posts, what is my opinion, which is not legal advice.
My posts should not be understood as legal advice, nor the information used & acted upon as legal advice.
Please consult your attorney for legal advice.[/center]