"Climate Change", fake energy crisis, & "Green" agenda = Cybernetics in disguise

Author Topic: "Climate Change", fake energy crisis, & "Green" agenda = Cybernetics in disguise  (Read 62881 times)

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Offline blissentia

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This relates aboslutely to the topic - I just wanted to bring up an important point.

Did anybody see the movie Inception? Remember how when the characters messed with the victim's dream space, the entire world they were in (the victim's subconscious) would attack them. Well, that's an example of how network centric warfare will be. It will work upon the Global Information Grid on which all of us and our infrastructure will be monitored, and if there is ever an outlier, it will be instantly taken care of.

I post the following religiously on all sorts of forums, but I think it illustrates the reality of our situation beautifully:

In order to understand what is going on today, first read NetCentricTruther's document on the revolution in military affairs: http://popularsymbolism.com/mitaphane/rma-en.pdf

Then, read the military document Joint Vision 2020, which lays out the agenda of Full Spectrum Dominance: http://www.scribd.com/doc/33264319/Joint-Vision-2020

Then, read Control Warfare: Inside the OODA Loop: http://www.scribd.com/doc/33264282/Control-Warfare-Inside-the-OODA-Loop





Which discusses the OODA loop, one of the battlefields on which the RMA operates (this is discussed in NetCentricTruther’s RMA document). OODA stands for Observe-Orient-Decide-Act. The traditional usage of the term refers to the military exercising their OODA loop in a manner more efficient than the enemy. Another usage of the term (such as in Control Warfare) refers to anticipating the enemy’s (our) actions based on knowledge of the environment from which they (we) absorb inputs, and knowledge of their (our) genetic, cultural, and informational makeup, from which decisions and actions can be inferred.

Here is a military PR video that breaks this down, giving us the context that the goal is for the military’s OODA loop to be quicker and more efficient than the enemy’s, integrating Sensors (O), situational awareness (O), dynamic command and control (D), and effects delivery (A):

http://www.youtube.com/v/xeWnZRZrpaY

What Military PR omits, however, is that in the context of Full Spectrum Dominance, all battlefields must be completely controlled. Therefore, all inputs informing the OODA loop of the enemy must be manufactured and not leave the acceptable domain of information. Therefore, alternative media, even though it is superior to mainstream media, is immediately suspect, since it would be instantly marginalized if it were not approved. Thus, we can say that much of the alternative media is designed to create a controlled anti-thesis to this system, leading to a new synthesis that leaves the fundamentals of this Global Beehive undisturbed. Indeed, the military anticipated this antithesis, calling it the “Eagle Movement” in their future history.

In other words, it is insufficient to form your opinions based on the opposite of the mainstream since neither the thesis nor the anti-thesis address the prime realities of this system. This brings to mind a theoretical psychology professor of mine who told me that Neitzche called a person who formed their beliefs based on the mainstream a "stupid person #1" or a "first kind of stupid person", and called a person who formed their values based on the opposite of mainstream values a "stupid person #2" or a "second kind of stupid person". I have no idea if Neitzche used those terms or not, but it illustrates the point beautifully.

Also, there are dialectics in "opposition" forces as well. The following example will elucidate this further.

Let’s look at this in terms of economic paradigms. Two of the most prominent attacks on the current system, libertarian (Austrian) and socialist (Marxist), are actually systems of control in disguise. The Marxist paradigm completely ignores the problem of central banking and fails to realize that we are under a banker parasitic and corporate socialist, and not a capitalist, system. Instead, it proposes central planners and political technocrats to introduce a new kind of tyranny. The Austrian paradigm re-instantiates feudalism by giving power to those who control the gold supply (the Rothschilds), who can expand and contract it as they wish, so as to have the world’s economies at their mercy.

The Socialist paradigm is obviously an elite project (see World Revolution, see Wall St. and the Bolshevik Revolution, see Rothschilds conduct “Red Symphony”).

As for the Austrian Paradigm, the following quote will suffice:

"Many readers may be surprised to learn the extent to which the Graduate Institute and then Mises himself in the years immediately after he came to United States were kept afloat financially through generous grants from the Rockefeller Foundation. In fact, for the first years of Mises’s life in the United States, before his appointment as a visiting professor in the Graduate School of Business Administration at New York University (NYU) in 1945, he was almost totally dependent on annual research grants from the Rockefeller Foundation.”: http://www.independent.org/publications/tir/article.asp?a=692  

In order to understand this process further, let me bring your attention to the “Peace” Symbol:



It’s obvious in light of the above what we are dealing with here. The “Peace” Symbol represents a contrived dialectic, synthesizing within a controlled boundary. The vertical line in the middle represents the intended direction which was to be created by placing thesis and antithesis against each other. It is important to realize that for this to be effective, nether thesis nor antithesis should address prime realities, thus the assertion that the circle represents the controlled boundary beyond which discussion must not reach.

In light of that, consider the following symbol from “G” Edward Griffin’s “Freedom Force International”, bastion of the libertarian (Austrian) right:



and consider the following image from City Lights Bookstore, bastion of the Socialist (Marxist) left:



Now, I'm not implying that Griffin and the owners of City lights intended for this symbol to indicate some sort of malevolent inside joke. Maybe they did, maybe they didn't. That is ultimately irrelevant, however, since their messages are just more vectors in the dialectic matrix.

Remember that full spectrum dominance means dominance over all colors, whether they by libertarian, left, right, socialist, ... whatever is in the pubic consciousness. That which hurts elitist dominance structures is marginalized and distorted (see Mason Gaffney’s work on Georgism).

In addition, the Orient aspect must be controlled, so that the enemy (us) will not be able to summon our resources to properly escape domination. This disorientation has been accomplished via the chemical dumbing down discussed previously. It has been accomplished by the extreme violations of bodily/genetic integrity caused by GMO foods, by psychotronic warfare, by aerosol spraying, by DU, and so on. This has been accomplished in education by the replacement of the classic Trivium and Quadrivium methods, which developed intellectual agency, with outcome based education, which created intellectual dependency, making the population subject to externally manufactured Information Operations and other such processes.

Those who somehow manage to escape the control over O-O will be recognized as outliers via “sense and respond” systems in the sensor/information/engagement grid informing the Elite’s OODA loop, which utilizes Network Centric Warfare. They may be disoriented via informational/chemical/biological attack, or they may be eliminated entirely.

So, to recap, the above definition shows that in the system at present and coming into view, the Elite executes their OODA loop more efficiently than the rest of the population, and the Action that they take is to try and dominate the O-O aspects of OUR OODA loop. Those immune to this action will be dealt with in the ways discussed in the above paragraph.

This is how they have achieved, and will achieve total control. The New World Order that is coming into view is going to be far more terrible than 1984, if we allow it to happen.

Bad as that sounds, this post is fortunately incredibly good news. Here’s why: We can be as speculative as we want about systems of control throughout history, but with what I have described, the military laid out the entire police state for us. No speculation is necessary. When you combine my post, Squarepusher's RMA document, Joint Vision 2020, and Control Warfare, you have the elite completely admitting, "We are committing treason. We are waging war against you. We are seeking to achieve complete control". In speaking of information warfare, those 4 items constitute our hydrogen bomb, since they fully explain the police state. By publicizing this information, we will show people the science of how they have been controlled. With this laid out, if it ever became a part of the public consciousness, such a massive wave of revulsion would ensue and people would reject this contrived system. Then, hopefully, we might be able to construct a more humanitarian society.

Offline cardio

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Re: Global Warming/Climate Change Agenda Is Geo-Cybernetics In Disguise
« Reply #41 on: July 23, 2010, 07:40:02 PM »
The Cybernetics Society page links directly to Chatham House's (The Royal Institue for International Affairs) website.
 http://www.cybsoc.org/links.htm (many interesting links)



And on Chatham house's website, there's this:

Chaoplexic Warfare or the Future of Military Organization



Antoine Bousquet, September 2008

http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/publications/ia/download/-/id/2313

Scientific methods and concepts have been exerting a powerful influence on the exercising of armed force since the Scientific Revolution and the dawn of the modern era. In association with the respective technologies of the clock, engine and computer, the scientific theories of mechanism, thermodynamics, and cybernetics have all in turn been recruited to shape distinct approaches to the challenges of imposing order on the chaos of the battlefield. Today, it is on the basis of the new sciences of chaos and complexity that the latest regime of the scientific way of warfare is being erected. Chaoplexic warfare draws on the study of nonlinear phenomena of self-organization to propose a radical decentralization of armed forces through the adoption of the network form. For all its present flaws, network-centric warfare and its operational concepts of self-synchronization and swarming mark an important step on the path to chaoplexic warfare.

Offline citizenx

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Re: Global Warming/Climate Change Agenda Is Geo-Cybernetics In Disguise
« Reply #42 on: July 23, 2010, 07:54:38 PM »
Doesn't sound like any way to run an army.

The Prussians would be rolling over in their graves.

Maybe, they are simply writing their own epitaph:

"We got to trendy,
started believing our own crap,
and liking the smell of it.

Then we got our asses kicked bigtime
by one billion plus Muslims
with their own
"network swarming" capabilities."

Man, I'm glad I'm not in the army any more.

Anti_Illuminati

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Re: Global Warming/Climate Change Agenda Is Geo-Cybernetics In Disguise
« Reply #43 on: September 10, 2010, 01:56:31 PM »
http://www.vector1media.com/dialogue/perspectives/11712-what-is-intelligent-infrastructure-and-how-do-geospatial-tools-contribute
See link for embedded links.





What is intelligent infrastructure, and how do geospatial tools contribute?

Last Updated on Friday, 26 February 2010 21:32   Written by Matt Ball   Friday, 26 February 2010 00:00

Intelligent infrastructure combines sensors, network connectivity and software to monitor and analyze complex systems to uncover inefficiency and inform optimal operations. The sensor component collects operational detail over time as well as providing real-time inputs on current conditions. The network connectivity ensures the flow of information between systems, other sensors, and practitioners. The software component provides oversight and analysis, integrating insight from various systems and personnel. The approach incorporates the management of multiple processes for more collaborative and multidisciplinary workflows. Intelligence is constantly improving from such a system through incremental improvements that are informed through constant monitoring and analysis.

The idea of intelligent infrastructure has been around for a long time in one form or another. Early forays into real-time monitoring of systems include industrial control systems such as SCADA. What largely sets the newer concept of intelligent infrastructure apart is an advancement in sensors, systems and networks that enable us to go beyond simply monitoring. Instead of the more passive alarms when inputs exceed accepted norms, intelligent infrastructure is a more holistic approach that aims to model and manage with a greater understanding of the interconnectivity of systems and the implications of events.

Big Blue Leads the Way

IBM is well out in front of publicizing and practicing the concept of intelligent infrastructure with their Smarter Planet campaign and their SmarterCity initiative. The company trades on their large-scale integration work and their understanding of complex systems to promote this idea of instrumented, interconnected, and then intelligent systems.

At the core of this concept is the idea of a system of systems approach. In the complex urban core, it’s a combination of transportation, healthcare, economic development, public safety, energy and utilities, and education systems. Each of these individual systems is in themselves a system of multiple inputs from multiple sensors and systems. IBM asserts that it’s largely an issue of constant data collection and open data exchanges that yield smarts for these systems. The resulting repository yields the ability to see how things are performing and a clear picture on how to redeploy resources quickly in advance of any problems or failures.

IBM takes a partnership approach toward achieving their Smarter Planet goals, working with a number of geospatial players to map assets and analyze details geographically. IBM’s Maximo Spatial Asset Management system integrates with ESRI’s ArcGIS Server to incorporate the GIS view, display map content, provide geospatial querying capability, and read data direct from multiple geodatabases. The geospatial component is clearly needed, particularly in the complex environments of an urban setting, and location often acts as the glue to integrate disparate data and systems together.

Flexible and Responsive

Given the changes of rapid urbanization and the pressures to adapt to climate change, it’s imperative that we fine tune our systems to be more flexible and responsive. The concept of intelligent infrastructure is also strategically timed for great demographic shifts that will leave many high-level jobs vacant due to retirements. These systems can bridge the knowledge gap by recording and modeling best business practice and process in advance of losing legacy operational knowledge.

Examples of industry approaches that might qualify as “intelligent infrastructure” in my mind are:

    * the skeletonization of water networks for better understanding of full-network issues
    * intelligent traffic systems and sensors on bridges to measure and monitor performance
    * the detailed use of spatial analysis for renewable energy siting and ongoing monitoring of in situ conditions for optimal energy generation
    * more efficient building heating, cooling and lighting systems for energy conservation
    * detailed underground models for more informed oil and gas extraction

In all the above examples, there is a considerable increase in infrastructure and mapping efforts, but the payoffs can also be huge. An energy savings of 40 percent translates into a lower energy bill, less of a dependence on foreign energy sources, and reduced emissions. Intelligent traffic can dramatically reduce drive times and congestion, while cutting down on carbon emissions. While the solutions themselves are smart, the investment is also smart because the benefits far outweigh the costs.

Unleashing Creativity

Given the cross-cutting nature of intelligent infrastructure, where operational data from multiple separate operations are combined, there’s a great deal of opportunity for creative approaches to problem solving. Instead of being constrained by traditional business silos, these new systems will unlock cross-organization information to reveal the inefficiencies that exist between different systems.

As the systems mature and much more is known about operations, solutions to problems can be tested almost as in a laboratory setting. With the sensor-based feedback, and the growing knowledge base, pilot projects can be tested and the great deal of data that is generated can be analyzed to determine any performance improvements.

Through the application of intelligent infrastructure, we can gain a much better handle on the materials and resources that our systems consume. This conservation-first approach will go a long way toward improving our efficiency for a more sustainable approach, and will greatly improve the way we manage and construct our built world.

Get Involved: The Geospatial Information & Technology Association will be exploring the geospatial dimension of intelligent infrastructure at their upcoming annual meeting in Phoenix in April. I’ll be acting as facilitator for discussions with the Industry Trends Analysis Group (ITAG) on Monday morning of the event. If this topic is of interest to you, be sure to become involved.


Offline squarepusher

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Re: Global Warming/Climate Change Agenda Is Geo-Cybernetics In Disguise
« Reply #44 on: September 10, 2010, 02:12:26 PM »
The Cybernetics Society page links directly to Chatham House's (The Royal Institue for International Affairs) website.
 http://www.cybsoc.org/links.htm (many interesting links)



And on Chatham house's website, there's this:

Chaoplexic Warfare or the Future of Military Organization



Antoine Bousquet, September 2008

http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/publications/ia/download/-/id/2313

Scientific methods and concepts have been exerting a powerful influence on the exercising of armed force since the Scientific Revolution and the dawn of the modern era. In association with the respective technologies of the clock, engine and computer, the scientific theories of mechanism, thermodynamics, and cybernetics have all in turn been recruited to shape distinct approaches to the challenges of imposing order on the chaos of the battlefield. Today, it is on the basis of the new sciences of chaos and complexity that the latest regime of the scientific way of warfare is being erected. Chaoplexic warfare draws on the study of nonlinear phenomena of self-organization to propose a radical decentralization of armed forces through the adoption of the network form. For all its present flaws, network-centric warfare and its operational concepts of self-synchronization and swarming mark an important step on the path to chaoplexic warfare.


That link to Chatham House (aka Royal Institute of International Affairs / British mother company to the CFR) -

was it always behind a login wall?

If so, it sucks.
Infowars Wiki - Help make this become the official wiki of Infowars.com - contribute!

Offline Dig

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Re: Global Warming/Climate Change Agenda Is Geo-Cybernetics In Disguise
« Reply #45 on: September 10, 2010, 02:27:11 PM »
This relates aboslutely to the topic - I just wanted to bring up an important point.

Did anybody see the movie Inception? Remember how when the characters messed with the victim's dream space, the entire world they were in (the victim's subconscious) would attack them. Well, that's an example of how network centric warfare will be. It will work upon the Global Information Grid on which all of us and our infrastructure will be monitored, and if there is ever an outlier, it will be instantly taken care of.

I post the following religiously on all sorts of forums, but I think it illustrates the reality of our situation beautifully:




DARPA Wants to Install Transcranial Ultrasonic Mind Control Devices in Soldiers’ Helmets
 http://www.infowars.com/darpa-wants-to-install-transcranial-ultrasonic-mind-control-devices-in-soldiers-helmets/
Clay Dillow
PopSci
September 10, 2010


DARPA has been trying to crawl inside the minds of soldiers for a while now, but a new ultrasound technology could let them get deeper inside than ever. Working under a DARPA grant, a researcher at Arizona State is developing transcranial pulsed ultrasound technology that could be implanted in troops’ battle helmets, allowing soldiers to manipulate brain functions to boost alertness, relieve stress, or even reduce the effects of traumatic brain injury.

Manipulating the brain to enhance warfighting capabilities and maintain mental acuity on the battlefield has long been a topic of interest for DARPA and various military research labs, but the technology to do so remains limited. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), for instance, requires surgically implanted electrodes to stimulate neural tissues, while less-invasive methods like transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) possess limited reach and low spatial resolution.
All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately

Anti_Illuminati

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Re: Global Warming/Climate Change Agenda Is Geo-Cybernetics In Disguise
« Reply #46 on: September 15, 2010, 04:30:02 PM »
http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/archive/2010/October/Pages/BioWatchProgramtoRequireSensorstoDetectUnknownPathogens.aspx

BioWatch Program to Require Sensors to Detect Unknown Pathogens

The next generation of machines designed to sniff the air for biological threats may be required to detect pathogens currently unknown to science, a Department of Homeland Security official said.

The BioWatch program has gone through several iterations since it was first deployed in the wake of the 9/11 attacks. It is the only federally managed bio-surveillance program designed to detect the intentional release of biological agents in the air. It is currently deployed in more than 30 high-risk metropolitan areas, and for special events such as the SuperBowl or national political party conventions.

The first generation of sniffers was widely criticized because it required operators to retrieve the air filters and bring them back to a lab, where results could not be ascertained for several days. Subsequent “lab-in-a-box” versions are doing the test automatically.

Diane Berry, BioDefense advisor to DHS’ office of health affairs, said the next-generation environmental bio-monitoring system will have to detect “unanticipated threats.” This is a necessary step in a world where biologically engineered viruses are possible.

“Our goal is to expand the capability to detect more agents as warranted by risk — including unknown agents — more cities than are currently covered and at lower cost than existing detection systems,” Berry said at a Heritage Foundation homeland security seminar.

“We are actually thinking about the technologies we’re going to need to address the biological threats coming down the road,” she added. “We are working on building a layered capability that will enhance our security against known, unknown, engineered or emerging biological threats.”

BioWatch currently looks for known and well-characterized threats that have the largest potential to do harm to society, she said. The next-generation system will have to not only detect previously unidentified pathogens but tell investigators whether they are contagious or antibiotic resistant.

Furthermore, program officials want a system that does not have to remain in a fixed location. The office is looking at developing mobile detectors.

The proposed system will need to integrate with other federal, state, local and private sector bio-detection systems, she said. To that end, the office is defining standards for the equipment and providing purchasing guidance for nonfederal programs. The plan is to take all the federal, local and private-sector bio-detection programs and create a nationwide detection network.

“In a resource constrained environment, detection systems can’t be placed everywhere,” Berry said.

Sharing information across domains — such as the veterinary world — will also be critical to help identify, track and respond to biological threats, she added.

Anti_Illuminati

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Re: Global Warming/Climate Change Agenda Is Geo-Cybernetics In Disguise
« Reply #47 on: September 17, 2010, 11:28:47 PM »
http://www.worldservice.org/docindex.html?s=1

The Ellsworth Declaration
The declaration of World Government.


