Elections, Referendums and Politics > Al Gore

Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin

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It is very interesting to see who all these guys pal around with check it out, G.B.H. Bush, Lee Hamilton, they are all connected by a common Green coin, isn't it interesting?

Green Cross International

Link : http://www.gorby.ru/en/

About Us    
The Gorbachev Foundation
The International Foundation for Socio-Economic and Political Studies (The Gorbachev Foundation) was founded by Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, former President of the USSR, in December 1991. The Gorbachev Foundation started its work in January 1992.
President of the Gorbachev Foundation: Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
Vice-President: Irina Mikhailovna Gorbacheva-Virganskaya.
The Gorbachev Foundation is an international non-governmental non-profit organization. Legal entities and individuals from any country may take part in the Foundation’s activities in a voluntary capacity. The Gorbachev Foundation has developed links of close cooperation with leading universities, foundations, government bodies and non-governmental organizations in various countries all over the world.
The Gorbachev Foundation is one of the first independent think tanks in modern Russia. It conducts research into social, economic and political problems of critical importance at the current stage in Russian and world history. The Foundation seeks to promote democratic values as well as moral and humanist principles in the life of society.
The Foundation’s conceptual framework is based on the belief that in the age of globalization Russia and the rest of the world need new thinking – a new interpretation of the ideas of progress and humanism and evolving principles for a more equitable world order. The Foundation facilitates open-minded dialogue among experts and the public and wants to apply research findings for the benefit of civil society’s development and to help educate a new generation of scholars and politicians.
The keynote of the Foundation’s activities is Toward a New Civilization.
Main Areas of Activity
Since the Foundation’s inception its research work has focused on several areas, including global problems, economic development and social problems in Russia and in the world, the European process, the history of Perestroika in the USSR, and Russia’s recent history.
The Foundation has held a number of international and national conferences, seminars and Round Tables and published monographs and papers based on its research findings. Reports prepared by the Foundation have been submitted to the United Nations and other international organizations as well as to heads of states and governments, parliaments, heads of major corporations, and political, spiritual and opinion leaders. These reports, such as Global Security (prepared in cooperation with the Gorbachev Foundation/USA and the Rajiv Gandhi Foundation in 1994), Russia’s National Interests and Security Problems (1997, in Russian) and Russia’s Self-Identification in a Globalizing World, Perestroika: Twenty Years Later (2005, in Russian) and Social Inequality and Public Policy (2006, in Russian) have been well received by political leaders and the academic community.
Over the years of the Foundation’s existence its President and research fellows have published dozens of books and brochures and hundreds of articles in periodicals across the world.
Mikhail Gorbachev travels extensively in Russia and abroad attending international conferences, giving lectures and talks and meeting with young people, students, prominent political and public figures, members of parliament and representatives of the United Nations and other international organizations. The themes of his talks and lectures include problems of globalization and international security, combating poverty and backwardness, environmental challenges including the preservation of the planet’s water resources, economic cooperation, the future of democratic Russia, prospects of European unity, and others.
The former President of the Soviet Union and the Foundation’s researchers have given hundreds of lectures to various audiences. The Gorbachev Foundation has become a significant element in Russia’s emerging civil society. Among the participants in its research projects are respected scholars and researchers from Russia, other CIS states, the United States, Canada, Japan, Germany, France, Spain, and other countries.
The Gorbachev Foundation attaches particular importance to humanitarian and charitable projects, a tradition which the Gorbachev family did much to revive and promote in Russia. While doing what it can to help patients in need of treatment and Russian medical institutions, the Foundation’s main emphasis has been on children’s health. The Foundation has given critically important help to Russia’s Research Institute of Pediatric Hematology to buy medical equipment and supplies, train physicians and medical personnel and implement advanced techniques to cure blood diseases. With direct financial support from the Foundation and its partners, the first Bone Marrow Transplantation Center for children with leukemia was established in Moscow, with several other similar centers in other regions of Russia.
Overall, the Gorbachev Foundation has channeled over $10 million to various humanitarian programs. In raising the money the Gorbachev Foundation has relied on the support of its partners, including the American Cancer Society, the charitable organizations in the United States and Germany, and individual philanthropists.
Raising funds to finance the construction of Raisa Gorbachev Center for Children’s Hematology and Marrow Transplantation in St. Petersburg has been the top priority in the Foundation’s charitable activities since 2002.
In 2006 the Raisa Gorbachev International Foundation was established in London with the support of the Gorbachev Foundation, the Gorbachev family, and Alexander Lebedev, member of the Russian State Duma and President of Charitable Reserve Fund. The Foundation will finance projects aimed at combating childhood leukemia and cancer and, as a priority, financing the construction of the Raisa Gorbachev Center for Children’s Hematology and Marrow Transplantation in St. Petersburg.
The Foundation Projects and Structural Subdivisions
The Foundation’s priority project during the 1990s was The Global World of the XXI Century: Challenges and Responses. A group of Russian and foreign scholars united under the auspices of the Gorbachev Foundation, with Mikhail Gorbachev’s personal participation and under his general guidance, conducted a three-year study of the process of globalization, including its philosophical, socio-cultural, environmental, political and economic aspects and the problems of global security. A sub-project Russia in the Emerging Global System explored various factors affecting Russia’s development, its place and role in the future world order and in the resolution of global problems. A fundamental monograph, Facets of Globalization, based on the project’s findings was published in 2003 and became one of the first attempts in Russia to provide a general overview of the problem. The Foundation continues its studies of globalization within the project Globalization and World Politics.
The University of Calgary – the Gorbachev Foundation (UCGF), a Russian-Canadian project, was launched in 1993 with the aim of promoting democratic reforms in Russian society. During the subsequent years, with support from Canadian International Development Agency, over 40 projects were carried out in Moscow and in various regions of the Russian Federation. Each of them addressed specific public policy issues in the economy, the social sphere, culture, education, relations between the state and civil society and between Russia’s federal and regional authorities, and gender and information problems. The studies’ findings were discussed at numerous Round Tables, seminars and conferences and have been the basis for published monographs and collected articles. The project’s decennary was summarized in the monograph Russia’s Public Policy (2005)
Documentary History of Perestroika is a project devoted to the historical and archival reconstruction of Perestroika’s concept and its implementation. The study is based on the notes that Gorbachev’s assistants were taking at meetings of the Politburo of the Communist Party Central Committee. The books The Politburo Meetings: Notes Taken by Anatoly Chernyayev, Vadim Medvedev, Georgi Shakhnazarov (1985-1991), Mikhail Gorbachev and the German Question, and The Union Could Have Been Preserved have been published as part of this project.
Present-day activities of the former USSR President are covered in the project Mikhail Gorbachev After the Kremlin: a Record of Events and Socio-Political Activities.
The purpose of the Expertise Round Table is to analyze major trends in world politics. Discussion sessions (“brainstorming”) have been held as part of this project with prominent Russian experts participating. Round Table discussions are followed by the preparation of papers reflecting the range of opinions on the issues debated.
The Gorbachev Readings project focuses on Russia’s recent history. The project is being developed on the basis of the Gorbachev Foundation’s archive and library containing unique records of the period of Perestroika and extensive material on the subsequent period. The Gorbachev Readings include discussions of the origin and development of democratic changes in Russia, its changing position in contemporary world and the emergence of civil society. These discussions serve an educational purpose, helping to shape public opinion on the historical significance of democratic changes initiated during the years Perestroika and publicize the results of research conducted in Russia and abroad. Scholars from Russia and other countries, public and political figures and journalists have taken part in the Readings. Discussion materials are published in the yearly collections The Gorbachev Readings.
The Raisa Maximovna Club, launched by Raisa Gorbachev in 1997, supports initiatives that advance civil society’s influence in Russia and is an effort to actively involve women in this process. The Club holds discussions, scholarly and practical conferences and conducts research and charity projects. The Club was among the first forums to open public debate on many urgent problems of today’s Russia, such as neglected children, worsening of social and domestic violence, gender inequality and restrictions on women’s participation in public policy-making, the crisis of the education system, obstacles to charitable activities, and difficulties faced by social journalism. The Club’s charitable activities are mainly aimed to help parentless children. Scholars, political and public figures, journalists, and public organizations’ representatives have participated in the events organized by the Club. As a result of these conferences, numerous articles and interviews were published as well as eight books of collected works and monographs.
The Public Affairs Center is a structural unit of the Gorbachev Foundation working to study and preserve the heritage of Perestroika as well as to organize public debate forums and implement projects that advance civil society and promote democratic reforms in Russia.
The Center has three work priorities: research and information (the archive and library complex), education (the exhibit Mikhail Gorbachev: Life and Reforms), and public discussions (convening conferences and Round Tables).
The Archive’s main stock is composed of print, electronic and audiovisual content reflecting the activities of Mikhail Gorbachev as well as major events in Russia’s recent socio-political history. These resources are based on materials donated by the Gorbachev family and their close associates and the Gorbachev Foundation’s materials. The Archive contains more than 30,000 items, including materials donated by Mikhail Gorbachev Anatoly Chernyayev, Vadim Zagladin, Georgi Shakhnazarov, Vadim Medvedev, as well as the Gorbachev Foundation’s documents. The archive also has a unique collection of over 20,000 photographs.
The Library contains about 6,000 books, brochures and articles in Russian and in foreign languages as well as publications on Perestroika and Mikhail Gorbachev’s activities in keeping with the research areas of the Foundation. The library’s reading room is open to researchers and holds regular displays of books and articles issued by Russian and foreign publishers.
On March 11, 2005 the Gorbachev Foundation held an opening ceremony of its permanent exhibit Mikhail Gorbachev: Life and Reforms aimed at demonstrating the unique experience of Perestroika and its dramatic complexity. Rare documents from personal archives of Mikhail Gorbachev and his associates collected in the Gorbachev Foundation testify to the spirit and realities of the time of Perestroika.
The exhibit’s two rooms display over 300 items, including authentic documents and artifacts, well-know and unknown photos, medals, awards and gifts given to Mikhail and Raisa Gorbachev, as well as papers, books and posters that date back to years of Perestroika. Explanatory texts in the display come from Mikhail Gorbachev’s 1995 book Life and Reforms, which is now out of print.
The exhibit Mikhail Gorbachev: Life and Reforms is the Gorbachev Foundation’s contribution to the study of Russia’s contemporary history. The main purpose of the display is to educate the younger generation of Russians about the period of Perestroika, its main architect and its principal actors, and to provide insights into the true history of the country.
The exhibit’s concept was developed by Irina Gorbacheva-Virganskaya, the Vice President of the Gorbachev Foundation, and designed by Alexei Litvin, Armen Sargsian and Yulia Lombroso     


Link : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikhail_Gorbachev

Mikhail Gorbachev
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Mikhail Gorbachev
Михаил Горбачёв  

Gorbachev in 1986


President of the Soviet Union
In office
15 March 1990 – 25 December 1991
Prime Minister Nikolai Ryzhkov
Valentin Pavlov
Ivan Silayev
Vice President Gennady Yanayev
Preceded by Andrei Gromyko
Succeeded by Office abolished


General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
In office
11 March 1985 – 24 August 1991
Preceded by Konstantin Chernenko
Succeeded by Vladimir Ivashko (Acting)


12th Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union
In office
1 October 1988 – 25 May 1989
Prime Minister Nikolai Tikhonov
Nikolai Ryzhkov


1st Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union
In office
25 May 1989 – 15 March 1990
Preceded by himself as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Succeeded by Anatoly Lukyanov as Parliament Speaker himself as Head of State as President of the Soviet Union


Member of Politburo
In office
1980 – 1991

Born 2 March 1931 (1931-03-02) (age 78)
Privolnoye, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Political party Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1950–1991)
Social Democratic Party of Russia (2001–2004)
Union of Social Democrats (2007-present)
Independent Democratic Party of Russia (2008-present)
Spouse(s) Raisa Gorbachyova (d. 1999)
Alma mater Moscow State University
Profession Lawyer
Religion Atheist
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian:  Михаил Сергеевич Горбачёв (help·info), IPA [mʲɪxɐˈil sʲɪrˈɡʲeɪvʲɪtɕ ɡərbɐˈtɕof]; born 2 March 1931) was the second-to-last General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, serving from 1985 until 1991, and the last head of state of the USSR, serving from 1988 until its collapse in 1991. He was the only Soviet leader to have been born after the October Revolution of 1917.

Gorbachev was born in Stavropol Krai into a peasant family, and in his teens operated combine harvesters on collective farms. He graduated from Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law. While in college, he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and soon became very active within it. In 1970, he was appointed the First Party Secretary of the Stavropol Kraikom, First Secretary to the Supreme Soviet in 1974, and appointed a member of Politburo in 1979. After the deaths, within three years, of Soviet Leaders Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov, and Konstantin Chernenko, Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by Politburo in 1985. Already before he reached the post, he had occasionally been mentioned in western newspapers as a likely next leader and a man of the younger generation at the top level.

Gorbachev's attempts at reform as well as summit conferences with United States President Ronald Reagan and his reorientation of Soviet strategic aims contributed to the end of the Cold War, ended the political supremacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990.

In September 2008 Gorbachev and billionaire Alexander Lebedev announced they would form the Independent Democratic Party of Russia together,[1] and in May 2009 Gorbachev announced that the launch was imminent.[2] This is Gorbachev's third attempt to establish a political party of significance in Russian politics after having started the Social Democratic Party of Russia in 2001 and the Union of Social-Democrats in 2007.[3]

Contents [hide]
1 Early life
2 Marriage and family
3 Rise in the Communist Party
4 General Secretary of the CPSU
4.1 Domestic reforms
4.1.1 Perestroika
4.1.2 Glasnost
4.2 Foreign engagements
4.3 Collapse of the Soviet Union
4.3.1 Crisis of the Union, 1990-91
4.3.2 The August 1991 coup
4.3.3 Aftermath of the coup and the final collapse
5 Activities after resignation
6 Call for global restructuring
7 Honours and accolades
8 Religious affiliation
9 Naevus flammeus
10 See also
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links

[edit] Early life
 This section requires expansion.

Gorbachev was born on 2 March 1931 in Stavropol, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union into a peasant family, and in his teens operated combine harvesters on collective farms. He graduated from Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law. While in college, he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and soon became very active within it.

[edit] Marriage and family
Gorbachev met his future wife Raisa Titarenko at Moscow State University. They married in September 1953 and moved to Stavropol upon graduation. She gave birth to their only child, daughter Irina Mihailovna Virganskaya (Ири́на Миха́йловна Вирга́нская), in 1957. Raisa Gorbachev died of leukemia in 1999.[4]

[edit] Rise in the Communist Party
Gorbachev visiting a pig farm in East Germany, 1966Gorbachev attended the important twenty-second Party Congress in October 1961, where Nikita Khrushchev announced a plan to surpass the U.S. in per capita production within twenty years. At this point in his life, Gorbachev would rise in the Communist League hierarchy and worked his way up through territorial leagues of the party. He was promoted to Head of the Department of Party Organs in the Stavropol Agricultural Kraikom in 1963.[5] In 1970, he was appointed First Party Secretary of the Stavropol Kraikom, a body of the CPSU, becoming one of the youngest provincial party chiefs in the nation.[5] In this position he helped reorganise the collective farms, improve workers' living conditions, expand the size of their private plots, and give them a greater voice in planning.[5] He was soon made a member of the Communist Party Central Committee in 1971. Three years later, in 1974, he was made a Representative to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, and Chairman of the Standing Commission on Youth Affairs. He was subsequently appointed to the Central Committee's Secretariat for Agriculture in 1978, replacing Fyodor Kulakov, who had supported Gorbachev's appointment, after Kulakov died of a heart attack.[5][6] In 1979, Gorbachev was promoted to the Politburo, the highest authority in the country, and received full membership in 1980. Gorbachev owed his steady rise to power to the patronage of Mikhail Suslov, the powerful chief ideologist of the CPSU.[7]

During Yuri Andropov's tenure as General Secretary (1982–1984), Gorbachev became one of the Politburo's most visible and active members.[7] With responsibility over personnel, working together with Andropov, 20 percent of the top echelon of government ministers and regional governors were replaced, often with younger men. During this time Grigory Romanov, Nikolai Ryzhkov and Yegor Ligachev were elevated, the latter two working closely with Gorbachev, Ryzhkov on economics, Ligachev on personnel.[8][page needed] Gorbachev's positions within the CPSU created more opportunities to travel abroad and this would profoundly affect his political and social views in the future as leader of the country. In 1972, he headed a Soviet delegation to Belgium,[5] and three years later he led a delegation to West Germany; in 1983 he headed a delegation to Canada to meet with Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and members of the Commons and Senate. In 1984, he travelled to the United Kingdom, where he met British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.

Upon Andropov's death in 1984, the aged Konstantin Chernenko took power; after his death the following year, it became clear to the party hierarchy that younger leadership was needed.[9] Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by Politburo on 11 March 1985, only three hours after Chernenko's death. Upon his accession at age 54, he was the youngest member of Politburo.[7]

[edit] General Secretary of the CPSU
Mikhail Gorbachev became the Party's first leader to have been born after the Revolution. As de facto ruler of the USSR, he tried to reform the stagnating Party and the state economy by introducing glasnost ("openness"), perestroika ("restructuring"), demokratizatsiya ("democratization"), and uskoreniye ("acceleration" of economic development), which were launched at the 27th Congress of the CPSU in February 1986.

