Factbox: Chile has history of big earthquakes
Sat Feb 27, 2010 6:18am EST
(Reuters) - A magnitude 8.8-earthquake struck south-central Chile on Saturday, triggering a tsunami warning for Chile and Peru. At least 52 people were killed and officials said the death toll would likely rise further.
World | Natural Disasters
Chile, like other countries around the Pacific Rim's "ring of fire" earthquake zone, has a long history of major quakes, including the strongest recorded in recent history.
Here are some of the major quakes in Chilean history:1730 - 8.7 magnitude at central Valparaiso
1835 - 8.2 magnitude south-central Concepcion, 500 dead1868 - 9.0 magnitude in Arica, (then Peru), 25,000 dead1877 - 8.3 magnitude offshore northern Tarapaca, 34 dead
1906 - 8.2 magnitude at central Valparaiso, 3,882 dead1922 - 8.5 magnitude on Chile-Argentina border
1928 - 7.6 magnitude at Talca, 225 dead
1939 - 7.8 magnitude at Chillan, 28,000 dead
1943 - 8.2 magnitude near Illapel-Salamanca, 25 dead
1960 - 7.9 magnitude at Arauco Peninsula1960 - 9.5 magnitude at Valdivia, 1,655 dead
1965 - 7.0 magnitude at Taltal, 1 dead
1965 - 7.4 magnitude at La Ligua, 400 dead
1971 - 7.5 magnitude in Valparaiso region, 90 dead
1985 - 7.8 magnitude offshore Valparaiso, 177 dead
1998 - 7.1 magnitude near coast of northern Chile
2002 - 6.6 magnitude at Chile-Argentina border region
2003 - 6.8 magnitude near coast of central Chile
2004 - 6.6 magnitude near Bio-Bio, central Chile
2005 - 7.8 magnitude Tarapaca, northern Chile, 11 dead
2007 - 7.7 magnitude at Antofagasta, north Chile, 2 dead
2007 - 6.7 magnitude at Antofagasta
2008 - 6.3 magnitude at Tarapaca
2009 - 6.5 magnitude offshore Tarapaca
Source: U.S. Geological Survey (Compiled by Doina Chiacu)http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE61Q13I20100227
Sat Feb 27, 2010 2:50am EST
(Reuters) - A magnitude-8.3 earthquake struck south-central Chile early on Saturday, triggering a tsunami warning for Chile and Peru.
Here are some facts about Chile:
* In 1960, Chile was hit by the world's biggest earthquake in records dating back to 1900, U.S. Geological Survey data shows. The 9.5-magnitude quake devastated the south-central coastal city of Valdivia, killing 1,655 people and sending a tsunami that battered Easter Island, 2,300 miles off Chile's Pacific seaboard, and continued as far as Hawaii, Japan and the Philippines.
* Chile's chain of about 2,000 volcanoes is the world's second-largest after Indonesia, and is part of the Pacific "Ring of Fire" of seismic activity. Some 50 to 60 are on record as having erupted, and 500 are potentially active. The Chaiten volcano, 760 miles south of Santiago in the Patagonia region, erupted in May 2008 for the first time in thousands of years, spewing a plume of ash visible from space.
* Chile is one of the longest countries in the world, stretching around 2,700 miles from its northern desert border with Peru and Bolivia to South America's southern tip by Cape Horn, once a major world trade route.* Chile is the world's biggest producer of copper, its main export. It produces about 34 percent of world output of the metal, which is used in electronics, cars and refrigerators. Most of the mines are in the north.
* Dictator Augusto Pinochet ruled Chile with an iron fist for 17 years from a 1973 coup until 1990. Pinochet died in 2006 without facing full trial on rights abuses during his rule, when more than 3,000 people were killed or disappeared and an estimated 28,000 people were tortured.http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE61Q0U620100227
Factbox: Chile copper mines, oil refineries, ports hit by quake
Sat Feb 27, 2010 6:07pm EST
SANTIAGO (Reuters) - Up to one-fifth of Chile's copper mine capacity was shut on Saturday after the world's biggest producer was rocked by a huge magnitude-8.8 earthquake, but the facilities were undamaged and expected to resume operations quickly as power was restored.