"There is no first step to world government. World government is the first step."
- Emery Reves, Anatomy of Peace
THE ELLSWORTH DECLARATION

4 September, 1953

    As long as there are sovereign nations possessing great power, war is inevitable. There is no salvation for civilization, or even the human race, other than the creation of a world government. - Albert Einstein

(Delivered at the City Hall, Ellsworth, Maine, U.S.A.)

Note: The page numbers have been left in this text for reference purposes.

Good Evening, dear friends:

This meeting has its origin about five years ago in Paris when I walked out of the United States Embassy as a sort of political nonentity, or stateless person. My story, that is, what led to that action, what happened afterwards, and where I find myself today have become matters of public interest, if only because anyone who has the audacity to deal with nation states directly as if he were equal or even superior in sovereignty, whether he is considered a fool or a sage, is at least an object of curiosity.

It is my experience however that much misunderstanding and even misrepresentation has occurred in the public mind concerning me. This is, to a great extent, my own fault. I have found myself unable many times to explain clearly and concisely the basic reasons for my actions. Perhaps I shouldn't have tried. Actions speak for themselves, and so-called reasons often confuse as much as clarify. But P. 21

also, the general press often print but half the story or sensationalize what is ordinarily quite a commonplace happening to entice the buying public. Flashy headlines replace objective and full coverage. This in turn gives rise to the cry of publicity seeker, and the man stands condemned whatever his motives or sincerity. Mostly however I think that the subject itself is confusing and lacking in precedent, the subject being the wholeness of individual man, or his inherent total sovereignty with full authority and rights contrasted today against the seeming absolutism of the sovereign state expressed in nationalism. . .and his inherent cooperative urge as contrasted with a fiercely competitive economy. . .how he can reassert himself in modern terms, what techniques he can use, what philosophy he can call upon, what moral fibre he can evoke in the face of giant immoral pressures and fears, what historical precedents he has, and finally what human support he can command around him, both individually and institutionally. The subject in short is unlimited man's revolt against a limited society and demands full command of every ounce of an individual's spiritual, intellectual, and physical stature. In the light of this problem, my personal limitations become glaringly obvious.

But once more I find it necessary to speak in public knowing full well the dangers just mentioned. I may confuse as much as clarify: the press may mock or cry publicity-seekers, or merely ignore; and again I may reveal my limitations in not embracing the full subject. But it is necessary first of all because I find myself in my homeland, America, and in fact in the very seat of my birth, Hancock County, in very unusual circumstances, and I want those about me, my fellow Americans, to know what I am about; exactly what these circumstances are, and what I intend to do about them; and secondly, I feel a duty and responsibility to my many friends in Europe and throughout the world who have supported me in the past and shown me their hearts and minds with openness and deep conviction, a duty which I have not always fulfilled and a responsibility which I have not always accepted, but which tonight I will try to fulfill and accept to the full measure of my ability.

To introduce my subject, let me say that though you and I here are friends and from the same soil, we are separated by as wide a gulf as man has ever artificially created. I was a bomber pilot during the last war, and I first discovered this artificial gulf between men when flying over Germany bombing German civilians and cities. Till then I hadn't thought much about my fellowman, or myself as a member of a world community. I had been too busy growing up, having fun, and trying to earn a living. But in that starkly realistic situation, behind all the emotion and hysteria, I was literally forced to consider, for the first time I might add, the seeming foolishness of one group of human beings dropping bombs on another group, all members of the same human family. Certainly like them I had good reasons for my participation in the fight. Fascism was a public menace, a social disease, a cancerous scourge, and had to be wiped out at all costs. . .even P. 22

at the cost of my death and that of my buddies-in-arms. But even so, I had to wonder what was wrong with the organization of our human community when a social disease like Fascism was allowed to become so plague-like that only an opposing plague, no matter how justified, could halt its advance. I confess my political naivete while flying that engine of destruction, but I couldn't really understand why our leaders had let things get that far.

I wasn't alone in this wondering of course. Millions of young people were rudely shocked into the naked awareness that the social plague called war was a real part of their life. If nothing else, we were forced to start thinking about our responsibilities in this regard.

After the war I returned to my profession in the theatre. But the wondering continued underneath. Though we had a supranational organization called the United Nations supposedly to solve the problems of war and peace, poverty and plenty, the still absolute sovereign states, after a flurry of postwar disarmament, continued more hysterically than ever their superarmament race, especially my own and Russia, developing superbombs and super methods of killing off human beings. Taxes were increasing on individual citizens, relief budgets were cut as defense budgets were increased-- though eminent scientists kept telling us that there was no defense against the absolute weapons now developed-- more and more people went hungry, or were illclothed, or illhoused, refugees were dealt with apathetically or begrudgingly, the world's children were neglected, and general fear and insecurity were becoming commonplace.

Was it possible, I asked myself, that once again I was to be uprooted from my everyday life, this time to become a part of an even greater plague called World War III? Hadn't we learned anything from the last war, or the one before that, or the multitude of wars stretching back throughout man's bloody history? Does each generation have to go through this superfoolishness? Are we all so bankrupt of reason and moral fibre that we can't live in peace and cooperation with one another in one physical world? These questions and many more pounded at me with increasing urgency during the years of '46 and '47. What should I do? I kept asking myself. Where could the common man like me, the man-in-the-street, the fundamental integer without which there is no society, register his protest against this insanity? Where could I vote against war and poverty, and for peace and wellbeing? Who represented me, not only in the United States, but in the world community as well? In the U.S., there is law and order, government, a central control or brain, direct representatives of the people therein, if only in a political sense. Outside there is chaos and anarchy, a jungle world wherein raw force is the deciding factor, where individuals are helpless, and where only armies move in sinister and secret patterns. There is no World Parliament, no world constitution, no world law, or world economy, in short, no world brain or government. Instead on our one planet, there are about 80 separate and fully-sovereign political and economic units, all attempting to govern and provide securi- P. 23

ty for their individual citizens. Some are rich, some poor; some are large, some small. But all are absolute in their political power over their citizens, just as the original 13 American colonies or States were in 1780.

It's as if your body had 80 or so separate, and uncoordinated compartments, each with its individual command posts or brain, and each acting at crosspurposes and giving opposing orders to the various organs. What would be the result? Well obviously, we call such an uncoordinated man an idiot, and because we know he can't provide for himself, but eventually will either starve or be destroyed in some way, we put him into an institution for his and the public good.

But an objective observer on Mars, or indeed even on Earth, might very well apply the same idiocy to the organism we call humanity and of which we are all integral parts or cells whether we like it or not. He would see quite clearly that it lacks a unified coordinating center, or world brain. . .or government.

But what about the United Nations? Isn't that set up to do the coordinating job, to be the brain of humanity? The answer of course, divorced of sentiment and ideals, is implicit in the actions of the very nations which are members of the U.N. Behind the inspiring ideals, the noble convictions, and imposing facade, and discounting the paralyzed specialized agencies set up to deal with real human problems, or the educational aspects, the United Nations is merely a meeting place for the representatives of some, not all of the nationstates to try to win world public opinion for their particular interests. As such, it is an effective smokescreen behind which the most powerful nations carry on their absolute nationalistic policies. In short, it is neither united, nor is it inclusive.

I am aware in making these remarks of the high regard that the UN as such is held by many here in the US, but it is vitally necessary to divorce ourselves from false sentiment and vain idealism so that the naked reality of the world's condition can be faced if just and reasonable solutions to human problems are to be found. Certainly the United Nations is of immense value to me, the utterly neutral man, for by it I can see in startling clarity just what we lack and need. I might add that my experience indicates that there are few within the UN itself who are not being made increasingly aware of this lack and need.

After I became aware of the world's basic anarchic condition, which was certainly a spiritual as well as a political and economic anarchy, I like millions of others, was faced with the personal problem of what was my responsibility to the total world community? How could I relate myself directly and realistically with my fellowman, spiritually, socially and physically, not only as a protest, but as a practical way to fill in the vacuous area of world anarchy? I was truly an American, by birth, by upbringing, by forefathers, by conviction and by ideals, but I wanted no part of nationalism. But could the two be separated? And if so, what then was the position of the individual who managed such an unprecedented separation? In other words, how could he make an effective protest against a nationalism turned violent which thwarted and perverted humanitarian tendencies P. 24

till men turned into mobs killing each other mercilessly and at the same time build his life on the constructive principle of social cooperation rather than on the jungle competition for bare necessities he saw all around him?

I wanted a corporate or federal or unitive world government to resolve the social organizational problem which in turn would resolve the economic problem with a world unitive economy; but first of all, I wanted a spiritual kinship, an awareness of a community of men derived from the same source, one human Organism, One Total Man, or more popularly, a world religion or universal church based on brotherhood, truth and love. From this, I knew and felt, would flow the other worldly institutions. Naive and oversimplified perhaps, but nonetheless sincere and heartfelt.

In personal revolt against nationalism to which I no longer wanted to contribute, and against raw competition with my fellowmen which I didn't understand and wasn't trained for, I went to Paris in May of 1948, and on the 25th of that month, before a U.S. Vice-Consul in the Embassy on the Champs Elysee, I took the formal oath of renunciation of my national citizenship, which is allowed by the Nationality Act of 1940. I did not deny being an American, which was an inherent part of me anyway, but I declared what I truly was in a larger worldly sense: . . .I claimed to be a world citizen.

This of course was no new declaration, no original thought. Socrates made it. Tom Paine made it. Most philosophers, sages, and spiritual leaders have affirmed its principles of unity in one way or another. But there is no monopoly on such a universal truth. And so, now a common man had made it. To me, world citizenship expressed positively and clearly man's individual wholeness or completeness, his personal uniqueness and individuality, plus his fundamental unity with all other men, spiritually as well as physically.

The general press however, mockingly referred to me as "the self- styled world citizen." It is a fitting commentary on our present-day political institutions when an ordinary citizen must style himself that which they presume to represent, but cannot, and then be mocked for it in the nation's press.

Here in America, where national citizenship is idealized and sentimentalized beyond all reason, I was publicly ridiculed. Many called me simply a crackpot with a harebrained idea; others thought I was merely one more publicity seeker of which America apparently had hundreds of thousands, though this was a pretty desperate way merely to get publicity. Others, less emotional and more objective, called me simply unrealistic, or impractical, or ahead of the times, though at the same time they usually were obliged to add that the world was in pretty much of a mess and something should be done. But generally, I was considered merely one more symbol of youthful confusion, and a sort of international orphan. . .or world waif. . .and very unAmerican.

I argued that to be an American meant infinitely more than just to be a United States citizen. Americans, I said, held fast to principles of liberty, democracy, P. 25

public welfare, and world peace, principles for which my forefathers suffered persecution, worked and died and upon which the nation was founded. Who was the true American, I asked, the man who stood for the above principles, or the chauvinistic nationalist or war profiteer? But my voice was drowned out in derision.

I must add here that I did not ask others to follow or even not to follow my particular action. I merely said that it was my way, and that if others were concerned about the same problems, they must find their particular way of renouncing absolutist nationalism and extending their loyalty to the total world community since at that time there was no one central and neutral organization to which all could belong as universal as humanity itself.

But even so, my birthplace hadn't changed, nor my upbringing, nor my ancestors. Also when I dropped my hand no longer a US citizen, I was no wiser, no more industrious, no more patient. The sun still shone on me, and the rain still fell on me; I still had to eat, breathe and work; I still like music and dancing and the theatre; I could still laugh and cry, or be serious or tell a joke; my friends were still my friends, and people who didn't like me anyway, still didn't like me anyway. In short, I was still very much me, despite my loss of national citizenship, and still very much a part of the total human community, and in fact, now a more direct part. In the real things, I hadn't changed a whit.

But like the pebble dropping on the surface of the water, I did make a ripple...on the surface. And to many people here in America especially, failing to distinguish the surface from the actual body of water, or the illusion of reality from the Real Itself, here in this dualistic society, I had dared to call into question the fundamental, the essential, and so, the secure. To these, US citizenship was absolute security, despite A-bombs, and two world wars. Also I had renounced "the American way of life" meaning principally the security of physical comforts and even luxuries. And so I was considered an outcast and a heretic on two counts, politically and physically. Morally, few in America, questioned my motives or actions. Needless to say, I was a great trial to my family and friends during this period.

Well, what happens to a man who finds himself plumb in the middle of the world anarchy, where there are no political representatives at any level of government, where no authority is prepared to accept or identify you, where you have no stable home and no legal right to live, where you have no influence because you have no political status and so where friends are either afraid or reluctant to come to your aid, where human rights are laughed at, and one is mocked for presuming to affirm even that he or she is a human being, where every petty official becomes your master before whom you must bow and scrape if you find yourself obliged to ask for some meager necessity till you are screaming inside and ready either to kill, or ask God's help, torn between the two, where indignity is mixed with contempt and pity, where life is a series of waiting-in-line at a P. 26

window marked "Alien" or "Stranger" behind which sits an indifferent clerk with only rubber stamps in front of him which determine your very existence, where the human spirit is crushed out of all shape and recognition until it withers of its own accord, where finally apathy and resignation nibble dumbly at the mind and heart till hope is gone.

Is this an exaggeration, coming purely from my imagination? Is the situation so bad? Ask the over 15,000,000 refugees in Germany, many living in madeover concentration camps. Ask the hundreds of thousands of stateless people in France and England who are allowed to live there but legally not allowed to work. Ask the North and South Koreans made homeless by a "foreign" power's war. Ask the stateless people of Africa and Asia whose very homes, miserable hovels that they are, are owned by colonial masters, and whose rights as human beings are ridiculed and scorned till they seethe in indignation and revolt and are ready to accept any tyrant who promises them freedom and more bread.

Ask me even.

Directly after my renunciation, my learning about these things began. The little clerk at the French police station had fifteen stamps in front of her, and nowhere to use them when I presented myself at her desk. She couldn't handle an ex-U.S. citizen who called himself a world citizen, born in America, yet residing in France, and without papers of any kind. That situation was in no lawbook or regulations manual she knew of. Legally I was outside the framework of the sovereign state of France. But physically I was inside. I had committed no crime or harmed anyone. My interests were purely humanitarian, positive, and outgoing, yet, being outside the law, I was considered a criminal for merely existing and subject to imprisonment. Such is the extraordinary position of a man caught in the lawless area outside of national sovereignty. Such also is the position that each powerful nation finds itself in in regard to other nations. It becomes suspect by another nation simply because there is no legal control of its actions by the other nation. By stepping outside the control of any nation-state, I discovered gradually that I had actually become sovereign in much the same way. And so I was suspect by that frustrated civil servant and by every government official I came up against thereafter. Finally in some desperation to keep me from jail, she stamped the back of a letter I had from the American Embassy in receipt of my passport. This gave me three pseudo-legal months to live in France. I asked her what I should do after three months. She shrugged and waved me out. After all, it wasn't her affair.

Just before the three months were up, the United Nations took over the Palais de Chaillot in Paris declaring that property international territory in a symbolic ceremony between Robert Shumann and Trygve Lie. Facing jail in France if I remained there, and jail in any other country I went to, I was literally forced to seek political sanctuary at the headquarters of this highest political authority in the world. It was the world organization after all; I would be privileged to P. 27

present it with its first real citizen.

I remained on the steps of one of the U.N. Buildings for 6 days and nights. During this time, the curious but kind people of Paris supplied me with bread, cheese, fruit, and vin ordinaire. During that period I wrote a petition to the delegates through Mr. Lie asking for simple recognition of world citizenship. On the seventh day, I received my answer. I was expelled forcibly. The U.N. Secretariat, not having any police, requested the French Ministry of the Interior to please "invade" their so-called international territory and remove this piece of international flotsam. So on Sept. 17th about 50 French policemen wearing their sternest looks, came in, took me against my will and deposited me in France again, a distance of about 10 yards.

The U.N. could have done the job of course, but it might have looked a bit foolish for a squad of U.S. or Russian marines carrying out such a nonmilitary objective.

This somewhat ludicrous removal was the U.N.'s way of saying to me, "We don't represent you, so how can you expect us to recognize world citizenship? But further, we can't represent you because you're a stateless person, and we're composed only of states. As such, we, the United Nations, represent division and fear, and eventual war, whereas you, a neutral human being, obviously represent unity and peace. You have a sort of human sovereignty inherent in you, whereas we have only state sovereignty to link us, but contrarily we have private or vested interests to protect at all costs; you don't, because you have nothing to lose. You are able to take our ideals, aspirations and hopes and apply them directly in human affairs. We are unable to do so because they conflict with our sovereign statehood. Now you can see why we must get rid of you even to calling in a national police force and facing ridicule for doing so. Your naive but natural request for recognition of world citizenship exposes our limitations, and that we can't afford."

This is the major lesson I have learned. The world's greatest statesmen, the ablest politicians, the national policy makers, the Presidents, Kings, Congressmen, Parliamentarians, and all lesser state servants, can only mark time until we, on the very bottom of the pile, the socalled man-in-the-street, the John and Jane Does of the world, the simple human being with nothing to lose but his fears, make a concerted, cooperative, and determined effort to move into world peace and prosperity. By "into" I mean we must actually declare freedom and security an inherent part of our essential humanity, and then apply it scientifically, technically and spiritually in our daily lives. Until that is done, the statesman remains trapped between principle and practice; he has nothing to lead or govern except that which exists, and we all remain chained to our insecurities, poverties, and fears.

That concerted and cooperative one world movement until now has been undefined and unorganized. But it has been generating in parts. Hundreds of non-governmental international organizations reflecting every facet of man's interests P. 28

including innumerable peace and welfare organizations are ready for a coordinated, cooperative, corporate one world organization. Millions of ordinary people everywhere are certainly ready to recognize their essential kinship, to cooperate in harmony, share their labor and services, pool their resources, both intellectual and physical, and benefit each other individually and mutually. Many small nations even are ready to relinquish a part of their sovereignty to such a supranational authority having provisions in their constitutions for such.

I myself quite by circumstance became a focal point for such a common and neutral meeting-ground in Europe in 1948-49 and '50.

After my formal ejection from the U.N. territory, and from subsequent events such as an organized interruption from the U.N. balcony on Nov. 22nd wherein with friends I asked that humanity be given a representative in the affairs directly affecting us, and after two large meetings in Paris which were attended to overflowing, a spontaneous one world and world citizenship popular movement came into being which was genuinely planet-wide.

I was flooded with hundreds of thousands of letters from all corners of the globe, and from peoples of all nations, colors, sects, races, occupations, and origins. Only the Americans and Russians were cool to or skeptical of the idea, not because of the American or Russian people themselves, but because their leaders were too busy fearing, insulting and arming against each other to pay much attention to such an unrealistic third force as one world and world citizenship, especially if it began in the giant middle world between the two opposing forces. "Not economically practical," said the American businessman; "Not politically practical," said the Russian communist.

I was personally attacked from Pravda and the U.S. press alike, one with vitriol and personal character assassination, the other wish patronizing spankings or veiled suggestions of mental derangement. Pravda called me a U.S. bought dupe, exporting American world government along with detective stories and powdered eggs. The U.S. press inferred that I was naively and unwittingly playing into the hands of the Communists by creating a giant peace movement in the West, and why didn't I go to Russia to begin my movement there, or if not, then come home and go into a defense plant...while I was being psychoanalyzed.

But to the rest of mankind, caught in the middle of this two- dimensional dialectic between two mighty physical forces, the reality of one world was overwhelming and the fact of world citizenship was grounded in truth.

But even if there were millions of one worlders and world citizens, very few agreed on general one world strategy and practically no one agreed on world citizenship tactics.