[edit] Domestic reforms
Gorbachev's primary goal as General Secretary was to revive the Soviet economy after the stagnant Brezhnev years.[7] In 1985, he announced that the Soviet economy was stalled and that reorganization was needed. Gorbachev proposed a "vague programme of reform", which was adopted at the April Plenum of the Central Committee.[6] He called for increased industrial and agricultural productivity, fast-paced technological modernization, and attempted to reform the Soviet bureaucracy to be more efficient and prosperous.[7] Gorbachev soon realised that fixing the Soviet economy would be near-impossible without reforming the political and social structure of the Communist nation.[10] Gorbachev also initiated the concept of gospriyomka ("approval") during his time as leader[11], which represented state approval of goods in an effort to maintain quality control and combat inferior manufacturing.[12]

He made a speech in May 1985 in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) advocating widespread reforms. The reforms began in personnel changes; the most notable change was the replacement of Andrei Gromyko as Minister of Foreign Affairs with Eduard Shevardnadze. Gromyko, disparaged as "Mr Nyet" in the West, had served for 28 years as Minister of Foreign Affairs and was considered an 'old thinker'. Robert D. English notes that, despite Shevardnadze's diplomatic inexperience, Gorbachev "shared with him an outlook" and experience in managing an agricultural region of the Soviet Union (Georgia), which meant that both had weak links to the powerful military-industrial complex.[13]

A number of reformist ideas were discussed by Politburo members. One of the first reforms Gorbachev introduced was the anti-alcohol campaign, begun in May 1985, which was designed to fight widespread alcoholism in the Soviet Union. Prices of vodka, wine and beer were raised, and their sales were restricted. It was pursued vigorously and cut both alcohol sales and government revenue.[14] It was a serious blow to the state budget–a loss of approximately 100 billion rubles according to Alexander Yakovlev–after alcohol production migrated to the black market economy. The program proved to be a useful symbol for change in the country, however.[14] The reduction in sales greatly expanded the purchasing power of the Soviet citizens, as alcohol was very expensive.[14]

[edit] Perestroika
Gorbachev at the Brandenburg Gate in 1986 during a visit to East GermanyGorbachev initiated his new policy of perestroika and its attendant radical reforms in 1986; they were sketched, but not fully spelled out, at the XXVIIth Party Congress in February-March 1986. The new policy of "reconstruction" was introduced in an attempt to overcome the economic stagnation by creating a dependable and effective mechanism for accelerating economic and social progress.[15] According to Gorbachev, perestroika was the "conference of development of democracy, socialist self-government, encouragement of initiative and creative endeavor, improved order and disciple, more glasnost, criticism and self-criticism in all spheres of our society. It is utmost respect for the individual and consideration for personal dignity."[15]

Domestic changes continued apace. In a bombshell speech during Armenian SSR's Central Committee Plenum of the Communist Party the young First Secretary of Armenia's Hrazdan Regional Communist Party, Hayk Kotanjian, criticised rampant corruption in the Armenian Communist Party's highest echelons, implicating Armenian SSR Communist Party First Secretary Karen Demirchyan and calling for his resignation. Symbolically, intellectual Andrei Sakharov was invited to return to Moscow by Gorbachev in December 1986 after six years of internal exile in Gorky. During the same month, however, signs of the nationalities problem that would haunt the later years of the Soviet Union surfaced as riots, named Jeltoqsan, occurred in Kazakhstan after Dinmukhamed Kunayev was replaced as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan.

The Central Committee Plenum in January 1987 would see the crystallisation of Gorbachev's political reforms, including proposals for multi-candidate elections and the appointment of non-Party members to government positions. He also first raised the idea of expanding co-operatives at the plenum. Economic reforms took up much of the rest of 1987, as a new law giving enterprises more independence was passed in June and Gorbachev released a book, Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World, in November, elucidating his main ideas for reform. In 1987 he rehabilitated many opponents of Stalin, another part of the De-Stalinization, which began in 1956, when Lenin's Testament was published.

[edit] Glasnost
Gorbachev with Erich Honecker, GDR.1988 would see Gorbachev's introduction of glasnost, which gave new freedoms to the people, including greater freedom of speech. This was a radical change, as control of speech and suppression of government criticism had previously been a central part of the Soviet system. The press became far less controlled, and thousands of political prisoners and many dissidents were released. Gorbachev's goal in undertaking glasnost was to pressure conservatives within the CPSU who opposed his policies of economic restructuring, and he also hoped that through different ranges of openness, debate and participation, the Soviet people would support his reform initiatives. At the same time, he opened himself and his reforms up for more public criticism, evident in Nina Andreyeva's critical letter in a March edition of Sovetskaya Rossiya.[6] Gorbachev acknowledged that his liberalising policies of glasnost and perestroika owed a great deal to Alexander Dubček's "Socialism with a human face".

The Law on Cooperatives enacted in May 1988 was perhaps the most radical of the economic reforms during the early part of the Gorbachev era. For the first time since Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy, the law permitted private ownership of businesses in the service, manufacturing, and foreign-trade sectors. The law initially imposed high taxes and employment restrictions, although these were ignored by some SSRs. Later the restrictions were revised to avoid discouraging private-sector activity. Under the provision for private ownership, cooperative restaurants, shops, and manufacturers became part of the Soviet scene. Under the new law, the restructuring of large 'All-Union' industrial organisations also began. Aeroflot, was split up eventually becoming several independent airlines. These newly autonomous business organisations were encouraged to seek foreign investment.

In June 1988, at the CPSU's Party Conference, Gorbachev launched radical reforms meant to reduce party control of the government apparatus. He proposed a new executive in the form of a presidential system, as well as a new legislative element, to be called the Congress of People's Deputies.[6] Elections to the Congress of People's Deputies were held throughout the Soviet Union in March and April 1989. This was the first free election in the Soviet Union since 1917. Gorbachev became Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (or head of state) on 25 May 1989. On 15 March 1990, Gorbachev was elected as the first executive President of the Soviet Union[6] with 59% of the Deputies' votes being an unopposed candidate. The Congress met for the first time on 25 May in order to elect representatives from Congress to sit on the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. Nonetheless, the Congress posed problems for Gorbachev; its sessions were televised, airing more criticism and encouraging people to expect ever more rapid reform. In the elections, many Party candidates were defeated. Furthermore, Boris Yeltsin was elected in Moscow and returned to political prominence to become an increasingly vocal critic of Gorbachev.[6]

[edit] Foreign engagements
Gorbachev meets with Romanian leader Nicolae Ceauşescu, 1985In contrast to his controversial domestic reforms, Gorbachev was largely hailed in the West for his 'New Thinking' in foreign affairs. During his tenure, he sought to improve relations and trade with the West by reducing Cold War tensions. He established close relationships with several Western leaders, such as West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, U.S. President Ronald Reagan, and British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher - who famously remarked: "I like Mr Gorbachev, we can do business together".[16]

Gorbachev understood the link between achieving international détente and domestic reform and thus began extending 'New Thinking' abroad immediately. On 8 April 1985, he announced the suspension of the deployment of SS-20s in Europe as a move towards resolving intermediate-range nuclear weapons (INF) issues. Later that year, in September, Gorbachev proposed that the Soviets and Americans both cut their nuclear arsenals in half. He went to France on his first trip abroad as Soviet leader in October. November saw the Geneva Summit between Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan. Though no concrete agreement was made, Gorbachev and Reagan struck a personal relationship and decided to hold further meetings.[6]

January 1986 would see Gorbachev make his boldest international move so far, when he announced his proposal for the elimination of intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe and his strategy for eliminating all nuclear weapons by the year 2000 (often referred to as the 'January Proposal'). He also began the process of withdrawing troops from Afghanistan and Mongolia on 28 July.[6] Nonetheless, many observers, such as Jack F. Matlock Jr. (despite generally praising Gorbachev as well as Reagan), have criticised Gorbachev for taking too long to achieve withdrawal from the Afghanistan War, citing it as an example of lingering elements of 'old thinking' in Gorbachev.[17]

On 11 October 1986, Gorbachev and Reagan met in Reykjavík, Iceland to discuss reducing intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe. To the immense surprise of both men's advisers, the two agreed in principle to removing INF systems from Europe and to equal global limits of 100 INF missile warheads. They also essentially agreed in principle to eliminate all nuclear weapons in 10 years (by 1996), instead of by the year 2000 as in Gorbachev's original outline.[17] Continuing trust issues, particularly over reciprocity and Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), meant that the summit is often regarded as a failure for not producing a concrete agreement immediately, or for leading to a staged elimination of nuclear weapons. In the long term, nevertheless, this would culminate in the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in 1987, after Gorbachev had proposed this elimination on 22 July 1987 (and it was subsequently agreed on in Geneva on 24 November).[6]

In February, 1988, Gorbachev announced the full withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan. The withdrawal was completed the following year, although the civil war continued as the Mujahedin pushed to overthrow the pro-Soviet Najibullah regime. An estimated 28,000 Soviets were killed between 1979 and 1989 as a result of the Afghanistan War.

Gorbachev in one-on-one discussions with ReaganAlso during 1988, Gorbachev announced that the Soviet Union would abandon the Brezhnev Doctrine, and allow the Eastern bloc nations to freely determine their own internal affairs. Jokingly dubbed the "Sinatra Doctrine" by Gorbachev's Foreign Ministry spokesman Gennadi Gerasimov, this policy of non-intervention in the affairs of the other Warsaw Pact states proved to be the most momentous of Gorbachev's foreign policy reforms. In his 6 July 1989 speech arguing for a "common European home" before the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, France, Gorbachev declared: "The social and political order in some countries changed in the past, and it can change in the future too, but this is entirely a matter for each people to decide. Any interference in the internal affairs, or any attempt to limit the sovereignty of another state, friend, ally, or another, would be inadmissible."

Moscow's abandonment of the Brezhnev Doctrine led to a string of counter-revolutions in Eastern Europe throughout 1989, in which Communism was overthrown. By the end of 1989, revolts had spread from one Eastern European capital to another, ousting the regimes built on Eastern Europe after World War II. With the exception of Romania, the popular upheavals against the pro-Soviet Communist regimes were all peaceful ones. (See Revolutions of 1989) The loosening of Soviet hegemony over Eastern Europe effectively ended the Cold War, and for this, Gorbachev was awarded the Otto Hahn Peace Medal in Gold in 1989 and the Nobel Peace Prize on 15 October 1990.

The rest of 1989 was taken up by the increasingly problematic nationalities question and the dramatic collapse of the Eastern Bloc. Despite international détente reaching unprecedented levels, with the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan completed in January and U.S.-Soviet talks continuing between Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush, domestic reforms were suffering from increasing divergence between reformists, who criticised the pace of change, and conservatives, who criticised the extent of change. Gorbachev states that he tried to find the middle ground between both groups, but this would draw more criticism towards him.[6] The story from this point on moves away from reforms and becomes one of the nationalities question and the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union.

On 9 November, people in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany, GDR) broke down the Berlin Wall after a peaceful protest against the country's dictatorial administration, including a demonstration by some one million people in East Berlin on 4 November. Unlike earlier riots which were ended by military force with the help of USSR, Gorbachev, who came to be lovingly called "Gorby" in West Germany, now decided not to interfere with the process in Germany.[18] He stated that German reunification was an internal German matter.

Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush, 1990Coit D. Blacker wrote in 1990 that the Soviet leadership "appeared to have believed that whatever loss of authority the Soviet Union might suffer in Eastern Europe would be more than offset by a net increase in its influence in Western Europe."[19] Nevertheless, it is unlikely that Gorbachev ever intended for the complete dismantling of Communism in the Warsaw Pact countries. Rather, Gorbachev assumed that the Communist parties of Eastern Europe could be reformed in a similar way to the reforms he hoped to achieve in the CPSU. Just as perestroika was aimed at making the USSR more efficient economically and politically, Gorbachev believed that the Comecon and Warsaw Pact could be reformed into more effective entities. Alexander Yakovlev, a close advisor to Gorbachev, would later state that it would have been "absurd to keep the system" in Eastern Europe. In contrast to Gorbachev, Yakovlev had come to the conclusion that the Soviet-dominated Comecon was inherently unworkable and that the Warsaw Pact had "no relevance to real life."[20]

[edit] Collapse of the Soviet Union
Main article: Collapse of the Soviet Union
While Gorbachev's political initiatives were positive for freedom and democracy in the Soviet Union and its Eastern bloc allies, the economic policy of his government gradually brought the country close to disaster. By the end of the 1980s, severe shortages of basic food supplies (meat, sugar) led to the reintroduction of the war-time system of distribution using food cards that limited each citizen to a certain amount of product per month. Compared to 1985, the state deficit grew from 0 to 109 billion rubles; gold funds decreased from 2,000 to 200 tons; and external debt grew from 0 to 120 billion dollars.

Furthermore, the democratisation of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe had irreparably undermined the power of the CPSU and Gorbachev himself. The relaxation of censorship and attempts to create more political openness had the unintended effect of re-awakening long-suppressed nationalist and anti-Russian feelings in the Soviet republics. Calls for greater independence from Moscow's rule grew louder, especially in the Baltic republics of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia which had been annexed into the Soviet Union by Stalin in 1940. Nationalist feeling also took hold in Georgia, Ukraine, Armenia and Azerbaijan.

In December 1986, the first signs of the nationalities problem that would haunt the later years of the Soviet Union's existence surfaced as riots, named Jeltoqsan, occurred in Alma Ata and other areas of Kazakhstan after Dinmukhamed Kunayev was replaced as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan. Nationalism would then surface in Russia in May 1987, as 600 members of Pamyat, a nascent Russian nationalist group, demonstrated in Moscow and were becoming increasingly linked to Boris Yeltsin, who received their representatives at a meeting.[6]

Glasnost hastened awareness of the national sovereignty problem. The free flow of information had been so completely suppressed for so long in the Soviet Union that many of the ruling class had all but forgotten that the Soviet Union was an empire conquered through military force and consolidated by the persecution of millions of people, and not a union voluntarily entered into by local populations. Thus, the extremity of local desire for independent control of their own affairs took these leaders by surprise, and the leaders were unprepared for the depth of the long pent-up feelings that were released.

Violence erupted in Nagorno-Karabakh - an Armenian-populated enclave within Azerbaijan - between February and April, when Armenians living in the area began a new wave of protests over the arbitrary transfer of the historically Armenian region from Armenia to Azerbaijan in 1920 upon Joseph Stalin's decision.[21] Gorbachev imposed a temporary solution, but it did not last, as fresh trouble arose in Nagorno-Karabakh between June and July. Turmoil would once again return in late 1988, this time in Armenia itself, when the Leninakan Earthquake hit the region on 7 December. Poor local infrastructure magnified the hazard and some 25,000 people died.[6] Gorbachev was forced to break off his trip to the U.S. and cancel planned travels to Cuba and Britain.[6]

In March and April 1989 elections to the Congress of People's Deputies took place throughout the Soviet Union. This returned many pro-independence republicans, as many CPSU candidates were rejected. The televised Congress debates allowed the dissemination of pro-independence propositions. Indeed, 1989 would see numerous nationalistic expressions protests. Initiated by the Baltic republics in January, laws were passed in most non-Russian republics giving precedence for the republican language over Russian. 9 April would see the crackdown of nationalist demonstrations by Soviet troops in Tbilisi. There would be further bloody protests in Uzbekistan in June, where Uzbeks and Meskhetian Turks clashed in Fergana. Apart from this violence, three major events that altered the face of the nationalities issue occurred in 1989. Estonia had declared its sovereignty in November, 1988, to be followed by Lithuania in May 1989 and by Latvia in July (the Communist Party of Lithuania would also declare its independence from the CPSU in December). This brought the Union and the republics into clear confrontation and would form a precedent for other republics.