The nation's oil refineries appeared to be at greater risk, with its largest plant located near the epicenter; both were forced to shut down for further investigation.
The central copper-export port of San Antonio was shut down, but the major northern ports of Antofagasta and Mejillones were unaffected, as were operations at the biggest copper deposits in the north.
Following are details on the impact to energy and mining operations after the earthquake that struck 70 miles northeast of Concepcion and about 200 miles south of Santiago.OIL REFINERIES
State energy firm ENAP shut down both its 116,000 barrel pre day (bpd) Bio Bio oil refinery, which is located just north of the city of Concepcion, as well as its roughly 100,000 bpd Aconcagua refinery near the capital.
Mining Minister Santiago Gonzalez told Reuters it would take until Sunday to assess the damage to Bio Bio. ENAP said it would need to increase diesel imports to meet demand. It said it had sufficient gasoline stocks to last two weeks and diesel stocks for 10 days.MAJOR COPPER MINES AND SMELTERS
With almost all major copper producers confirming their status after the quake, operations at mines producing over 1 million metric tons a year -- near one-fifth of the country's total 5.4 million metric tons last year -- had been suspended by the quake, but they appeared undamaged.
Officials confirmed that the two biggest mines in the far north -- Escondida and Chuquicamata -- were unaffected.
State-run Codelco said only its El Teniente and Andina mines were impacted because of electricity cuts after the quake, but they were otherwise undamaged. El Teniente is the world's biggest underground copper mine with output of 404,000 metric tons in 2009.
Gonzalez said Codelco's 435,000 metric tons per year Caletones smelter had been halted, and that it could take two days for the mines to resume production.
A spokesman for Anglo-American (AAL.L) said it had shut its Los Bronces and El Soldado mines, which together produce around 280,000 metric tons of copper annually. It has been planning to expand the 238,400 metric tons per year Los Bronces deposit, one of the world's biggest.
Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc (FCX.N) said the quake did not damage its two mines, but it is facing a power outage at its Candelaria mine, which will result in a temporary shutdown.SMALLER MINERS REPORT NO DAMAGE
Smaller miners reported little impact. Barrick Gold Corp (ABX.TO), Kinross Gold Corp (K.TO) and Breakwater (BWR.TO) said its mines had not been affected. Teck Resources Ltd (TCKb.TO) said the quake had not impacted its Andacollo and Quebrada mines, though they could still be hit by power supply restrictions.SMALLER PORTS SHUT
The Chilean copper-exporting port of San Antonio is closed, Denis Yanez, leader of a union federation representing port workers, told Reuters.
But the key copper-exporting ports of Antofagasta and Mejillones were operating normally, said Christian Salfate, union leader at Antofagasta.
Here is an overview of major mines and smelters in Chile:Mine Location Operator Output Status KM Dist from ConcepcionEl Teniente
75km S of Santiago Codelco 404,000 ops suspend 240Andina
50km NE of Santiago Codelco 210,000 ops suspend 320Los Bronces
65km NE of Santiago Anglo-American 235,000 shut 335El Soldado
132km N of Santiago Anglo-American 50,000 shut 400Los Pelambres
200km NE of SantiagoAntofagasta 310,000 n/a 480Candelaria
FreeportMcMoRan185,000 power outage 650Escondida
far north BHP Billiton 780,000 ops normal 750Collahuasi
far north Xstrata/Anglo 435,000 ops normal 1,000Chuquicamata
far north Codelco 565,000 ops normal 1,140Top smelters Near Operator Capacity Status KM Dist from Concepcion
Caletones El Teniente Codelco 435,000 halted 250
Potrerillos Codelco 195,000 ops normal 750
Altonorte Antofagasta Port Xstrata 268,014 n/a 926
Chuquicamata Chuquicamata Codelco 590,130 ops normal 1,140
* Status as of 1700 GMT on Saturday from Reuters reports.
* Output as of 2009 from Metals Production Database; Teniente/Andina output as of 2009 from company; Bronces/Soldado output as of 2008 from company Website.
* Location is based on company information, public data
* Distance best estimate using company data, Google Mapshttp://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE61Q2YV20100227