From the podium of the General Assembly of the United Nations on Dec. 10, 1948, came an appeal for help, which contained both one world strategy and world citizenship tactics. It came in the form of a document called The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In effect, it was the greatest mandate to organize ourselves P. 29

rationally ever given to mankind as a corporate body. On the other hand, it implied with uncompromising clarity that the United Nations as such is not that rational organization. The mandate was given to everyone on the planet. No one was excluded. When declared, it was hailed as a milestone in man's collective efforts to achieve freedom and security. But so far, five years later, it has not achieved freedom and security. So far, it's just another piece of paper with stirring words on it. Why is this? Why didn't men and women take this document, affirm the rights therein, and oblige their leaders to have them properly secured in a world organization? The reason is simple. But it may be a hard one to accept. Human rights apply only to humans, and until you and I throughout the world declare ourselves as such and organize that declaration so that wise and practical leaders can represent us as human beings, we can only expect less than human treatment in world affairs from our present leaders.

The very first article is a tool of mighty power cutting through prejudice, dogma, artificial beliefs, and general ignorance like a giant scythe cuts through weeds. For it is the expression of the Prime Law of Unity which binds all men as brothers both spiritually and naturally. All the other articles flow from it. It throws into bold relief all those who divide men artificially. It says: All men are born free and equal in dignity and rights; they are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood..

Here is no sectarianism, nor chauvinism. First of all here is the affirmation of the spiritual truth that all men are directly connected with their divine source or origin through individual conscience. This is the ontological approach to religion, that is, that each and every human being is immediately and intimately related to the Spirit or Deity, and can perceive that relationship intuitively without outside intervention. In other words, it reaffirms Christ's words, "The kingdom of God is within you," or Socrates' admonition to "Know thyself," or the Hindu Bhagavad Gita's constant references to the All Self in every man. Then this article affirms that all men are endowed with reason, or the ability to think and solve problems of physical survival and social relationships. What is this but a clear go-ahead to organize in a reasonable manner the affairs of our common social community? But how much reason is applied today in the political circles of the world? How reasonable is this foolish national pride, this organized manufacture of lies and half-truth and artificially created hates between tribes of humans in the world community, this hypocrisy called diplomacy which any child could expose, and which wouldn't last a minute in a town meeting? How much reason is there to areas of surplus food rotting on wharfs and railroad sidings and other areas of pitiful and unnecessary starvation, or periods when millions are unemployed, yet factories lay idle because it doesn't pay to produce? It is needless to go on. The facts are unlimited to demonstrate that not reason but utter foolishness actually governs our world community despite our most fervent aspirations and lip-service to ideals. P. 30

But if men are reasonable and guided by conscience, it is clear that men in general have no representatives in the world area. No one yet speaks for humanity in toto. We, as a world's people, are inarticulate, inchoate even, because we are unorganized. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes this for it gives us the green light to organize a world electorate to elect such world representatives from our midst. Article 21 (3) says: The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

There is no mention of what people. . .just the people. That only means all the people there are. Do you begin to see, however, how this One People is denied in the very council chambers of this so- called world organization? That the reality of human community includes not only all those nations and peoples of the UN but also Germans, Italians, Africans, Ceylonese, Japanese, Chinese, Rumanians, Bulgarians, and of course all stateless people and those under colonial domination? In short, everybody?

We all belong to this One People whether we like it or not and despite our external differences. Though I am an American, technically I am a stateless person, so I fit into the World's People category directly, with no intervening citizenship. This is by no means a unique situation, but in fact quite common. And that, while it might seem to be a sign of utter chaos and despair, actually is a condition of great hope. In other words, there are millions like me with nothing to lose.

But what about our collective will. Is there such a thing? This is the most difficult thing I have experienced to make people believe. . .that in fact everyone wants just about the same things. These are expressed usually by slogans such as world peace, universal wellbeing, and personal freedom. But slogans like this have hidden other things. So people have become skeptical and cynical and bitter. It is the disease of our generation. But nonetheless, the collective will for such things exists and in greater quantity and power than any single man dreams.

If this is true, how then is it to be gathered, proclaimed, manifested, and secured? The Universal Declaration in Article 28 gives us a clue. It says that: "Everyone is entitled to the social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this declaration can be fully realized." In other words, social and international order, not anarchy, are conditions under which rights pertaining to all human beings alone can be secured. Order of course means law and government. International order means international law and government.

Obviously, there is no such thing today.

Human rights and freedoms apply only to select few today. Yet Article 2 states that: "Everyone is entitled to the rights and freedoms set forth in this declaration, without distinctions of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status." This only affirms what any reasonable man and every mother knows from time immem- P. 31

orial, that all men and women are indeed members of the same human community, and that subsequently there are no second-class world citizens.

No second-class world citizens! Do you realize what that means? It means that as well as being Greek, French, German, Russian, Indian, Chinese, Brazilian, Yugoslavian, Swedish, Italian, Malayan, Japanese, American or any other group, as well as being white, brown, black, red or yellow, as well as being an artisan or a craftsman, a merchant or a technician, a common worker or a king, a housewife or a queen, a national citizen or a stateless person, a man or a woman, a democrat or a republican, a Catholic or a Protestant, or Hindu, or Buddhist, or Moslem or Taoist or Jew, we are all united in world citizenship because we're all united in freedoms and human rights, as yet uncodified in world law.

There are other rights defined. But these few mentioned are enough to go ahead full steam with the actual organization of our one humanity.

If you agree with me up to this point-- and I have really said nothing very extraordinary, nothing new certainly, perhaps even things which are so obvious and simple that they don't bear repeating-- but if we are agreed at least in principle, let us be convinced as I am, from bitter and sometimes humiliating experience, that we must now help ourselves. No one will hand us freedom and security on a silver platter. No one can. Who can exercise your reason or conscience for you? Who can put them to work but you? Each man and woman here is absolutely and solely responsible for his or her thoughts and actions regarding his or her personal welfare. Let us first then secure ourselves deep within our own reason and conscience for only then will we be able to find a practical way to the wide glorious world of sovereign humanity.

In short, we must personally, each one of us, recognize ourselves as individually sovereign, that is, a world unto ourselves, an authority, sure, capable, self-motivated, self-contained, and self- governed, a full awareness of that part of us which is conscience and its servant reason. Let us realize fully that each one of us throughout the world, endowed with this very same conscience which links us all to the same Spirit or Origin, and reason, which links us all to each other, is in real fact then a world sovereign, and as such stands whole and free in the one community of men, above nations, sectional prides, narrow prejudices and jealousies, a World Patriot.

This is what I wish to affirm here tonight, world sovereignty. As human beings, we are all world sovereigns, the social and physical popular expression being world citizens, and no nation or power is able to deny that sovereignty or to deprive us of one iota of it.

This alone is democracy, for it includes all.

I have gone through five years of intense personal and public experience since my renunciation in Paris, and my affirmation of world sovereignty here tonight has been reached after most careful and serious consideration. It is not a gesture of childish impulse or maudlin sentiment: it is not abstract idealism P. 32

or fanatical necessity. It is a simple and obvious fact recognized now by peoples and governments alike. Further world sovereignty linked with world citizenship is at last that undefined concept which relates spiritual, social and physical fact together to make a totality of man.

I said that it is grounded on sound spiritual, social, and physical fact. What are these facts or Prime Laws which are recognized universally by peoples and institutions alike? Well, I have already stated them here in many ways, but in brief they may be expressed as follows:

   1. There is but One Deity or Ideal, Goal, Vision, Absolute, Origin, Source, Mind, Spirit, Reality, Understanding, Wisdom, Truth, and so on, unitively conceived and intuitively, that is, by conscience, perceived, of which I am a living and integral part, as is all mankind; and
   2. There is but one world, which is ideologically or intellectually understood, as my and mankind's natural home despite social groupings such as tribal, communal, regional, geographical, cultural, historical, ancestral, lingual, or professional and which constitutes my total social environment or community; and
   3. There is but one physical human family, which is instinctively felt by common fundamental needs and wants, despite color, race, sex, birth, property, economic or other physical status, and thus one common citizenship.

Further, I am convinced that the full recognition of these three fundamental or Prime Laws constitute a spiritual, social, and physical trinity, in that the first represents personal or individual freedom, the second, social or communal justice or fairness, and the third, physical security and well-being, upon which the rational organization of human society must be based for the increased happiness of all.

It is on these three laws that you and I and the rest of our fellow men and women can move together out of the foolish, wasteful, chaotic, poverty-stricken circumstances we find ourselves in today into the prosperity and happiness of a new world of complete and joyous humanity.

I have said tonight that we must help ourselves to peace, security and well-being. I have said that our leaders were stuck and needed our help. I have affirmed world sovereignty and world citizenship as a spiritual, social, and physical fact; I have given the trinity of Prime Laws in confirmation of this fact. I have shown that people everywhere are ready for peace and prosperity, that the world is in dire need of these two. Then I have shown that only an international authority, a world brain, a supranational government can coordinate the immense diversity which is humanity, and make it live and breathe as it must if we, its coordinate parts, are to live and evolve. Further I have shown that the nations themselves, through the United Nations, have given We the People, the mandate to create this world government through the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Here in this Town Hall in Ellsworth, Maine, in the sovereign United States P. 33

of America, I, a world citizen, exist in a world anarchy. I am no longer able to tolerate such a condition. By the authority vested in me as a world sovereign, it is my duty and my responsibility to myself and to my humanity to hereby proclaim for myself a world government with full legal powers and prerogatives based on the 3 Prime Laws of One God, One World, and one Mankind. This government for the moment exists only in my person, but since all men are world citizens with full world sovereignty based on a full recognition of the 3 Prime Laws if they but affirm them, the proclamation of world government is everyman's right, privilege, and responsibility.

Presumptuous undertaking? Not at all, for nothing less will serve us, and we must risk being called presumptuous by narrow minds and closed hearts. I will answer that all new-borns are presumptuous in their demands for sustenance and attention and I am no exception. The world is certainly filled with wiser and better men, and I am the first to admit personal failings. But that confession doesn't alter my need. A world government is here born and if there are wiser and better men, let them come forward challenged by its obvious failings and helplessness. Let humanity have their services by all means. Let the spiritual leaders and Gurus, the World Teachers come from their ashrams, their meditative retreats and monastic centers in this grave hour of our common need, and give us their moral counsel and guidance. Let them breathe into this newly born government, given life by one insignificant man-in-the-street, the spiritual substance it must have if it is to prosper and serve men wisely.

It must have material sustenance as well if it is to grow in health, substantial physical nourishment. In fact, ideally, it must have all the resources of our common Mother Earth if it is to benefit all the citizens thereon; and a world government by definition excludes no one from its benefits. Materially speaking, our planet and our human community is like a giant factory supplying all the material needs to all who live at once on it and in it. And the sooner we short circuit the road that is travelled by millions daily to satisfy the world's material needs, the sooner we will all have more leisure and means for recreation, whether social, intellectual, artistic, or physical. Obviously the less effort we give to the means of life, the more time and energy we have to enjoy the ends of life, according to our individual interpretation. So our scientists and technicians carry the banner of progress for the human race, as they lighten the means and increase our opportunity to enjoy the ends.

Thus to solve the problem of managing our common factory for the mutual benefit of all, the most able scientists, technicians, managers, and administrators must come forward to give us their services.

Without this scientific management on the physical level of human activity, gross and criminal waste, inefficiency, giant unrests between workers leading to class struggles, bitter divisions between management and labour, and finally, when the national politicians can no longer govern the two opposed factions, the P. 34

explosion of international war in the anarchic areas, leading to all the plagues of the uncoordinated or idiot man referred to earlier. In short, no sane business man would or could run his organization for a minute the way our world factory is run without going bankrupt.

Already many cooperative communities and industries exist, as well as large corporations in which complete coordination or cooperation plus scientific management is the guiding principle. The higher the degree of coordination by scientific management, the more successful the business. These understand fully the tremendous benefits which accrue to each member of a corporate or cooperative body. Full material protection within the corporate body is guaranteed. The largest corporate body of course, though still utterly uncoordinated, is the human species itself, and like the human body, only thrives in health and happiness when its various component parts are coordinated and working in harmony with its brain and spirit.

Therefore the third Prime Law of One physical human family must equate integrally with the first and second unitive laws. One for all and all for one must be the prime basis for a World Citizen's economy. This economy must evolve without disturbing one present law, but in fact utilizing certain economic laws now existent in every country for its prerogatives. Thus a World Citizen's Corporation must come into being which has as its purpose the complete integration and coordination of all the physical resources, means of production, and labor of the entire planet, for the direct benefit of all the consumers thereon, which excludes no one. Such a one world consumer's cooperative, linked to no politics or private interests because of its very inclusive nature, would allow each and every working world citizen to benefit directly from his or her labor and the labor of his or her neighbor throughout the total world community. But further, it would at last give complete material security to those who were unable to work due either to age or physical disability. It would eventually link up all existent cooperative and corporate endeavors, all specialized nongovernmental world agencies now paralyzed due to national and competitive tensions, to one scientifically but democratically-elected World Parliament or Corporate Congress whose sole duty would be to run our world factory efficiently and harmoniously for the benefit of all the producers and consumers therein.

The World Government here proclaimed and open to all, with undertake to initiate such a World Citizen's Corporation as its proper corollary on the physical or economic level of human activity.

For moral and physical support of this endeavor, it calls upon the mothers of the world, who are so intimately connected with the physical continuance and well-being of the human race. If men be in fact World Citizens, so every mother is a World Mother since her child is born first into the Family of Man itself. And so, they are the great heart of humanity, the well of infinite compassion, love and pity that nurtures us from our very birth. They are the breast of plenty, P. 35

and without their blessing and heartfelt support, we will remain in the realm of idle words and vain idealism.

Then we call to the common citizenry from which we have come, to our brothers in the world community. We call them in all corners of the globe, in every marketplace, in every secluded retreat, and from all walks of life. We call to the reason and conscience which we know to be a part of every man. In the name of Humanity of which he is an integral and valuable unit, we ask him to identify himself, not only as a citizen of his own hearth, his local community, his region, and his nation, but also as a citizen of the entire world as his natural and fundamental right as well as duty. Until we do this and begin to work together, we will continue to deserve the slaveries, both spiritual and economic we today endure. In short, we dare to proclaim mankind's total existence as the highest allegiance and the most noble and elevating duty of its separate component parts or individuals.

And in Humanity's name, in which any reasonable man may speak without fear, I, a World Sovereign, hereby claim the territory of the entire earth as the proper home and the rightful possession of all mankind. As an actual symbol of that ownership, and for the now existent World government, I claim here in the soil of my birth, the dot of land on which I now stand, as World Territory. Let it be henceforth known as World Citizen's Point, and marked only as 68 Degrees 25' 30" Longitude, 44 Degrees 32' 30" Latitude.

Let all World Citizens accept this point as a territorial symbol of their highest allegiance, whereas this World Citizen claims it as the only legal territory within the continental limits of the United States of America whereon he can reside.

As I stand before you here, no national law covers my very existence. Since that day when I was brought back into France from the United Nations, I have lived in five fully sovereign nations, yet not one of those nations was able to represent me legally. But further, merely to handle me physically, they were all obliged to violate their own national laws. The most recent violation occurred when the U.S. Immigration authorities admitted me to this country last July 27th, frankly confessing to me at the time that no law covered my entry since I was not a U.S. citizen, not an immigrant, not a returning resident alien, and not a visitor, which four categories are the only lawful means of entering and residing in the United States.

According to the laws of this land, therefore, I am non-existent, a political and legal non-entity. Yet here I stand, in the City Hall of Ellsworth, a respectable community, in a conservative stronghold of the United States of America, the strongest power in the entire world, and though my very existence here calls into fundamental question that sovereign government, I remain untouched and unharmed. Just as the Immigration authorities were unable to refuse me though legally they were obliged to, so the law officer standing in the rear of this hall though legally obliged to arrest me because technically I am an illegal person, is unable P. 36

to do so because my authority as a sovereign entity unto myself is manifestly greater than his as a representative of the sovereign nation. This does not mean that I must not obey reasonable laws of conduct, and that if I disobey them, I will not be arrested by this same officer. It means only that the State as such is the servant of the sovereign individual, which is the basic principle of democracy, and when the individual, according to his reason and conscience, secedes from the State because he considers it no longer able to protect him and yet give him the freedom he requires, the State must follow him as his very shadow, because eventually his fellow human beings and neighbors, also individually sovereign and democratic, as well as the servants of the State itself, will recognize him as the fundamental integer upon which a greater and more inclusive State must be built if the whole community is to thrive.

Thus, as the territorial cornerstone of that Greater State, this dot I claim as the only piece of legal land on which I am now able to reside.

A point has no dimensions however, and therefore no physical existence, so neither can I actually live here, nor can the United States government claim it as national territory. Further, it having no physical existence, my claim needs no confirmation on the part of the national authorities as such, but only recognition from citizens throughout the world.

As a world sovereign, existing legally only in a worldly sense, I am able to give this point a legal existence based on the three Prime Laws of Mankind. So be it. Now every national citizen throughout the world is able to make a valid extension of his loyalty to the world community through this legal world territory without at the same time renouncing any humanitarian local or national responsibilities which are a part of the Whole. World citizenship is not incompatible with lower levels of citizenship so long as the duties and responsibilities of those citizenships reflect that of the greater.

At this moment, this is the only neutral but inclusive government in existence. It has no foreign policy, no political parties, indeed no politics even, no army, navy or air force, though civil armies, navies and air forces can perform many humanitarian duties once the threat of war is removed, no axes to grind, no special interests to protect, and no private profits to make. Its door is open to all and will be closed to none. With the firm guidance of a representative council of the World's Teachers and the World's Mothers, this government will be able to command the services of the most capable and farsighted men in order that humanity might be best served, and that positions of public responsibility not be usurped by lesser men. Methods of just selection can easily be incorporated into a World Constitution or Charter whereby humanity's real leaders may rise to the top without fear and without hindrance. Thus would evolve a World Parliament or Corporate Congress gradually to replace in the public mind the absolute nationalistic sovereignties of today. Through a World Citizen's Corporation, problems of food, shelter, clothing, health, education, labor, production, distribution, management P. 37

and the like will be dealt with as a whole, scientifically and cooperatively. A unified world currency will evolve in due course based no doubt on a labor value rather than the unrealistic gathering and stockpiling of inert metal by separate nation-states.

The completing of mankind, so long talked about by philosophers and spiritual leaders, so long dreamed of by the persecuted down the ages, is at hand. It is started here tonight. A world government exists. . . if only in one common man and having but one dot of territory. No longer need we collectively hesitate. No longer need we argue about how long it will take, or whether the neighbor will come in. This neighbor is in, and it but remains for everyone to recognize and apply his own inness, or oneness.

The remaining task therefore is but a cleaning up one, a simple duplication. The main job is over, that of completing the microcosm. Each microcosm completed brings the macrocosm that much nearer completion. Borrow if you wish this global vision and determination. But do not be indifferent to your own survival and happiness. Examine these ideas and words with the searing blade of your own conscience and reason. They will stand even then. And do not hesitate for lack of experience. This work is unprecedented in these modern terms. Thus we are all youths in this task. But experience can only be gained by living our goal from the outset, by being members of the world community. And if we stumble, falter, even fall, there are others to carry on, for the reality of Man's Unity is a truth that cannot die.

I am a world sovereign. . . a forefather of the Human Race. It's government is here proclaimed.

Brothers and sisters, fellow World Citizens, join me in this glorious destiny.