Following this, in July, on the eve of the anniversary of the signing of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, it was formally revealed that the treaty did indeed include a plan for the annexation of the Baltic countries into the USSR (as happened in 1940) and the division of Poland between the two countries. The unsavory past was exposed and gave impetus to the peoples of the Baltic countries who could now even more legitimately claim that they were subject to oppression. Finally, the Eastern bloc collapsed in the autumn of 1989, raising hopes that Gorbachev would extend his non-interventionist doctrine to the internal workings of the USSR.[6]

[edit] Crisis of the Union, 1990-91
Gorbachev in 19901990 began with nationalist turmoil in January. Azerbaijanis rioted and troops were sent in to restore order; many Moldavians demonstrated in favour of unification with the post-Communist Romania; and Lithuanian demonstrations continued. The same month, in a hugely significant move, Armenia asserted its right to veto laws coming from the All-Union level, thus intensifying the 'war of laws' between republics and Moscow.[6]

Soon after, the CPSU, which had already lost much of its control, began to lose even more power as Gorbachev deepened political reform. The February Central Committee Plenum advocated multi-party elections; local elections held between February and March returned a large number of pro-independence candidates. The Congress of People's Deputies then amended the Soviet Constitution in March, removing Article 6, which guaranteed the monopoly of the CPSU. The process of political reform was therefore coming from above and below, and was gaining a momentum that would augment republican nationalism. Soon after the constitutional amendment, Lithuania declared independence and elected Vytautas Landsbergis as President.[6]

On 15 March, Gorbachev himself was elected as the only President of the Soviet Union by the Congress of People's Deputies and chose a Presidential Council of 15 politicians. Gorbachev was essentially creating his own political support base independent of CPSU conservatives and radical reformers. The new Executive was designed to be a powerful position to guide the spiraling reform process, and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and Congress of People's Deputies had already given Gorbachev increasingly presidential powers in February. This would be again a source of criticism from reformers. Despite the apparent increase in Gorbachev's power, he was unable to stop the process of nationalistic assertion. Further embarrassing facts about Soviet history were revealed in April, when the government admitted that the NKVD had carried out the infamous Katyn Massacre of Polish army officers during World War II; previously, the USSR had blamed Nazi Germany. More significantly for Gorbachev's position, Boris Yeltsin was reaching a new level of prominence, as he was elected Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR in May, effectively making him the de jure leader of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Problems for Gorbachev would once more come from the Russian parliament in June, when it declared the precedence of Russian laws over All-Union level legislation.[6]

Gorbachev's personal position continued changing. At XXVIIIth CPSU Congress in July, Gorbachev was re-elected General Secretary but this position was now completely independent of Soviet government, and the Politburo had no say in the ruling of the country. Gorbachev further reduced Party power in the same month, when he issued a decree abolishing Party control of all areas of the media and broadcasting. At the same time, Gorbachev was working to consolidate his Presidential position, culminating in the Supreme Soviet granting him special powers to rule by decree in September in order to pass a much-needed plan for transition to a market economy. However, the Supreme Soviet could not agree on which programme to adopt. Gorbachev pressed on with political reform, his proposal for setting up a new Soviet government, with a Soviet of the Federation consisting of representatives from all 15 republics, was passed through the Supreme Soviet in November. In December, Gorbachev was once more granted increased executive power by the Supreme Soviet, arguing that such moves were necessary to counter "the dark forces of nationalism". Such moves led to Eduard Shevardnadze's resignation; Gorbachev's former ally warned of an impending dictatorship. This move was a serious blow to Gorbachev personally and to his efforts for reform.[6]

Meanwhile, Gorbachev was losing further ground to nationalists. October 1990 saw the founding of DemoRossiya, the Russian nationalist party; a few days later, both Ukraine and Russia declared their laws completely sovereign over Soviet level laws. The 'war of laws' had become an open battle, with the Supreme Soviet refusing to recognise the actions of the two republics. Gorbachev would publish the draft of a new union treaty in November, which envisioned a continued union called the Union of Sovereign Soviet Republics, but, going into 1991, the actions of Gorbachev were steadily being overtaken by the centrifugal secessionist forces.[6]

January and February would see a new level of turmoil in the Baltic republics. On 10 January 1991 Gorbachev issued an ultimatum-like request addressing the Lithuanian Supreme Council demanding the restoration of the validity of the constitution of the Soviet Union in Lithuania and the revoking of all anti-constitutional laws. In his Memoirs, Gorbachev asserts that, on 12 January, he convened the Council of the Federation and political measures to prevent bloodshed were agreed, including sending representatives of the Council of the Federation on a "fact-finding mission" to Vilnius. However, before the delegation arrived, the local branches of the KGB and armed forces had worked together to seize the TV tower in Vilnius; Gorbachev asked the heads of the KGB and military if they had approved such action, and there is no evidence that they, or Gorbachev, ever approved this move. Gorbachev cites documents found in the RSFSR Prokuratura after the August coup, which only mentioned that "some 'authorities'" had sanctioned the actions.[6] A book called Alpha – the KGB's Top Secret Unit also suggests that a "KGB operation co-ordinated with the military" was undertaken by the KGB Alpha Group.[22] Archie Brown, in The Gorbachev Factor, uses the memoirs of many people around Gorbachev and in the upper echelons of the Soviet political landscape, to implicate General Valentin Varennikov, a member of the August coup plotters, and General Viktor Achalov, another August coup conspirator. These persons were characterised as individuals "who were prepared to remove Gorbachev from his presidential office unconstitutionally" and "were more than capable of using unauthorised violence against nationalist separatists some months earlier". Brown criticises Gorbachev for "a conscious tilt in the direction of the conservative forces he was trying to keep within an increasingly fragile coalition" who would later betray him; he also criticises Gorbachev "for his tougher line and heightened rhetoric against the Lithuanians in the days preceding the attack and for his slowness in condemning the killings" but notes that Gorbachev did not approve any action and was seeking political solutions.[23]

As a result of continued violence, at least 14 civilians were killed and more than 600 injured from 11-13 January 1991 in Vilnius, Lithuania. The strong Western reaction and the actions of Russian democratic forces put the president and government of the Soviet Union into an awkward situation, as news of support for Lithuanians from Western democracies started to appear. Further problems surfaced in Riga, Latvia, on 20 January and 21, where OMON (special Ministry of the Interior) troops killed 4 people. Archie Brown suggests that Gorbachev's response this time was better, condemning the rogue action, sending his condolences and suggesting that secession could take place if it went through the procedures outlined in the Soviet constitution. According to Gorbachev's aide, Shakhnazarov (quoted by Archie Brown), Gorbachev was finally beginning to accept the inevitability of "losing" the Baltic republics, although he would try all political means to preserve the Union. Brown believes that this put him in "imminent danger" of being overthrown by hard-liners against the secession.[23]

Gorbachev thus continued to draw up a new treaty of union which would have created a truly voluntary federation in an increasingly democratised Soviet Union. The new treaty was strongly supported by the Central Asian republics, who needed the economic power and markets of the Soviet Union to prosper. However, the more radical reformists, such as Russian SFSR President Boris Yeltsin, were increasingly convinced that a rapid transition to a market economy was required and were more than happy to contemplate the disintegration of the Soviet Union if that was required to achieve their aims. Nevertheless, a referendum on the future of the Soviet Union was held in March (with a referendum in Russia on the creation of a presidency), which returned an average of 76.4% in the 9 republics where it was taken, with a turn-out of 80% of the adult population.[23] Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Armenia, Georgia and Moldova did not participate. Following this, an April meeting at Novo-Ogarevo between Gorbachev and the heads of the 9 republics issued a statement on speeding up the creation of a new Union treaty. Meanwhile, on 12 June 1991 Boris Yeltsin was elected President of the Russian Federation by 57.3% of the vote (with a turnout of 74%).[6]

[edit] The August 1991 coup
Main article: Soviet coup attempt of 1991
In contrast to the reformers' moderate approach to the new treaty, the hard-line apparatchiks, still strong within the CPSU and military establishment, were completely opposed to anything which might lead to the break-up of the Soviet Union. On the eve of the treaty's signing, the hardliners struck.

Hardliners in the Soviet leadership, calling themselves the 'State Emergency Committee', launched the August coup in 1991 in an attempt to remove Gorbachev from power and prevent the signing of the new union treaty. During this time, Gorbachev spent three days (19, 20 and 21 August) under house arrest at a dacha in the Crimea before being freed and restored to power. However, upon his return, Gorbachev found that neither union nor Russian power structures heeded his commands as support had swung over to Yeltsin, whose defiance had led to the coup's collapse. Furthermore, Gorbachev was forced to fire large numbers of his Politburo and, in several cases, arrest them. Those arrested for high treason included the "Gang of Eight" that had led the coup, including Kryuchkov, Yazov, Pavlov and Yanayev. Pugo was found shot; and Akhromeyev, who had offered his assistance but was never implicated, was found hanging in his Kremlin office. Most of these men had been former allies of Gorbachev's or promoted by him, which drew fresh criticism.

[edit] Aftermath of the coup and the final collapse
Between 21 August and 22 September, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikstan, and Turkmenistan declared their independence. Simultaneously, Boris Yeltsin ordered the CPSU to suspend its activities on the territory of Russia and closed the Central Committee building at Staraya Ploschad. The Russian flag now flew beside the Soviet flag at the Kremlin. In light of these circumstances, Gorbachev resigned as General Secretary of the CPSU on 24 August and advised the Central Committee to dissolve. Gorbachev's hopes of a new Union were further hit when the Congress of People's Deputies dissolved itself on 5 September. Though Gorbachev and the representatives of 8 republics (excluding Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) signed an agreement on forming a new economic community on 18 October, events were overtaking Gorbachev.[6]

With the country in a rapid state of deterioration, the final blow to Gorbachev's vision was effectively dealt by a Ukrainian referendum on 1 December, where the Ukrainian people voted for independence. The presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus met in Belovezh Forest, near Brest, Belarus, on 8 December, founding the Commonwealth of Independent States and declaring the end of the Soviet Union in the Belavezha Accords. Gorbachev was presented with a fait accompli and reluctantly agreed with Yeltsin, on 17 December, to dissolve the Soviet Union. Gorbachev resigned on 25 December and the Soviet Union was formally dissolved the next day. Two days later, on 27 December, Yeltsin moved into Gorbachev's old office.[6]

Gorbachev had aimed to maintain the CPSU as a united party but move it in the direction of social democracy. But when the CPSU was proscribed after the August coup, Gorbachev was left with no effective power base beyond the armed forces.

[edit] Activities after resignation
Gorbachev (left) with former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher at the funeral of Ronald Reagan, 11 June 2004Following his resignation and the collapse of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev remained active in Russian politics. Especially during the early years of the post-Soviet era, he expressed criticism at the reforms carried out by Russian president Boris Yeltsin. When president Yeltsin called a referendum for 25 April 1993 in an attempt to achieve even greater powers as president, Gorbachev did not vote, and instead called for new presidential elections to happen soon.[24]

Following a failed run for the presidency in 1996, Gorbachev established the Social Democratic Party of Russia, a union between several Russian social democratic parties. He resigned as party leader in May 2004 over a disagreement with the party's chairman over the direction taken in the December 2003 election campaign. The party was later banned in 2007 by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation due to its failure to establish local offices with at least 500 members in the majority of Russian regions, which is required by Russian law for a political organisation to be listed as party.[25] Later that year, Gorbachev founded a new political party, called the Union of Social-Democrats.[3] In June 2004, Gorbachev represented Russia at the funeral of Ronald Reagan.

Gorbachev has also appeared in numerous media events since his resignation from office. In 1993, Gorbachev appeared as himself in the Wim Wenders film, Faraway, So Close!, the sequel to Wings of Desire. In 1997, Gorbachev appeared with his granddaughter Anastasia in an internationally-screened television commercial for Pizza Hut. The U.S. corporation's payment for the 60-second ad went to Gorbachev's not-for-profit Gorbachev Foundation.[26] In 2007, French luxury brand Louis Vuitton announced that Gorbachev would be shown in an ad campaign for their signature luggage.

On June 16, 2009, Gorbachev announced that he had recorded an album of old Russian romantic ballads entitled Songs for Raisa to raise money for a charity dedicated to his late wife. On the album, he sings the songs himself accompanied by Russian musician Andrei Makarevich.[27]

Since his resignation, Gorbachev has remained involved in world affairs. He founded the Gorbachev Foundation in 1992, headquartered in San Francisco, California. He later founded Green Cross International, with which he was one of three major sponsors of the Earth Charter. He also became a member of the Club of Rome and the Club of Madrid.

In the decade that followed the Cold War, Gorbachev opposed both the U.S.-led NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 and the U.S.-led Iraq War in 2003. On 27 July 2007, Gorbachev criticised U.S. foreign policy: “What has followed are unilateral actions, what has followed are wars, what has followed is ignoring the U.N. Security Council, ignoring international law and ignoring the will of the people, even the American people,” he said.[28] That same year, he visited New Orleans, Louisiana, a city hard-hit by Hurricane Katrina, and promised he would return in 2011 to personally lead a local revolution if the U.S. government had not repaired the levees by that time. He said that revolutionary action should be a last resort.[29]

Concerning the 2008 South Ossetia war, in a 12 August 2008 op-ed in The Washington Post,[30] Gorbachev criticized the U.S. support for Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili and for moving to bring Caucasus into the sphere of its "national interest." He later said the following:

Russia did not want this crisis. The Russian leadership is in a strong enough position domestically; it did not need a little victorious war. Russia was dragged into the fray by the recklessness of the Georgian president, Mikheil Saakashvili... The decision by the Russian president, Dmitri Medvedev, to now cease hostilities was the right move by a responsible leader. The Russian president acted calmly, confidently and firmly... The planners of this campaign clearly wanted to make sure that, whatever the outcome, Russia would be blamed for worsening the situation. The West then mounted a propaganda attack against Russia, with the American news media leading the way."[31]
In September 2008 Gorbachev announced he would make a comeback to the Russian politics along with a former KGB officer, Alexander Lebedev.[32] Their party is known as the Independent Democratic Party of Russia. He also is part owner of the opposition newspaper Novaya Gazeta.[33]

Gorbachev (right) being introduced to Barack Obama by Joe Biden, 20 March 2009On 20 March 2009, Gorbachev met with United States President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden in efforts to "reset" strained relations between Russia and the United States.[34]

On 27 March 2009, Gorbachev visited Eureka College in Eureka, Illinois which is the alma mater of former president Ronald Reagan. He toured the campus and later traveled to Peoria, Illinois as the keynote speaker at the Reagan Day Dinner.[35]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, Gorbachev accompanied former Polish leader Lech Walesa and German Chancellor Angela Merkel at a celebration in Berlin on 9 November 2009.[36]

[edit] Call for global restructuring
Gorbachev calls for a kind of perestroika or restructuring of societies around the world, starting in particular with that of the United States, because he is of the view that the economic crisis of 2007-present shows that the Washington consensus economic model is a failure that will sooner or later have to be replaced. According to Gorbachev, countries such as Brazil, Malaysia and China which rejected the Washington consensus and the International Monetary Fund approach to economic development, have done far better economically on the whole and achieved far more fair results for the average citizen, than countries that accepted it. [37]

[edit] Honours and accolades
Former President of the United States, Ronald Reagan awards Gorbachev the first ever Ronald Reagan Freedom Award at the Reagan Library, 1992In 1990, Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for "his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community."[38]
On 4 May 1992, Gorbachev was awarded the first ever Ronald Reagan Freedom Award at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California.[39]
In 1993 Gorbachev was awarded a Legum Doctor, honoris causa from Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada. He was also given an honorary degree from The University of Calgary in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Gorbachev was the 1994 recipient of the Grawemeyer Award for improving world order, awarded by the University of Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky.
In 1995, Gorbachev received an Honorary Doctorate from Durham University, County Durham, England for his contribution to "the cause of political tolerance and an end to Cold War-style confrontation".[40]
For his historic role in the evolution of glasnost, and for his leadership in the disarmament negotiations with the United States during the Reagan administration, Gorbachev was awarded the Courage of Conscience award 20 October 1996.[41]
In 2002, Gorbachev received an honorary degree of a Doctor in Laws (LL.D.) "in recognition of his political service and contribution to peace" from Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.[42]
Gorbachev, together with Bill Clinton and Sophia Loren, were awarded the 2004 Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children for their recording of Sergei Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf.
In 2005, Gorbachev was awarded the Point Alpha Prize for his role in supporting German reunification. He also received an honorary doctorate from the University of Münster.[43]
[edit] Religious affiliation
Gorbachev was baptised in the Russian Orthodox Church as a child. He campaigned for establishment of freedom of religion laws in the former Soviet Union.

Remarks by Gorbachev to Ronald Reagan in discussions during their summits, made the U.S. President deeply intrigued by the possibility that the leader of the Evil Empire might be a "closet Christian." Reagan seems to have seen this as the most interesting aspect of his meeting with the Soviet leader in Geneva.[44]

At the end of a November 1996 interview on CSPAN's Booknotes, Gorbachev described his plans for future books. He made the following reference to God: "I don't know how many years God will be giving me, [or] what His plans are."

In 2005, he said that Pope John Paul II's "devotion to his followers is a remarkable example to all of us" following the pontiff's death. "What can I say -- it must have been the will of God. He acted really courageously."[45] In a 1989 meeting, he had told him "We appreciate your mission on this high pulpit, we are convinced that it will leave a great mark on history." [46] On the other hand, some have alleged that Gorbachev signed a contract killing against Pope John Paul II back in 1979, which resulted in a failed assassination attempt. [47] However, he has categorically denied this accusation. [48]

Gorbachev was the recipient of the Athenagoras Humanitarian Award of the Order of St. Andrew Archons of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople on 20 November 2005.[49]

On 19 March 2008, during a surprise visit to pray at the tomb of Saint Francis in Assisi, Italy, Gorbachev made an announcement which has been interpreted to the effect that he was a Christian. Gorbachev stated that "St Francis is, for me, the alter Christus, another Christ. His story fascinates me and has played a fundamental role in my life." He added, "It was through St Francis that I arrived at the Church, so it was important that I came to visit his tomb."[50]

However, a few days later, he reportedly told the Russian news agency Interfax, "Over the last few days some media have been disseminating fantasies—I can't use any other word—about my secret Catholicism, [...] To sum up and avoid any misunderstandings, let me say that I have been and remain an atheist."[51] In response, a spokesman for the Russian Orthodox patriarch Alexei II told the Russian media: "In Italy, he (Gorbachev) spoke in emotional terms, rather than in terms of faith. He is still on his way to Christianity. If he arrives, we will welcome him."[51]

[edit] Naevus flammeus
Mikhail GorbachevGorbachev is one of the most famous people in modern times with visible naevus flammeus. The crimson birthmark on the top of his bald head was the source of much satire among critics and cartoonists. Contrary to some accounts, it is not rosacea. In his official photos as a Politburo member this birthmark was removed.

Though some suggested that it be surgically removed, Gorbachev opted not to, as once he was publicly known to have the mark, he believed it would be perceived as his being more concerned with his appearance than other more important issues.[52]

[edit] See also
Black January – Soviet massacre of Azeris in 1990
Earth Charter
Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev, key Gorbachev advisor and ally
Sergei M. Plekhanov, other former Gorbachev advisor on the United States and Canada.
[edit] References
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^ "Mikhail Gorbachev will found new political party". mosnews.com. 2009-05-13. http://mosnews.com/politics/2009/05/13/gorbiedem/. Retrieved 2009-06-13.  
^ a b "Gorbachev sets up Russia movement". BBC News. 20 October 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7054274.stm. Retrieved 20 October 2007.  
^ Raisa Gorbachyova's Biography on the Gorbachyov Foundation website
^ a b c d e Current Biography, 1985. New York: The H. W. Wilson Co.. 1985.  
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Gorbachev, M. S., Memoirs, 1996 (London: Bantam Books)
^ a b c d e "Mikhail Gorbachev". Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/nobelprize/article-9037405. Retrieved 2 April 2009.  
^ Roxburgh, Angus (1991). The Second Russian Revolution: The Struggle for Power in the Kremlin. London: BBC Books.  
^ "Mikhail Gorbachev Biography: Glasnost, Perestroika, and Leadership". American Academy of Achievement. 1 February 2005. http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/gor0bio-1. Retrieved 2 April 2009.  
^ "Михаил Сергеевич Горбачёв (Mikhail Sergeyevičh Gorbačhëv)". Archontology.org. 27 March 2009. http://www.archontology.org/nations/ussr/ussr_state/gorbachev.php. Retrieved 2009-04-03.  
^ Chiesa, Giulietto, 1991, Time of change: an insider's view of Russia's transformation, I.B.Tauris, pp.30.
^ Hosking, By Geoffrey A., 1991, The awakening of the Soviet Union, Harvard University Press, pp.139.
^ English, R., D, Russia and the Idea of the West: Gorbachev, Intellectuals and the End of the Cold War, 2000 (Columbia University Press)
^ a b c Hough, Jerry F. (1997), pp. 124-125
^ a b Kishlansky, Mark (2001), p. 322
^ "Gorbachev becomes Soviet leader". BBC News. March 1985. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/11/newsid_2538000/2538327.stm. Retrieved 22 May 2006.  
^ a b Matlock, J. F. Jr., Reagan and Gorbachev: How the Cold War Ended, 2004
^ "Reuters, Moscow could have started WW3 over Berlin Wall: Gorbachev by Guy Faulconbridge". www.reuters.com. 3 November 2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSTRE5A23TB20091103. Retrieved 2009-7-11.  
^ Coit D. Blacker. "The Collapse of Soviet Power in Europe." Foreign Affairs. 1990.
^ Steele, Jonathan. Eternal Russia: Yeltsin, Gorbachev and the Mirage of Democracy. Boston: Faber, 1994.
^ "CIA – The World Factbook -- Armenia". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/am.html. Retrieved 27 January 2007.  
^ Boltunov, M., Alfa – Sverkhsekretnyi Otryad KGB [Alpha – The KGB's Top-Secret Unit], 1992, (Moscow: Kedr)
^ a b c Brown, A., The Gorbachev Factor, 1996, (New York: Oxford University Press). ISBN 0-19-288052-7
^ Maurizio Giuliano, Müssen schnell wählen (interview), Profil, nr. 19, 10 May 1993, page 61
^ Mosnews.com
^ Mikhail Gorbachev appears in Pizza Hut advertising campaign, PRNewswire, 23 December 1997.Retrieved on 3 August 2007.
^ Odynova, Alexandra (2009-06-19). "Former Soviet Leader Gorbachev Records Album". The Saint Petersburg Times. http://www.sptimesrussia.com/index.php?action_id=2&story_id=29283. Retrieved 2009-06-20.  
^ "Gorbachev says U.S. is sowing world ‘disorder’". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19994563/. Retrieved 4 August 2007.  
^ "Gorbachev Vows Revolution If New Orleans Levees Don't Improve". The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2007/10/09/gorbachev-vows-revolution_n_67679.html. Retrieved 14 September 2007.  
^ "A Path to Peace in the Caucasus". Washington Post. 12 August 2008. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/08/11/AR2008081101372.html. Retrieved 12 August 2008.  
^ Russia Never Wanted a War
^ Mikhail Gorbachev returns to Russian politics
^ Лебедев и Горбачев стали совладельцами "Новой газеты" Grani.ru 7 June 2006
^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20090323/pl_afp/usrussiadiplomacyobamagorbachev_20090323215234 Retrieved on 24 March 2009.
^ http://www.week.com/news/local/42019457.html Retrieved on 24 March 2009.
^ http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/10/world/europe/10germany.html?_r=1&hp
^ Washington Post, June 7, 2009, "We Had Our Perestroika. It's High Time for Yours" Op-ed piece by Mikhail Gorbachev
^ The Nobel Peace Prize 1990
^ Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation & Library
^ Honorary Doctorate from Durham
^ The Peace Abbey Courage of Conscience Recipients List
^ Trinity College Honours Mikhail Gorbachev
^ "Reunification Politicians Accept Prize". Deutsche Welle. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,1619484,00.html. Retrieved 22 May 2006.  
^ Red Herring: Mikhail Gorbachev's Not-Quite Conversion Christianity Today (Web-only) 4 April 2008, Vol. 52.
^ Gorbachev: Pope was 'example to all of us'
^ Record of Conversation between M.S. Gorbachev and John Paul II
^ Gorbachev signed JP II KGB death warrant
^ Gorbachev denies ordering Pope's assassination
^ Athenagoras humanitarian award to Nobel peace prize laureate Mikhail Gorbachev Website of Gorbachev Foundation
^ "Mikhail Gorbachev admits he is a Christian". The Daily Telegraph. 19 March 2008. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/19/wgorbachev119.xml. Retrieved 24 March 2008.  
^ a b "Gorbachev a closet Christian?". Chicago Tribune. 23 March 2008. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-out_there_gorbachev_rodriguez_23mar24,1,4698255.story. Retrieved 24 March 2008.  
^ den 11. time. Danmarks Radio. DR 2. 24 October 2007.
[edit] Further reading
Åslund, Anders (1991). Gorbachev's Struggle for Economic Reform. Cornell University Press.  
Farnham, Barbara (2001). Reagan and the Gorbachev Revolution: Perceiving the End of Threat. 2. Political Science Quarterly.  
Goldman, Marshall (1992). What Went Wrong with Perestroika?. W.W. Norton.  
Gorbachev, Mikhail (1988). Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-091528-5.  
Gorbachev, Mikhail (1996). Memoirs. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-48019-9.  
Gorbachev, Mikhail; Daisaku Ikeda (2005). Moral Lesson of the Twentieth Century.  
Hough, Jerry F (1997). Democratization and Revolution in the USSR, 1985-1991. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815737483.  
Jackson, William D. (1998-1999). Soviet Reassassment of Ronald Reagan, 1985-1988. 4. Political Science Quarterly.  
Kishlansky, Mark (2001). 4. ed. Sources of the West: Readings in Western Civilization. 2. New York: Longman.  
Matlock, Jack (1995). Autopsy on an Empire: The American Ambassador's Account of the Collapse of the Soviet Union.  
Remnick, David (1993). Lenin's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire. New York: Random House.  
Strayer, Robert (1998). Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse? Understanding Historical Change. M.E. Sharpe.  
[edit] External links
 Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Mikhail Gorbachev
 Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Mikhail Gorbachev  
The Gorbachev Foundation
Public Opinion about Gorbachev
The Encyclopaedia of Marxism, from which parts of this article have been taken.
Green Cross International official site
Mikhail S. Gorbachev Biography, in Russian
Out in the Cold Guardian interview 8 March 2005
TIME 100 for 2004: Mikhail Gorbachev
CNN Cold War – Profile: Mikhail Gorbachev from the 1998 series
September 1997 interview
Biography, talks, tributes and quotes
Ubben Lecture at DePauw University
Mikhail Gorbachev's op/ed commentaries for Project Syndicate
Commanding Heights: Mikhail Gorbachev (PBS interview), April 2001.
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Speech by Yegor Gaidar (acting prime minister of Russia, minister of economy, and first deputy prime minister between 1991 and 1994), explaining the underlying reasons for Gorbachev's politics
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Al Gore
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For the former Vice President's father, also a United States Senator, see Albert Gore, Sr..
 This article has been nominated to be checked for its neutrality. Discussion of this nomination can be found on the talk page. (November 2009)
Al Gore

Gore's Hearing on Global Warming, 23 March 2007


45th Vice President of the
United States
In office
January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001
President Bill Clinton
Preceded by Dan Quayle
Succeeded by Dick Cheney


United States Senator
from Tennessee
In office
January 3, 1985 – January 2, 1993
Preceded by Howard Baker
Succeeded by Harlan Mathews


Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's 6th district
In office
January 3, 1983 – January 3, 1985
Preceded by Robin Beard
Succeeded by Bart Gordon


Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's 4th district
In office
January 3, 1977 – January 3, 1983
Preceded by Joe L. Evins
Succeeded by Jim Cooper

Born March 31, 1948 (1948-03-31) (age 61)
Washington, D.C.
Birth name Albert Arnold Gore, Jr.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Mary Elizabeth "Tipper" A. Gore
Children Karenna
Albert III
Alma mater Harvard University
Vanderbilt University
Profession Author, politician, Environmental activist
Religion Baptist (formerly Southern Baptist)
Website algore.com
Military service
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service 1969 - 1971
Rank Private; Journalist[1]
Unit 20th Engineer Brigade
Battles/wars Vietnam War
The life of Al Gore v • d • e
Vice Presidency of Al Gore
Al Gore presidential campaign, 1988
Al Gore presidential campaign, 2000
Role in information technology
Environmental activism
Albert Arnold "Al" Gore, Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American environmental activist and former politician who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001 under President Bill Clinton. He is an author, businessperson, former U.S. Senator and former journalist. Gore also starred in the 2006 documentary An Inconvenient Truth, which won an Academy Award in 2007 and wrote the book An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It, which won a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album in February 2009.[2]

Gore was involved in American politics for 24 years, serving first in the U.S. House of Representatives (1977–85) and later in the U.S. Senate (1985–93) (representing Tennessee) before becoming vice president. Gore was the Democratic nominee for president in the 2000 presidential election. He won the popular vote by approximately 500,000 votes, but ultimately lost the electoral college to Republican candidate George W. Bush when the legal controversy over the Florida election recount was eventually settled in the U.S. Supreme Court by a 5–4 margin in favor of Bush.[3]

Gore is the recipient of a number of awards. He and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. Gore received a Primetime Emmy Award for Current TV in 2007, and a Webby Award in 2005. Time named Gore as a runner-up for its 2007 Person of the Year.[4]

He is currently the founder and chair of Alliance for Climate Protection, the co-founder and chair of Generation Investment Management, the co-founder and chair of Current TV, a member of the Board of Directors of Apple Inc., and a senior advisor to Google.[5] He is also a partner in the venture capital firm, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, heading that firm's climate change solutions group.[6][7] In addition, Gore is on the faculty of Middle Tennessee State University as a visiting professor, and was a visiting professor at Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, Fisk University, and the University of California, Los Angeles.[5][8][9][10]

Contents [hide]
1 Childhood
2 Harvard, Vietnam, journalism, and Vanderbilt (1965-1976)
2.1 Harvard
2.2 Vietnam War and journalism
2.3 Vanderbilt and journalism
3 Congress and first presidential run (1976-1993)
3.1 House and Senate
3.2 First presidential run (1988)
3.3 Son's 1989 accident, 1992 election, and first book
4 Vice presidency and second presidential run (1993-2001)
4.1 Vice presidency
4.2 Second presidential run (2000)
4.2.1 Recount
4.3 Post-election
5 Other presidential elections
5.1 Presidential run speculation (2004 and 2008)
5.2 Involvement in presidential campaigns (2004 and 2008)
6 Environmental activism and Nobel Peace Prize (since 2004)
6.1 Environmental criticism
7 Political activism
8 Awards and honors
9 Selected publications
10 Notes
11 References
12 External links

Albert Gore, Jr. was born in Washington, D.C., to Albert Gore, Sr., a U.S. Representative (1939–1944, 1945–1953) and Senator (1953–1971) from Tennessee, and Pauline LaFon Gore, one of the first women to graduate from Vanderbilt University Law School. His older sister Nancy LaFon Gore, who was born in 1938, died of lung cancer in 1984.[11]

Gore divided his childhood between Washington, D.C. and Carthage, Tennessee.[12][13] During summer vacations, Gore worked on the family farm in Carthage where the Gores grew hay and tobacco and raised cattle.[14] Each school year, however, the family lived in The Fairfax Hotel at Embassy Row in Washington D.C.[15] Gore attended St. Albans School from 1956 to 1965, while his sister Nancy attended Holton-Arms School.[15][16][17] While at St. Albans, Gore played on the varsity football team, threw discus for the track and field team, and participated in basketball, art, and government.[15] Gore met the date of a classmate, Mary Elizabeth Aitcheson (Tipper) from nearby St. Agnes at his senior prom in 1965.[15]

Harvard, Vietnam, journalism, and Vanderbilt (1965-1976)
Gore enrolled in Harvard University in 1965, the only college he had applied to.[18] Tipper, whom he had been dating since his senior prom, followed him to Boston, first attending Garland Junior College and later transferring to Boston University where she majored in psychology.[19][20]

As a freshman, Gore planned to be an English major and was working on a novel.[21] In 1967 Gore took a course on climate science from Roger Revelle which made a strong impression on him, influencing him in the direction of environmental concerns.[22] He was not tremendously engaged in his studies until the upheavals of 1968 and the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. Gore took a political science course, developed an interest in politics, and changed his major to government.[18] He and his friends, however, did not participate in Harvard demonstrations. John Tyson, a former roommate, recalled that "We distrusted these movements a lot because a lot of this stuff was very emotional and not well thought out. We were a pretty traditional bunch of guys, positive for civil rights and women's rights but formal, transformed by the social revolution to some extent but not buying into something we considered detrimental to our country."[18]

Gore graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in government cum laude on June 12, 1969.[23] The Washington Post described his commencement ceremony as a "Sixties period piece" of tradition and chaos. This included the moment when "President Nathan Pusey delivered his time-honored welcoming of the graduates to 'the company of educated men,' [and] hundreds of seniors rose from their folding chairs, raised their fists in defiance, and walked out."[24]

Vietnam War and journalism
Al and Tipper Gore's wedding day, May 19, 1970 at the Washington National CathedralIn 1969, neither Gore nor his father was a supporter of the Vietnam War. However, as a college graduate, he could no longer defer being drafted into the U.S. military. In addition, his "low draft number assured that he would be called up soon."[25] In debating how to proceed, his father, Albert Gore, Sr., later recalled that Gore "sat around with his mother and I in the living room and talked about it. He said he didn't believe in the Vietnam War. I said, 'Well, it isn't given in our law for an individual to go contrary to the law.' We discussed all the various things young men were doing to dodge the draft."[25] Also according to his Senate biography, Gore's "mother said that she would support whatever he wanted to do – 'including going to Canada with him.' "[25] The Washington Post later added in 1999 that very few of his Harvard classmates went to Vietnam. Instead, "most of his peers at Harvard were looking for a way out, and finding one. Some took refuge in the National Guard or the reserves, options that might save them from Vietnam. A few resisted or became conscientious objectors or left for Canada."[24]

Gore has stated that he finally enlisted in the army for two reasons: he was concerned over the impact it would have upon his father's career and he did not want someone with fewer advantages than he to go in his place. Al Gore, Sr. was engaged in a difficult political campaign for the 1970 Senate election, one which would have been adversely affected if his son did not enlist in the military.[26] Al Gore, Sr., had authorized American involvement in Vietnam by voting for the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in 1964, but by 1969 had become a vocal opponent of the war.[27] Thus the elder Gore appeared to some to be "too tolerant of social protest of all kinds and of change in general [...] Young Al worried that if he found a way around military service, he would be handing an issue to his father's opponents."[27]

Gore with the 20th Engineer Brigade in Bien Hoa as a journalist with the paper, The Castle Courier.Gore also chose to enlist because he did not want someone to go in his place. Actor Tommy Lee Jones (a former housemate) later recalled Gore saying that "if he found a fancy way of not going, someone else would have to go in his place."[18][28] His Harvard advisor, Richard Neustadt, also stated that Gore, "decided that he would have to go and that he would have to go as an enlisted man because, he said, 'In Tennessee, that's what most people have to do.'"[26] In addition, Michael Roche, his editor for The Castle Courier, stated that "anybody who knew Al Gore in Vietnam knows he could have sat on his butt and he didn't."[27]

Gore refused the option of signing up for the National Guard, choosing instead to volunteer for the United States Army, which meant enlisting for two years (he served from 1969 - 1971).[23][26][27] After enlisting in August 1969, Gore returned to the Harvard campus in his military uniform to say goodbye to his adviser and was "jeered" at by students.[11][18] He later described the visit as a "Ralph Ellison experience in that I was the same person inside but my physical appearance conveyed a message that completely overwhelmed the message of my humanity. It was just an emotional field of negativity and disapproval and piercing glances that shot arrows of what certainly felt like real hatred, and I was astonished."[18]

Gore had basic training at Fort Dix from August to October, and then was assigned to be a journalist at Fort Rucker, Alabama. In April 1970, he was "Soldier of the Month".[11][27] On May 19, 1970, Gore married Tipper at the Washington National Cathedral.[11][29]

His orders to be sent to Vietnam were "held up" for some time and he suspected that this was due to a fear by the Nixon administration that if something happened to him, his father would gain sympathy votes.[26] He was finally shipped to Vietnam on January 2, 1971, after his father had lost his seat in the Senate during the 1970 Senate election, one "of only about a dozen of the 1,115 Harvard graduates in the Class of '69 who went to Vietnam."[27][30][31] Gore was stationed with the 20th Engineer Brigade in Bien Hoa and was a journalist with the paper, The Castle Courier.[32] He received an honorable discharge from the Army in May 1971.[11]

Of his time in the Army, Gore later stated, "I don't pretend that my own military experience matches in any way what others here have been through [...] I didn't do the most, or run the gravest danger. But I was proud to wear my country's uniform. And my own experiences gave me strong beliefs about America's obligation to keep our national defenses strong."[28] He also later stated that his experience in Vietnam "didn't change my conclusions about the war being a terrible mistake, but it struck me that opponents to the war, including myself, really did not take into account the fact that there were an awful lot of South Vietnamese who desperately wanted to hang on to what they called freedom. Coming face to face with those sentiments expressed by people who did the laundry and ran the restaurants and worked in the fields was something I was naively unprepared for."[33]