Anti_Illuminati

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Memorandum on World Government

by Nataraja Guru
INTRODUCTION
PREAMBLE

   1.
      Humanity is One

      This is the a priori given basis of the World Government outlined in this Memorandum. The recognition of the unity and solidarity of mankind follows from the correct application of the scientific or unitive approach to the problems of humanity. Just as a belief in many gods is incorrect, so when humanity is considered relativistically as consisting of closed groups, however big, or justified in the name of power or practicability, such a view violates the first and fundamental principle of the indivisible unity of Man. Humanity is one by its common origin, one in its common interests and motives of happiness here on earth in everyday living, and one in its relation to the aspirations and ideals which bind human beings together by bonds of sympathy for each other. A Unitive and Absolute Value is at the basis of human life. This High Human Value knows no frontier either actual or ideological. It makes no discrimination between rich or poor, high or low, civilized or backward. Sympathy for suffering and indignation against injustice to fellow men transcends time and clime, and reaches out evenly or pointedly, as the case may deserve, to the uttermost recesses of the one world which man inhabits.
   2.
      Human nature, both "good" and "bad" at once

      To say that evil does not exist and that God created all men good will sound unrealistic to modern ears after all the experience of humanity which historians have recorded. To state, on the contrary, that evil is the basis of human life, leaves us equally unconvinced. The wary man would back out of the paradox involved by saying that the verdict would depend on the particular case, and refuse to generalize. He might even go further and say sophistically that the possibility of error or evil in human nature is what makes man human at all; and by the same token it could be argued that even evil must have a basis of goodness. Such arguments have brought human affairs up against impasses again and again. We are no nearer to the right answer to such questions than we were thousands of years ago. General skepticism drives people to sit on the fence. Irrespective of time or clime, wise men have repeatedly tried to teach us a way out of these dilemmas. There is a method and a theory of knowledge proper to wisdom which is not the same as that of logic, ratiocination or even "objective" or mechanistic intelligence.
   3.
      A new yet time-honoured approach

      Such an approach should be scientifically formulated. It will then resolve conflicting counterparts of a given situation or problem, unitively, without conflict. Just as One Humanity is true, so One Absolute justice for all mankind, One Goodness applicable to all mankind, and One God or Ideal of Human Happiness could be stated to be at the basis of common human existence. The ordering of human life on unitive lines is the function of the World Government as envisaged in the present Memorandum.
   4.
      The science of dialectics

      Whether human life is fundamentally good or bad does not concern us here so directly as whether it is possible to cancel out evil by the good residing in human nature itself, i.e., whether there is still hope for humanity to overcome ignorance by wisdom. The static verity of human goodness or badness should be viewed dynamically as belonging to the flow of human life shaping itself in time. Living unitive thinking is concerned with the progressive shaping of human life based on values which fuse into an ever newly integrated flux which is subject to a constant process of becoming. The old order changes giving place to new. It is in this sense that wisdom is a perennial way of contemplation. This wisdom forms part of a science which could be called dialectics. The Truth that makes men Free and the Knowledge that gives Power are open and dynamic human values to be understood in the light of dialectics. The "evil" that is necessarily present in human nature when viewed unitively according to dialectics, is as true as the "goodness" inherent in a human nature when viewed in a similar way. All values, positive or negative, when unitively understood, belong to a vertical scale of values which man must recognize, and every moment he has to choose between opposite alternatives. At each step here a constant process of dialectical revaluation is involved, whether in the life of each man, each unit group, or of humanity as a whole. Such an approach to world affairs is what this Memorandum recommends, and it is this which makes it so unique as legitimately to claim the attention of all lovers of humanity who are interested in a World Government which for the first time is scientifically conceived. This newly formulated science, wherein pure dialectical reasoning is applied to problems of the world, may be called the "Science of Geo- Dialectics."
   5.
      The geo-dialectical method

      The geo-dialectical method consists of clearly recognizing the two counterparts which belong together in any given situation or problem to be eased or resolved in human affairs. Man is caught in necessity or bondage on the one hand, and, on the other, reaches out towards the contingent factor or freedom. If we could say that his necessity is symbolized either by the need for bread or common hunger, contingency is symbolized by the need to live and breathe freely, and in fulfilling one's life according to the inner urges within each man. Man has to fulfill life according to his own nature without being stifled or suffocated. Bread and freedom resolved into unitive terms of a central value spell Happiness. When each man is happy, all mankind is happy. When there is a general happiness of mankind as a whole, each man has his happiness most secure. No mother is happy unless her child also is happy, and no ruler is happy unless the subjects too are happy. To recognize and deal with the dialectical counterpart, while respecting fully the nature of the individual or the integrated personality of normal units called nations, in such a manner as to cancel out counterparts in unitive terms or positive human values conducive to human happiness, is the basis of the geo- dialectical method. Being an applied part of pure dialectics, the full implications of this statement can be clarified only after studying dialectics.1
   6.
      Anomalies, absurdities and dangers of the mechanistic approach

      The non-dialectical, non-unitive, mechanistic or unilateral approach which does not respect the integrated personality of nation or individual citizen gives rise to many anomalies, absurdities and disasters. If the case of a mother is taken up without including with it the case of the child, if the case of a ruler is taken without considering the ruled, or the master's case without the servant's, and even if we should forget to take into account that the one and the many are interdependent or reciprocally inter-related in a subtle dialectical manner, we invoke disasters large or small and sow the seeds of injustice and consequent suffering. Each man consists of what he is subjectively, and what he holds as dear as life itself, such as his money, his family, or even his faith. These adhere closely and result in the happiness that each person craves for. National and cultural groups also have integrated personalities of their own which cannot be subjected to a mechanistic treatment which is merely based on quantitative statistics or facts, without injury. Such roots of integration lie deeply buried in history. The partitioning of nations has resulted in genocidal tragedies.

      Operating through decades or centuries, historical necessity gives the raison d'etre to the jigsaw puzzle patterns of the differently coloured patches on the mapped surface of the globe which school children are taught to distinguish as self-contained or autonomous political units, entities, states, countries or nations. Sometimes such patches tend to mark merely an area where an amorphous mass of people live who are dictated by external forces. Even while the child is being taught political geography, the patches change their outline or encroach on each other with a strange irrationality. These patches are not the result of any scientific ordering of the world, but are arbitrary and haphazard in their origin and growth. They have been traced by wars old or recent, whether just or unjust, and de facto status of certain units do not correspond to their de jure status in the present set-up of nations. The status of member nations in present day international bodies such as the United Nations depends on the veto or whim of the powers that be. No public or objective norms prevail here. Neither the natural law of the jungle nor any law consciously formulated in a manner in keeping with the much-vaunted dignity of man regulates internationalism at present.
   7.
      The zero hour for the declaration of a World Government is past

      In the days of chivalry willing combatants fought duels in strict accordance with certain codes of honour consistent with human dignity as understood in those olden days. But the day has now come when a brave general is reported to be proudly contemplating the extermination of "whole sections of people" by the latest weapons which human intelligence itself has placed at the service of irresponsible adventurers. Instead of the knight errant helping women and children in distress, humanity today hears of threats against the innocent and the unarmed. We hear of war criminals punished after wars have ceased, when we are not sure whether the punishment or the crime violates human codes of honour or justice. While their children wait for the horrible news outside the prison, parents get the electric chair for not keeping their own intelligence from helping those whom one nation or other suspects for the time being. Politics too strangely keeps changing its own complexion from day to day. Concentration camps and the lot of millions of displaced families who are denied "papers" year after year, making illegal even their right to work and earn a living, and thus in effect taking away their de facto status as fellow human beings, prove that the days of barbarity and slavery are not over. Exposed to fear and insecurity, humanity knows not which way to turn for consolation. Helplessly, it looks on with impotence when the dignity of humanity itself is at stake. The zero hour for the declaration of a World Government, at least in principle, is long past. Such a Government must voice human honour and self-respect. It must preserve the wisdom-heritage of humanity and hand it down to coming generations. Those who love humanity and absolute human values at every level and department of life must be protected. Those who hate their fellow men for reasons that are not universally valid are as good as not existing. Those who adhere to rival relativist values are bound, in any case, to cancel out one another. There is no real need to name the enemies of humanity because their days are numbered if humanity has any hope of survival at all. That humanity will survive, the supporters of World Government do firmly and solemnly believe. Therefore the time has come for all lovers of humanity to take a definite stand, avoiding double-talk, duplicity, compromise and doubt.

SECTION I
GENESIS

   1.
      The World Government is an accomplished fact

      The World Government came into being (in principle at least) at Long. 63o 25' West, Lat. 44o 32' North on Sept. 4, 1953. Utter Necessity was its justification. Very special states of stress, both personal and global, ushered it into being when a stateless person was forced into a closed territory against his own will or consent. Even a de facto citizen of the world already, with a fine record of service to the same closed territory or "nation", was denied the right to make a living or pursue his own happiness. There was no Government to represent him or stand by him. The World Government had therefore to be conceived as though "immaculately", though neither illegitimately, disloyally, nor dishonourably, born. Time waits for no man. Better now than never. Necessity knows no law. All is fair in love and war. These are some of the sayings that held good here. It take only two to start a quarrel or sign a pact, and only one to tell the truth. It is not numbers that can justify a government, but its intrinsic quality based on Absolute Truth or Justice. It takes but one to steer the ship to safety, though hundreds may weep and wail in vain.
   2.
      The validity of the World Government is not questionable

      If even today the simple accident of being born in a so-called royal family can justify the formation of an absolute monarchy, it can be seen that no principle of geo-dialectics is violated by the formation of a World Government. The World Government has no territory other than the surface of the globe. It is not conceived as a rival to any existing government. It does not intend to duplicate any of their functions. Neither does it wish to be a parallel government, nor has it ambitions to be a super-state. On the other hand, it has no wish to occupy a second place among nation states. It has an absolute status of its own as understood in the light of the science of geo-dialectics already referred to. In the usually understood sense World Government has no programme of action or territorial ambition. It does not rule by threat, force, or the power of the magistrate or the police. Knowledge is its power and, instead of threats or punishments, it relies on the truth of the dictum that a word to the wise will suffice. Just as a ball of iron can be made white-hot without the ball itself suffering division, change, or control from outside, so the World Government proposes to influence humanity in and through humanity for humanity. Nothing is to be disrupted in the process. A certain type of truth which has been called "the pearl of great price", the "little leaven that leaveneth the whole lump" or that "Dharma (right way of life), even a little of which will save from great fear" is the pinch of Absolutist Wisdom which is to be added to the chaotic world situation so as to help us to reorientate and re-integrate and regulate human affairs. In other words, the World Government applies a subtle form of "vertical pressure" corresponding to spiritual heat or electricity. Order then emerges as with magnetized iron filings from non-magnetized chaos.
   3.
      Confirmation of the World Government

      A second step forward in the formation of the World Government was taken at Long. 77o 38' East, Lat.12o 58' North, on May 15, 1956. A recessive part of the world, never even to be suspected of any intention to dominate the world through its power, has been chosen this time as the location from where to confirm and sanction the first formation of the World Government at a dominant part of the world. To rise above suspicion, World Government has to be established neutral between the dominant and the recessive aspects of world political life. No one carrying the threat of the atom bomb in one hand and a message of peace in the other can be trusted by others who sail in the same boat. Relativism breeds rivals while the correctly dialectical or Absolutist approach unites and frees men in the name of a humanity which is understood unitively.

      Between the initial formation of the World Government and its later more precise formulation and confirmation, nearly three years of experimentation, mediation and study have been undertaken. This second time, as stricter geo-dialectics would require, there were two sides represented by two men, in the solemn pact before the declaration of the World Government. One of these contracting parties represented the Good of All and the other represented the General Good. This subtle dialectical contract sets the pattern for the growth of the World Government. Such a formation of an actual government, at least in a nuclear form, has been duly announced. More conferences could be contemplated in the near future in different parts of the world, of those who represent the General Good of the Good of All, or both. The nuclear yet actual government will gather momentum by the good will of the people of the world from day to day so as to become an efficient and effective instrument for the reorientation and regulation of human affairs under the aegis of the Most High Principle of Goodness, or the Most Supreme Value of Happiness that humanity can accept to regulate its life. This Memorandum hereby greets all lovers of humanity with the happy news of the birth of the World Government. Its presence is to be felt, not especially in any fixed locality or centre, but all over or in every part of the world or wherever it can best serve its supreme purpose which is the political happiness of humanity. It is however the global, unitive one-world politics of all mankind with which we are concerned here. Because of its Absolutist character, this can be called both politics and no-politics at once, or a politics that gets rid of politics. In other words, World Government is based on the pure politics to be known as geo-politics.

SECTION II
OTHER PARTIAL APPROACHES

   1.
      All approaches hitherto either negative or relativistic

      To the natural question why we should not join hands with other organizations working already in the field of internationalism, we have to answer that there is the fundamental drawback that all of them are vitiated by either a "negative" or a "relativistic" approach. What we mean by these two expressions must be somewhat clear from what we have already said.

      By negativism we mean that proposals for peace or disarmament have been based on a regret or a fear connected with wars just fought or wars expected. At such moments there is great volume of collective emotion available, and those who offer quick results get nations to pay large sums for preserving peace or in the name of security. The regret, however, passes, as also the fear. Positive attitudes take their places, and one organization which failed to fulfill its contract is succeeded by another in a modified form. This how the League of Nations was displaced by the United Nations. The latter may be expected to go the way of its predecessor as soon as its impotency in the matter of security peace becomes evident to all. It is patent that in spite of its declared intentions, the U.N. has not been able to make its member nations reduce their armaments, nor has it been able to mitigate the national excesses of its member nations. Of course in some matters it is better than nothing, but in other matters it is worse than nothing. Representatives of major nations get the chance of calling each other names at the glorified debates held under these bodies. With the points of order, the explanations of votes, amendments, counter-amendments and arbitrary powers of veto or methods of filibustering or blocking through satellite members, the U.N. has no power to implement even the smallest item in its own declaration of human rights, not to speak of objecting to the dangers of atomic tests. Actually, it is used by power groupings to sling mud at each other. At best it is a glorified debating society employing thousands of interpreters, stenographers and clerks who live and move in a beehive of modern buildings. They are obliged to keep the powers that be in good humour. Every effort has been made already to try and work through the U.N. by the sponsors of the present World Government. The story is too long to relate here. Suffice it to say that it has been a signal failure.

      By relativism we mean that some sort of duality as between "free nations" and others who are not so is still retained in the structure of the organization. The organization is not unitively conceived according to any science of Absolutism. Representation, admission, or expulsion are based on no uniform norms of any science universally or publicly formulated.
   2.
      Private, partial or party organizations with world programmes

      There are various religious, political or even commercial bodies which influence world affairs. There is the Communist Party which shapes the trend of world politics. Then there is the Catholic Church and various other bodies which have world programmes. Commercial combines and banking agencies fulfill openly or secretly many functions which properly should belong to a World Government. These serve humanity in good, bad or indifferent ways, but as long as a correctly formulated World Government is not there, no one has any right to find fault with whatever service they render or even with whatever exploitation they consciously or unconsciously exercise in world affairs. International organizations exist in many departments such as the Universal Postal Union, etc. Member nations may or may not ratify their resolutions, and even when they do so, the limitations of their own arbitrary sovereignty or nationalism are not wholly discarded. The approach to such problems is not based at present on any exact science such as we claim to be at the basis of the World Government as envisaged in this Memorandum. This class of organizations can be almost good or at the next best, but just as one cannot jump a chasm in two leaps or expect a prize for the number nearest to the one that wins the prize, so the wholesale scientific basis of the World Government is all- important. The science of geo-dialectics is based on a rare and precious way of higher reasoning without which no World Government can be expected to succeed. Such undertakings would not be justified even if they should obtain a large measure of success. Here almost true is not good enough. This same verity is couched in the old words that "good government is no substitute for self- government." The mandate for any government has to be derived from the people who are to be governed on the one pole and, from another pole, derived from the Absolute Justice implicit in any such government. Like religion or morality, there are two different sources to World Government. It has to be the resultant of ascending and descending dialectical counterparts. Such principles, however, can be made clear only in the light of general dialectics, which has still to be formulated and taught in the proposed Institute of Dialectics. Meanwhile we are here obliged to state with seeming dogmatism that partial and unscientific approaches to the problem of World Government are not valid.

SECTION III
UNIQUE AND POSITIVE QUALITIES

   1.
      What the World Government is not

      We have already stated in passing that the World Government is not based on power with the weapon of threats of punishment. Its authority is derived from humanity's need for it and from its rightness and justice. It has been mentioned also that it has no territorial ambitions or designs. It does not propose to arrogate to itself any functions that are being fulfilled already correctly by existing governments. No overlapping or duplication of functions in the scheme presented here. Neither is diarchy or a parallel form of government contemplated. However, in spite of this opposition, World Government will not be second to any other government. It will consciously avoid functioning even as a supra-state in the usual sense. If we should want to think of the political theory on which it is to be based, it can be said here in advance that it does not subscribe to the laissez faire doctrine. Much less does it adhere to the doctrine of "might is right", which, though more positive, is still outmoded. The Benthamian doctrine of "the greatest happiness of the greatest number" is also not in keeping with the principles of the present Government. It does not think quantitatively at all. That would make it fall into the capital error of being mechanistic or relativistic in its approach, which we have stated to be the very drawback we wish to avoid. It is based on a dialectical approach to world problems. What this implies we shall clarify as much as possible below.
   2.
      Based on a solemn pact

      The World Government is based on a solemn pact between the people of the world and their dialectical counterpart in the form of a wise lover of humanity representing the general good of humanity as a whole. Although stated in the form of two aspects, these counterparts form the obverse and reverse of the same coin called Absolute Happiness, Goodness, or Justice of Humanity. This is a unitive central value whatever the order-stimulus employed may be. Moreover, it is essentially a human value in keeping with the dignity of the human species. Bread and freedom will be provided for all when such a Government comes into its full swing of effective and efficient working, by the conscious co-operation and understanding of the people of the world. Stated in the most general terms, the task of the World Government will be the intelligent ordering of human life activities in a manner normal and natural to man, without violating his own innate dispositions, legitimate interests, or aspirations.
   3.
      The World Government must govern its subjects actively or positively

      It must be practical and effective in its functioning. Mere pious hopes like that of waiting to establish the kingdom of heaven on earth will not improve matters. A government worth the name must deliver the goods or benefits belonging to the domain of politics. It must make human life on earth less full of humiliation, helplessness or suffering. While this is right, the World Government must guard itself from falling into the opposite error of getting involved in a maze of overt actions which will fan feelings of rivalry and create more warring camps than ever. To avoid war, to guarantee collective security, to make co-existence possible or to practise the virtues of the pancha-sila of non-interference, or to cultivate an attitude of positive neutrality, have been the recommendations of some of the world's politicians for improving human affairs. These recommendations, though good as far as they go, embody the negative side of the virtue of international life. To leave matters well alone and not to make more rules than are necessary, are cardinal virtues for the World Government to cultivate. Stopping at harmless virtues which are still relative will not make a World Government function normally. The positive programme of World Government has at every stage to balance or cancel out the negative, so as to strike the just mean between war and peace, activity and passivity, hot and cold attitudes, co-operation and competition. A constant pressure has to be maintained between these opposing tendencies so as to throw up constantly a higher value as an ideal for humanity.
   4.
      Positive pressure and vertical ascent

      A man becomes a better man by intensely and consciously wanting to be good. When he is good he should mind his own business and not interfere with others. His own inner urges as a man, in so far as they are in keeping with human nature as understood scientifically in all its bearings, have to get the full play of expansion and expression normally, without clashing with others who want to have the same changes. Those deep-seated specific qualities which distinguish man and make him unique and unrivaled, must be brought out into creative expression instead of lying dormant or unfulfilled. If virtues such as these apply to the individual, they could apply equally to families as normal human life units. Rural or urban units could have personalities cultivating the same virtues or moral principles in keeping with a science or philosophy of human life. Bloated amorphous political units must also attempt to conform to the requirements of this geo-dialectical absolutist morality When all formations follow the same laws, the order which constitutes World Government can be expected. No feverish horizontal activity is here involved. A certain positive pressure resulting in a vertical ascent is what needs to be constantly maintained in human life. This pressure can also be compared to a moral or spiritual heat or to the magnetizing influence of a current of electricity. The principle of double negation and double assertion as known to scholastic philosophy in Europe should be understood as implicit here. Only a fuller treatise on geo-dialectics itself can clarify such matters more completely or elaborately.