Vanderbilt and journalism
Gore was "dispirited" after his return from Vietnam.[25] NashvillePost.com noted that, "his father's defeat made service in a conflict he deeply opposed even more abhorrent to Gore. His experiences in the war zone don't seem to have been deeply traumatic in themselves; although the engineers were sometimes fired upon, Gore has said he didn't see full-scale combat. Still, he felt that his participation in the war was wrong."[30] While his parents wanted him to go to law school, Gore attended Vanderbilt University Divinity School instead, studying there from 1971 to 1972. He later said he went there in order to explore "the spiritual issues that were most important to me at the time."[34] Tipper would also later refer to it as an act of "purification."[25] Gore also began to work the night shift for The Tennessean as an investigative reporter (he worked for the paper from 1971-1976).[35] His investigations of possible corruption among members of Nashville's Metro Council resulted in the arrest and prosecution of two councilmen for separate offenses.[30]

Gore attended Vanderbilt Divinity School on a yearlong Rockefeller Foundation scholarship for people planning secular careers; he had never intended to become a minister and later said that "he had hoped to make sense of the social injustices that seemed to challenge his religious beliefs."[36] Gore left divinity school to work full time at the The Tennessean. His first child, Karenna Aitcheson Gore[37], was born on August 6, 1973.[34] A year later, he took a leave of absence from the The Tennessean and returned to graduate study, attending Vanderbilt University Law School from 1974 to 1976. His decision to attend law school was a partial result of his time as a journalist, as he realized that while he could expose corruption, he could not change it.[34] Eventually, however, Gore "took away no degrees, deciding abruptly in 1976 to run for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives" when he found out that his father's former seat in the House was about to be vacated.[34][38]

Congress and first presidential run (1976-1993)
See also: Al Gore and information technology and Al Gore and the environment
Gore began serving in the United States Congress at the age of 28 and stayed there for the next 17 years, serving in both the House (1976-1984) and the Senate (1984-1993).[35] During this time, the Gores had three more children, Kristin Carlson Gore[39] (born on June 5, 1977), Sarah LaFon Gore[39] (born on January 7, 1979), and Albert Gore III (born on October 19, 1982) and bought the house belonging to Tipper's grandparents in Arlington, Virginia.[34] Gore spent many weekends in Tennessee, working with his constituents.[25][40]

House and Senate
At the end of February 1976, U.S. Representative Joe L. Evins unexpectedly announced his retirement from Congress, making the Tennessee's 4th congressional district seat to which he had succeeded Albert Gore, Sr. in 1953 open. Within hours after Tennessean publisher John Seigenthaler, Sr., called him to tell him the announcement was forthcoming,[38] Gore decided to quit law school and run for the House of Representatives:

Gore's abrupt decision to run for the open seat surprised even himself; he later said that 'I didn't realize myself I had been pulled back so much to it.' The news came as a 'bombshell' to his wife. Tipper Gore held a job in the Tennessean's photo lab and was working on a master's degree in psychology, but she joined in her husband's campaign (with assurance that she could get her job at the Tennessean back if he lost). By contrast, Gore asked his father to stay out of his campaign: 'I must become my own man,' he explained. 'I must not be your candidate.'[25]
Gore won a seat in Congress in 1976 "with 32 percent of the vote, three percentage points more than his nearest rival."[41] He won the next three elections in 1978, 1980, and 1982 where "he was unopposed twice and won 79 percent of the vote the other time."[41] In 1984, Gore successfully ran for a seat in the United States Senate, which had been vacated by Republican Senate Majority Leader Howard Baker. He was "unopposed in the Democratic Senatorial primary and won the general election going away," despite the fact that Republican President Ronald Reagan swept Tennessee in his reelection campaign the same year.[41]

Gore during his congressional yearsDuring his time in Congress, Gore was considered a "moderate" (he referred to himself as a "raging moderate") opposing federal funding of abortion, voting in favor of a bill which supported a moment in silence in schools, and voting against a ban on interstate sales of guns.[42][43] His position as a moderate (and on policies related to that label) shifted later in life after he became vice president and ran for president in 2000.[44]

Gore sat on the United States House Committee on Energy and Commerce and the United States House Committee on Science and Technology, chairing that committee for four years.[41] He also sat on the House Intelligence Committee and in 1982 introduced the Gore Plan concerning arms control, to "reduce chances of a nuclear first strike by cutting multiple warheads and deploying single-warhead mobile launchers."[25] While in the Senate, he sat on the Governmental Affairs, the Rules and Administration, and the Armed Services Committees.[25] In 1991, Gore was one of ten democrats who supported the Gulf War.[25]

Gore was one of the Atari Democrats who were given this name due to their "passion for technological issues, from biomedical research and genetic engineering to the environmental impact of the "greenhouse effect."[25] On March 19, 1979 he became the first member of Congress to appear on C-SPAN.[45] During this time, Gore co-chaired the Congressional Clearinghouse on the Future, along with Newt Gingrich.[46] In addition, he has been described as having been a "genuine nerd, with a geek reputation running back to his days as a futurist Atari Democrat in the House. Before computers were comprehensible, let alone sexy, the poker-faced Gore struggled to explain artificial intelligence and fiber-optic networks to sleepy colleagues."[25][47] Internet pioneers Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn have also noted that, "as far back as the 1970s, Congressman Gore promoted the idea of high speed telecommunications as an engine for both economic growth and the improvement of our educational system. He was the first elected official to grasp the potential of computer communications to have a broader impact than just improving the conduct of science and scholarship [...] the Internet, as we know it today, was not deployed until 1983. When the Internet was still in the early stages of its deployment, Congressman Gore provided intellectual leadership by helping create the vision of the potential benefits of high speed computing and communication. As an example, he sponsored hearings on how advanced technologies might be put to use in areas like coordinating the response of government agencies to natural disasters and other crises."[48]

As a Senator, Gore began to craft the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991 (commonly referred to as "The Gore Bill") after hearing the 1988 report Toward a National Research Network submitted to Congress by a group chaired by UCLA professor of computer science, Leonard Kleinrock, one of the central creators of the ARPANET (the ARPANET, first deployed by Kleinrock and others in 1969, is the predecessor of the Internet).[49][50][51] The bill was passed on December 9, 1991 and led to the National Information Infrastructure (NII) which Gore referred to as the "information superhighway."[52]

After joining the United States House of Representatives, Gore also held the "first congressional hearings on the climate change, and co-sponsor[ed] hearings on toxic waste and global warming."[53][54] He continued to speak on the topic throughout the 1980s.[25][55][56] In 1990, Senator Gore presided over a three-day conference with legislators from over 42 countries which sought to create a Global Marshall Plan, "under which industrial nations would help less developed countries grow economically while still protecting the environment."[57]

First presidential run (1988)
Main article: Al Gore presidential campaign, 1988
Gore campaigned for the Democratic Party nomination for President of the United States against Joe Biden, Gary Hart, Dick Gephardt, Paul Simon, Jesse Jackson, and Michael Dukakis (who eventually won the Democratic nomination). Gore carried seven states in the primary, finishing 3rd.

While Gore initially denied an interest in running, he was the subject of speculation prior to his announcement: "National analysts make Sen. Gore a long-shot for the Presidential nomination, but many believe he could provide a natural complement for any of the other candidates: a young, attractive, moderate Vice Presidential nominee from the South. He currently denies any interest, but he carefully does not reject the idea out of hand."[15] At the time, he was 39 years old, making him the "youngest serious Presidential candidate since John F. Kennedy."[15]

After announcing that he would run, Gore ran his campaign as "a Southern centrist, [who] opposed federal funding for abortion. He favored a moment of silence for prayer in the schools and voted against banning the interstate sale of handguns."[58] In addition, CNN noted that, "in 1988, for the first time, 12 Southern states would hold their primaries on the same day, Super Tuesday. Gore thought he would be the only Southern candidate. He had not counted on Jesse Jackson."[58] Jackson defeated Gore in the South Carolina Primary, winning, "more than half the total vote, three times that of his closest rival here, Senator Albert Gore Jr. of Tennessee."[59] Gore next placed great hope on Super Tuesday where they split the Southern vote: Jackson winning Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi and Virginia; Gore winning Arkansas, North Carolina, Kentucky, Nevada, Tennessee, and Oklahoma.[25][58][60] Gore was later endorsed by New York City Mayor, Ed Koch who made statements in favor of Israel and against Jackson. These statements further cast Gore in a negative light.[58] The endorsement led voters away from Gore who only received 10% of the vote in the New York Primary. Gore then dropped out of the race.[25] The New York Times argued that he lost support due to his attacks against Jackson, Dukakis, and others, as well as for his endorsement by Koch.[61]

Gore was eventually able to mend fences with Jesse Jackson. Jackson supported the Clinton-Gore ticket in 1992 and 1996, and campaigned for the Gore-Lieberman ticket during the 2000 presidential election.[62][63] Gore's policies changed substantially in 2000, reflecting his eight years as Vice President.[64]

Son's 1989 accident, 1992 election, and first book
On April 3, 1989, the Gores and their six-year-old son Albert were crossing a street after a baseball game when Albert ran across the street to see his friend and was hit by a car. He was thrown 30 feet (9.1 m) and then traveled along the pavement for another 20 feet (6.1 m).[40] Gore later recalled: "I ran to his side and held him and called his name, but he was motionless, limp and still, without breath or pulse [...] His eyes were open with the nothingness stare of death, and we prayed, the two of us, there in the gutter, with only my voice."[40] Albert was tended to by two nurses who happened to be present during the accident. The Gores spent the next month in the hospital with Albert. Gore also commented: "Our lives were consumed with the struggle to restore his body and spirit."[40] This event was "a trauma so shattering that [Gore] views it as a moment of personal rebirth" and a "key moment in his life" which "changed everything."[40]

In August 1991, Gore announced that his son's accident had "left a deep impression on our family" and that it was a factor in his decision not to run for president during the 1992 presidential election.[65] Gore stated: "I would like to be President [...] But I am also a father, and I feel deeply about my responsibility to my children [...] I didn't feel right about tearing myself away from my family to the extent that is necessary in a Presidential campaign."[65] During this time, Gore wrote Earth in the Balance, a text which became the first book written by a sitting U.S. Senator to make the New York Times bestseller list since John F. Kennedy's Profiles in Courage.[25]

Vice presidency and second presidential run (1993-2001)
Vice presidency
Main article: Vice Presidency of Al Gore
See also: Al Gore and information technology and Al Gore and the environment
Official Portrait of Vice President GoreAl Gore served as Vice President during the Clinton Administration. He was initially hesitated to accept a position as Bill Clinton's running mate for the 1992 United States presidential election. After clashing with the Bush Administration over global warming, he decided to accept Clinton's request and became his running mate on July 10, 1992.[25] Clinton's choice was perceived as unconventional (as rather than pick a running mate who would diversify the ticket, Clinton chose a fellow Southerner, who shared his political ideologies and who was also close in age) and was criticized by some.[25][66][67] Clinton stated that he chose Gore due to his foreign policy experience, work with the environment, and commitment to his family.[67][68] Clinton and Gore accepted the democratic nomination at the Democratic National Convention on July 17, 1992.[69][70]

Known as the Baby Boomer Ticket and the Fortysomething Team, The New York Times noted that if elected, Clinton (who was 45) and Gore (who was 44) would be the "youngest team to make it to the White House in the country's history."[67][71][71] Theirs was the first ticket since 1972 to try to capture the youth vote, a ticket which Gore referred to as "a new generation of leadership" .[67][72] Washington Bureau Chief for The Baltimore Sun, Paul West, later suggested that, "Al Gore revolutionized the way vice presidents are made. When he joined Bill Clinton's ticket, it violated the old rules. Regional diversity? Not with two Southerners from neighboring states. Ideological balance? A couple of left-of-center moderates. [...] And yet, Gore has come to be regarded by strategists in both parties as the best vice presidential pick in at least 20 years."[73]

The Clintons and the Gores, 1993
Vice President Gore and Tipper Gore, 1997The ticket increased in popularity after the candidates traveled with their wives, Hillary and Tipper on a "six-day, 1,000-mile bus ride, from New York to St. Louis."[74] Gore also successfully debated against the other vice presidential candidates, Dan Quayle (a longtime colleague from the House and the Senate) and James Stockdale. The result of the campaign was a win by the Clinton-Gore ticket (43%) over the Bush-Quayle ticket (38 %).[25] Clinton and Gore were inaugurated on January 20, 1993 and were re-elected to a second term in the 1996 election. At the beginning of the first term in 1992, Clinton and Gore developed a "two-page agreement outlining their relationship." Clinton committed himself to regular lunch meetings, recognized Gore as a principal adviser on nominations, and appointed some of Gore's chief advisers to key White House staff positions [...] Clinton involved Gore in decision-making to an unprecedented degree for a vice president. Through their weekly lunches and daily conversations, Gore became the president's "indisputable chief adviser."[25]

Gore had a particular interest in reducing "waste, fraud, and abuse in the federal government and advocated trimming the size of the bureaucracy and the number of regulations."[25] In addition, under the Clinton Administration, the U.S. economy expanded, according to David Greenberg (professor of history and media studies at Rutgers University) who argued that "by the end of the Clinton presidency, the numbers were uniformly impressive. Besides the record-high surpluses and the record-low poverty rates, the economy could boast the longest economic expansion in history; the lowest unemployment since the early 1970s; and the lowest poverty rates for single mothers, black Americans, and the aged."[75]

This economic success was due in part to Gore's continued role as an Atari Democrat, promoting the development of information technology, which led to the dot-com boom (c. 1995-2001).[76] Clinton and Gore entered office planning to finance research that would "flood the economy with innovative goods and services, lifting the general level of prosperity and strengthening American industry."[77] Their overall aim was to fund the development of, "robotics, smart roads, biotechnology, machine tools, magnetic-levitation trains, fiber-optic communications and national computer networks. Also earmarked [were] a raft of basic technologies like digital imaging and data storage."[77] These initiatives met with skepticism from critics who claimed that their initiatives would "backfire, bloating Congressional pork and creating whole new categories of Federal waste."[77] During the election and while Vice President, Gore popularized the term Information Superhighway (which became synonymous with the internet) and was involved in the creation of the National Information Infrastructure.[77] Gore first discussed his plans for the growing importance of information technology at UCLA on January 11, 1994 in a speech at the The Superhighway Summit. He was involved in a number of projects including NetDay'96 and 24 Hours in Cyberspace. The Clinton-Gore administration also launched the first official White House website in 1994 and subsequent versions through 2000.[78] The Clipper Chip, which "Clinton inherited from a multi-year National Security Agency effort," was a method of hardware encryption with a government backdoor.[79] It met with strong opposition from civil liberty groups and was abandoned by 1996.[80][81]

Then President Bill Clinton installing computer cables with Vice President Al Gore on NetDay at Ygnacio Valley High School in Concord, CA. March 9, 1996.
Glenn T. Seaborg with Gore in the White House during a visit of the 1993 Science Talent Search (STS) finalists on March 4, 1993.Gore was also involved in a number of initiatives related to the environment. He launched the GLOBE program on Earth Day '94, an education and science activity that, according to Forbes magazine, "made extensive use of the Internet to increase student awareness of their environment".[82] During the late 1990s, Gore strongly pushed for the passage of the Kyoto Protocol, which called for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.[83][84] Gore was opposed by the Senate, which passed unanimously (95-0) the Byrd-Hagel Resolution (S. Res. 98).[85][86] In 1998, Gore began promoting a NASA satellite that would provide a constant view of the earth, marking the first time such an image would have been made since The Blue Marble photo from the 1972 Apollo 17 mission.[87] During this time, he also became associated with Digital Earth.[88]

In 1996 Gore became involved in a finance controversy over his attendance at an event at the Buddhist Hsi Lai Temple in Hacienda Heights, California.[25] In an interview on NBC's Today the following year, Gore stated that, "I did not know that it was a fund-raiser. I knew it was a political event, and I knew there were finance people that were going to be present, and so that alone should have told me, 'This is inappropriate and this is a mistake; don't do this.' And I take responsibility for that. It was a mistake."[89] In March 1997, Gore had to explain phone calls which he made to solicit funds for the Democratic Party for the 1996 election.[90] In a news conference, Gore stated that, "all calls that I made were charged to the Democratic National Committee. I was advised there was nothing wrong with that. My counsel tells me there is no controlling legal authority that says that is any violation of any law."[91] The phrase "no controlling legal authority" was criticized by some such as Charles Krauthammer, who stated: "Whatever other legacies Al Gore leaves behind between now and retirement, he forever bequeaths this newest weasel word to the lexicon of American political corruption."[92] Robert Conrad, Jr. was the head of a Justice Department task force appointed by Attorney General Janet Reno to investigate Gore's fund-raising controversies. In Spring 2000, Conrad asked Reno to appoint an independent counsel to continue the investigation. After looking into the matter, Reno judged that the appointment of an independent counsel was unwarranted.[93]

Soon afterwards, Gore also had to contend with the Lewinsky scandal, involving an affair between President Clinton and an intern, Monica Lewinsky. Gore initially defended Clinton, whom he believed to be innocent, stating, "He is the president of the country! He is my friend [...] I want to ask you now, every single one of you, to join me in supporting him."[25] After Clinton was impeached Gore continued to defend him stating, "I've defined my job in exactly the same way for six years now [...] to do everything I can to help him be the best president possible."[25]

Second presidential run (2000)
Main article: Al Gore presidential campaign, 2000
See also: Bush v. Gore, Florida election recount, and Al Gore and information technology
There was talk of a potential run in the 2000 presidential race by Gore as early as January 1998.[94] Gore discussed the possibility of running during a March 9, 1999 interview with CNN's Late Edition with Wolf Blitzer. In response to Wolf Blitzer's question: "Why should Democrats, looking at the Democratic nomination process, support you instead of Bill Bradley," Gore responded:

I'll be offering my vision when my campaign begins. And it will be comprehensive and sweeping. And I hope that it will be compelling enough to draw people toward it. I feel that it will be. But it will emerge from my dialogue with the American people. I've traveled to every part of this country during the last six years. During my service in the United States Congress, I took the initiative in creating the Internet. I took the initiative in moving forward a whole range of initiatives that have proven to be important to our country's economic growth and environmental protection, improvements in our educational system.[95]
In Manchester, New Hampshire campaigning for President of the United States in 1999Former UCLA professor of information studies Philip E. Agre and journalist Eric Boehlert argued that three articles in Wired News led to the creation of the widely spread urban legend that Gore claimed to have "invented the Internet," which followed this interview.[96][97][98] In addition, computer professionals and congressional colleagues argued in his defense. Internet pioneers Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn stated that "we don't think, as some people have argued, that Gore intended to claim he 'invented' the Internet. Moreover, there is no question in our minds that while serving as Senator, Gore's initiatives had a significant and beneficial effect on the still-evolving Internet."[97][99] Cerf would also later state: "Al Gore had seen what happened with the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956, which his father introduced as a military bill. It was very powerful. Housing went up, suburban boom happened, everybody became mobile. Al was attuned to the power of networking much more than any of his elective colleagues. His initiatives led directly to the commercialization of the Internet. So he really does deserve credit."[100] Former Republican Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Newt Gingrich also stated: "In all fairness, it's something Gore had worked on a long time. Gore is not the Father of the Internet, but in all fairness, Gore is the person who, in the Congress, most systematically worked to make sure that we got to an Internet, and the truth is -- and I worked with him starting in 1978 when I got [to Congress], we were both part of a "futures group" -- the fact is, in the Clinton administration, the world we had talked about in the '80s began to actually happen."[101] Finally, Wolf Blitzer (who conducted the original 1999 interview) stated in 2008 that: "I didn't ask him about the Internet. I asked him about the differences he had with Bill Bradley [...] Honestly, at the time, when he said it, it didn't dawn on me that this was going to have the impact that it wound up having, because it was distorted to a certain degree and people said they took what he said, which was a carefully phrased comment about taking the initiative and creating the Internet to—I invented the Internet. And that was the sort of shorthand, the way his enemies projected it and it wound up being a devastating setback to him and it hurt him, as I'm sure he acknowledges to this very day."[102]

Gore, himself, would later poke fun at the controversy. In 2000, while on the The Late Show with David Letterman he read Letterman's Top 10 List (which for this show was called, "Top Ten Rejected Gore - Lieberman Campaign Slogans") to the audience. Number nine on the list was: "Remember, America, I gave you the Internet, and I can take it away!"[103] A few years later in 2005, when Gore was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award "for three decades of contributions to the Internet" at the Webby Awards[104][105] he joked in his acceptance speech (limited to five words according to Webby Awards rules): "Please don't recount this vote." He was introduced by Vint Cerf who used the same format to joke: "We all invented the Internet." Gore, who was then asked to add a few more words to his speech, stated: "It is time to reinvent the Internet for all of us to make it more robust and much more accessible and use it to reinvigorate our democracy."[105]

Gore formally announced his candidacy for president in a speech on June 16, 1999, in Carthage, Tennessee.[106] He was introduced by his eldest daughter, Karenna Gore Schiff, who was pregnant at the time with her first child.[106] In making the speech, Gore also distanced himself from Bill Clinton, whom he stated had lied to him.[106] Gore was "briefly interrupted" by AIDS protesters claiming Gore was working with the pharmaceutical industry to prevent access to generic medicines for poor nations and chanting "Gore's greed kills."[106] Additional speeches were also interrupted by the protesters. Gore responded, "I love this country. I love the First Amendment [...] Let me say in response to those who may have chosen an inappropriate way to make their point, that actually the crisis of AIDS in Africa is one that should command the attention of people in the United States and around the world." Gore also issued a statement saying that he supported efforts to lower the cost of the AIDS drugs, provided that they "are done in a way consistent with international agreements."[107][108]

Gore faced an early challenge by former New Jersey senator Bill Bradley.[106] Bradley was the only candidate to oppose Gore and was considered a "fresh face" for the White House.[109][110] Gore challenged Bradley to a series of debates which took the form of "town hall" meetings.[111] Gore went on the offensive during these debates leading to a drop in the polls for Bradley.[112][113] Gore eventually went on to win every primary and caucus and, in March 2000 even won the first primary election ever held over the internet, the Arizona Presidential Primary.[114] By then, he secured the Democratic nomination.[115]

On August 13, 2000, Gore announced that he had selected Senator Joe Lieberman of Connecticut as his vice presidential running mate. Lieberman became "the first person of the Jewish faith to run for the nation's second-highest office" (Barry Goldwater, who ran for president in 1964, was of "Jewish origin").[116] Lieberman, who was a more conservative Democrat than Gore, had publicly blasted President Clinton for the Monica Lewinsky affair. Many pundits saw Gore's choice of Lieberman as further distancing him from the scandals of the Clinton White House.[117] Gore's daughter, Karenna, together with her father's former Harvard roommate Tommy Lee Jones,[118] officially nominated Gore as the Democratic presidential candidate during the 2000 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles.[119] Gore accepted his party's nomination and spoke about the major themes of his campaign, stating in particular his plan to extend Medicare to pay for prescription drugs, to work for a sensible universal health-care system.[119] Soon after the convention, with running mate Joe Lieberman, Gore hit the campaign trail. He and Bush were deadlocked in the polls.[120] Gore and Bush participated in three televised debates. While both sides claimed victory after each, Gore was critiqued as either too stiff, too reticent, or too aggressive in contrast to Bush.[120][121]

On election night, news networks first called Florida for Gore, later retracted the projection, and then called Florida for Bush, before finally retracting that projection as well.[122] Florida's Republican Secretary of State, Katherine Harris, eventually certified Florida's vote count.[123] This led to the Florida election recount, a move to further examine the Florida results.[124]

The Florida recount was stopped a few weeks later by the Supreme Court of the United States. In the ruling, Bush v. Gore, the Justices determined that the Florida recount was unconstitutional and that no constitutionally valid recount could be completed by the December 12 deadline, effectively ending the recounts. This 7-2 vote ruled that the standards the Florida Supreme Court provided for a recount were unconstitutional due to violations of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, and further ruled 5-4 that no constitutionally valid recount could be completed by the December 12 deadline. This case ordered an end to recounting underway in selected Florida counties, effectively giving George W. Bush a 537[125] vote victory in Florida and consequently Florida's 25 electoral votes and the presidency.[126] The results of the decision led to Gore winning the popular vote by approximately 500,000 votes nationwide, but receiving 266 electoral votes to Bush's 271 (1 District of Columbia Elector abstained).[127] On December 13, 2000, Gore conceded the election.[128] Gore strongly disagreed with the Court's decision, but in his concession speech stated that, "for the sake of our unity as a people and the strength of our democracy, I offer my concession."[129]

The 2000 election is the subject of a 2008 made-for-TV movie directed by Jay Roach, produced by, and starring Kevin Spacey called Recount. It premiered on the HBO cable network on May 25, 2008.[130]

After maintaining an informal public distance for eight years, Bill Clinton and Gore reunited for the media in August 2009 after Clinton arranged for the release of two journalists who were being held hostage in N. Korea. The two women were employees of Gore's Current TV.[131]

Other presidential elections
Presidential run speculation (2004 and 2008)
Chris Anderson asks: "Will you run again?" Gore replies, "Ohh, you aren't going to get me on this one!"Gore was a speculated candidate for the 2004 Presidential Election (a bumper sticker, "Re-elect Gore in 2004!" was popular).[132] On December 16, 2002, however, Gore announced that he would not run in 2004.[133] Despite Gore taking himself out of the race, a handful of his supporters formed a national campaign to draft him into running. The draft movement, however, failed to convince Gore to run.[134]

The prospect of a Gore candidacy arose again between 2006 to early 2008 in light of the upcoming 2008 presidential election. Although Gore frequently stated that he had "no plans to run," he did not reject the possibility of future involvement in politics which led to speculation that he might.[135][136][137] This was due in part to his increased popularity after the release of the 2006 documentary, An Inconvenient Truth.[138] The director of the film, Davis Guggenheim, stated that after the release of the film, "Everywhere I go with him, they treat him like a rock star."[139] After An Inconvenient Truth was nominated for an Academy Award, Donna Brazile (Gore's campaign chairwoman from the 2000 campaign) speculated on the possibility that Gore might announce a possible presidential candidacy during the Oscars.[140] During the 79th Academy Awards ceremony, Gore and actor Leonardo DiCaprio shared the stage to speak about the "greening" of the ceremony itself. Gore began to give a speech that appeared to be leading up to an announcement that he would run for president. However, background music drowned him out and he was escorted offstage, implying that it was a rehearsed gag, which he later acknowledged.[141][142] After An Inconvenient Truth won the Academy Award for Best Documentary, speculation increased about a possible presidential run.[143] Gore's popularity was indicated in polls which showed that even without running, he was coming in second or third among possible Democratic candidates Hillary Clinton, Barack Obama, and John Edwards.[144] Grassroots draft campaigns also developed with the hope that they could encourage Gore to run.[145][146][147] Gore, however, remained firm in his decision and declined to run for the presidency.[148]

Involvement in presidential campaigns (2004 and 2008)
Gore speaks during the final day of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado.After announcing he would not run in the 2004 U.S. presidential election, Gore endorsed Vermont governor Howard Dean in December, 2003 weeks before the first primary of the election cycle.[149] He was severely criticized for this endorsement by eight Democratic contenders particularly since he did not endorse his former running mate Joe Lieberman (Gore preferred Dean over Lieberman because Lieberman supported the Iraq War and Gore did not).[44][150][151] Dean's campaign soon became a target of attacks and eventually failed, with Gore's early endorsement being credited as a factor. In The New York Times, Dean stated: "I actually do think the endorsement of Al Gore began the decline." The Times further noted that "Dean instantly amplified his statement to indicate that the endorsement from Mr. Gore, a powerhouse of the establishment, so threatened the other Democratic candidates that they began the attacks on his candidacy that helped derail it."[152] Dean's former campaign manager, Joe Trippi, also stated that after Gore's endorsement of Dean, "alarm bells went off in every newsroom in the country, in every other campaign in the country," indicating that if something did not change, Dean would be the nominee.[153] Later, in March 2004, Gore endorsed John Kerry and gave Kerry $6 million in funds left over from his own unsuccessful 2000 bid.[154] Gore also opened the 2004 Democratic National Convention.[155]

A few years later, during the 2008 primaries, Gore remained neutral towards all of the candidates[156] which led to speculation that he would come out of a brokered 2008 Democratic National Convention as a "compromise candidate" if the party decided it could not nominate one.[157][158] Gore responded by stating that these events would not take place because a candidate would be nominated through the primary process.[159][160] When Senator Barack Obama became the presumptive Democratic nominee for president on June 3, 2008, speculation arose again that Gore might be tapped for the vice presidency.[161][162][163] On June 16, 2008 (a week after Hillary Clinton had suspended her campaign), Gore endorsed Obama in a speech given in Detroit, Michigan[164][165][166][167] which renewed speculation of an Obama-Gore ticket.[168] Gore stated, however, that he was not interested in being vice president again.[169][170][171][172] On the timing and nature of Gore's endorsement, some argued that Gore waited because he did not want to repeat his calamitous early endorsement of Howard Dean during the 2004 Presidential Election.[173][174] On the final night of the 2008 Democratic National Convention, shortly before Obama delivered his acceptance address, Gore gave a speech offering his full support.[175][176] Such support led to new speculation after Obama was elected President during the 2008 Presidential election that Gore would be named a member of the Obama administration. This speculation was enhanced by a meeting held between Obama, Gore, and Joe Biden in Chicago on December 9, 2008. However, Democratic officials and Gore's spokeswoman stated that Gore will not be a member of the Obama administration and that during the meeting the only subject under discussion was the climate crisis.[177][178] On December 19, 2008, Gore described Obama's environmental administrative choices of Carol Browner, Steven Chu, and Lisa Jackson as "an exceptional team to lead the fight against the climate crisis."[179]

Environmental activism and Nobel Peace Prize (since 2004)
Main article: Al Gore and the environment
Gore receives the Nobel Peace Prize in the city hall of Oslo, 2007.
Then President George W. Bush meets with Al Gore and the other 2007 Nobel Award recipients, November 26, 2007.Gore has been involved in a number of environmental activities since 2004 when he co-launched Generation Investment Management, a company for which he serves as Chair. The company was "a new London fund management firm that plans to create environment-friendly portfolios. Generation Investment will manage assets of institutional investors, such as pension funds, foundations and endowments, as well as those of 'high net worth individuals,' from offices in London and Washington, D.C."[180] A few years later, Gore also founded The Alliance for Climate Protection, an organization which eventually founded the We Campaign. Gore also became a partner in the venture capital firm, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, heading that firm's climate change solutions group.[6][7]

Gore's involvement in environmental issues was later the subject of a few awards. It became the subject of a 2006 documentary film An Inconvenient Truth. This film won the Academy Award for Documentary Feature and [181] became the subject of the book, An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It. The book won a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album in February, 2009.[2] Later, in 2007, Gore was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, which was shared by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, headed by Rajendra K. Pachauri (Delhi, India). The award was given "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change."[182] Gore and Pachauri accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway on December 10, 2007.[183][184] He also helped to organize the Live Earth benefit concerts.[185]

Gore's speech on Global Warming at the University of Miami BankUnited Center, February 28, 2007.In 2009, Al Gore told the first Times Smith School World Forum on Enterprise and the Environment that urgent action is needed for a problem not faced before and that the Obama administration has taken huge strides towards tackling climate change: “Within one month of taking office President Obama secured $80 billion for renewable energy and green infrastructure and then just two weeks ago the House of Representatives passed the Waxman-Markey Bill also known as the American Clean Energy and Security Act which for all of its flaws does put a price on carbon and is very much a step in the right direction." [186]

Al Gore and the former Chief Scientific Advisor to H.M. Government Professor Sir David King at the World Forum on Enterprise and the Environment held at Oxford University in July 2009.Environmental criticism
Some of Gore's talks have been the subject of criticism. In 2008, he gave a speech at the DAR Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C. in which he called for a move towards replacing a dependence upon "carbon-based fuels" with green energy by the United States within 10 years. Gore stated: "When President John F. Kennedy challenged our nation to land a man on the moon and bring him back safely in 10 years, many people doubted we could accomplish that goal. But 8 years and 2 months later, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walked on the surface of the moon."[187][188] Some criticized this plan. According to the BBC, "Robby Diamond, president of a bipartisan think tank called Securing America's Future Energy, said weaning the nation off fossil fuels could not be done in a decade. 'The country is not going to be able to go cold turkey [...] We have a hundred years of infrastructure with trillions of dollars of investment that is not simply going to be made obsolete.'"[189]

Gore has also been the subject of criticism for his personal use of electricity. The Tennessee Center for Policy Research (TCPR) has twice criticized Gore. In February 2007, TCPR stated that their analysis of records from the Nashville Electric Service indicated that the Gore household uses "20 times as much electricity as the average household nationwide."[190][191] In reporting on TCPR's claims, MSNBC noted that the Nashville Electric Service report "omits several other key facts. The former vice president's home has 20 rooms, including home offices for himself and his wife, as well as a guest house and special security measures. Furthermore, the Gores buy energy produced from renewable sources, such as wind and solar. Tonight, Countdown confirmed with the local utility officials that their program, called the Green Power Switch, actually costs more for the Gores—four dollars for every 150 kilowatt hours. Meaning, by our calculations, our math here, that the Gores actually chose to increase their electric bill by $5,893, more than 50 percent, in order to minimize carbon pollution."[192]

A few months later, the Associated Press reported on December 13, 2007 that Gore "has completed a host of improvements to make the home more energy efficient, and a building-industry group has praised the house as one of the nation's most environmentally friendly [...] 'Short of tearing it down and starting anew, I don't know how it could have been rated any higher,' said Kim Shinn of the non-profit U.S. Green Building Council, which gave the house its second-highest rating for sustainable design."[193]

Gore was criticized by the TCPR again in June 2008, after the group obtained his public utility bills from the Nashville Electric Service and compared "electricity consumption between the 12 months before June 2007, when it says he installed his new technology, and the year since then."[194][195] According to their analysis, the Gores consumed 10% more energy in the year since their home received its eco-friendly modifications. TCPR also argued that, while the "average American household consumes 11,040 kWh in an entire year," the Gore residence "uses an average of 17,768 kWh per month –1,638 kWh more energy per month than before the renovations."[195] Gore's spokeswoman Kalee Kreider countered the claim by stating that the Gores' "utility bills have gone down 40 percent since the green retrofit." and that "the three-year renovation on the home wasn't complete until November, so it's a bit early to attempt a before-and-after comparison."[196] She also noted that TCPR did not include Gore's gas bill in their analysis (which they had done the previous year) and that the gas "bill has gone down 90 percent [...] And when the Gores do power up, they pay for renewable resources, like wind and solar power or methane gas."[197] Media Matters for America also discussed the fact that "100 percent of the electricity in his home comes from green power" and quoted the Tennessee Valley Authority as stating that "[a]lthough no source of energy is impact-free, renewable resources create less waste and pollution."[198]