SECTION IV
ACTIVE PROGRAMME

   1.
      What the World Government actually proposes to do?

      What the World Government actually proposes to do is first and foremost to bring to bear a new and total world outlook upon world problems. It will help to turn out more and more World Citizens. They will be human beings who have attained the full status of persons who represent the General Good and the Good of All. While making themselves happy according to the light or dialectal wisdom, they will constantly strive for the happiness of their fellow men in a manner consistent with the same wisdom. Such a balanced life between two interests unitively treated, will enhance the value of the individual in society. He will carry with him a subtle influence or presence. Such a man would be a modern version of a knight errant seeking the right kind of adventure to face in the name of his love of humanity. He would soon be appraised of innumerable opportunities presenting themselves to him where he can render signal service to his fellow men without going at all out of his way. Many such functions might lie outside the scope of geo-politics proper, with which alone we are concerned primarily in this Memorandum. However, this should not deter such a man or woman from placing his or her high personal credit at the service of the cause of World Citizenship and World Government. To call oneself a sovereign citizen of the world and consciously to affiliate oneself wholeheartedly to the noble idea, reveals in one who does so the true human value which a lover of humanity must carry with him, thus enhancing his value at once with reference to himself and with all others with whom it was his lot to live on earth. There are rights and duties that such an affiliation at once confers.

      As such a status comes from an understanding of the science involved, there is no danger of groups of such men considering themselves as belonging to any superior caste or group. The danger of such a contingency need not, however, be ruled out. On the contrary all such World Citizens should be taught to keep this danger constantly in their mind, to correct themselves consciously, and to help fellow world citizens to do the same. The danger, however, should not deter humanity from launching the undertaking, just in the same way that burst boilers or air crashes do not deter man from navigation or flying. Moreover, by the overall unitive approach, which is the basis of the whole new outlook involved in the World Citizenship Movement, the danger of clannishness or caste- mindedness can always be counteracted consciously, even when the tendency is there. This unitive outlook is more deeply rooted than at that level of life where World Citizenship has to express itself, which at most, is the waking world of the conscious ego. The unitive approach to reality will permeate the sub-conscious, the infra- conscious, and the fourth stratum of transparent or direct awareness in the individual, so that the danger of exclusiveness as an individual will be countered very effectively. This is the definite advantage of the approach to world problems being actually a particular branch of the general science of Wisdom dialectics. This will further guarantee proportion, balance, normality, wholesomeness, harmony, and human grace or correctness to World Citizenship.

      The success of the World Government depends on its ability to produce the right kind of World Citizen as its champion in different parts of the world. He could be described as the most important single asset on the side of the undertaking.
   2.
      Political programmes can be made effective from inside, outside, from above or below the present formation.

      Once the reorientation of the spirit or the change of heart in regard to world problems has taken place in a given individual, and he feels keenly that he has to do something for the furtherance of his ideal, it is possible for him to do it from where he happens to be naturally. If he is a legislator he can stand for election on a World Government ticket. The immense popularity of the One World idea will only enhance his chances of success. According to qualitative geo-dialectical principles it would not be wrong of him to enter any given council, big or small, national or local, urban or rural, swearing allegiance to the head of that group or the head of several groups for the time being; for in doing so he would be recognizing only the symbolic absolutism implicit or inherent in the person (president or monarch) who happens to be at the head. Moreover, in terms of universal human values for which he is a politician, there is no contradiction or conflict between the interests of that particular political unit and in the human interests of the world itself taken as a unit. There is a geo-dialectical secret involved here which could be brought out by a homely example. If an old well should be hidden by a flood which covered it later, the water that quenches the thirst is the same water whether it comes from the hidden well part or from the lake over covering it. There is no conflict possible between two concentric circles. This is the ancient wisdom found in the Bhagavad Gita, which comes to the rescue of world politics by which all the walls of the Jerichos in the world must fall. The blast of absolutism form inside or outside the wall, or both together, by those place superiority above, or in, as it were, helpless positions below, dominant or recessive men or women the world over, have only to want real solemn earnestness to make the World Government effective. Thus the world Government work will become most practicable, positive, and irresistible.
   3.
      How to practise world politics from inside

      When once elected to a local or national body on a World Government ticket, the man or woman concerned takes a course of action in keeping with the principles of humanity and world morality or value comprised between the two poles of bread and freedom. Taking his stand on the norms and standards of geo-dialectics the World Citizen generally takes a middle-of-the-road position in respect of leftist or rightist parties, and generally supports the president when Absolute Justice, Morality or the Ideal are not violated by his position. When resolutions are moved or voting is explained he gets a chance of placing before those who are politically minded a new approach based on global human interests. He can bring token cut-motions on armament budgets when disproportionate, and the people's sense of justice can be appealed to. If he should be ousted from the Council the people will follow him into the street if his cause is just and in the name of the interests of the common man and humanity at once. Here, for the present, the possibilities of such action from inside must be left to the imagination. When permanent support to the world approach is certain, "mundialization" within such units is not impossible. symbolic acts in keeping with the code of honour or morals proper to the World Citizen could be resorted to, resembling Tolstoyan or Gandhian methods as revised in the light of a stricter geo-dialectical science.
   4.
      he practice of world politics from above

      Men, and more especially women, who occupy positions of influence or who have resources at their command, can study the plans of World Government and bring their weight to bear on the side of supporting human rights and preserving the best in the heritage of mankind, whether in art, culture, or wisdom. Dante, Shakespeare, and Kalidasa belong to humanity first, and the claims of particular nations for them are only incidental. There is also the one perennial contemplative tradition based on a science of the Absolute which is the common property of humanity. In preserving these and in protecting the common wisdom heritage of mankind the best interests of the common man will be secured also.

      Poor men, who have to make a living wherever it is at present available to them, are kept from freely reaching out to their God- given opportunities by artificial man-made rules. These rules must be broken down. Travel becomes more and more difficult and rules are piled upon rules by nations big and small for no valid or justifiable reason except to retaliate in the name of national pride or exclusiveness. Parochialism, tribalism, casteism, and nationalism have much in common with fanaticism or blind orthodoxy. A world philosophy and religion critically and scientifically ordered will help to relieve the existing asphyxiating conditions wherein miserable men and women have to live in the prison of criss-cross rules which is the present world. All modern people are keenly aware of this stifling atmosphere. The well-to-do, the influential, or at least their wives, must take interest in the poor, not to disrupt anything or anybody, but to bring just that kind of legitimate pressure which will ease the trouble of the common man. There can be a World Order of Ladies or Knights who could function as supervisors, permission authorities, world guards or witnesses of natural integrity, peacemakers or arbitrating advisers in the numerous walks of life in all matters ranging between the gaining of bread and the gaining of personal or spiritual freedom. Premarital, post-marital, and familial arbitration or advice, helping juveniles and children from possible maladjustments, the re-education of delinquents, psychological guidance, a pedagogy which respects the personality of the child, co- operative centres for the reclamation and relaxation of persons caught in the stress of life or in conditions of tension, and occupational guidance or treatmentŃthese are only a few of the fields in which the World Citizen could help the lot of humanity from wherever he or she might be living. A complete philosophy and a way of life shaped on unitive and absolutist lines is of course presupposed here. It will be the task of the World Institute of Human Affairs to elaborate, formulate, and make this available in the different languages of the world.
   5.
      The practice of world politics from below

      Individual men and women are caught in the barged wire frontiers, both ideological and actual, of rules and interdictions against freedom to pursue happiness freely and peacefully on the surface of the God-or-Nature-given earth. There has been no way hitherto for the articulation of their grievance. Not content with enforcing the rules of his own country, police belonging to stranger countries have begun to help the other country in enforcing wrong rules in the name of internationalism. There is thus a double barrage of many absurd rules which themselves are multiplied beyond reason or necessity. The clever ones get away with every restriction somehow, but the lot of ordinary man becomes difficult. One has to linger only for a few minutes at passport or permit offices to be convinced of the large volume of suffering to which men and women are subjected. To refer even to a few typical cases would be outside the scope of this Memorandum and would mar the sobriety of style which we wish to preserve here as far as possible. In one of his works Ruskin got a paragraph from a daily newspaper printed in red ink, because the subject was shocking to all decent human sentiment. The untold sufferings of the common man because of red-tape and regulations would have to be printed in some other ink if it is to find a place in a Memorandum such as this is intended to be.

      What the common man could do is to register with the World Government as a World Citizen and try to bring a vertical conceived pressure to bear on the situation. He has to rely on numbers here to cope with the machinery of governments which have a great deal of inertia in them. All shoulders have to be applied to the wheel to set affairs going normally. The trumpet blasts for absolute fairness from outside the walls of Jericho have to resound in consonance with the trumpet blasts from above, or inside.
   6.
      The overall functioning of the World Government

      The inarticulated feelings of the soul of humanity or the emergent personality of the people of the world has to find its voice in the World Government. The point of the view of the World Government has to be broadcast unhesitatingly in no uncertain terms and even with authority. Truth must be given a chance to prevail. Relativistic compromise is what makes humanity at present weak. These are facts which need no repetition here. As the World Government emerges more and more to public view, it will represent the conscience of humanity and will spotlight from day to day the errors detrimental to humanity's interests. In such a task it must keep clear from tacitly or openly becoming a tool in the hands of any existing power block. Even if help should be obtained from some one quarter more than another, the World Government must be above suspicion in pointing out mistakes. The cheap headline world of propaganda must be avoided. A "Voice of Humanity" and a World News Agency may be started to serve the cause of the World Government.
   7.
      The issuance of World Passports

      The issuance of World Passports has already commenced. This would ease the situation arising in the cases of millions of persons who have no national status within nations. The response of nations is already there. Such persons will henceforth belong to the World Government. Their combined voice will and must be heard through the instrumentality of the World Government.
   8.
      Proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

      Proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights made by the United Nations at Paris 1948 gives a legitimate overall function covering many points so far remaining unimplemented. Many major and minor nations are already committed to the thirty articles in this Declaration. In brining vertical pressure to bear on this matter of implementation of that Declaration, the World Government would be in fact only helping the great number of nations to be true to their avowed undertakings.
   9.
      To have a World Committee

      To have a World Committee to give assent to the World Government and its functions form time to time and to hold World Conferences to compare notes and do all that is incidental to the formation and correct functioning of the Government, are also matters which are naturally to be provided for as normal to the programme of the Government as it is expected to unfold and expand quickly or gradually as the outside conditions and innate forces warrant. Powers of supervision and assent may be vested in a Representative Select Committee of those who are wise normally or who have received proper training in the Institute of Dialectics connected with the World Government.

SECTION V
JURISDICTION, REVENUE, RESOURCES, ETC.

   1.
      Territorial jurisdiction

      The territorial jurisdiction of the World Government is the surface of the Earth. It does not think about owning any limited area to run its own primary Government with land taxes, frontiers to protect, and defense arrangements. Overweighed with these items, present governments are in many ways outmoded remnants of the past which must all be subjected to drastic revision. These revisions will take place automatically when the World Government as envisaged here begins to be more and more effective. Mundialization of select units of administration is not to be ruled out.
   2.
      Revenue

      Revenue is to be derived from the principle of indirect taxation as it prevails even now. Though indirect, the revenue will be by mutual consent. Service rendered by the Government could be charged for and, while prime necessities will be exempt even from such taxation as far as possible, items of luxury could be freely taxed. Such matters will be attended to by the World Service Authority under the World Government. Indirect taxation is a form of profit which it is open for the World Government to make against services rendered. In fact trade combines and banking corporations - not to speak of religious bodies - even now exist, which have enormous assets sometimes as large and general of many existing governments. Economic and financial experts can see through the irregularities of some of the present monetary and other arrangements in which, by words such as "going off the gold standard" or in dividing the world into "hard" and "soft" currency areas, wealth is conserved in pockets which when examined by standards of absolute justice, do not belong to them. Gold is stored in vaults without use for the artificially inflated credit of power blocks, and various book adjustments are made behind the back of the common man to whom the money really belongs. World banks and world currencies exist already without the regular consent of the people of the world and what is called a loan to one country from another is not really a loan, but a long term commercial deal. It would not be impossible for the World Government to have its own credit and currency valid the world over, and planned on some rational human basis such as one day's labor equals one day's food and shelter in a 30 or 40 hour week (or even less) in a world where competition has been counteracted by co-operation, and where labor-saving devices are employed for more human conditions.

      As we have already said, the most valuable single asset of the World Government is the World Citizen. Since World Citizens can be found by virtue of the rightness of the cause in any part of the world in unlimited numbers, the assets of all well-intending people anywhere in the world are already in effect those of the World Government. A revised living and organic system of accounting and budgeting has to be devised. There being no duality of ends and means in this work, receipts and disbursements need not necessarily show large figures. After all, on final analysis, large-scale banking is nothing but book-keeping.

SECTION VI
CONCLUSION

   1.
      Unitive approach

      When it is said that wars begin in the minds of men, it is already conversely admitted by even full-fledged politicians that the solution to world problems are of a spiritual order. The doctrine of dialectical materialism, which puts necessity and hunger first, follows another line of approach. Both these approaches can be reconciled in a unitive approach to world problems as implied in the present Memorandum.

      Let us consider the armaments race which is due to mistrust and fear of other nations. A serious proposal from the World Government is sure to have an almost magical effect in easing the tension of mistrust between nations. The dehypnotization of the mentality of mutual suspicion will save every nation, large or small, from the lop-sided provisions at present made in their budgets. Let world opinion merely support the idea of the World Government and a tangible relaxation will be felt at the poles in the personality of nations which breeds mistrust, and even theoretically respected authority can avoid the waste of billions of dollars for the world as a whole.
   2.
      Various incidental items

      Let the World Government honour the farmer instead of vexing him with ever more items of taxation; let it start co-operative colonies to ease the tension of competitive life, such as those known as the Kibbutz now working successfully in Israel, where there is no money exchanged at all; let it start fair-price shops taking a percentage in the place of a tax and so effectively eliminate the middleman, the black-marketer and those who corner the necessities of life and make great and disproportionate profit at the expense of the common man; let it create clubs or pensions for persons obliged to pass their lives in eternal boredom, by means of colonies which will give them a natural outlet for expression and opportunity for light occupation without competition for the young, the old and the weak; let it confer titles or honours on people who render signal service to the needy and thus give them a legitimately deserved chance to shine in the eyes of their fellow men. Such are some of the miscellaneous waysŃtoo numerous to list completelyŃby which the World Government can justify its existence while it gathers momentum to be finally effective.
   3.
      Decentralization and the cancelling out of problems

      Another method full of possibilities for the World Government, is decentralization and the method of the cancellation of the plus and minus of a given situation. For instance, capital is the cause of the sufferings of labor. Large mills are responsible for slums. Promiscuous religious charity is responsible for begging. These pairs that are interdependent could be canceled out one against the other without punishment or reform coming from the centre. The head and the tail aspects can be canceled out dialectically without central interference. The World Government can help in the ordering of such matters, taking into consideration the counterparts involved in each problem.
   4.
      New states

      There are many new states which require a new and fresh constitution. They could be guided by the World Government so that their new constitution would be framed in the spirit of World Government itself. This would save their disruption when world- mindedness in politics becomes a fully accomplished fact.
   5.
      Need for sacrifice on the part of World Government sponsors

      The sponsors of World Government have ever to keep before their minds that only through sacrifice and renunciation can such a noble idea be ushered into being. Human unity is an idea which is valid in theory at present. For people to adhere to the idea earnestly, they have to be sure that those who stand for it are not themselves lovers of power or grabbers of goods with unholy greed. Such a detachment should not be merely superficial, taking only the outward form of abstinence or even austerity. Happiness in the contemplation of the Self in its Absolute sense alone brings that blissful self-sufficiency which belongs to one who is able to be an exemplar of Wisdom. This contented state of happiness is induced by knowledge of the Science of the Absolute. A human being attains to his full stature as man when he is happy with himself, and thus in himself represents this high human Value. Such an ideal is within the reach of every human being without distinction of race, religion, nationality, sex, or even station in life. The humblest can walk in the way of the Absolute. Even a bad man who has taken the decision to regulate his life with reference to this final Absolute Norm of human life becomes by that mere decision equal in spiritual status to the greatest of wise men.

      Thus having referred finally to the fountain-source of Wisdom from which one has to drink if one is to become a World Citizen in the fullest sense of the term, we hereby commend this memorandum with all its imperfection to the attention of those spirits who are favorable disposed to examine it with sympathy and earnest understanding. Let those who are not of this category at least spare the sponsors of the Memorandum from their disadoption of it and consequent disparagement of its contents. Such is the prayer with which this document goes out to lovers of Wisdom and of humanity.

Anti_Illuminati

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Re: Global Warming/Climate Change Agenda Is Geo-Cybernetics In Disguise
« Reply #49 on: October 05, 2010, 11:59:46 AM »


Offline TahoeBlue

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Re: Global Warming/Climate Change Agenda Is Geo-Cybernetics In Disguise
« Reply #50 on: October 05, 2010, 02:16:35 PM »
Battelle / PNNL Smart grid  

related:

Battelle forecasts top 10 for 2010

3. Smart Energy Management Systems -- Computers, the Internet and Global Positioning Systems will increase transportation efficiency by reducing congestion and traffic delays. They will also improve heating, air conditioning, household appliance and business equipment. Energy production and distribution system efficiency in pipelines, refineries, power plants and transmission lines will be improved.

4. Distributed Power Generation -- The national power grid may not meet skyrocketing demand so grids of this scale are on the way out. Power may be generated for neighborhoods, individual residences and businesses via micro-turbines, internal combustion engines and fuel cells. Natural gas use will increase because it is clean, cheap and available.

Using the power grid for DHS?
Battelle snags $29M Homeland Security "real-time monitoring" contract
Battelle is working with a key network of U.S. Department of Homeland Security watch centers under a new multimillion-dollar contract.

Battelle History

Gordon Battelle's father, [ Columbus Iron & Steel Co.] industrialist John Gordon Battelle, died in 1918, leaving his wife and only child with a large inheritance. Five years later, Gordon Battelle himself died after an appendectomy. Not having any children, he directed his fortune go to the creation of an institute for “science and the service of mankind.”
...
Although Battelle’s financial venture in DeKalb County proved unsuccessful; he did very well with other investments. When he died in 1918 he left $4,000,000 to his only son, Gordon. The younger Battelle, who died in 1923, willed the fortune to the Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio.
...
The Battelle Memorial Institute, funded from the family's fortunes in the early steel industry, was involved in the "Manhattan Project," which resulted in the development of the atomic bomb in World War II. This eventually led to the institute's work in nuclear research

Buried together - Steel Magnates - Samuel Bush and Gordon Battelle:
Green Lawn Cemetery Columbus Ohio - Where the bodies are buried -  As one of the oldest cemeteries in Ohio, Green Lawn serves as the resting place for well-known and influential notables who made significant contributions to Columbus and the entire country....
http://www.greenlawncolumbus.org/history/founders.php

Samuel Bush, grandfather and great grandfather of both Presidents George Bush, respectively, was an early Columbus industrialist and president of Buckeye Steel Castings. His son, Prescott Bush, left Columbus as a young man to attend Yale University

http://digital-collections.columbuslibrary.org/cdm4/cml_search_results.php?CISOROOT=/ohio&CISOROOT_alt=&t=s&CISOOP1=any&CISOBOX1=Steel&CISOFIELD1=CISOSEARCHALL&CISOSORT=title%7Cr&CISOSTART=1,21

Columbus in Historic Photographs
Columbus Iron and Steel Co., John G. Battelle, President.
Buckeye Steel Casting Co, Samuel P. Bush, grandfather of President George Bush was company CEO.
Evening view of Carnegie Steel Works  Andrew Carnegie

Gordon Battelle came to Columbus in 1898 to work with Columbus Iron & Steel Company and was also president of International Derrick Co

International Derrick Co sold to Dresser? IDECO -> Bush -> Rockefeller

http://www.padrak.com/alt/BUSHBOOK_3.html
...
Prescott Bush had become a member of the board of directors of Dresser Industries in 1930, in the wake of the reorganization of the company, which he had personally helped to direct. Prescott Bush was destined to remain on the Dresser board for 22 years, until 1952, when he entered the United States Senate. Father Prescott was thus calling in a chit which procured George a second job offer, this time with Dresser Industries or one of its subsidiaries.
...
Bush in Odessa

This is the magic moment in which all the official Bush biographies show our hero riding into Odessa, Texas in the legendary red Studebaker, to take
up a post as an equipment clerk and trainee for the Dresser subsidiary IDECO (International Derrick and Equipment Company).
...
Note #3 The pro-Cox letters also asserted that Bush's Zapata Offshore Company had a history of bidding on drilling contracts for Rockefeller's Standard Oil of New Jersey.

Oh - This is good! ---
http://www.bunnminnick.com/virtualtour/virtualtour.htm
The present building is the third location of Bunn=Minnick


Bunn=Minnick facility in Columbus, Ohio
...
The present building was purchased March 14, 1991. Extensive remodeling was required, and Bunn=Minnick officially moved in on November 6, 1992.

The building was built in 1927-28 for the International Derrick and Equipment Company (IDECO). IDECO was founded in Columbus, Ohio in 1920 to produce steel oil well derricks. Additional items were added which included steel buildings, aircraft hangers, electric power sub stations, radio and TV broadcast towers, microwave and radar towers, and mechanical parking garages. In 1944 it became known as Dresser-IDECO. This international company headquarters remained at 875 Michigan Avenue until the late 1960’s. (By coincidence Bunn=Minnick Company was founded about the same time.) The building was closed and remained unoccupied until purchased by Bunn=Minnick.
...
Foyer. One enters the building through wrought iron doors originally from the Gordon Battelle mansion. (His Columbus, Ohio, Bryden Road home was torn down to make room for I-71. Ironically, when it was planned by Bunn=Minnick to incorporate these doors as a part of the renovation of this building, it was not yet known that Gordon Battelle sat on IDECO’s Board of Directors.)

Astor - Battelle - Carnegie connection:

http://www.dutchesstourism.com/newsletters/visitors-newsletter-april-2008.asp

Ferncliff Forest is located just off of Route 9 in Rhinebeck also provides campgrounds for outdoors lovers!

New Observation Tower in Rhinebeck
This fall Ferncliff Forest opened their new 79-foot fire tower! This tower stands in the middle of the unspoiled 200-acre preserve, providing a chance to view the stunning scenery and appreciate the history of the land, from the Native Americans to the Astor family. This International Derrick Fire Tower traveled up from Orangeburg, South Carolina.

http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WM4FF3_Ferncliff_Forest_Observation_Tower_Rhinebeck_NY
Aug 17, 2008 ... The first tower was a stone tower built by the Astors. ... The tower, a 1933 International Derrick fire tower made of Carnegie steel

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincent_Astor
William Vincent Astor (November 15, 1891 – February 3, 1959) was a businessman and philanthropist and a member of the prominent Astor family.[1]
...
 While a student at Harvard University in 1912, Vincent inherited an estimated $200 million when his father went down with the Titanic. After his father's death, he quit college to manage his family's vast properties. Astor at the time was called "the richest boy in the world
...
Vincent Astor appeared as No. 12 on the first list of America's richest people, compiled by Forbes Magazine. His net worth at the time was estimated at $75 million.

Amongst his holdings was Newsweek magazine which had for a time its headquarters in the former Knickerbocker Hotel that had been built by Vincent Astor's father; he was the magazine's chairman.

He also inherited Ferncliff, the Astor family's 2,800-acre (11 km2) estate near Rhinebeck, New York, where his father had been born. Vincent Astor, however, would be the last family owner of the estate and occupant of the "Ferncliff Casino", a Stanford White—McKim Mead & White designed 1904 Beaux Arts style 40,000 square feet (3,700 m2) building, inspired by the Grand Trianon at Versailles.[2][3]

On his death in 1959, Vincent Astor bequeathed a main house at Ferncliff to the Benedictine Hospital in Kingston, New York, and later his widow, Brooke, donated "Ferncliff Casino" to the The Catholic Archdiocese of New York, and sold off many parcels of the estate.

In 1963 Homer Staley, a local retired businessman in the area, asked Brooke Astor to preserve the remaining natural acreage of woodlands from development. She donated the land to the Rotary Club of Rhinebeck, to become the Ferncliff Forest Game Refuge and Forest Preserve

http://www.chicksgonetech.com/tag/rhinebeck-new-york/
15 Sep 2010
Over the summer the Astor Courts estate in Rhinebeck, New York was in the news for hosting Chelsea Clinton's wedding, now it is up for auction. The home has been up for sale for a while, it was our estate of the day back in September 2009 and was listed for $12 million.
...
In 1964 Brooke Astor gave the home to the Catholic Church. The current owners, real-estate developer Arthur Seelbinder and his wife, Kathleen Hammer, a former producer for Oxygen Media, bought the home in 2005 for $3.2 million and spent a fortune restoring ... It has an estimated appraised value of $15 million but will sell to the highest bidder above $7,500,000.

http://www.astorcourtsestate.com/history.html
http://travel.nytimes.com/2008/07/25/travel/escapes/25hudson.html
Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole ; He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. - Job 5

Offline obamasuks

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Re: Global Warming/Climate Change Agenda Is Geo-Cybernetics In Disguise
« Reply #51 on: October 14, 2010, 02:31:11 PM »
you know it !

Anti_Illuminati

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http://web.archive.org/web/20010430060823/http://epsilon3.georgetown.edu/~coventrm/asa2000/panel3/bryant.html

Nature and Culture in the Age of Cybernetic Systems


Bill Bryant
University of Iowa

What is the status of nature in the information age? We can no longer think of nature as a boundless storehouse of resources; decades of environmental consciousness-building, wilderness preservation, species protection, recycling, and toxic clean-up have worked some sense of nature's limits and conditions into the fiber of daily life. Yet the thought of a bedraggled nature pushed near the edge of collapse by insouciant industrial forces does not press upon us as urgently as it once did, either. This is so in part because many of the most immediate environmental consequences of sustaining the U.S. economy have been exported to poorer regions of the globe. It is also true, however, that the direst predictions of over-population and global resource scarcity have not come to pass as earlier environmentalists thought they most certainly would by now. Global warming looms today as perhaps the most ominous and far-reaching ecological threat for humans, but one which the planet itself is rather used to and can confidently expect to endure.

The technologies of the information age appear less at odds with nature than do the technologies of the older industrial era. They extract fewer resources and leave behind less garbage. They seem to point away from the dirty, material world of minerals and machinery, fuel and smoke, flesh and bone, toward a pristine, dematerialized territory of codes and programs and virtuality set apart from the natural environment. The information age makes it is easy to forget that the world still runs on fossil fuels, chemical pesticides and smokestack industries. The offal of industrial civilization has not been replaced by antiseptic webs of communications technologies. Rather, the technological networks of the information age have been layered over top an older order of industrial production only somewhat disciplined by environmental regulation. They have integrated it and helped to make it more completely global. Where nature appears threatened by information technologies in some original way, it is naturally at the level of information, the level of the gene, where the coded messages of life itself become subject to human tampering and appropriation. The logic of the information age is just as likely, however, to support an environmentalist argument for preserving the earth's genetic diversity, on the grounds that lost species means lost information.

This essay explores the status of nature in the information age by examining the concept of the ecosystem, one of the most powerful models of nature to emerge after World War II, and one that helps illuminate the relationship among people, nature and technology in post-war U.S. culture. The ecosystem concept was a product of the convergence of ecology and cybernetics during the 1940s and 1950s. It was a model of nature deeply integrated with post-war technologies and thoroughly consistent with post-war globalization. One of its primary effects was to define a unified global space called the whole earth, or the biosphere, within which humankind could be understood as a species enmeshed within networks of ecological relations. This redefinition of humans and their place in the universe had a substantial and varied influence on how people in post-war America would come to perceive their relationship to both nature and technology.

Here I am concerned primarily with the ecosystem concept's effect on dispositions toward technologies. Environmental crises in the post-war period, such as nuclear fallout and chemical poisoning, prompted evaluations of technologies on the basis of their impact upon natural environments. The ecosystem was a comprehensive model of nature that integrated humans into the environment and accounted for the ecological effects of technologies, a model that could be employed to evaluate the relationship among people, nature and machines.

My thesis is that the ecosystem concept enabled critiques that distinguished between two orders of technology. In the first case, critics of modern technologies used the ecosystem concept to make comprehensible, and to legitimate alarm over, the environmental threats posed by the Bomb, chemical pesticides and other technologies characterized by the physical force they exerted upon the world. It was used to position these modern technologies not as tools of progress but as agents of environmental corruption and threats to human survival. At the same time, the ecosystem concept served as a model of nature compatible with, even necessary to, the cybernetic technologies of the information age. These technologies were characterized by their ability to monitor their own internal and external states and adapt in response to changing conditions. They exhibited self-regulation through information feedback, a capability held to be fundamental to all complex self-organizing systems, natural or artificial. The ecosystem concept naturalized the features of cybernetic systemness characteristic of post-war information technologies and attributed them to nature on a macro scale. (1)

Cybernetics

The MIT mathematician Norbert Wiener was the primary founder of the science of cybernetics. During the war years he worked on the difficult problem of antiaircraft artillery control. His solution combined humans and machinery in an information-based, self-guiding system of gunnery controls, servomotors and calculating devices. Out of this research came a paper titled "Behavior, Purpose, and Teleology," which Wiener published with Arturo Rosenblueth and Julian Bigelow in 1943. (2) The paper defined "purposeful behavior" in both machines and living organisms in terms of information feedback. Machines, like organisms, received input and produced behavior or output in turn. When a portion of that output circled around to become input again, the machine acquired a means for responding to the effects of its own behavior. Its behavior became purposeful when this circuit of information feedback guided the machine toward a goal. A torpedo with a target-seeking mechanism exhibited purposeful behavior, for example, whereas a bomb that simply fell to earth from an airplane did not. Structurally, organisms and self-directed machines were far different, but in terms of behavior they could be classified together, as an order of things that were purposeful and predictive. Such behavior, whether exhibited by an organism or a machine, depended upon the circular feedback of information.

Wiener expanded these ideas in his popular 1948 book, Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. (3) He also spearheaded a series of multidisciplinary conferences on cybernetics, sponsored by the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation between 1946 and 1953. The Macy Conferences were attended by mathematicians such as John von Neumann, social scientists including Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead, the ecologist George Evelyn Hutchinson, physiologists, psychologists, engineers and many others. (4) Along with Wiener's writings, these conferences contributed to the rapid spread of cybernetics into social, biological, communications and other sciences during the 1940s and 1950s. (5) They were part of the broad post-war refiguration of the life and human sciences through the physical and technical sciences.

The ideas encompassed by cybernetics were not necessarily new. The steam engine governor had long been recognized as a self-regulating mechanism, for example, and electrical engineers had been using the concept of feedback since the 1920s. (6) What was new after World War II was the generalization of these ideas into universal principles. (7) They applied to all complex, self-organizing systems, regardless of physical substrate -- organic or mechanical, natural or artificial -- and thus they effaced the conceptual distinction between organisms and machines. As these principles were applied within the life and humans sciences, organisms, social groups, psychologies and physiologies were explained according to machine theories of communication.

Also new after the War was the marriage of these principles to electronic devices. Cybernetics was most closely allied with an overlapping group of technical and theoretical endeavors that together formed the core disciplines of post-war information technologies: information and communications theory, systems analysis, game theory, computer science, operations research. Evelyn Fox Keller calls the collection of these disciplines cyberscience. They shared, as she states, "a common task (the analysis of complex systems), a conceptual vocabulary for dealing with that task (feedback and communication - circular causality), and a mode of representation (of complex systems as interacting networks or circuits.)" ( 8 )

Thus in the years following World War II, a wide variety of scientists and technologists embraced a metaphor that encompassed both nature and technology: the cybernetic system. It was a mechanistic metaphor that largely replaced organic metaphors carried over from pre-war times. However, the machines this metaphor pointed toward had been redefined and were no longer strictly inorganic themselves. That is, the cybernetic system redefined both machines and nature in ways that allowed for their convergence into the bionic machines, artificial intelligence, information ecologies, simulated environments, cyberspace, virtual realities, gene banks and transgenic and artificially evolved organisms that have, since the mid-20th century, come to inhabit lived worlds as material and imaginative actants.

Ecosystem Ecology

The rise and distribution of cybernetics also changed the science of ecology in the post-war years. One primary result was the "ecosystem," a model of nature that would serve for a time as the leading paradigm in ecology and would profoundly shape the way many Americans understood the natural environment and their place in it. (9)

The word ecosystem was coined by British ecologist Alfred Tansley in 1935. He was responding to debates about the dominant ecological paradigm, developed most famously by Frederic Clements, which constructed biotic communities as complex organisms developing through ecological succession toward a mature, stable state called climax. Tansley rejected Clements's organism and superorganism models because they were not researchable. The ecosystem, in contrast, described natural communities in terms of trophic levels - strata of organisms, each supplying nutrients for the next - through which circulated measurable quantities of energy and material.

G. E. Hutchinson, the eminent Yale ecologist, added to Tansley's model an emphasis on biogeochemical interactions, which expanded the scope of the ecosystem to include not just the trophic levels of the biotic community, but the abiotic environment as well, the minerals and chemicals and other non-living components that were just as integral to the community as organisms. A few field studies on ecosystems began in the late 1930s, most notably that of Raymond Lindeman, one of Hutchinson's students whose 1943 paper on the ecology of a Minnesota lake first demonstrated the practical potential of the ecosystem concept. (10)

The concept was transformed a few years later as Hutchinson applied to it the language of cybernetics. As one of the Macy Conference group's original members, he became familiar with cybernetic concepts early in the development of the science, delivering a paper at the 1946 conference titled, "Circular Causal Systems in Ecology." (11) Where Lindeman's primary metaphor had been economic, identifying biological "producers" and "consumers" and their relationships, Hutchinson's metaphor came from cybernetics, with feedback, information, and circular causality explaining the behavior of ecosystems. In the convergence of ecology and cybernetics, natural communities were reconceived as networks of interdependent relationships that exhibited purposeful behavior through mechanisms of information feedback.

The ecosystem concept rose to prominence within the science of ecology with the publication of Eugene Odum's textbook, Fundamentals of Ecology in 1953. (12) It was the first book on ecology to make the ecosystem a central concept. Odum credited the influence of Hutchinson, who's ideas were transmitted to Odum in the form of lecture notes supplied by his brother Howard T. Odum, a student of Hutchinson's at Yale. The number of ecosystem studies accelerated after 1953 and ecosystem ecology, sometimes known as cybernetic ecology, swiftly became a dominant paradigm within the science, reaching maturity with the International Biological Program in the late 1960s and early 1970s. (13)

Many factors contributed to the success of the ecosystem concept in the 1950s. An influx of government funding for ecological research provided ecologists with an incentive to quickly develop new research programs and test new ideas.. The association of the ecosystem concept with cybernetics seemed to place it on the leading edge of science. In addition, growing public concerns about environmental threats, especially nuclear fallout, made welcome an easily understood model of nature that integrated humans into the environment, explained how problems in one corner of the world could crop up in distant and unexpected locations, and suggested possibilities for managing the environment more effectively.

Like many biological concepts in the post-war years, the ecosystem's principles were rendered conceptually compatible with information technologies. Still, the fit between ecology and cybernetics was in some ways intrinsic. Cybernetics hinged on constructing parallels between technological and physiological systems, but there was also in its logic an implicit consideration of environment. The behavioristic approach to studying nature and technology, which Wiener, Rosenblueth, and Bigelow advocated in their 1943 paper, defined behavior as "any change of an entity with respect to its surroundings." The study of an entity according to its behavior, rather than its internal structure, necessarily required placing it in relation to its environment. As an example of the technological application of this behavioristic model, W. Ross Ashby demonstrated for the Macy Conference group his "homeostat," an electrical model of an organism that responded to environmental changes, keeping essential internal variables within preset limits. If a variable exceeded its limit the homeostat "died."

The behavioristic approach of cybernetics depended upon the construction of entities as "black boxes," whose internal structures may not be known, but whose behavior could be understood through the assessment of input and output. In much the same way, ecosystem ecology was concerned with the measurement of energy and materials flowing into and out of an ecosystem. In the watershed approach to the study of ecosystems pioneered by Bormann and Liken, the ecologist could study the system dynamics of water by measuring the input of precipitation and the output of the watershed's draining streams. Using the language of cybernetics ecologists explained the cycling of energy and materials through ecosystems in terms of input and output and the self-regulating mechanisms of ecosystems, from ponds to the biosphere, in terms of information feedback.

The development of a cybernetic model of ecology seemed to advance the cyberneticians' claims that they were dealing with universal principles. From the metabolism of biological cells, to the physiology of individuals, to the regulation of populations, and finally to the integrated biotic and abiotic environment itself, the principles of cybernetic systemness held throughout nature, crossing boundaries of scale as well as substrate. Ecosystem ecology extended the naturalization of cybernetic systemness to the whole planet.

Ecosystems and Values

Scholars who have written about the influence of cybernetics on science and society rightly call attention to its origins within the command-control-communications structures of the military. (14) They have identified in the spread of cybernetics a discursive and technological extension of military power into realms of civilian life. Paul Edwards argues that the development of computers after World War II was inseparable from the discourses and practices of the Cold War militarism. (15) Peter Galison locates the cybernetic worldview in the wartime construction of a part-human, part-machine enemy, namely the planes and pilots that became the targets of Norbert Wiener's wartime research. (16) Andy Pickering describes the development of the "World War II regime," which grew out of the intersection of science and the military, transforming other cultural spaces in the postwar decades through the generation of "cyborg objects" and "cyborg sciences." (17) Ecosystem ecology was itself one of these "cyborg sciences." It drew both material support and ideological structure from the command-control-communications sensibilities of Cold War institutions. Much of the early funding for ecosystem research came for the Office of Naval Research, and later from the Atomic Energy Commission.

Historians of ecology, Donald Worster and Gregg Mitman both indict ecosystem ecology for its mechanistic depiction of nature, its engineering ethos, and its reflection of the values of managerial capitalism. Lamenting the passing of an organic model of ecology that emphasized community and cooperation, Mitman writes that with the rise of ecosystem ecology, "Nature had become a system of components that could be managed, manipulated and controlled. The ecologist's task increasingly became that of environmental engineer; ecologists were to be professional managers who could monitor and fix the environmental problems created by human society." (18)

These assessments of ecosystem ecology's place within the dominant values of postwar American culture are undoubtedly on target. Yet it is also true that the ecosystem concept was instrumental in the formulation of alternative cultural values beginning in the 1950s. The ecosystem concept was adopted by environmentalists, feminists, war protesters, nuclear technology protesters, and many others as a model of nature that implicitly justified a rejection of technocratic, militaristic, masculinist, consumerist values and practices. Seeing the world as an ecosystem made it vividly clear that the environmental consequences of modern technologies such as nuclear weapons were uncontrollable, inescapable, global in scope, and ominously destructive. To any other reasons for altering the trajectory of modern technological civilization, the ecosystem concept persuasively added the threatened collapse of life-sustaining processes worldwide and the extinction of the human species. For many people the ecosystem concept offered scientific legitimation to the view that the values at the core of modern technological civilization were dangerous and wrong.