Some have criticized Gore's earnings, referring to him as a "carbon billionaire." [199] The National Center for Public Policy Research has argued that Gore has a conflict of interest due to being a public advocate for taxpayer subsidies of green technology while simultaneously being a partner of green-technology investment firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers.[200]In response to these criticisms Gore stated that it was “certainly not true” that he is a “carbon billionaire” and that he is "proud to put my money where my mouth is for the past 30 years. And though that is not the majority of my business activities, I absolutely believe in investing in accordance with my beliefs and my values."?[201] Gore was challenged on this topic by Tennessee Congresswoman Marsha Blackburn who asked him: "The legislation that we are discussing here today, is that something that you are going to personally benefit from?”[201] Gore responded by stating: "I believe that the transition to a green economy is good for our economy and good for all of us, and I have invested in it." Gore also added that all earnings from his investments have gone to the Alliance for Climate Protection and that "If you believe that the reason I have been working on this issue for 30 years is because of greed, you don’t know me."[201] In reporting on the same exchange, The New York Times quoted Gore as stating: "Do you think there is something wrong with being active in business in this country [...] I am proud of it. I am proud of it."[202] It also quoted from an email issued by Gore on the topic which stated: "I have advocated policies to promote renewable energy and accelerate reductions in global warming pollution for decades, including all of the time I was in public service [...] As a private citizen, I have continued to advocate the same policies. Even though the vast majority of my business career has been in areas that do not involve renewable energy or global warming pollution reductions, I absolutely believe in investing in ways that are consistent with my values and beliefs. I encourage others to invest in the same way." [202] Gore also stated in an interview on Good Morning America that these criticisms come from a "denier" and that he is "proud to put my money where my mouth is for the past 30 years [...] and though that is not the majority of my business activities, I absolutely believe in investing in accordance with my beliefs and my values." [203]

Gore has received criticism for his assertion that Earth's inner core's temperature is "several million degrees"[204] from several sources.[205][206][207][208]

Political activism
During the 1990s, Gore spoke out on a number of issues. In a 1992 speech on the Gulf War, Gore stated that he twice attempted to get the U.S. government to pull the plug on support to Saddam Hussein, citing Hussein's use of poison gas, support of terrorism, and his burgeoning nuclear program, but was opposed both times by the Reagan and Bush administrations.[209] In the wake of the Al-Anfal Campaign, during which Hussein staged deadly mustard and nerve gas attacks on Kurdish Iraqis, Gore cosponsored the Prevention of Genocide Act of 1988, which would have cut all assistance to Iraq.[209] The bill was defeated in part due to intense lobbying of Congress by the Reagan-Bush White House and a veto threat from President Reagan.[209] In 1998, at a conference of APEC hosted by Malaysia, Gore objected to the indictment, arrest and jailing of President Mahathir Mohammad’s longtime second-in-command Anwar Ibrahim, a move which received a negative response from leaders there.[210] Ten years later, Gore again protested when Ibrahim was arrested a second time,[211] a decision condemned by Malaysian foreign minister Datuk Seri Dr Rais Yatim.[211]

Beginning in late 2002, Gore began to publicly criticize the Bush administration. In a 23 September 2002 speech given before the Commonwealth Club of California, Gore criticized President George W. Bush and Congress for the rush to war prior to the outbreak of hostilities in Iraq. He compared this decision to the Gulf War (which Gore had voted for) stating, "Back in 1991, I was one of a handful of Democrats in the United States Senate to vote in favor of the resolution endorsing the Persian Gulf War [...] But look at the differences between the resolution that was voted on in 1991 and the one this administration is proposing that the Congress vote on in 2002. The circumstances are really completely different. To review a few of them briefly: in 1991, Iraq had crossed an international border, invaded a neighboring sovereign nation and annexed its territory. Now by contrast in 2002, there has been no such invasion."[212][213] In a speech given in 2004, during the presidential election, Gore accused George W. Bush of betraying the country by using the 9/11 attacks as a justification for the invasion of Iraq.[214] The next year, Gore gave an hour-long speech which covered many topics including what he called "religious zealots" who claim special knowledge of God's will in American politics. Gore stated: "They even claim that those of us who disagree with their point of view are waging war against people of faith. How dare they!"[215] After Katrina in 2005, Gore chartered two planes in order to evacuate 270 people from New Orleans and criticized the Bush administration's response to the hurricane.[216][217] In 2006, Gore criticized President Bush's use of domestic wiretaps without a warrant.[218] A month later, in a speech given at the Jeddah Economic Forum, Gore criticized the treatment of Arabs in the United States after 9/11 stating, "Unfortunately there have been terrible abuses and it's wrong [...] I do want you to know that it does not represent the desires or wishes or feelings of the majority of the citizens of my country."[219] Gore's 2007 book, The Assault on Reason, is an analysis of what Gore refers to as the "emptying out of the marketplace of ideas" in civic discourse during the Bush administration. He attributes this phenomenon to the influence of television and argues that it endangers American democracy. By contrast, Gore argues, the Internet can revitalize and ultimately "redeem the integrity of representative democracy."[220] In 2008, Gore argued against the ban of same-sex marriage on his Current TV website, stating, "I think it's wrong for the government to discriminate against people because of that person’s sexual orientation. I think that gay men and women ought to have the same rights as heterosexual men and women to make contracts, have hospital visiting rights, and join together in marriage."[221] In a 2009 interview with CNN, Gore commented on former Vice President Dick Cheney's criticism of the Obama administration. Referring to his own previous criticism of the Bush administration, Gore stated: "I waited two years after I left office to make statements that were critical, and then of the policy [...] You know, you talk about somebody that shouldn't be talking about making the country less safe, invading a country that did not attack us and posed no serious threat to us at all."[222]

Awards and honors
Main article: List of awards received by Al Gore
Gore is the recipient of a number of awards including the Nobel Peace Prize (together with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) in 2007, a Primetime Emmy Award for Current TV in 2007, a Webby Award in 2005 and the Prince of Asturias Award in 2007 for International Cooperation. He also starred in the 2006 documentary An Inconvenient Truth, which won an Academy Award for Best Documentary in 2007 and wrote the book An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It, which won a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album in 2009.

Selected publications
Our Choice. Rodale Books. 2009.  
"The Climate for Change." New York Times, 9 November 2008.
Our Purpose: The Nobel Peace Prize Lecture 2007. Rodale Books. 2008. ISBN 1605299901.  
Know Climate Change and 101 Q and A on Climate Change from 'Save Planet Earth Series', 2008 (children's books)
The Assault on Reason. New York: Penguin. 2007. ISBN 1594201226.  
An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It. New York: Rodale Books. 2006. ISBN 1594865671.  
Joined at the Heart: The Transformation of the American Family. New York: Owl Henry Holt. 2002. ISBN 0805074503.  
The Spirit of Family. New York: H. Holt. 2002. ISBN 0805068945.  
From Red Tape to Results: Creating a Government That Works Better and Costs Less. Amsterdam: Fredonia Books. 2001. ISBN 1-58963-571-X.  
Common Sense Government: Works Better & Costs Less: National Performance Review (3rd Report). 1998. ISBN 0788139088.  
Businesslike Government: lessons learned from America's best companies. 1997. ISBN 0788170538.  
Vice President Al Gore's introduction to Earthwatch: 24 Hours In Cyberspace. February 8, 1996. 24 Hours in Cyberspace
"Foreword by Vice President Al Gore." In The Internet Companion: A Beginner's Guide to Global Networking (2nd edition) by Tracy LaQuey, 1994.
"Introduction. In Silent Spring by Rachel Carson. 1994. New York : Houghton-Mifflin.
"No more information haves and have-nots", Billboard,Vol. 106 Issue 43, October 22, 1994: 6.
The Climate Change Action Plan. Washington, D.C.: The White House, October, 1993 (with William J. Clinton).
Science in the National Interest. Washington, DC: The White House, August 1994 (with William J. Clinton).
Technology for America’s economic growth, a new direction to build economic strength. Washington, DC: The White House, February 22, 1993 (with William J. Clinton).
Putting People First: How We Can All Change America. New York: Times Books, 1992 (with William J. Clinton).
"Infrastructure for the global village: computers, networks and public policy." Scientific American Special Issue on Communications, Computers, and Networks, September 1991. 265(3): 150–153.
Earth in the Balance: Forging a New Common Purpose. Earthscan. 1992. ISBN 0618056645.  
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^ "Chronicle". The New York Times. 1997-03-21. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DE6D9173BF932A15750C0A961958260&scp=6&sq=karenna%20gore%20andrew%20schiff&st=cse. Retrieved 2009-01-06.  
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^ http://liveearth.org/en/liveearth
^ Climate change is a problem of consciousness
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^ Brooks, Jennifer (2008-06-18). "Group questions electricity use at Gore's Belle Meade house". The Tennessean. http://www.tennessean.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080618/NEWS0201/806180403/1009/news01. Retrieved 2008-06-18. 
^ Kerr, Gail (2008-06-19). "Gore pulls the plug on critics' claims". The Tennessean. http://www.tennessean.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080619/COLUMNIST0101/806190354/1008/OPINION01. Retrieved 2008-06-19. 
^ "Hume claimed Gore's "energy use has surged more than 10 percent," ignored Gore's response that it's all "green power"". Media Matters for America. 2008-06-19. http://mediamatters.org/items/200806190012?f=h_latest. Retrieved 2008-06-19. 
^ "Al Gore denies he is 'carbon billionaire'". The Independent. 2009-11-04. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/al-gore-denies-he-is-carbon-billionaire-1814199.html. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
^ "Obama "Bailing Out" Al Gore and Utilities". National Center for Public Policy Research. 2009-11-03. http://www.nationalcenter.org/PR-Taxes_Energy_110309.html. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
^ a b c "Al Gore 'profiting' from climate change agenda". The Telegraph. 2009-11-03. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/environment/climatechange/6496196/Al-Gore-profiting-from-climate-change-agenda.html. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
^ a b "Gore’s Dual Role: Advocate and Investor". New York Times. 2009-11-02. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/03/business/energy-environment/03gore.html?_r=2. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
^ "Gore on Green Investments: 'I Put My Money Where My Mouth Is'". Good Morning America. 2009-11-03. http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/al-gore-green-investments-politics-climate-change/story?id=8979747. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
^ "The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien". The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien. NBC. 11 November 2009. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ns_4pzfOSTc. Retrieved 19 November 2009. 
^ Noel, Sheppard (19 November 2009). "Al Gore: Earth's Interior 'Extremely Hot, Several Million Degrees'". NewsBusters. http://newsbusters.org/blogs/noel-sheppard/2009/11/18/al-gore-earths-interior-extremely-hot-several-million-degrees. Retrieved 22 November 2009. 
^ Derbyshire, John (17 November 2009). "Innumerate Al". National Review Online. http://corner.nationalreview.com/post/?q=NDcxYThlNzBkOTcyM2EzZmM2MDEyNjFjOGQ3ZmE5M2M=. Retrieved 22 November 2009. 
^ "Al Gore: Earth's Interior 'Several Million Degrees'". Drudge Report. 18 November 2009. http://www.drudge.com/news/127302/al-gore-earths-interior-several-million. Retrieved 22 November 2009. 
^ James, Jeffrey (21 November 2009). "Suss out Spence". The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/opinion/suss-out-spence/story-e6frgdk6-1225800641629. Retrieved 22 November 2009. 
^ a b c Gore, Al (September 29, 1992). "Rewind: Gore Blasts G.H.W. Bush for Ignoring Iraq Terror Ties". breitbart.tv (CSPAN). http://www.breitbart.tv/?p=1602. Retrieved 2008-06-22. 
^ Drogin, Bob (November 18, 1998). "Gore Gets Scolding From APEC, Business Leaders". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/1998/nov/18/news/mn-44145. Retrieved 2008-08-12. 
^ a b "US State Department summons Malaysian envoy". Malaysia Today. August 9, 2008. http://us3.malaysia-today.net/2008/content/view/11057/84/. Retrieved 2008-08-12. 
^ Gore, Al (September 23, 2002). "Text of speech given by Al Gore on September 23, 2002". commonwealthclub.org. http://www.commonwealthclub.org/archive/02/02-09gore-speech.html. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
^ Mercurio, John (September 23, 2002). "Gore challenges Bush Iraqi policy". CNN. http://archives.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/09/23/gore.iraq/. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
^ Seelye, Katharine Q. (February 9, 2004). "Gore Says Bush Betrayed the U.S. by Using 9/11 as a Reason for War in Iraq". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/09/politics/campaign/09GORE.html?ei=5007&ex=1391662800&en=274a3e8d8a276fef&partner=USERLAND&pagewanted=print&position=. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
^ Gore, Al (2005-04-27). "Address by Vice President Gore". moveon.org. http://pol.moveon.org/algore/rally.html. Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
^ Mansfield, Duncan (September 9, 2005). "Al Gore airlifts Katrina victims out of New Orleans". The Detroit News. http://www.detnews.com/2005/nation/0509/09/nat4-309467.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
^ Gore, Al. "Transcript of Al Gore's speech at the Sierra Summit, September 9, 2005". sierraclub.org. http://www.sierraclub.org/pressroom/speeches/2005-09-09algore.asp. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
^ "Transcript: Former Vice President Gore's Speech on Constitutional Issues". Washington Post. January 16, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/01/16/AR2006011600779.html. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
^ Associated Press (February 13, 2006). "Gore Laments U.S. 'Abuses' Against Arabs". CBS. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/02/13/ap/politics/mainD8FNUKEO0.shtml. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
^ Gore, Al (2007). The Assault on Reason. Penguin Press. pp. 270. 
^ Gore, Al (January 17, 2008). "Current TV video: Gay men and women should have the same rights". Current TV. http://current.com/items/88817757_gay_men_and_women_should_have_the_same_rights. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
^ "Gore takes aim at Cheney". CNN. 2009-05-15. http://politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com/2009/05/15/gore-takes-aim-at-cheney/. Retrieved 2009-05-15. 
Agre, Phil. Who Invented "Invented"?:Tracing the Real Story of the "Al Gore Invented the Internet" Hoax. October 17, 2000
Campbell-Kelly, Martin; Aspray, William. "Chapter 12." Computer: A History of the Information Machine. New York: BasicBooks, 1996.
Chapman, Gary and Marc Rotenberg. The National Information Infrastructure:A Public Interest Opportunity. In Computers, Ethics, & Social Values. Deborah G. Johnson and Helen Nissanbaum (eds.). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1995: 628-644.
Cockburn, Alexander. Al Gore: A User's Manual (2000) (with Jeffrey St. Clair) ISBN 1-85984-803-6
Kirk, Andrew G. Counterculture Green: The Whole Earth Catalog and American Environmentalism. Lawrence: Univ. of Kansas Press, 2007.
Rheingold, Howard. "Afterword to the 1994 edition." The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier (revised edition). Cambridge: MIT, 2000.
Stix, Gary. Gigabit Gestalt: Clinton and Gore embrace an activist technology policy. Scientific American, May, 1993.
External links
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Official website
Al Gore at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Retrieved on 2009-03-12
Al Gore at the Internet Movie Database
Timeline 2000-present
Booknotes interview with Gore on Earth in the Balance, February 16, 1992
TED Talks: Al Gore on averting climate crisis at TED in 2006
TED Talks: Al Gore's new thinking on the climate crisis at TED in 2008
Al Gore addresses the inaugural The Times-Smith School Forum on Enterprise and the Environment at Oxford University
nobelprize.org video portrait 2007-12-01
Political offices
Preceded by
Dan Quayle Vice President of the United States
January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001 Succeeded by
Dick Cheney
United States Senate
Preceded by
Howard H. Baker Jr. United States Senator (Class 2) from Tennessee
January 3, 1985 – January 3, 1993
Served alongside: James R. Sasser Succeeded by
Harlan Mathews
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Robin L. Beard Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's 6th congressional district
January 3, 1983 – January 3, 1985 Succeeded by
Bart Gordon
Preceded by
Joe L. Evins Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's 4th congressional district
January 3, 1977 – January 3, 1983 Succeeded by
Jim Cooper
Party political offices
Preceded by
Bill Clinton Democratic Party presidential candidate
2000 Succeeded by
John Kerry
Preceded by
Lloyd Bentsen Democratic Party vice presidential candidate
1992, 1996 Succeeded by
Joe Lieberman
Preceded by
Jane Eskind Democratic Party nominee
for United States Senator from Tennessee
(Class 2)
1984, 1990 Succeeded by
Jim Cooper
United States order of precedence
Preceded by
Dan Quayle United States order of precedence
Former Vice President of the United States Succeeded by
Dick Cheney
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Grameen Bank
Muhammad Yunus Nobel Peace Prize Laureate
with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
2007 Succeeded by
Martti Ahtisaari

Representatives to the 95th–102nd United States Congresses from Tennessee
95th Senate: H. Baker, Jr. | J. Sasser House: J. Quillen | J. Duncan, Sr. | E. Jones | R. Beard | H. Ford, Sr. | M. Lloyd | C. Allen | A. Gore, Jr.
96th Senate: H. Baker, Jr. | J. Sasser House: J. Quillen | J. Duncan, Sr. | E. Jones | R. Beard | H. Ford, Sr. | M. Lloyd | A. Gore, Jr. | B. Boner
97th Senate: H. Baker, Jr. | J. Sasser House: J. Quillen | J. Duncan, Sr. | E. Jones | R. Beard | H. Ford, Sr. | M. Lloyd | A. Gore, Jr. | B. Boner
98th Senate: H. Baker, Jr. | J. Sasser House: J. Quillen | J. Duncan, Sr. | E. Jones | H. Ford, Sr. | M. Lloyd | A. Gore, Jr. | B. Boner | J. Cooper | D. Sundquist
99th Senate: J. Sasser | A. Gore, Jr. House: J. Quillen | J. Duncan, Sr. | E. Jones | H. Ford, Sr. | M. Lloyd | B. Boner | J. Cooper | D. Sundquist | B. Gordon
100th Senate: J. Sasser | A. Gore, Jr. House: J. Quillen | J. Duncan, Sr. | E. Jones | H. Ford, Sr. | M. Lloyd | B. Boner | J. Cooper | D. Sundquist | B. Gordon
101st Senate: J. Sasser | A. Gore, Jr. House: J. Quillen | H. Ford, Sr. | M. Lloyd | J. Cooper | D. Sundquist | B. Gordon | B. Clement | J. Duncan, Jr. | J. Tanner
102nd Senate: J. Sasser | A. Gore, Jr. House: J. Quillen | H. Ford, Sr. | M. Lloyd | J. Cooper | D. Sundquist | B. Gordon | B. Clement | J. Duncan, Jr. | J. Tanner