In addition, the ecosystem concept suggested to some people that an alternative set of values could be found rooted in the fundamentally cybernetic laws of nature. Complex interconnectedness, interdependence, and a finely sustained balance appeared to be at the center of nature's complexity, not individualism, waste, selfish competition and brutish power. Humans ignored the circular causality inherent in nature at their own peril; they risked making their own environment uninhabitable, their own future unsustainable. Values associated with the ecosystem concept included self-restraint, stability, cooperation, humility, and moderation.

The meaning and use of an idea within a scientific discipline does not necessarily conform to its meaning and use outside that discipline. The institutional practice of ecosystem ecology in the postwar decades unquestionably had more to do with a faith in scientists' ability to manage environmental problems than in reformulating human/nature relations. Likewise, the popular use of the ecosystem concept was not overly concerned with scientific precision or application. Yet it is important to remember that postwar environmentalism in the U.S. was largely initiated and led by scientists whose arguments against the established paths of technological development were rooted in ecosystem ecology. Scientist-activists such as Barry Commoner, Paul and Louise Ehrlich, and Garrett Hardin served as conduits through which the ecosystem concept entered popular discourse attached to criticisms of modern technological society. As Commoner wrote in 1971, "This partnership between scientist and citizen is, I believe, the clue to the remarkable upsurge of public action on environmental issues that we have witnessed in the United States in recent years." (19)

To trace the formation of values around the ecosystem concept it is helpful to look at the example of Eugene P. Odum. His Fundamentals of Ecology was largely responsible for establishing the ecosystem concept as a dominant paradigm within the science of ecology. His research was conducted largely in the service of the Office of Naval Research and the Atomic Energy Commission, and so was deeply integrated into Cold War institutions that promoted nuclear technologies and embraced the command-control-communications logic of postwar cyberscience. Yet over the three editions of his textbook, from 1953 to 1971, Odum increasingly sounded alarm over ways in which modern technological civilization violated the cybernetic laws of nature and corrupted the natural environment.

Eugene Odum, along with his brother Howard T. Odum, first applied ecosystem ecology in the early 1950s in their study of the coral reefs near Eniwetok Atoll in the south Pacific, the site of U.S. nuclear weapons testing in 1948. (20) This experience would leave two important marks on Odum's formulation of ecosystem ecology. First, it linked the application of ecosystem ecology to nuclear technologies. Radioactive isotopes could be traced through the trophic levels of the coral reef ecosystem, clearly demonstrating the flow of material and energy. Such isotopes would come to be a useful tool intentionally applied in the study of ecosystems, while the implications of large amounts of radioactive materials coursing through the global ecosystem would form the basis of concern over the ecological effects of nuclear testing. Second, Odum determined that two essential characteristics of the coral reef ecosystem were mutualism and stability. The algae and coral at Entiwetok, Odum observed, had co-evolved and were mutually dependent upon one another. Further, he concluded, millions of years of natural selection had perfected the self-regulation of interacting species and favored the stability of the system as a whole. Thus, the nature Odum described in his study was characterized not by competition and growth, but by cooperation and stability. Though he did not suggest that these natural principles should be extended to human society, it was a striking model of nature to emerge from military-funded, cyborg-scientific research in the context of Cold War tensions.

The first edition of Fundamentals, published in 1953, devoted little space to radioactive isotopes beyond recognizing their usefulness as environmental tracers. Public health issues Odum felt ecology should address included animal-borne diseases such as malaria and rabies, and diseases linked to sanitation. By the publication of the second edition of Fundamentals in 1959, considerable controversy and concern had been generated by the testing of nuclear weapons worldwide. Odum devoted a chapter to radiation ecology in his updated volume, but more particularly he added language that positioned himself, and the practice of ecology, on the side of caution and restraint in the debate over nuclear technologies. In his section on the risks of nuclear technologies, for example, he wrote, "Although fallout problems are presently in the public eye, waste disposal from peaceful uses of atomic energy is potentially a far greater problem, assuming again that we do not have an all-out atomic war." (21)

The 1959 edition of Fundamentals began to extend the natural principles of stability and mutualism Odum found in the Eniwetok coral reef to human behavior and attitudes toward nature. The 1953 book stated, "Careful study and cooperation with natural cycles rather than wholesale 'tamperings' beyond our ability to comprehend would seem to be the sensible road to take if we are to avoid detours (perhaps permanent!) in the achievement of true dominance and the complete orderliness of man and his environment." Rethinking the goal of "true dominance" he added in 1959 the following: "It would be much safer (and much more pleasant) if man accepts the idea of sharing the world with many other organisms instead of looking at every square inch as a possible source of food or site to make into something artificial." (22)

In the 1971 edition, Odum added a chapter on pollution and environmental health, as well as a chapter, written by G. Dennis Cooke, on the "Ecology of Space Travel," in which the "life-support system" of space vehicles became an extended metaphor for the global ecosystem, a metaphor Odum would return to repeatedly thereafter. (23) In the preface to the third edition, Odum writes, "Practice has caught up with theory in ecology. The holistic approach and ecosystem theory, as emphasized in the first two editions of this book, are now matters of world-wide concern." He was, in this edition, explicitly concerned about how "man is to survive his self-generated environmental crisis."

    It is man the geological agent, not so much as man the animal, that is too much under the influence of positive feedback, and, therefore, must be subjected to negative feedback. Nature, with our intelligent help, can cope with man's physiological needs and wastes, but she has no homeostatic mechanisms to cope with bulldozers, concrete, and the kind of agroindustrial air, water, and soil pollution that will be hard to contain as long as the human population itself remains out of control. (24)

Odum exhibits in this statement an unfortunate gendering of humankind and nature. He also demonstrates a certain albeit shaky faith in the scientist's ability to address environmental problems, showing perhaps his complicity in the reigning managerial ethos as Worster and Mitman note. The statement also contains, however, a pointed indictment of modern technological society that is grounded in the language and logic of cybernetics as they came to be applied to the natural world. Such a statement was by the early 1970s, and remains, a fairly standard rhetorical position held by environmentalists.

So while ecosystem ecology was in many ways rooted in the militarized/managerial structures of postwar technoscience, the ecosystem concept was used by both scientists and laypeople to construct arguments against conventional notions of technological progress, to protest against specific modern technologies, and to legitimate alternative cultural values. This view of the cultural life of the ecosystem concept adds an important dimension to our reading of cybernetics by bringing into focus an application of cybernetic ideas that lies outside the logic of the dominant postwar power regime and its command-control-communications structures.

As they used the ecosystem concept to protest the tenets of modern industrial society, both scientists and non-scientists aligned aspects of cybernetic systemness with alternative values and futures - visions of a human society less destructive and warlike, emphasizing cooperation over competition and stability over unrestrained growth, in accordance with the lessons and laws of nature. The price of this alignment was a rejection of the technologies and artifacts that comprised the modern world - the bulldozers and concrete, the agroindustrial pollutants, and most pointedly nuclear weapons.

Still, a reliance on the ecosystem concept for alternative cultural values did not necessarily mean a rejection of technologies out of hand. There was an order of technology after World War II that shared with the ecosystem concept the fundamental principles of cybernetics. These were the computers and other information and communications technologies that, by the 1960s, had begun to define a new era. Like ecosystems, they adhered to the principles of self-regulation and information feedback. Like all technologies, their function was control, but control of complexity, control of information, of electrical impulses and invisible messages, not, seemingly, of minerals, ores, waterways, forests and atoms. Compared with bulldozers and bombs, information technologies appeared not only environmentally benign, they were, by virtue of their essential sameness with natural systems, entirely compatible with, and in some ways indistinguishable from, nature.

To illustrate how the ecosystem concept could be thoroughly integrated with information technologies, I will draw upon the work of Eugene Odum's younger brother Howard T. Odum. Tom, as he was called, was an essential contributor to the Fundamentals textbooks and a pioneering ecosystem ecologist in his own right. A student of Hutchinson's, he was trained in biogeochemical approaches to ecosystems and retained more of an orientation toward the physical sciences than did his brother. The ecosystem concept lent itself to both organic and mechanistic metaphors thanks to the indifference toward substrates within cybernetic systemness. Where Eugene stressed the organic aspects of ecosystems - development, metabolism, homeostasis -- Tom stressed the mechanistic side. He emphasized communications and control, and pursued the study of ecosystems through simulations, modeling and other technical means. He came to focus his research primarily on the flow of energy through ecosystems, eventually developing an elaborate theory of energetics to explain not just natural processes, but social, political, economic and religious systems as well.

Peter J. Taylor, in his fine essay on Odum, identifies "technocratic optimism" as the major theme running through Odum's work. (25) But viewed in light of the ecosystem concept's relations to postwar technologies, that description of Odum's thinking needs qualification. First, Odum, like his brother, was not at all optimistic about the trajectory of modern technology. His Environment, Power and Society (1971) offered, among many other things, a persuasive argument for limiting industrial growth based on an ecosystem understanding of the environment. (26) While he did believe in the environmental management and engineering potentials of his energy-based ecology, the objective of such efforts was not the kind of economic and technological progress characteristic of the Hoover-era Technocrats to which Taylor compares Odum. Rather, the goal of ecology, from Odum's perspective, was to prevent the collapse of nature at the hands of human folly and misjudgment. "In this book," he writes, "energy language is used to consider the pressing problem of survival in our time - the partnership of man in nature." (27)

Odum was optimistic, however, about technologies that mirrored the complex networks of nature. These technologies, computers in particular, provided the means for modeling the energetics of ecosystems, and thus served as an essential tool for the ecologist. Moreover, the "network," for Odum, was the key concept both in understanding nature and in building technologies that would lead to survival rather than extinction. The network represented, in Odum's schema, the connecting pathways through which flowed the energy and information that sustained a system and comprised its complexity Along these lines he developed a means for diagramming ecosystems as energy circuits. He intended throughout his career to design stable, sustainable "systems of man and nature" based on "high-quality, low-energy circuits."

Like the cyberneticians before him, Odum, as he identified the essential cybernetic functions of complex systems, dissolved with abandon the boundaries separating the natural, the mechanical, and the social. "The network of society," he writes, "has a form of thinking since it is a computer network in itself, quite over and above those it encompasses - the electronic computers of industry and the even more remarkable computer, the mind of man." (28) In describing the simulation of ecosystems through computers, Odum writes, "Programming the balanced ecosystem model illustrates the rather automatic translation of energy circuit language to simulation languages once the properties of the model are stated in 'energese.' (29) Finally, in a section titled, "An Ecosystem as Its Own Computer," he writes, ". . . the many compartments and circuits that constitute systems of man and nature are themselves special-purpose computers." Even so, it is sometimes necessary to build conceptual models of these systems, since, "particularly for the great ecological and social systems, the real system is beyond experimentation and the brain systems have not been able to assimilate the complexity. Thus the model networks hold great promise." (30)

We can see in Tom Odum's formulation of ecosystem ecology a deep conviction about the detrimental consequences of modern technological society, the world of bulldozers and bombs. At the same time, he validates information technologies on the basis of their compatibility with natural systems, a compatibility grounded in cybernetic theories of communication and information. In the process he rescues the possibility of a human future tied to technological progress, even if "progress" is redefined in terms of species survival and evolutionary adaptation.

The ecosystem concept, as employed by Tom Odum and others, was a means by which the cybernetic principles of information technologies were thoroughly naturalized, extended beyond individual organic bodies, into the natural environment, up to and including the entire planet. People seeing the world in terms of ecosystems could draw a sharp division between an order of technology that seemed to threaten the viability of the natural environment, versus an order of technology that shared with nature the essential principles of complex, self-organizing systemness. Information technologies thus seemed to promise a different path into the future, one less prone to environmental destruction, even one open to a new set of cultural values, based on a recognition of the fundamental interconnectedness of all natural and technological systems. Of course the information age has not ushered in a new set of human/nature relations, nor has technological civilization embraced a radically new set of cultural values. However, as we consider the status of nature in the information age, it is worth recognizing that our model of nature is capable of suggesting to us that information technologies are environmentally compatible and culturally liberating.

Endnotes

1. In practice, of course, it is a conceit to distinguish between these two orders of technology: the modern and postmodern; one functioning according to linear causality, the other circular causality; one operating on atoms, the other on bits of information. One order did not succeed the other; rather, they were integrally conformed to one another, as when, for example, computer-based communication systems, guidance systems, remote sensing, simulations and other information-based technologies were integrated with nuclear weapons in the apparatus of post-war national defense.

2. Rosenblueth, A., N. Wiener, and J. Bigelow, "Behavior, Purpose, and Teleology," Philosophy of Science, 10, 18-24 (1943). For an analysis of cybernetics' wartime origins, see Peter Galison, "The Ontology of the Enemy: Norbert Wiener and the Cybernetic Vision," Critical Inquiry 21 (Autumn 1994).

3. Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, MIT Press, 1948. Wiener published a version of these concepts for a general readership in The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society, Houghton Mifflin, Co., 1950.

4. There were ten Macy conferences. The transactions of the sixth through tenth conferences were published in a series titled, Cybernetics: Circular Causal and Feedback Mechanisms in Biological and Social Systems, Heinz von Foerster, ed., by the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation. Von Foerster was also a conference member. The Cybernetics Group (MIT Press: 1991), by Steve Joshua Heims, is a good history of the conferences but is restricted mostly to the social science and psychology dimensions of the transactions.

5. See Geof Bowker, "How to be Universal: Some Cybernetic Strategies, 1943-70," Social Studies of Science, Vol. 23 (1993), 107-27.

6. See Otto Mayr, The Origins of Feedback Control, MIT Press, 1970. Also, David A. Mindell, "Opening Black's Box: Rethinking Feedback's Myth of Origin," Technology and Culture, July 2000, Vol 41, No. 3, 405-34.

7. See Peter Galison, "The Ontology of the Enemy: Norbert Wiener and the Cybernetic Vision," Critical Inquiry, 21, Autumn 1994. Also, Bowker, "How to be Universal."

8. Evelyn fox Keller, "The Body of a New Machine: Situating the Organism Between Telegraphs and Computers," Refiguring Life: Metaphors of Twentieth-Century Biology, Columbia University Press, 1995.

9. Joel Hagen, An Entangled Bank: The Origins of Ecosystem Ecology, Rutgers Univ. Press, 1992. Frank Benjamin Golley, A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology: More than the Sum of the Parts, Yale University Press, 1993. Sharon E. Kingsland, Modeling Nature: Episodes in the History of Population Ecology, University of Chicago Press, 1985.

10. Raymond L. Lindeman, "The Trophic-Dynamic Aspect of Ecology," Ecology, 23(4), 1942, 399-418.

11. Published two years later as G. E. Hutchinson, "Circular Causal Systems in Ecology," Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 50, 1948, 221-246.

12. Eugene P. Odum, Fundamentals of Ecology, W.B. Saunders Co., 1953.

13. For an ecologist's take on Odum's Fundamentals and status of the ecosystem concept within the science of ecology, see Frank Benjamin Golley, A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology: More Than the Sum of the Parts, Yale University Press, 1993.

14. In addition to those authors mentioned, see Keller, Refiguring Life; Donna J. Haraway, Primate Visions: Gender, Race and Nature in the World of Modern Science, Routledge, 1989; Lily E. Kay, "Cybernetics, Information, Life: The Emergence of Scriptural Representations of Heredity," Configurations, 5, 1997; N. Katherine Hayles, How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics, University of Chicago, 1999.

15. Paul N. Edwards, The Closed World: Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America, MIT Press, 1996.

16. Galison, "The Ontology of the Enemy."

17. Andy Pickering, "Cyborg History and the World War II Regime," Perspectives on Science, vol. 3, no. 1, 1995.

18. Gregg Mitman, The State of Nature: Ecology, Community and American Social Thought, 1900-1950, University of Chicago Press, 1992, 210. Also see Donald Worster, Nature's Economy: The Roots of Ecology, Anchor Press, 1979.

19. Barry Commoner, The Closing Circle: Nature, Man, and Technology, Alfred A. Knopf, 1971, p. 198.

20. H. T. Odum and E. P. Odum, "Trophic structure and productivity of a windward coral reef community on Eniwetok Atoll," Ecol. Monogr., 25, 1955, 291-320.

21. Odum, Fundamentals, Second Edition, 1959, p 480.

22. Ibid, p. 489.

23. Odum, Fundamentals, Third Edition, 1971. Also see, Eugene P. Odum, Ecology and Our Endangered Life-Support Systems, Sinauer Associates, Inc., 1993.

24. Ibid, 36.

25. Peter J. Taylor, "Technocratic Optimism, H.T. Odum, and the Partial Transformation of Ecological Metaphor after World War II," Journal of the History of Biology, vol 21, no. 2, summer 1988, pp. 213-244.

26. Howard T. Odum, Environment, Power, and Society, Wiley-Interscience, 1971.

27. Ibid., vii.

28. Ibid., 245.

29. Ibid., 268.

30. Ibid., 270.

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The Noosphere and The Gaian Mind



The only truly natural and real human unity is the spirit of the Earth.—Pierre Teilhard de Chardin

The noosphere can be seen as the "sphere of human thought" being derived from the Greek ("nous") meaning "mind" in the style of "atmosphere" and "biosphere". In the original theory of Vernadsky, the noosphere is the third in a succession of phases of development of the Earth, after the geosphere (inanimate matter) and the biosphere (biological life). The word is also sometimes used to refer to a transhuman consciousness emerging from the interactions of human minds. This is the view proposed by the theologian Pierre Teilhard de Chardin.[1]

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin became enthralled with the possibilities for humankind, which he saw as heading for an exciting convergence of systems, an "Omega point" where the coalescence of consciousness will lead us to a new state of peace and planetary unity. Long before ecology was fashionable, he saw this unity as being based intrinsically upon the spirit of the Earth.

To this end, he suggested that the Earth in its evolutionary unfolding, was growing a new organ of consciousness, called the noosphere. The noosphere is analogous on a planetary level to the evolution of the cerebral cortex in humans. The noosphere is a "planetary thinking network" — an interlinked system of consciousness and information, a global net of self-awareness, instantaneous feedback, and planetary communication. At the time of his writing, computers of any merit were the size of a city block, and the Internet was, if anything, an element of speculative science fiction. Yet this evolution is indeed coming to pass, and with a rapidity, that in Gaia time, is but a mere passage of seconds. In these precious moments, the planet is developing her cerebral cortex, and emerging into self-conscious awakening. We are indeed approaching the Omega point that Teilhard de Chardin was so excited about. This convergence however, though it was predicted to occur through a global information network, was not a convergence of merely minds or bodies — but of heart, a point that he made most fervently.

Quote
"It is not our heads or our bodies which we must bring together, but our hearts.... Humanity... is building its composite brain beneath our eyes. May it not be that tomorrow, through the logical and biological deepening of the movement drawing it together, it will find its heart, without which the ultimate wholeness of its power of unification can never be achieved?"

Teilhard de Chardin passed away a full ten years before James Lovelock ever proposed the "Gaia Hypothesis" which suggests that the Earth is actually a living being, a colossal biological super-system. Yet Chardin's writings clearly reflect the sense of the Earth as having its own autonomous personality, and being the prime center and director of our future — a strange attractor, if you will — that will be the guiding force for the synthesis of humankind.[2]

The noosphere represents a major evolutionary alteration of human consciousness. This is a shift from atomized individual consciousness to the consciousness of a vast single entity, what might be referred to as the collective telepathic field of planet Earth.[3]

Now there are some interesting parallels between this integration of humanity and the integration which occurred at earlier stages of evolution. If we go back and consider the emergence of life from matter, we find that the simplest bacteria contain several billion atoms. The figure shown here of ten billion is only a very approximate figure - whether its 2 billion, 5 billion or 20 billion doesn't really matter. But it seems necessary to bring together approximately this number of atoms in order to create the complexity necessary for them to become a living system.

Similarly, if we look at the next leap in evolution, the evolution of intelligent consciousness, we find it again takes several billion nerve cells linked together in the human brain to produce the reflective consciousness characteristic of humanity - though again the figure is not meant to be exact.

Now, if this turns out to be a general principal of evolution, it would suggest that the next stage - the linking of humanity into an integrated system - would involve the working together of a similar number of minds - and indeed the human population has already reached this level.[4][5]

Considering Earth as a whole system, we must now take responsibility for the thoughts we create that charge the mental field or thinking layer of the Earth with the actual causes for everything that ails us and the planet today. Not only must we take responsibility for our own thoughts, we must also realize the relativity of our thinking and our assumptions in relation to everybody else's thinking and assumptions - and perhaps rethink our whole program. If we could see our species-wide thinking layer as a sphere covering the whole planet we would see it as a faulty patchwork web, politically, religiously and ideologically divided, morally obtuse, saturated by the effects of profit making greed - and anything but unified. It is the wildly inconsistent and incoherent play of forces within this thinking layer, the noosphere, that perpetuates and propels the political, religious, nationalistic and corporate decision making that shapes the everyday world. Until we truly become conscious of it, it will remain out of control and continue to wreak havoc on the biosphere.



As more humans slowly come to terms with the fact that our thinking is the root of the destruction of the world, the noosphere comes that much closer to becoming conscious.[8]  But first it must go through an intermediate phase - the cybersphere. As the externalization of the noosphere into an electronic network, the cybersphere is the virtual nervous system of the planet.

The exteriorization of the noosphere - the planetary thinking layer - first began through the printed medium. Then through the telegraph, telephone, radio, television, computer, fax, PC, cell phone and internet, the homo sapiens exteriorized the thinking layer into the cybersphere, turning it into the virtual noosphere.[9]

The human thinking layer which functions throughout this noospheric envelope as a haphazard mass of unexamined contradictions, now translated into the electronic "noise" of the cybersphere, is obedient only to the laws of historical determinism. But the noosphere is really not a function of historical determinism. It is the potentiality of a kind of mentation -higher vibrational thought processes - that become evident once the historical deterministic lower thinking processes have been exhausted - then there will be an end to noospheric pollution. Beyond that peak moment, the noosphere, latent with its own laws, will manifest in a way inconceivable now. Humanity, for one, will function as a single unitary organism coordinated by a telepathy, until now only virtual and inherent, covered over by mechanistic and technologically artificial mental structures and deeply embedded, historically conditioned emotional processes.

The very notion of the noosphere as a mental sphere indicates a direction of evolution from the physical to the nonphysical, from the material to the mental. To solve our problems we need to raise our intelligence, not develop more technology. And if we cannot raise our own intelligence we must consider whether or not there is some intelligence elsewhere in the universe that might not be capable of responding to our crisis and give us some assistance. Not necessarily material assistance, but assistance in the form of some mental spiritual shock or boost, altering our perceptions radically and causing us to find solutions where before none existed.[6]

The planet is some kind of organized intelligence. It's very different from us. It's had 5- or 6-billion years to create a slow moving mind that is made of oceans, and rivers, and rainforests, and glaciers. It's becoming aware of us, as we are becoming aware of it, strangely enough. Two less likely members of a relationship can hardly be imagined-the technological apes and the dreaming planet. And yet, because the life of each depends on the other, [we have] a feeling towards this immense, strange, wise, old, neutral, weird thing, and it is trying to figure out why its dreams are so tormented and why everything is out of balance.—Terence McKenna

By connecting our minds in a unified global consciousness, while we remain individuals, each with an independent mind, we also have the ability to tune in to some psychic voice infused with Gaian consciousness, a voice that does not let us pass up an opportunity to take proper care of the biosphere. What a unified global consciousness implies is that everyone on the planet will be in harmony with this sense of Gaian consciousness.

If every member of our species takes an active role in preventing and correcting assaults on the environment, life on this planet will begin to improve overnight. All that is required is an expanded awareness of the fact that we are simply parts of a much larger whole. It is time for our species to realize that the Earth is not here solely for our use and enjoyment. We are here to serve as Gaia's most sophisticated tools, which have evolved for purposes we have not yet fully discovered. Expanding the consciousness of our entire species is a tall order, indeed. It may even require magic. Fortunately, we live in magical times.[7]

It's far too late for anything but magick as the future is clearly up for grabs.—Antero Alli

Offline Effie Trinket

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http://www.mistralsolutions.com/hs-downloads/tech-briefs/jun11-article1.html

A C4ISR Solution for Emergency Response in the Railways
Introduction

The Indian Railways is the fourth largest rail network in the world, after the USA, Russia, and China, and boasts of over 100,000 kms. of track and close to 7,000 stations. It runs around 11,000 trains daily, of which 7,000 are passenger trains carrying in excess of 13 million passengers. With the increasing density in freight and passenger traffic, the increase in extreme weather events on account of global warming, and the increased threat of terror strikes, the potential for crises and disasters is much greater today than at any time in the past.

Although Indian Railways has been upgrading its infrastructure to newer technologies, constantly; most of the technology upgradation has happened in the functions of signalling, communications, and locomotives. In the functions of Disaster Management and Emergency Response, the use of new technologies has not been as widespread. This brief looks at how the Disaster Management/Emergency Response function can be made significantly more effective through the use of C4ISR solutions.

The ART in accident relief

The Indian Railways is fairly unique, compared to its international counterparts, in that rescue and relief work in the case of rail accidents are its responsibility, and not the responsibility of the local civil authorities. The Accident Relief Train (ART) and its successor, the Self-Propelled Accident Relief Train (SPART), play an important role in such rescue and relief operations.

Figure 1: Self-Propelled Accident Relief Train (SPART)
(Source: Rail Coach Factory, Kapurthala)

It is proposed that the addition of one more coach – containing equipment and personnel dedicated solely for tracking and managing, in real-time, multiples resources, agencies, and equipment – to the existing ART, will allow the railway authorities to better co-ordinate rescue and relief operations.

The C4ISR Coach

The proposed C4ISR Coach of the Indian Railways ART will be a standard AC sleeper coach, with two-thirds of the coach cleared off its fitments and furnishing. This section of the coach will be kitted with the furnishing and equipment to deliver Command & Control functionality to the rescue and relief operations.
   Furnishing:
The coach will be furnished to hold all the equipment necessary to run a Command & Control centre, to seat up to three operations personnel, and to host up to five officials connected with the rescue and relief operations.
a)    36U 19” Rack
Up to two racks will be fitted in the C4ISR coach, to mount electronic equipment (servers, video recorders, communications switches, network switches, and power protectors) in the coach. The racks will be mounted on shock-isolators to ensure that the equipment is protected from the vibrations and shocks when the ART is in motion.
b)    Operator Console & Chair
The C4ISR Coach will provide working facilities for up to three operations personnel, through a workstation console and chair. Each workstaion console can be fitted with up to two 30” LCD displays, a computer workstation, and standard accessories (keyboard, mouse, joystick/keypad, speakers, microphone, etc.). The consoles will provide network and power points for all equipment mounted on it. The consoles will be mounted on shock-isolators to ensure that the equipment is protected from the vibrations and shocks when the ART is in motion.
c)    Conference Table
Up to five visiting officials can be hosted around a Conference Table; each with her/his computing and communicating devices. The table will provide network and power points for all users. The table will also be fitted with video-conferencing equipment.
d)    Large TV display
A large TV display will be mounted on one side of the coach, to display content that needs to be viewed by all present in the C4ISR Coach.
e)    Electronic equipment storage space
All portable equipment (GPS devices, mobile computers, radio handsets, spare batteries, video surveillance cameras, other surveillance sensors) will be stored in designated areas. The storage facility will be mounted on shock-isolators to ensure that the equipment is protected from the vibrations and shocks when the ART is in motion.
f)    Files and documentation storage space
Space will be provided to store files, documents, software media, and content media.
g)    VSAT-Antenna Assembly
In case the ATR is not equipped with a VSAT terminal, a VSAT terminal exclusively for the use by the C4ISR Coach will be fitted in the coach. This assembly will be mechanically fitted at one of the coach exits, and will be rolled out and deployed whenever required. The VSAT unit will connect to the network backbone connecting all the electronic equipment in the coach.
h)    RF-Antenna Assembly
An optional RF-Antenna assembly may need to be deployed, depending on whether communications with HF, UHF, and VHF devices, as well as other wireless devices, is required. The RF-Antenna Assembly will support any or all of the above communications standards. This assembly too will be mechanically fitted at one of the coach exits and will be rolled out and deployed (typically using a mast), whenever required.
i)    UPS with batteries
Although power will be supplied by the ART, back-up power will be provided in the C4ISR Coach. A UPS of sufficient capacity with battery back-up for a couple of hours will be fitted in the coach.
   Equipment:
The core equipment fitted in the C4ISR coach will allow the rescue and relief team to gather information at and around the site in real-time, and to coordinate actions between various agencies.
a)    Communications Matrix module
The Communications Matrix module is a standard piece of hardware that will allow call-switching among multiple communications protocols: V/U/HF, Tetra, GSM, CDMA, UMTS, VoIP etc. Please refer the February 2011 issue of the Homeland Security Tech. Brief – Integrated Communications System – for more details.
b)    Automatic Resource Locator and GIS module
The Automatic Resource Locator and GIS module allows operators to track rescue and relief personnel in real-time all across the incident site, provided the personnel are equipped with GPS devices. More details are provided in the March 2011 issue of the Homeland Security Tech. Brief – Geo-Spatial Technologies In C4ISR Solutions For Homeland Security.
c)    Computer-Aided Despatch (CAD) module
The CAD module allows operators to receive and transmit information to and from different agencies, as well as assign tasks and responsibilties to various teams taking part in the rescue and relief operation.
d)    Surveillance Sensors
Surveillance sensors, carried in the C4ISR Coach, will allow the rescue and relief teams to gather detailed on-site information, that can be transmitted to a remote HQ for analysis. Such sensors can be wireless video surveillance cameras (fixed/PTZ, optic/thermal, video cameras), trace detectors, and scanners. The data from these sensors can be linked to the GIS module, thereby allowing officials sitting the C4ISR coach and those attending from remote locations to get a Common Operational Picture (COP) of the incident.

The schematic below visually describes the working of the C4ISR concept. Although it shows a motorised vehicle, the functionality can be integrated in the ART.



Figure 2: MC3S as Accident Relief Vehicle

Conclusion

The benefits of attaching a C4ISR Coach to an Indian Railways ART are:
   Enabling detailed and real-time information made available, at the incident site, allowing officials to view a Common Operational Picture of the operation and thereby plan an efficient operation
   Managing the response such that the multiple agencies and teams work in a co-ordinated manner and more effectively
   Allowing up-to-date information to be made available to customer-facing officials, so that only validated and approved information is released to the public

Mistral offers expertise in integrating C4ISR solutions on various platforms. It sells a range of Mobile C4ISR platforms, built on vehicles such as vans, LCVs, and containers. It can easily offer this expertise for Indian Railways too.
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http://mistral.co.in/newsite/hs-downloads/tech-briefs/mar11-article2.html

Geo-Spatial Technologies in C4ISR Solutions for Homeland Security (Part I)

As Applied To Border/Coastal Surveillance and Critical Infrastructure Protection
Introduction

With the increasing frequency and diverse nature of threats to the state, what previously used to take place as uncoordinated activities by different branches and chapters of law-enforcement agencies, is now consolidated under an architecture that allows disparate agencies and their chapters to gather specific and useful information, and share the same across a network of interested parties. This architecture, loosely termed Homeland Security is, today, seen as vital to the continued survival of the state.

Border/Coastal Surveillance

Unregulated borders and coastlines are the chinks in a nation’s homeland security armour. Smuggling (contraband and human trafficking), illegal immigration, and terrorism are the three threats, to a country’s security, most likely to exploit the porosity of unregulated borders and coastlines: think back to the “Mumbai: 26 November” attack, or think of the smuggling of contraband through the borders of Gujarat, Jammu & Kashmir, or Rajasthan. C4ISR Border/Coastal Surveillance Systems (B/CSS) seek to significantly reduce, if not eliminate, the incidence of such activities.

Homeland Security needs to leverage the technological advances and practices of the day, to keep pace with the increasing technological prowess of sources of threats; and the adoption of the C4ISR (Command, Control, Communications, Computing, and Intelligence, Security, Reconnaissance) concept, from military practice, provides Homeland Security the wherewithal to do so.

C4ISR can be thought of as a framework for organizing multi-media information emanating from a situation (typically a crisis), in a manner that enables non-local users to analyse such information (from multiple sources); act on that information or advise local players on actions to be taken; receive feedback from local players on actions taken; based on which a follow-up set of actions or advice can be initiated, towards the objective of resolving the situation to the advantage of the users. C4ISR systems make extensive use of technology:  especially geo-spatial technologies.

This article provides an overview of the geo-spatial technologies with respect to C4ISR solutions for unregulated Border/Coastal Surveillance and Critical Infrastructure Protection.

Operational Components

Before going into further details of the technologies used in C4ISR solutions, it would be useful to gain a perspective on the operational components of a C4ISR solution, as applied to Border/Coastal Surveillance (B/CSS) and Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP).

Critical Infrastructure Protection

Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) is the term used to refer to the systems and processes implemented to ensure that designated critical assets are protected from actions intended to curtail, seriously disrupt, or altogether prevent their functioning. A critical infrastructure need not refer only to physical assets of national importance (ports/airports, nuclear facilities, Parliament, etc.); it may refer to any asset (physical, virtual) considered by an organization (government, parastatal, or private), as vital to its functioning. A C4ISR CIP solution provides comprehensive cover to key infrastructure.



Figure 1: Operational Components of a C4ISR Solution

As can be seen from the above functional flow, there are four components of a C4ISR solution:

   Sensors (Remote Sensing)
   GPS
   GIS
   Command & Control Application

Sensors

Sensors are the eyes, ears, and skin of a surveillance network, and the effectiveness of the surveillance set-up in a particular environment is critically dependent on the type and specifications of the sensors employed in the network. How many times have we heard of a jewelry store heist where the surveillance footage was of little use because the resolution of the installed surveillance cameras was too low; because the lens used was not right; because the entrance-facing camera did not feature a WDR (Wide Dynamic Range) sensor or support BLC (Back-light Compensation).
There are a variety of sensor technologies in the market, and the schematic below lists many of the popular sensors technologies, their delivery platforms, and the communications fabric, with respect to B/CSS and CIP requirements.



Figure 2: Sensor Technologies and Delivery Platforms

Given this confusion of options, users typically apply the following thumb-rules when choosing among sensor technologies for specific situations:

   Implement a design comprising of layers of sensors, with each layer delivering an increasing resolution of the entity-under-surveillance, as it approaches a defined boundary: for example, radars may be employed to track entities at a distance of between 5 – 50 kilometres; long-range thermal cameras may be employed to track entities at a distance of between 1 – 5 kilometres; and high-resolution optical cameras may be employed to track entities at a distance of one kilometer and below.
   Each layer may be a mix of technologies, such that blind-spots in one technology are visible in another; and, such that counter-measures by the entity-under-surveillance do not render the entire surveillance layer dysfunctional: for example, in the case of surveillance on land, a mix of radars and vibration sensors may be implemented, in one layer, to preclude the possibility of the entity-under-surveillance evading observation by employing radar-masking techniques.
   Data from different sensor technologies can be combined to deliver a level of information significantly greater than can be provided by each of the individual technologies in isolation. This data fusion is typically handled at the application level (Command and Control application OR Sensor Management software).

Choosing a sensor technology will be a function of parameters such as cost (or budget), the potential entities-under-surveillance, surveillance range, the terrain of the area-under-surveillance, and the features to be captured (of the entities-under-surveillance). The following visual shows a range of sensors used in a typical CIP implementation.



Figure 3: A mix of sensors in a C4ISR solution

GPS

The second important geo-spatial component of a C4ISR solution is the device that allows user resources to be tracked in real-time, in terms of location and movement. All C4ISR solutions include a Blue Force Tracking (BFT) module.

Blue Force Tracking (BFT) is a United States military term used to denote a GPS-enabled system that provides military commanders and forces with location information about friendly (and despite its name, also about hostile) military forces. In military symbology, the colour blue is typically used to designate friendly forces while red is used for enemies, and green or yellow are used for neutral forces.

A BFT system, at its simplest, consists of a GPS device and a means for relaying the GPS information to a monitoring centre: a police patrol unit may have a VHF radio set with the GPS device integrated in the microphone, so that location information is transmitted to the monitoring centre at the touch of a button. More sophisticated BFT systems will allow relaying of mobile sensor data, providing additional information specific to the location, etc.; along with the transmission of the co-ordinates.

Depending on the terrain being traversed, the GPS device will need to support a level of sensitivity that will allow it to function at all times.

GPS Receiver Module


Built around the SiRf Star III chip, the GPS Receiver Module from Mistral is the world’s smallest high-sensitivity GPS module. The 20-channel GPS receiver is capable of giving accurate details of Location, Altitude, Velocity, and Direction.

This fully functional RF module receives spread spectrum signals from the MEO (Medium Earth Orbiting) satellites. It features a low-noise RF amplifier with sensitivity below -159dBm; and has the ability to withstand ESD up to 2000V.

The GPS module is PCB mountable, with a very small footprint; and can be easily integrated in a wide range of applications in the defense and consumer electronics segment. These include portable navigation, cellular phones and other communication equipment.
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Part II:

http://mistral.co.in/newsite/hs-downloads/tech-briefs/mar11-article3.html
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http://mistral.co.in/newsite/hs-solutions/citizen-security.html
Citizen Security

The past few years has seen significant changes in the role of police and emergency services in India. Terror-based threats, both home-grown and external groups, have put at risk the security of citizens of the country. The need of the hour is to address this challenge situation using a composite mix of technology, information and human interaction.

CitiSec, the range of Citizen Security solutions from Mistral, consists of solutions for ‘Safe City’ and Dial ‘100’ Emergency response that aid in law and order situations, conflicts with anti-national elements, disaster and emergency management. The solution is built around the C4ISR concept and aims at creating a command and control centre, which is the key centre for data collection and dissemination; ensuring information is communicated to relevant contact points in real-time.

CitiSec Solution

The solution is ideal for deployment by State Police, Traffic and Fire Departments, City Surveillance, Disaster/Emergency Management Departments.



Safe City

The Safe City solution from Mistral consists of a network of surveillance sensors, GIS and AVL; all seamlessly integrated to provide a public security system within cities. It consists of central command and control centre that pull live sensor feeds from public spaces, public transport systems and 3rd-party CCTV installations and provides them a complete picture of an event aiding in instant decision and action.

Dial 100

A sub-set of the Safe City solution, the Dial 100 solution from Mistral is an IP-based Police Control Room (PCR) solution that ensures speed and accuracy in call-Taking, information recording and resource deployment.

The Dial 100 solution is ideal for law and order control, accident relief and emergency response management situations which involve many people, rescue teams on the field, decision-makers at different levels of government and citizens.