[show]v • d • eAl Gore
Family Tipper Gore (spouse) · Karenna Gore Schiff (daughter) · Kristin Gore (daughter) · Albert Gore, Sr. (father) · Pauline LaFon Gore (mother) 
Politics Electoral history · Atari Democrat · United States Senate elections, 1984 · Prevention of Genocide Act of 1988 · United States Senate elections, 1990 · 1988 presidential campaign · Vice Presidency · 2000 presidential campaign
Environment Global Marshall Plan · Environmental activism · Alliance for Climate Protection · An Inconvenient Truth · Live Earth
Technology Role in information technology · High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991 · National Information Infrastructure · Information superhighway · The Superhighway Summit · 24 Hours in Cyberspace · NetDay · Digital Earth · Current TV
Recognition Awards and honors
Books Earth in the Balance · An Inconvenient Truth · The Assault on Reason · Our Choice
[show]v • d • eApple Inc.
Board of directors Bill Campbell · Millard Drexler · Al Gore · Steve Jobs · Andrea Jung · Arthur D. Levinson · Jerry York
Hardware products Apple TV · iPhone · iPod (Classic, Mini, Nano, Shuffle, Touch) · Mac (iMac, MacBook (Air, MacBook, Pro), Mini, Pro, Xserve) · Former products
Accessories AirPort · Cinema Display · iPod accessories · Apple Mouse · Magic Mouse  · Apple Keyboard  · Time Capsule
Software products Aperture · Bento · FileMaker Pro · Final Cut Studio · iLife · iPhone OS · iTunes · iWork · Logic Studio · Mac OS X (Server) · QuickTime · Safari · Xsan
Stores and services ADC · AppleCare · Apple Specialist · Apple Store (online) · App Store · Certifications · Genius Bar · iTunes Store · iWork.com · MobileMe · One to One · ProCare
Executives Steve Jobs · Tim Cook · Peter Oppenheimer · Phil Schiller · Jonathan Ive · Mark Papermaster · Ron Johnson · Sina Tamaddon · Bertrand Serlet · Scott Forstall
Acquisitions Emagic · NeXT · Nothing Real · P.A. Semi · Silicon Color · Spruce Technologies
Related Advertising (Get a Mac, iPods, Slogans) · Braeburn Capital · FileMaker Inc. · History (Criticism, Discontinued products, Litigation, Typography) · Portal
Annual revenue: US$32.48 billion (▲35.3% FY 2008) · Employees: 32,000 full-time; 3,100 temporary · Stock symbol: (NASDAQ: AAPL, LSE: ACP, FWB: APC) · Web site: www.apple.com
[show]v • d • eCabinet of President Bill Clinton (1993 – 2001)
[hide] Cabinet
Secretary of State Warren Christopher (1993 – 1997) • Madeleine Albright (1997 – 2001) 
Secretary of the Treasury Lloyd Bentsen (1993 – 1994) • Robert Rubin (1995 – 1999) • Lawrence Summers (1999 – 2001)
Secretary of Defense Les Aspin (1993 – 1994) • William Perry (1994 – 1997) • William Cohen (1997 – 2001)
Attorney General Janet Reno (1993 – 2001)
Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt (1993 – 2001)
Secretary of Agriculture Mike Espy (1993 – 1994) • Dan Glickman (1994 – 2001)
Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown (1993 – 1996) • Mickey Kantor (1996 – 1997) • William Daley (1997 – 2000) • Norman Mineta (2000 – 2001)
Secretary of Labor Robert Reich (1993 – 1997) • Alexis Herman (1997 – 2001)
Secretary of Health
and Human Services Donna Shalala (1993 – 2001)
Secretary of Education Richard Riley (1993 – 2001)
Secretary of Housing
and Urban Development Henry Cisneros (1993 – 1997) • Andrew Cuomo (1997 – 2001)
Secretary of Transportation Federico Peña (1993 – 1997) • Rodney Slater (1997 – 2001)
Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary (1993 – 1997) • Federico Peña (1997 – 1998) • Bill Richardson (1998 – 2001)
Secretary of Veterans Affairs Jesse Brown (1993 – 1997) • Togo West (1998 – 2000) • Hershel Gober (acting) (2000 – 2001)
[hide] Cabinet-level
Vice President Al Gore (1993 – 2001)
White House Chief of Staff Mack McLarty (1993 – 1994) • Leon Panetta (1994 – 1997) • Erskine Bowles (1997 – 1998) • John Podesta (1998 – 2001)
Administrator of the
Environmental Protection Agency Carol Browner (1993 – 2001)
Ambassador to the United Nations Madeleine Korbel Albright (1993 – 1997) • Bill Richardson (1997 – 1998) • Richard Holbrooke (1999 – 2001)
Director of the Office of
Management and Budget Leon Panetta (1993 – 1994) • Alice Rivlin (1994 – 1996) • Franklin Raines (1996 – 1998) • Jacob Lew (1998 – 2001)
Director of National
Drug Control Policy Lee Brown (1993 – 1995) • Barry McCaffrey (1996 – 2001)
Trade Representative Mickey Kantor (1993 – 1997) • Charlene Barshefsky (1997 – 2001)
Director of the Federal Emergency
Management Agency James Lee Witt (1996 – 2001)
Director of Central Intelligence John M. Deutch (1995 – 1996) • George Tenet (1997 - 2001)
Administrator of the
Small Business Administration Philip Lader (1994 – 1997) • Aída Álvarez (1997 - 2001)
[show]v • d • eGoogle Inc.
Chairman/CEO: Eric E. Schmidt · Director/Technology President/Co-Founder: Sergey Brin · Director/Products President/Co-Founder: Larry Page
Other Directors: John Doerr · John L. Hennessy · Arthur D. Levinson · Ann Mather · Paul Otellini · Ram Shriram · Shirley M. Tilghman · Senior Advisor: Al Gore
Advertising Ad Manager · Adscape · AdSense · Advertising Professionals · AdWords · Analytics · Checkout · DoubleClick
Communication Alerts · Calendar · Friend Connect · Gmail (history · interface) · Groups · Gtalk · Latitude · Orkut · Q & A · Reader · Translate · Voice · Wave
Software Chrome · Chrome OS · Desktop · Earth · Gadgets · Gmail Mobile · Pack · Picasa · PowerMeter · SketchUp · Talk · Toolbar · Updater · Urchin
Platforms Account · Android · App Engine · Apps · Base · BigTable · Caja · Co-op · Gears · GFS · Health · Native Client · OpenSocial · Wave
Development tools AJAX APIs · Closure Tools · Code · Gadgets API · GData · Googlebot · Guice · GWS · Image Labeler · KML · MapReduce · Pinyin · SketchUp Ruby · Sitemaps · Summer of Code · TechTalks · Web Toolkit · Website Optimizer
Publishing Blogger · Bookmarks · Docs · FeedBurner · iGoogle · Jaiku · Knol · Map Maker · Panoramio · Picasa Web Albums · Sites (JotSpot) · YouTube
Search (PageRank) Appliance · Audio · Books (Library Project) · Code · Desktop · Fast Flip · Finance · GOOG-411 · Images · Maps (Street View) · News · Patents · Products · Scholar · SearchWiki · Usenet · Video · Web Search · Analysis: Insights for Search · Trends · Webmaster guidelines
Discontinued Answers · Browser Sync · Click-to-Call · Dodgeball · Joga Bonito · Lively · Mashup Editor · Notebook · Page Creator · Video Marketplace · Web Accelerator
See also Acquisitions · Bomb · Censorship · Criticism · Foundation · Google China · Google.org · Googleplex · History · Hoaxes · I'm Feeling Lucky · I/O · Labs · Logo · Lunar X Prize · Products · Google Ventures · WiFi · Zeitgeist
Annual revenue: US$21.80 billion (FY 2008, ▲31% from 2007) · Employees: 19,786 full-time (Jun. 30, 2009) · Stock symbol: (NASDAQ: GOOG, LSE: GGEA) · Motto: Don't be evil · Website: www.google.com
[show]v • d • eLaureates of the Nobel Peace Prize
Kofi Annan / United Nations (2001) · Jimmy Carter (2002) · Shirin Ebadi (2003) · Wangari Maathai (2004) · International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei (2005) · Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus (2006) · Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) · Martti Ahtisaari (2008)  · Barack Obama (2009)
Complete roster: 1901–1925 · 1926–1950 · 1951–1975 · 1976–2000 · 2001–present
[show]v • d • e2007 Nobel Prize Winners
Chemistry: Gerhard Ertl (Germany)

Literature: Doris Lessing (Zimbabwe, United Kingdom)
Peace: Al Gore (United States), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Physics: Albert Fert (France), Peter Grünberg (Germany)

Physiology or Medicine: Mario Capecchi (United States), Martin Evans (United Kingdom), Oliver Smithies (United States)
[show]v • d • eDemocratic Party
of the DNC Hallett • McLane • Smalley • Belmont • Schell • Hewitt • Barnum • Brice • Harrity • Jones • Taggart • Mack • McCombs • McCormick • Cummings • White • Hull • Shaver • Raskob • Farley • Flynn • Walker • Hannegan • McGrath • Boyle • McKinney • Mitchell • Butler • Jackson • Bailey • O'Brien • Harris • O'Brien • Westwood • Strauss • Curtis • White • Manatt • Kirk • Brown • Wilhelm • DeLee • Dodd/Fowler • Romer/Grossman • Rendell/Andrew • McAuliffe • Dean • Kaine
tickets Jackson/Calhoun • Jackson/Van Buren • Van Buren/R. M. Johnson • Polk/Dallas • Cass/Butler • Pierce/King • Buchanan/Breckenridge • Douglas/H. V. Johnson (Breckenridge/Lane, SD) • McClellan/Pendleton • Seymour/Blair • Greeley/Brown • Tilden/Hendricks • Hancock/English • Cleveland/Hendricks • Cleveland/Thurman • Cleveland/Stevenson I • W. J. Bryan/Sewall • W. J. Bryan/Stevenson I • Parker/H. G. Davis • W. J. Bryan/Kern • Wilson/Marshall • Cox/Roosevelt • J. W. Davis/C. W. Bryan • Smith/Robinson • Roosevelt/Garner • Roosevelt/Wallace • Roosevelt/Truman • Truman/Barkley • Stevenson II/Sparkman • Stevenson II/Kefauver • Kennedy/L. B. Johnson • L. B. Johnson/Humphrey • Humphrey/Muskie • McGovern/(Eagleton, Shriver) • Carter/Mondale • Mondale/Ferraro • Dukakis/Bentsen • Clinton/Gore • Gore/Lieberman • Kerry/Edwards • Obama/Biden
Parties by
State and
territory State Alabama • Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Connecticut • Delaware • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Idaho • Illinois • Indiana • Iowa • Kansas • Kentucky • Louisiana • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Mississippi • Missouri • Montana • Nebraska • Nevada • New Hampshire • New Jersey • New Mexico • New York • North Carolina • North Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • Pennsylvania • Rhode Island • South Carolina • South Dakota • Tennessee • Texas • Utah • Vermont • Virginia • Washington • West Virginia • Wisconsin • Wyoming
Territory District of Columbia • Puerto Rico
(List) 1832 (Baltimore) • 1835 (Baltimore) • 1840 (Baltimore) • 1844 (Baltimore) • 1848 (Baltimore) • 1852 (Baltimore) • 1856 (Cincinnati) • 1860 (Baltimore) • 1864 (Chicago) • 1868 (New York) • 1872 (Baltimore) • 1876 (Saint Louis) • 1880 (Cincinnati) • 1884 (Chicago) • 1888 (Saint Louis) • 1892 (Chicago) • 1896 (Chicago) • 1900 (Kansas City) • 1904 (Saint Louis) • 1908 (Denver) • 1912 (Baltimore) • 1916 (Saint Louis) • 1920 (San Francisco) • 1924 (New York) • 1928 (Houston) • 1932 (Chicago) • 1936 (Philadelphia) • 1940 (Chicago) • 1944 (Chicago) • 1948 (Philadelphia) • 1952 (Chicago) • 1956 (Chicago) • 1960 (Los Angeles) • 1964 (Atlantic City) • 1968 (Chicago) • 1972 (Miami Beach) • 1976 (New York) • 1980 (New York) • 1984 (San Francisco) • 1988 (Atlanta) • 1992 (New York) • 1996 (Chicago) • 2000 (Los Angeles) • 2004 (Boston) • 2008 (Denver)
organizations Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee • Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee • Democratic Governors Association • Democratic Lieutenant Governors Association • Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee • National Conference of Democratic Mayors • College Democrats of America • Young Democrats of America • Young Democrats of America High School Caucus • Democratic Leadership Council • 21st Century Democrats • America Votes • Blue Dog Democrats • Center for American Progress • Democrats Abroad • National Federation of Democratic Women • National Stonewall Democrats
Related articles History • Superdelegate
[show]v • d • eUnited States presidential election, 1988
Democratic Party 1988 Democratic National Convention · Primaries
Candidates Babbitt  · Biden (campaign)  · Dukakis  · Gephardt  · Gore (campaign)  · Hart · Jackson  · LaRouche  · Schroeder  · Simon
VP Candidate Lloyd Bentsen
Republican Party 1988 Republican National Convention · Primaries
Candidates Bush  · Dole  · du Pont  · Fernandez  · Haig  · Kemp  · Laxalt  · Robertson  · Rumsfeld  · Stassen
VP Candidate Dan Quayle
Libertarian Party Ron Paul/Andre Marrou
New Alliance Party Lenora Fulani
Populist Party David Duke
Socialist Party USA Willa Kenoyer/Ron Ehrenreich
[show]v • d • eUnited States presidential election, 1992
Democratic Party 1992 Democratic National Convention · Primaries
Candidates Agran · Brown · Casey · Clinton (campaign) · Tom Harkin · Kerrey · McCarthy · Tsongas · Wilder · Woods
VP Candidates Cuomo · Gephardt · Gore · Graham · Kerrey · Kerry · Hamilton · Wofford
Republican Party 1992 Republican National Convention
Candidates Buchanan · Bush · Duke · Stassen
VP Candidates Quayle
Third party Independents
Candidate Ross Perot
VP Candidate James Stockdale
[show]v • d • eUnited States presidential election, 2000
General election results · State results · Florida results
Democratic Party 2000 Democratic National Convention · Primaries
Candidates Bill Bradley  · Al Gore (presidential campaign)
VP candidate Joe Lieberman
Republican Party 2000 Republican National Convention · Primaries
Candidates Lamar Alexander  · Gary Bauer · George W. Bush (presidential campaign) · Elizabeth Dole · Steve Forbes  · Orrin Hatch · Alan Keyes · John McCain · Dan Quayle · Harold Stassen
VP candidate Dick Cheney
Additional key figures Katherine Harris · Jeb Bush · David Boies · Theodore Olson · James Baker · Ron Klain · Warren Christopher · Michael Whouley · Benjamin Ginsberg · Bob Butterworth · Joe Allbaugh · Mac Stipanovic · Craig Waters · Theresa LePore · Carol Roberts ·
Election Day Florida Central Voter File (scrub list) · Volusia error · Chad · Butterfly ballot
Aftermath and
legal proceedings Florida election recount · Brooks Brothers riot · Palm Beach County Canvassing Board v. Harris (Harris I) · Gore v. Harris (Harris II) · Bush v. Gore
Films Recount (2008)  · Unprecedented: The 2000 Presidential Election (2002)
[show]v • d • eUnited States Senators from Tennessee
Class 1 Cocke · A. Jackson · Smith · J. Anderson · Campbell · Eaton · Grundy · Foster · Grundy · Nicholson · Foster · Turney · Jones · Johnson · Patterson · Brownlow · Johnson · Key · Bailey · H. Jackson · Whitthorne · Bate · Frazier · Lea · McKellar · Gore, Sr. · Brock III · Sasser · Frist · Corker 
Class 2 Blount · J. Anderson · Cocke · Smith · Whiteside · Campbell · Wharton · Williams · A. Jackson · White · A. Anderson · Jarnagin · Bell · Nicholson · Fowler · Cooper · Harris · Turley · Carmack · Taylor · Sanders · Webb · Shields · Tyson · Brock I · Hull · Bachman · Berry · Stewart · Kefauver · Walters · Bass · Baker · Gore, Jr. · Mathews · Thompson · Alexander
[show]v • d • eVice Presidents of the United States
John Adams · Thomas Jefferson · Aaron Burr · George Clinton · Elbridge Gerry · Daniel D. Tompkins · John C. Calhoun · Martin Van Buren · Richard Mentor Johnson · John Tyler · George M. Dallas · Millard Fillmore · William R. King · John C. Breckinridge · Hannibal Hamlin · Andrew Johnson · Schuyler Colfax · Henry Wilson · William A. Wheeler · Chester A. Arthur · Thomas A. Hendricks · Levi P. Morton · Adlai E. Stevenson I · Garret Hobart · Theodore Roosevelt · Charles W. Fairbanks · James S. Sherman · Thomas R. Marshall · Calvin Coolidge · Charles G. Dawes · Charles Curtis · John Nance Garner · Henry A. Wallace · Harry S. Truman · Alben W. Barkley · Richard Nixon · Lyndon B. Johnson · Hubert Humphrey · Spiro Agnew · Gerald Ford · Nelson Rockefeller · Walter Mondale · George H. W. Bush · Dan Quayle · Al Gore · Dick Cheney · Joe Biden 
NAME Gore, Albert Arnold Jr.
SHORT DESCRIPTION 45th Vice President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH March 31, 1948
PLACE OF BIRTH Washington, D.C.


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